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					                                                                                                        VOL . 19 NO. 4 OEC 1979




                                                          CSL NE                                SLE TER
                        NATIONAL CONFERE NCE OF STANDARDS LABORATORIES

                             PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE - MISSION A N A L Y SIS

                                              W He deliberating on what specific topics to address in my first Message as
                                              yo ur new NCSL Presiden t , I decided that one appropriate topic would be
                                              an analy sis of how well the NCSL is accomplishing its mission. Another
                                              would be a report on the "State of th e NCSL" .

                                                     One of th NCSL's primary goals i, to "promote coo perative action
                                              on common probl m s of management an operation of measure ment stand­
                                              ards and calibration laborat ories" . A measure of success can be achieved
                                              through analysis of the effectiveness of the CSL programs and committee
                                              activities . I'm certain every one will agree that th e NCSL's annual Confer­
                                              ences have been significantly successful and in con cert with its state d char ter.
                                              The NCSL has mad e impact, via the operating committees, in tho areas of
                                              laboratory accreditation and the standards writing agencies , military specifi­
                                              cations, Measurement Assurance Programs, A.T.E. calibration , NBS Measure ­
                                              ment Services and most recently in th e area of biomedical and pharmaceut ical
                                              metrology . The efforts of other activities will reap rewards in the om ing
                                              year.

       Many of the NCSL member delegates are con sidered to be among the finest technical managers in the world. This
ex per tize, coupled with the stre ngths of their member organization, can provide the cataly st in problem identifica tio n
and a dyna mi in fluence in their ru solutiou.

      The NCSL continues to be a viable organiza tion whose strengths increase each year. This claim is supported by our
continuo us membership growth, added involvement with other organizations and the NCSL's continuous NBS support and
sponsorship . Yes, I can state with certainty that th e NCSL is fulfilling its goals and delivering an effective service to i ts
membership.

      This lead s into my second topic - The State of th e NCSL. I am pleased to report that th e status of th e NCS , as it
closes on the decade of the '70's, and its associated metrology challeng es, is excellent. Significant elements include a 9 2%
membership increase during the last 5 years, a reasonably stable trea sury, a more effective program of committee goals
and yearly products and a much greater influence on national and international programs and specifications that int1u nee
both the technical and administra tive management of our measurement labora tories.

        However, what will be the State of the NCSL at the close of the 80 ' s? Rapid instrument. technological onsumerism
and the advances in energy technologies will be some of th e conc ern s that will have to be addressed and ef fective ly re­
solved if the NCSL is to maintain its viable status. Accomplishmen ts will only be achieved th ro ugh continued concern and
participation with the NCSL programs and ·ommittecs. Results co me [ro m tho efforts of membership involvement. It is
paramount. that the metrology manager becom an activist, prov ide stra tegy plann ing to in lienee fut ure laboratory admin­
istra tion , and take an aggressive position in the measurement affai rs of th eir organization.

James A. Valentino
President

                                                  DAVID ROlllE O'BRIEN
                                                 OCT 9, 1942 - DEC 9, 1979
       At press tim e we have just received the sad news tJ aL Dave O' Brien dls d Dec. 9, 1979. Most of us knew Dave as
 the hard -working Chairman of th o Education & Train ing Co mm it tee fo r th last several years.
       Dave was Associa t Engineer responsible for the Standards Lab at Duke Power Company in Charlotte, NC. He was
 a graduate of Christopher Newport College. He leaves his wife Brenda and thre e children. We will all miss Dave a lot.


  • •    1'_
                                                                                     TAB LE OF COI\lT E TS
               NCSL NEWSL ETT ER                        197 9 VILD ACK \,\,IARD WI N m,                                                              3
                                                        Hl GHL IG TS l' TH NCSL BOARD MEE'rIN G                                                      4
             VOL 1 NO          a DEC   1979
                                                        19 7. AN N UAL C N I' RENeE
                 (USPS # A PPL . F O R)
                                                           Electronic, Industrial Au orna io n & Mathernati al
Publish r:                                                     Modelin g Lyons)                                                                  18
  Natio nal Confe re nce of Stand­                         Measu rem en t Science &, _ plication' in t ie 80's ­ N rw
      ards r aboratori es                                      Dem an d s & irections (Horo witz, .                                              22
  c/o I\'CRL Secretariat                                   Im pact of Au t omatic ' esting ­ Cha llenges for Measurement
  National Bureau o f St an dards                              Te 'hi ology «(\' cCutlbrey                                                       27
  Boulde r, CO 80::103                                     H mai Res ur -s: A Design or the 80 ',5 (Seh wegler )                                 32
  (3 3) 49 9·10 00 X37 7                                   Requirements for Biomcdi .al Service' in the 8 0's (Lee )                             36
Editor :                                                   'I'echnolog .Challenges of I e 80's (!VIi     I) en                                   40
  Joht L, Minck, NC L editor                                  u to mati c rest Equ prnen t Ke ller)                                              44
      Hewle rl-Pa kard Co.                                 Metrol ogy & Fi ber Optics 1 apron)                                                   48
      150 1 P gl! Mill R lid,                              Ho w to Improve Y ur Managem en t Effec tiven ess      ilsson )                       49
      Palo Alto , CA 94 04
                                                        WOR KSHOP It EPO RTS .                                                                   53
      (415) 856 ·2060
                                                        NCSL NEWSNOTES                                                                           59
T h " ' f:;. ~ wsl~t U r Is publis h ed ( U~ r­         REPORTS I' ROM THE RE GI ONS                                                             61
terly m Boulder, Co l o., by t h ~ Na ti o n al
                                                        \VEL C M E T O OUR ~ F~ \V NCSL MEMBERS                                                  66
Co n fer on c e 01 L'Lncl f,b La b o ra t o ri es .
 II. is se nt It> N Sls -m em b er o rg uniza t to ns
  nd t o a sp octa l Hstin g of ac t lvtttes and                             T E NCSL WOODINGTON AWA RD
k Y p "r&.mnel ",h.,. w a r ' Is cl os e Iv r-n­            The o rigin of the Andre w J. Wo odingto n Award as at the Jan . 1 979 NCSL
la ted C thut ,Ii NCSL . '[h e su bseri rrti on
           o
                                                        Board Me tjng - wnere II me II 0 1' recognizing outstanding speakers and wo rksho p
P' ce of S25"j~ inclucle rl In l he annual
dues, (3 cornea P<'T Is su e ) Non -NCSI.               panells was sough t. Sh rtly h fore the Board Meeti n gs, ndy Woo dinllto n had
 n em be r ~uhsW:'Pt lollf. are \'allablc. f or         eo rne to an unti mely death at the age of 56. (He die at the hands of a man, fi­
$10 per year. Make re mittan c e to th e                nally co nvicted just last month of Second Degree murder for which he has been
N(,;SL Se cre t ariat .                                 sent enced to 8 years in Chino State Prison .) So i see med fini ng to name t lese
                                                        financial awards connected with NCSL Conferences to Andy , wh o ha cont ri but ed
NCSL Is nnn-proflt ss ociariu n of lab­
 ra t.orr es-or orga niza t to n s t h a t maintain
                                                        per sonally to so many successful NCSL Conferences and to th e o perati ons of NC L.
or ha ve-a n l n t " f" " I• •"hl1 ed La a measure­        And y was a na tive of Top kli, I ansas, all Arm Radar '] echnlcian an d Te ch Sgt.
mo n t standard . ,InG c ali b ra ti on facilities.
                                                        and a EE gradu at e of Purd ue. HlJ ha d wor ked lor Co nvalr.aud General yna mlcs
CH A N G E O F ADDRESS:                                 Astronautics, San Diego fo r 24 years as a EJo:. an as Chief of th elr St andar ds and
                                                        Calibration Labs, and was employed a t the Navy Metrol ogy Eng ineering Cent er at
  ","1 u ld lin d new u Irlr ess to NCSL
• ec r et a r ia t , Nati onal Bu r eau o f Stand­      the time of his death.
a .da, B " ull l ~. CO 80a03 . Pos m as t er :
                                                           He was very active in Tech nical So iet ies, as Chairman 01' lite A ' QC etro logy
Pl ease se n rt Form 3Ft79 t o N CS L
  ecrnt.a ri t , Na tl ,)"" l !lm~"ll o f Stand­        Com m it t ee, Director o f tho In strumen t Society o t' Ame rica" .Me tro logy Divlslon,
8n l~ , Bo ulder . C O B0 30 :\.                        and member of he ati onal Managern II Associa ion. He pu blished sev ral
                                                        Me trology Manageme nt papers. He was hea v I)_ sUJ po rtlvn of the Measure ment
A p pli ~ ~ L I () l J
              to mall a t s econ d clnxs                Science Conferences held in CaUf. beginning in 1970 and helped lnlttate the Me tro l­
    t
pO!s age rates Is p en ding t B o u l d er
  n 80303. Adt t u nal o ffl c " m ,l ili n fl          ogy Curri culum 0 M sa 'ollegr' San Dlego , for Calibra tio n Technici an Traln lng.
frum Palo Al t o, GA 9 4 3 0 3 .                          Within NCSL, ndy served two terms us Chairman (now Presid ent) in 1963 and
                                                        196 4 which were t he years NBS spon sorship started , th e Directory of Stand ards
BOARD OF REV EWERS                                      Laboratories fir st appeared and the firs t Board of Directo rs was set. up . As recently
             I)o"m B ruoJ!,lirt                         as 1975, he was Vice Presiden t , Communications ', Marke ting. Bu t, perhaps And y 's
             Mo e Corrigan
                             most me mo rable ach ieveme nts are refle ct ed in con feren ces su ch as t hese. He was
             D e n n ls Galla gh er
                    pro gram chairm an in 1966, program ch airman of the 1972 and 1974 J oin1. Measu re­
             John LeI'
                                 ment Co nferen ces and again n l 97 . H" aided , co mforted and cau .d I hc success
             llueh Starlin g
                           of numerous other NGSL Commi ttee s and nerivitics and was an hlst ric touchstone ­
             J l m VaJ~l1 t ino
                                                        a reference stand ard rot NeSL ver tlw y ars ,

,.. •• :oJ At"l.lI!1eJO mri 0 he r u ems Pt) eluin~
                                                            When w all rem em ber A: d ' and what he st ood for in t he Metrology community
in t h e NEWS L ETT E R "",pre"" t h e vi e ws          and in NCSL these wo rd s com e to mind: In tegri ty , Tr u th , Honor, Co urage, Forth­
of a u t h or s nod c;on t r ib u t rs a n d a r e      righ tne " Lo './ll ty , Devoti on. Dedication, and th ese : Sta tesm an, Mc n tor , Example,
no t ne~"l'<;,rl ly those of th Edi Of o r              Advoca te, Colleague, an d fin ally , F riend . For these words. fo r his meaning to NCSL .
t h e Nattnnnl Cnn ter liee St a n d ar d s             fo r th e m e mor ies An dy Woodingt on leaves us - we dedicate these awards.
Ln b u rufortc .•                                       (Remarks' by Jerry Hayes at the 197!-J Conference)

                                                                            -2­
                                           1979 WILDHACK AWARD WINNER

                                                    JERRY L . HAYE S




Jerry Hayes, Technica l Director of the Na vy                     Technica l Di rec tor.       His contributions t o
Metrology Engineering Center at Pomon a ,                         t h e field of metro l og y include:            1)   ear l y
Ca l i fo r n i a, ha s re cei ved the 1 9 79 wi ldh ack          deve lopment o f ca l i b r a t i o n accuracy r ati os
Aw ard f r o m the Nationa l Conference o f                       as app lied t o a cc ept ance testing pro ce dures ,
Standards Laborator ies (NCSL). The award                         2) writin g and editing the St a n d a r d s
i s p r e s e n t ed annua lly by NCSL t o recogn ize             Laboratory Information Manu a l (a mi l estone,
outstand in g c ontributions to the fi e l d o f                  d eta i le d , tutori al , and p r o c e d u r al d ocument
metro l ogy and measurement sci en ce con sistent                 known t o most o f us as the SL IM manua l ) ,
with the goa ls and programs of NCSL .                            3 ) ser ved as te chni cal consu ltant in
                                                                  producti on o f the Navy f ilm "Why Ca librate" ,
                                          il
Th e a wa r d i s named f or Wi l l iam W dh ac k , who           4) author a nd co-author of numerous p a p e r s
was instrumenta l i n fou r-ding NCSL . Wil d hac k               and tec hni ca l no tes o n ca libration c o n c e p t s ,
was a st a f f me mb e r o f the Nat iona l Burea u               a mong which was the b a se l i n e d ocumen t
of Standard s (NBS), the s p ons or of NCSL                       entit led " Fact ors Aff ec ting Measur e ment
                                               i
since i t s beg i nn i n gs in 1 961 . The W l dhack              Re l i abi lity" , 5 ) tak ing a l e a de r sh i p ro l e
Award , cons isting of an i n s c r i b e d p laque               in applying auto mated testin g t echno logy
and a $1000 honorar ium , was awarded a t the                     to i n s t r ume n t cal ibrati on in the MECCA
1 9 7 9 Annua l NCSL Conference Banque t,                         program (Modu l a r l y Equipped and Co nf i gu re d
October 1 5 , 1979 , by Laure l Auxier,                           Ca libration Ana lyze r) .
I mme d i a t e Pa st President of NCSL.
                                                                  Current ly J e r r y is s pearhead ing a j oi n t
Jer ry i s ve ry well known t o mo s t NCSL mem­                  Department of De f en se/Indus t ry e ff o rt t o
be rs, the metrology c ommunity i n genera l,                     dep l oy commerc ia l ly a va i lab le calibration
and espec ial l y a mong the Department of                        sy stems, which are s oftwa re contro l led and
Defense an d Navy Depar t ment organ izations.                    ma n t r a n s p o r t abl e t o a us ing s i t e , quick ly
                                                                  asse mbled and readi ly used in i n s t r ume n t
At the award presen tation, Laure l noted                         ca l ibrati on .
tha t Jerry 's contr ibut ions t o NCSL started
ri g h t at the beg inning . He was a memb e r of                 He se r ves as Ch a i r ma n of the Department of
the ori gina l ad-hoc commi ttee which me t dur­                  Defense Ca libration Co o rd i n a t i o n Group, a
i n g the 1 96 0- 61 pe r iod t o form t he c oncept              continuin g Army, Navy and Ai r Force wo r king
of NCSL . He sti l l ho l ds the r e c o rd o f                   panel whi ch assu res maximum uti l ity of DOD
longest servi ce on t h e Board, having served                    metro logy resources . He a ls o is past
9 y e ars i n a l l, inc lud ing 2 year s as                      cha irman of t he work ing group on def initions
P resident in the 1969 -7 1 period .                              of pu l se pa rameters .

Although Jer ry is no l o nger a Board Member                     Jer ry i s a senior member o f I SA and IEEE and
he has r emai n e d c lose to t h e o r ganizat ion ,             is a member of t h e Nationa l Academy of
serv ing as a soun d ing boa rd for propo sed                     Sc ien c es Nationa l Research Counci l Eva luat ion
activities , counse l ling the l e a d e r s hi p , and           Pane l fo r the Nat i ona l Bureau of
l e n d i ng the continued support of his                         Standards.
organizat ion's r e s o u r c e s and p e r s o nn e l .
                                                                                                        il
                                                                  P r eviou s winne rs o f the NCSL W dha ck Award
Jerry has been with the Navy's Metro log y                        have i nc luded Dr. Ernest Ambler, Direc tor
Eng ineeri n g Cente r at Pomona, California                      of NBS; Doug Stra in , P r e si de n t of ES I, I n c. ;
since the mid-50 's and is current ly                             and Frank McGinnis, Di rector of Product
                                                                  As s u r an c e at Sperry Rand Co rp orat ion .
                                                           - 3­
                      HIGHLIGHTS OF THE NCSL BOARD OF DIRECTOR'S MEETING


                                     October 18, 19, 1979


                                       Boulder, Colorado



PRESIDENT'S REPORT                                    would have to be approved by their respective
                                                      legal departments before releasing such
                                                      information.
Ron reminisced a bit, and reflected on the
past year's activities. He thanked the
Directors and Regional Coordinators for               Jim took an action item to contact the proper
their effort in providing increased activity          government and military organizations to
at the regional level which was evidenced             obtain their official position concerning
by the significant increase in new member­            release of data concerning their respective
ships and the well attended 1979 NCSL                 organ izations.
Conference. Ron attributed the past year's
success to the fine support he had received
and after thanking the Board, he turned               PAST PRESIDENT'S REPORT
the "invisible gavel" over to the 1979-1980
Incoming President, Jim Valentino.
                                                      outgoing Past President Laurel Auxier
                                                      reported on the results of the election for
Jim stated that the basic format of the NCSL          1979-80 NCSL Board of Directors.
Workshop enables NCSL to present the activ­
ities of the various committees for the               Executive Vice President        Jon Lee
previous year to the membership and also              Treasurer                       Bob DeLapp
convey how effectively the Board has been             Vice President (2 Years)        Dean Brungart
operating.  The Board then gave the two                                               Dennis Gallagher
1979 Conference Co-Chairpersons, Ken                  Vice President (1 Year)         Moe Corrigan
Armstrong and Hartwell Keith a standing               Directors                       Chuck Corbridge
ovation for their outstanding work in                                                 Hartwell Keith
planning and conducting the Workshop.                                                 Cliff Koop
                                                                                      George Rice
                                                                                      Bob Weber
Challenges for FY 1980 - Jim stated he
would like 1980 to be a year of accomplish­
ments and proposed two challenges:                    As part of a previous action, Laurel reported
                                                      on how the NCSL Archives could be maintained.
                                                      He recommended that someone be assigned to
One to the chairmen of the various commitees.         maintain the archives and determine which
He asked that they not bite off too much,             documents be retained, how they should be
but instead structure activities such that            categorized and tabulated. His recommendations
they can accomplish some achievable goals             included such material as the Newsletter,
within the 10 month time frame and show a             Collection of Documents issued at Board
product at the end of the fiscal year.                Meetings, Financial Records, Photos and
                                                      Key Correspondence.

In line with Jim's effort in updating the
Long Range Plan, he threw a second challenge          Ron took an action item to come up with a
to NBS that we (NCSL) have some mutual                sample on how the NCSL Archives should be
projects to work on. In this vein, he                 categorized and tabulated by the next Board
stated that "Project ATE", to be discussed            Meeting. This action also included updating
later in the meeting agenda, could be that            the Supplement to the Long Range Plan to
undertaking where NBS and NCSL could attempt          revise the duties of the Past President
to meet some objectives and provide some              regarding his role in maintaining the archives.
guidelines for the measurement community,
industry and possibly the instrument manu­
facturers.                                            TREASURER'S REPORT


EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT'S REPORT                     Bob DeLapp submitted four Treasurer's reports.
                                                      Copies of these reports appear at the end
                                                      of these minutes.
Jim Valentino reported on a letter he had
received from a Norback and Company who was
compiling The Electronic Almanac with the             In the Proposed Budget, Bob reported that
McGraw-Hill Book Company. They wish to                substantial budget reductions were made in
include a section to list private, government         the Education and Training and "Other
and military laboratories that test to                Committee" accounts to more accurately reflect
standards as noted in the 1979 NCSL edition           past performance.          The Secretariat's account
of "A Directory of Standards Laboratories."           had been i n c r e a s e d to $4,000 to relfect
After a lengthy discussion, the Board                 increased operating costs.
agreed that information concerning private
sectors could be released but information
on government and military organizations
                                                -4­
                                                                                     Board Meeting


In view of Jim's recent request for Board              Honors and Awards Committee - Chairman
meeting reports to be mailed prior to each             Bob Lady reported that the main activity
meeting, all Vice Presidents and Committee             during the last quarter has been the pro­
Chairmen were asked to review their budget             curement and preparation of certificates
needs for 1980. Any individuals who may                and awards for the 1979 Workshop. The two
have difficulty in having their company                trunks and a suitcase required to transport
fund postage were asked to request sufficient          all items to Boulder is indicative of Bob's
budget to cover these mailing expenses at              recent activities .
Friday's FY-80 Budget meeting.

                                                       During the '79 Conference, Bob was asked
The Board reported that comments made at               by some of the member regarding the purchase
the recent '79 Conference Delegate's                   of the NCSL tie tacks for identification
Meeting pretty well indicate NCSL has a PR             purposes.  Bob asked the Board for guidance
problem concerning the organization's                  of how this can be arranged. Bob was
$46,000 reserve.  The Delegates think NCSL             given an action item to investigate the
has more than adequate reserves. After                 cost of purchasing an alloy tie tack, sO
considerable discussion, the Board issued              in the January Board Meeting, a decision
an action item to Jim to prepare a statement           can be made on how to make them available
for the Newsletter (President's Message),              to the whole membership.
addressing the financial status of NCSL.
A second action was issued to John Lee to
present a financial report at the 1980                 Education and Training Committee - Outgoing
NCSL Conference Delegate's Meeting.                    Chairman Dave O'Brian reported that pre­
                                                       liminary results of the National Training
                                                       Survey were in. A total of 124 laboratories
SECRETARY'S REPORT                                     returned the survey for a 35 % sample.
                                                       Sample represents replies from 32 states
                                                       and represents a total potential training
Doug reported that the current NCSL member­            population of 2,097 perRonnel. At the
ship stands at 397, 375 domestic and 22                recent NCSL Conference, Dave stated he had
foreign.  Since the July BOD meeting, the              admonished the membership to turn in their
Secretary has welcomed thirteen (13) new               surveys, so the final tabulation would
member delegates.  During the past year we             represent a larger percentage of the organ­
have added 69 domestic and 10 international            ization.  The survey was able to identify
members.                                               a list of 20 some subjects with "Error
                                                       Analysis" rated as top priotity.

Doug reported that he had attempted to
establish a profile (type of business/                 Dave stated he had talked with Brian
principal product or service) on the new               Belanger about the possibility of the
member delegates who had j o i ned NCSL during         Bureau interfacing the development of a
the last year and ha d r un into considerable          short course in this area of error analysis.
difficulty in conducting such a su rvey.               A course of one week duration (40 hours)
He asked the Board if in the past such a               at the technician level is being considered.
survey had ever been conducted. Jim                    The Education and Trai ning Committee wl11
Valentino repor ted that such a survey had             develop the detail curriculum and test
been made in the past, but not on a sustain­           to go along with this course, and is
ing basis.                                             working with Brian's office very closely.


The Board issued an action item to Dean
Brungart to work with Ken Armstrong to
modify the NCSL invoice to establish a                 Survey tabulation in order or priority
membership profile.  Survey would cover:               for the top five courses are:
(1) Type of industry; (2) Number of people
in the organization; (3) Number involved                    Error Analysis
at the management, engineering and technician               Temperature
level.                                                      Electrical
                                                            Calibration System Management
                                                            Flow
REPORT OF VICE PRESIDENT - ADMINISTRATION

                                                       The committee's goal is to have courses
Meetings and Programs Committee - Chairman             in temperature, electrical and error
Sam Davidson reported on the details of                analysis by '1981.
the next NCSL Board of Directors Meeting
scheduled on January 17, 18, 1980, at
Houston, Texas. Sam distributed a complete
                                                       Dave reported that PMA, ASQC, and ISA have
information package covering all phases
                                                       all indicated an intense interest in help­
of the meeting in the Houston area.
                                                       ing and working with NCSL in developing
                                                       these courses, and looked for closer and
                                                       more frequent interface with these organ­
Mike Suraci of Lockheed Missiles and Space
                                                       izations regarding this subject.
Co. will be replacing Sam as Chairman.


                                                 -5­
Board Meet i ng

Da v e state d th a t h is c o mmitte e i s p r o p o s i ng   a v a i l a bl e in e i g h t ar eas ( fo r nint h ar ea ,
a no t he r publication wh i ch cou ld be c al led             use rs g r o up wou ld d etermine this for t hem­
" Re g i s t e r of Training Aides ", whic h would             selves ) a n d the commi t tee would p repa re
h a v e a l i s t i ng of metro logy oriented t e x t          a general survey t o go with each of the
bo oks i nc l uded with a li s ting o f exis ting              status r e ports whi ch would be ma il ed to
avai la b le 35 mm s lides , v i d e ota p e s and             all the NCS L membe r s.
casse t te s. A p r e l im i na r y d raft of t his
pu blication is schedu led t o be avai lab l e
the first of t he year .                                       The me mber s t he n would revi ew t hes e s erv ic es
                                                               and comment i f the r e is sti ll a p r o b l e m.
                                                               Members wil l be a s k e d t o describe their
I n response to Dave 's ac t ion t o seek                      p r o b lem i n de tai l , and indica te what the
alt er n at i v e me a n s fo r re v i e wi n g and r epro­    im pac t wou ld be if t he problem was not
ducing NCSL t ra ini n g aids , Br ian Be langer               corr ec ted.     Since a n a nalys is must be made
r e po rted t ha t , lik e Ken ' s office at Bou lder ,        of the s e s urveys , Fr a n k recommended th at
t h e Gai t hers burg faci lity wou ld be hard ­               t h e s u rvey she ets b e re t urned t o t h e NCSL
pr es sed to jus t ify un d e r t aki n g th e mai n­          Regions for ana lysis and discus sion .
                                   i
t e na nc e of t he aides. W th i n the l a st
coup le of mo nth s , it wa s dis covered that t he
Defe nse Depar t men t had q u i te an exte nsive              Frank a lso r eported t h at i n the DC Low
l i s t o f avai l able t r a i n ing aides i n the            Freq u ency are a and Hig h Speed Measuremen t
form o f video tapes and othe r materia ls, and                area , ·the Bu re a u i s in the process of p r e ­
his orig i na l princ ipa l i nte r e st in t aki ng           p ari n g specific q u es t ionna ires re la t ive t o
over the ma i nte na n c e of the NCSL train ing               fu ture requirements o f i nd us try .
aid es was tha t wit h t h e Bu r e au PMTE pro jec t,
th e s e NCSL a ides wou l d b e ava i la b le t o
othe r governme nt agencies,              now that the         Frank t hen r e la ted Hank Da n e ma n ' s vi ews
Defe nse Li brary i s avai l a b l e to governmen t            abou t US support of i nt e r n at i o nal
a gencie s.                                                    measuremen t ac ti vi ties . Ba s ed o n his
                                                               recent tra v el s i n South Amer ica, Hank
                                                               re por ted tha t t h er e are o pportuni t i es
Br ia n re ported t ha t t he Gait hers b u rg                 for t he US as a whole , for NBS , and f o r
fac il i ti es ' incentive for under taking t h e              NCSL t o do mor e t h a n we h a v e i n t h e past .
main te nance of NCSL aid es is l e s s tha n it
was pr e v i ou s l y . Alt ho ugh he could not give
a fina l answer today , h e was not opti mistic .              Dur i ng t he discuss ion , severa l f a c t o r s
Brian reported that his f a c ili ty c o u ld no t             whi c h adverse ly a ffec t o ur a bi li ty t o u p ­
ins pect , bu t p r o b a b l y cou ld suppor t th e           grade t h e s e overseas con tac ts were iden ti ­
r eprod u ction of t a pe s . Bria n t oo k an ac t i on       f i e d.   I t was poin ted ou t t h at it wou ld b e
t o d etermi ne if t h e De f e n s e Departme n t             u s e f ul for NCSL t o documen t it s co nc e rns
L ibr a r y wou ld a lso be ava i la b le to c ompa n ies      in th i s ar ea and t hat commen ts f r om
wi t h government co n tracts .                                individua l membe r companies mi gh t be more
                                                               usefu l than a c onsen sus i nput fr om NCSL as
                                                               a who l e .
Br y a n W rne r t o o k an ac tion t o es tab lish
          e
a procedure whereby, when a t a p e is returned
t o Ken marked "d e f e ct i v e" , we no t i ns pec t         Laborato ry Eva lua t ion Commi t t e e - Pr ior
i t , bu t discard it an d a u tomatica l ly r e p r o­        to Den ny 's r e po rt, Gra ham a nnounced Cl e m
d uce another one f r om the NCSL mas ter ta p e               Mal o t of Gi l l e t te Resea r c h I n st itute and
l ibr ar y .                                                   Medica l Eva luation La boratorie s in Rockville ,
                                                               Mary land , as the n ew Incoming Chairman.

Dave announced th at d ue t o press ing com pany
busi ness , h e wou ld no t be a b le to continue              o u t go i ng Chairman Dennis Ga l lagher r e ported
as Chairman and introduc ed his rep lacement ,                 t hat there are s ti l l n o agencies t h a t
Br y a n Werner of Wes ti n gho use.                           accredit ca libr a tion la b s, however , there
                                                               are numero us agenc ies that offer accredita ­
                                                               tion in t h e m~ic a l f ie l ds .
REPORT OF VICE PRESIDENT - MEAS UREMENT
REQ UIREMENTS
                                                               NVLAP - ~lLAP h os ted a symposium at NBS in
                                                               Sep tember , 1 97 9. They a lso p u b l i s hed the
Na tional Mea s u r emen ts Committee - Ch a i r ma n          Se cond Ann ua l Report fo r t h e per iod January 1,
Fr ank F l y nn r e por t e d on a mee ting held               1 9 7 8 t h r ou q h December 31 , 1 97 8. They a lso
Tuesday n ight , Octo b e r 1 6, 19 7 9, a t tended            pub l ished (Octobe r 1 7, 1 97 9 ) t h e l i s t of
by Dr . Bria n Be langer , Norm Be lecki ,
Graham Cameron , Dennis Gal lagher and
c ommi ttee membe rs Hank Buys and Bob Lady .
The point of d is cussion was a f o l l owu p to
t h e committee 's p revious survey which had
identified n i ne (9) sp ecific areas repo r ted
as existing o r f ut ur e p r o b l e ms co n ce rn ing
NBS's calibrati on s erv i c es . To dete r mine
i f t h e r e is s till a prob lem t o d a y concer n ­
i n g these ni ne a reas, it was d e c i d e d t hat
Bri a n' s office would p r e pa r e a s tatus
repor t on the current me a s u r e ment services
                                                                                                                 Board Meeti ng

co mpani es t hat re ceived a c credit at ion in
                        th e c ount r y .   Dr . Br ian Be l a nger and Ron
t he t esti n g o f th e r mal in sulation ma t eri als.
                Kidd wi l l b e o n a pa n el a d dr e s sin g th i s
                                                                         is s u e a t the upc oming Mea suremen·t Science
                                                                         Con ference in San Lu i s Obi spo .         In th e p ro ­
                                                                         ce s s o f th e d i sc u s s , t he Board r eaf f ir me d
AALA - Alt houg h AALA was r e pr ese nte d a t t h e                    t h e des ir a bi lity o f having all NCSL member s
Sep tembe r NBS Symp os i um, t hey had n o progre s s                   use RP No. 2 a long wit h all the o t he r
t o rep o r t ot h er than the prepa ra t ion o f a                      Rec ommended Pr a ct i ces .
membe rsh ip form .

                                                                         NBS/NCSL Pr ojec t " ATE" - Jim r elate d t o
ASQC - Ro l f Sc huma c her ha s a uthor e d a n                         NCS L's e xec u tive mee ting wi t h t he Bu re a u' s
i ni t ia l p ro posa l call ed "Fi rs t Coord inat io n                 ma n a g e me nt e ar lie r t hi s y ear, wh e r e h e had
Dra ft of a Qua li ty St a ndard fo r Ca l i b r a tion                  reques ted th a t t he Bure au pr ov ide o u r o r gan­
S ys tems . " De nn is s ta t e d tha t this mat t e r                   iza t ion wi t h a projec t of mut ua l concern
s hould be of utmo s t c on c e rn t o th e NCSL                         t ha t we co u ld both work o n . At t ha t t ime ,
membe r s hi p a n d rank s wi t h MI L-C -45662A a s                    Dr. To m Di l lon ind i cate d tha t it could b e
be in g an i mport a n t doc umen t . He u r ged                         a project i n t he ATE a r ea .
eve r yone t o make a po in t t o r ead t his fi rst
d r a f t a n d f or ward their comme nt s to Ro l f .
                                                                                 i
                                                                         Bob W l let of Rockwe l l/Co l lins descri bed t h e
                                                                         p urpose of a nd th e activities of the I ndu s t r y ­
Biomed ica l and Ph a rmaceu t i ca l Metr o log y                       J o in t Se rv ices Auto Test Pr oject o f wh i ch h e
Comm i ttee - I n the ab senc e o f Cha irman Gero n                     is a p ar t . Bo b repor ted t hat an Exec u tive
Smi th, Gr a ham r e port e d t h at t he Biomed ica l                   Repor t from th e various t a s k group s a n d
Wor ks hops a t th e r e cen t Confe r ence were                         t hei r r ecommen d a t i ons h ad re cently been
s ma l l and liv ely a n d larg ely made up of t he                      p u b lis hed . Thi s project was d er i v e d fr o m a
hea l t h ca r e commu nity . There we re 8 t o 1 2                      simi lar Navy pr ojec t whic h wa s to l ook at
at t end e e s at eac h ses si on . The s e ssion s                      ATE a n d it s problems .
contai n ed 5 0% Ph a rmaceut ic a l , 3 0 % Device
  a
M n u fac t u r ing , and 2 0% t h ird p arty s u p p o r ~ lng
cal i bration l a boratori es.        No known ho s p ' t a l            Br ian Be l a n g e r reported o n a n a d ho c t a s k
r e pre s entat i v es were i n a t t e ~ d a r. c e. Ea c h             fo ~ce wi t a i,n t l, e Bureau , cha i r ed b y Barry
wor k sho p had lndivid a a l t ~em e s : M an a ~ ~m e n t              Bel l , c o nsi s t ing of al l people that may h a ve
o f Standar d s Labo r a t o r i e s; T r a i n i ~g and                 an i n t e r e s t i n ATE . The purpose of the
Ed uc at ion ; Provis i on of t~ird p ar t y c a l i­                    task force i s to keep the various pa r t s of
bra t ion service s . The c o mm i t t e e 8 ' ans a                     NBS a p pra i s e d of what is going o n in th e ATE
me et i ng n ext Spri ng , te o t a t i v e l y i n Apri l ,             communi -ty a n d bett er def ine wha t the Bu reau ' s
i n the Ch i cago area.                                                  r ol e shoul d be . Brian ho p e d t h at they
                                                                         wo u ld be s uc ce ss f u l in br i n ging i n mor e fu nds
                                                                         so the Burea u wou ld be ab le to bu ild u p their
Gra ha m r ec omme nd ed tha t Ge r o n ' s a c t i on to                capab i li t y i n th e ar e a o f ATE .
deve l op a wo rk i ng p aper on r ecomne n dat i o ns
to eva l u ate t he pro fic ienc y of me t r o logica l
n atur al d evices an d i n s t r umen ta t ion b e                      He a lso men t i oned hav ing sepa rate mee tings
wi thd r a wn . The c ommi tte e no w c o ns i d er s i t                at th e Burea u wi t h Wes t ingho use and Sper ry
t o b e i nappr opr i ate a nd unnec e s sary.        The                o n the MATE pr og r am and h a d br i e f e d t hem on
subj e ct o f pro f icienc y of met r o logi c a l                       t h e Bu rea u 's ATE a ctivit ie s . The y i n t u rn
natural dev ices li e s i n t h e do mai n o f                           b r iefed th e Bu re a u o n the i r pa rti c u l a r
governmen t agenc ie s .                                                 contributions t o t he ·t o t a l MATE pro gr a m.


SP ONSOR 'S DELEGATE REPORT                                              Br i a n anno un ced that J a c k Vogt is t h e Bu reau's
                                                                         l iaiso n membe r on the Jo int Lo g i s t i c s
                                                                         Commande r ATE Group .
Bas co m Bi rming ha m r e porte d o n the res u l ts o f
a foll owu p l ett e r he had sen t to a ll a t tendees
of t h e Region 8 mee ting la st May . He had                            In s umma ry, Brian r e por t e d tha t th e Bureau
asked for their c omments o n the Bu r e a u' s                          ha s a hig h l e v el of i n terest, b ut present ly
l o n g ran g e t ec h n ical d i re c t ion . To date h e               l a c k s th e r eso ur c e s they wou ld lik e t o have
ha s r ec eiv e d o ne r e s pon s e .                                   t o work on the A'l'E pr ob lems . Howeve r , he
                                                                         s t a ted t hey f u l ly intend to fol l o w a s c lo se ly
                                                                         as possible a n d make what cont r i buti ons th e y
Con cern ing t he Metro logy "80" Sem ina r Ex h i b i t                 c an . He al s o s tated t ha t perhaps NCSL ,
in M c ow, h e rep ort ed tha t two compa n i e s ,
      os                                                                 thro u g h t heir i nd ivid ua l c ompa n i es , could
no ne of whi c h a re NCSL compan ies , agreed to                        be t he c ata lyst to provide the d rivi ng force
pa rt icipate . Ba scom sa id if a ny NCSL c o m p ani ~                 to get t he ATE des ig ne rs t o g e th e r wi th the
we r e i ntere s ted i n pa rtic ipat i ng, t hey s hou l d              me trolo g i st s t o reso lve these prob lems wit h
c onta ct Rudo lp h Dahl of th e U.S. Depa r tmen t                      r es p e c t t o ca libration measurement accuracy .
of Commerce .

                                                                         Pe te Eng l a nd s t r o ng l y emphasized Tom Ke l ler 's
Con ce r n e xpressed t o NCSL Boa rd a bout c ali­                      p lea ab out g etti ng i np uts fr o m t he metrolo g is t
br ation qua l i ty . The Boar d was in forme d abou t                   i n t o th e Wes t inghouse MATE des ign c o n c e pt.
Lo ebe Juli e' s c oncer n s a bou t t h e qua l i t y of                Ca n NCSL make a c o n tri b ut io n? How?
ca libr at ion pc r f o rmed in ca Li.b r ati i o n labs a r o un d

                                                                  - 7­
!3oard Meeting


The Board assigned the Calibration Lab                 REPORT OF VICE PRESIDENT - LABORATORY
Automation Committee Chairman an action to             MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS
establish an ad hoc group consisting of key
people from the industry and the Bureau
for a meeting, possibly at NBS, to establish           Product Design Specifications Committee ­
some preliminary guidelines or rules for               outgoing Chairman Chuck Corbridge reported
calibrating or designing ATE.                          that RP #3 and the proposed RP #5 had
                                                       consumed a good part of the past two years
                                                       activities of his committee.  They have
SECRETARIAT'S REPORT                                   been re-submitted to the Recommended
                                                       Practice Committee for approval.

Ken Armstrong reported that his activities
for the last three months had been involved            Chuck recommended that the Committee's goal
with the Boulder Labs 25th Anniversary                 to develop terminology for Smart/Programmable
and preparing for the 1979 NCSL Conference.            Instruments should be continued. Chuck
Ken again announced that the continuing                also suggested another possible area of
problem of maintaining the NCSL Training               involvement for the committee, to develop
Aids is still present.                                 guidelines for internal diagnostics for
                                                       Smart/Intelligent Instruments.

Ken mentioned that when the NCSL Long Range
Plan was being drawn up, he thought that               Measurement Assurance Committee - Chairman
there was a proposal to arrange for a                  Gary Davidson reported that the Southern
Bureau staff person to be on each committee.           California Gage Block Group Map Program
He felt that this would be of mutual benefit           had a few problems but so far has gone very
to both NBS and NCSL.  After some discussion,          well.  Phase II experiment is expected to
the Board advised the Vice Presidents to               start in early 1980. The second Southern
keep this idea in mind and contact Brian               California Voltage Map Group has been
Belanger when a Bureau person was needed.              experiencing some delays due to problems
                                                       with the automated measuring system at NBS,
                                                       but Phase II should start in November.
REPORT OF VICE PRESIDENT - COMMUNICATIONS AND
MARKETING
                                                       Gary reported that he had just received
                                                       the first draft of the NBS MAP handbook
Newsletter -  Editor John Minck reported               from Brian Belanger. Brian reported that
that Ken had received a denial of our 2nd              the review plan for his first rough draft
Class permit from the Post Office since NCSL           was to initially distribute it to a small
didn't quality under a ruling that requires            number of people, then a much wider dis­
all members to pass some minimum test require­         tribution is planned perhaps at the January
ment.  He then recommended reapplying under            Board Meeting. Brian stated his target
a clause which requires Board action to                for these reviews is to have the first
specify a portion of the annual membership             comments back by November, second draft
fee as covering the Newsletter subscription.           out for review by January and publication
John then requested a motion be made to                by mid 1980.
ammend the bylaws Article IV. A, to insert
these words after sentence 1:
                                                       Calibration Lab Automation Committee ­
   "The annual price of the Newsletter sub­            Cha1rman Pe t e England reported that the
   scription, twenty-five dollars ($25) is             past quarter activities had been primarily
   included in the prescribed membership               directed towards preparing for the ATE
   dues.  Member organizations shall                   Workshop. He also reported that he had
   receive three copies per issue."                    made available to the Conference attendees
                                                       a Selected Bibliography of recent papers
Motion was made and seconded to accept John's          concerning ATE calibration and an Opinion
recommendation.                                        Survey on the same subject. Pete stated
                                                       that he had received 22 new calculator
                                                       tape programs bringing the total to one­
Recommended Practices Committee - Outgoing             hundred-nineteen (119).
Chairman Bob Weber reported that coordinated
copies of RP #3, and RP #5 have recently
been returned to the Recommended Practices             He then recommended a change in the 1980 ATE
Committee by Chuck Corbridge. Bob announced            Workshop format by having six to seven team
that Al Kohler of Varian will be the new               leaders lead small discussion groups con­
committee chairman.                                    sisting of five to ten people, each table
                                                       to be assigned three to four issues to
                                                       attack. Each table will have a team leade r,
Information and Directory Committee -  In the          with a summary of the total group to take
absence of Chairman Jim Gilbert, John Lee              place at the end of the workshop period.
discussed the details of the 1981 NCSL
Directory and stated that decisions concern­
ing preparation and distribution would be              Calibration System Management Committee ­
left up to Dean and Jim. John discussed the            Moe Corrigan announced that Bob Guibord
1980 brochure and advised the Board that all           of TRW will be replacing George Rice who
changes must be forwarded to Dean or Jim               is stepping up to Director.
within one week.
                                                 -8­
                                                                                                            Boa r d Meeting

PROPOSED CHANGE IN BOARD MEETING FORMAT                             Reg io n 4 - In the a bsenc e of Re gi o nal
                                                                    Coo r d i n a t o r John Ril ey, Hugh S tar l i ng
                                                                    reported that the r eg ion had planned thre e
  Jim Va len t i n o dis cuss ed his proposal which
                meetings i n 1 980, and has identified MAP ' s ,
  woul d require all Boa rd members, Comm i t t ee
                 Educati on and Training, a nd Metri cation as
. Ch a i r men, Regi onal Coord i n a to r s , and Liaison          topics.         Due t o tra v e l cons tr a i n t s and
  De l e g a t e s to mail their written BOD Meet ing               potential memb ers, the Regi on is s eri ously
  r eports in suffi cient time s o the recipients                   c onsidering appointing a Co -C o o rd i n ato r
   (Boa r d, Corom . Ch r m. , Re g. Coord., and Liaison            f or the At l a n t ic ar ea.
  Del . ) wou l d be r e c eiving the re por t s 15
  days befor e the day of the meeting.
                                                                    Region 5 - Ou t go i n g Regional Co o r d i n a t or
                                                                    Cl i f f Ko op rep o r ted on a meetin g held on
PROPOSED CHANGE TO NCSL BYLAWS (INTE RNATIONAL                      Oc to be r 1 9, 19 79, at the Boulder Lab, wi t h
REG IONAL COORDINATOR)                                              a pr es entati on by Gl e n F. Enge n o f the
                                                                    Bur eau on the " 6-Port Reflect ometer"
                                                                    de vel oped at NBS. At the meeting a GM            C
Wit h the Boar d's intention to appoint Grah a m
                   r epres entativ e reported that all their 1982
Ca me r o n as the Co o r d i n a t o r for the Inter­ 
            c ar s and t r u c ks would be in the metric s ys t e m.
national Reg ion, Jim assumed that the Bylaws
                      Re gi on 5 paid membership n ow stand s at 7 0,
r e quire d that the in dividual be a Director .
                   an i ncrease of 27 % in 1979. Cl i f f· a nn o u nc e d
Since t h e By l a ws does n ot ma ke thi s sti pula­ 
             that J oe Ka t o c h o f Gou l d , Inc., ha s r epla c e d
tion (Lo n g Ra nge Plan d o es ) a c ha nge is
                    him as Re gional Coo rd i n a tor . Cliff re ports
not in order .
                                                     that there is n o r eas on to change t h e
                                                                    ex i s t ing r egi onal boundaries at thi s time.

REG IO NAL REPORTS
                                                                    Ther e is st ill an inter est in MAP ' S , with
                                                                    the r egi on ye t to d etermine wh i c h d i s c ipl i ne
Re gion 1 - In the ab senc e of Regi onal
                          to undertake. Ga r y Da vids on pointe d o u t
Coo r d i na tor Ha r r y Hayme s , Moe Corrigan
                   that o n e does not ha v e to start o u t wi t h
r e ported that Reg i o n 1 had an e x ce l len t Fal l
            s t a n d ard c e lls, but c a n start with s t a nd a rd
mee t i ng at Foxboro C omp a n~ g enerating
                       ca pacit or s, resistors or gage b l ocks.
intere st in MAP p rog r a ms and t e chnician

training. Ha r ry pl a n s t o have a me et ing o n

the same to pics b e f o re the e nd o f thi s yea r .
             At Cl i f f ' s r e que st, the Board c l a r i f ied the
Harry repor t s tha t t here i s no reas on to
                     int er pretati on o f the $ 50 a vaila ble for
c han g e the e x i s t i ng Regi o na l bo u nd ar ie s .
         subsidizing Regional Meeting s. Th e Board
                                                                    stat ed tha t e a c h Co ordina t or i s per mi t ted
                                                                    to use up t o $50 per me eting , for pur pos es
Reg i o n 2 - Reg iona l Coo r d inato r Se l wyn Smi t h           a s de eme d necessary by the c ogn i za n t
r eported on a s peci al me eting h eld a t                         Di rec to r o r Coor d in a t o r .
  e
W s t i ng ho u s e in P i t t sburg h, wh i ch highlight ed
d i s c uss ion s o n h ow t o o bta i n h i gh e r attendance
at Re g i on a l me eting s and th e g ene r a l s t a t u s        Reg ion 6 - No input.
a nd p rog r e s s of re gional met rica tion.         Moe
reporte d that their "Ba s ic Metrology"
t raining wo rks ho p wa s hi ghly successful, but                  Req ion 7 - In the absence o f Re gi onal
t h e MAP p r o gr a m was unorganiz ed and i s                     Coordi n a t o r Harry Do o l i t t le , Hartwell Ke i t h
expec ted to r egroup.                                              reported that a study of Region 7 a n d B
                                                                    b ounda ri e s indica tes t h e re i s no r ea son f or
                                                                    a c h a n g e un til memb ershi p distribution
A study o f e x i s t i n g Reg i o na l boundari es
               dictates other wise. There has b e en no meet­
indi cat es they do not want t he r e gi on s p l i t
              ing s i n c e th e la st Boa r d Meeting, h owe ver,
up into s mall er units.          Next me eting i s
                Harry has t ak en the initiati ve and has
sc h e d u l ed for la te Spr i ng . Smitty s ta t e d he
          cont a cted ea ch del e gate by mail and has
i n t e n ds t o hav e the usual t h r e e meeting s,
              tentati ve plans for a meeting in Fe bruary
p l u s t wo s pecial meetings in the W       estern
               of n e xt year. Th e Reg i on n ow has 39 p a i d
area.
                                                              members .


The Boar d issued an a ction item t o all
                          Reg io n 8 -      In the abs ence o f Regi onal
Re g i on a l Coordinators to report b y th e nex t
                Coo r d i na to r Rolf Schumacher, Ha r t we l l Kei th
Januar y Board Meeting, how many meeting s
                         r eported that th er e had been no meetings
the y a re planning t o h a v e d ur i ng the n ew
                 sinc e the la st Boa rd Meeting. The Reg ion
fi s cal y e a r.
                                                  n ow has 7 1 paid member s, with fi ve n e w
                                                                    memb ers sin c e the last Boa rd Meeting.
                                                                    Ha r twe l l then r ecap ped the region's activi ti e s
Re gion 3 - Ou tgo i n g Regional Coo rdi nator
                    d u r i ng the p a s t yea r.
Marlin Jo h n s o n r e port ed that t h e y did n o t

h a v e any me eting s s i nc e the last Boa rd

Meeting. He announc ed tha t Fred Ke r n o f
                       In ternati o n al Re gion - Outgo i ng Re g ion a l
NASA Langley Research Ce n t e r would b e
                         Coo r d i n a t or Mac Mc Kinney r e port ed that as
r epla cing him as Coo r d in a t o r.
                             soon as a c ertain applic an t's check cl ears
                                                                    the p ape r wor k , the In te r n a t ion a l Reg i o n
                                                                    membershi p will be 24. The b re a kou t b y
                                                                    s e ctio ns indicates 9 industry, 17 go v e r nme n t

                                                              -9­
        ee
Boa rd M t ing


a nd 4 un i v e r si t y. Mac repor ted on ly t h r e e          wi l l be the Key no te Speaker a t t h e
NC SL members fr om t he I nter na t io na l Regio n             Co nfere nce .
h a d a tte nd e d th e 1 979 Co n f e r e n ce : Ca n a d a ,
Tai wan and Is rae l. Howeve r, 1 2 a tte ndees
were f rom the I nte r n a tio n al ar e a. Mac                  OIML - I n the abs e nce o f L iaison De lega te
indica t e d t h e d i ff icu l ty i n holdi ng a                Don Grebs, Bascom r e p o r t e d tha t t h e re are
regiona l mee ti ng a t t he con fer ence wit h                  thr e e of s i x report ing secretar ia ts h eld by
t hr e e members .                                               t he U.S . , Br ian De langer has one and Dave
                                                                 Edger ly has two . Bria n i s p lanni ng a me eti n g
                                                                 for h i s report i ng s ecre tari at on the 27 t h
Graha m Ca me r o n , the i ncoming Coordi na tor ,              o f November i n Gai thersburg and on the 29th
s ta ted th a t he wou ld li k e t o wr i t e a l ett e r        in Sa n Luis Obisp o . An i nterna tional me et i n g
t o a l l th e I nt e r n at i onal me mbe r s l i s t ing       is p l a n ned i n Par is i n the week o f t he 31st
t he hig h lights of t h is co nference a nd perhaps             of Marc h , 1 98 0.
i ncl u d e a ph o t o of t h e in terna tiona l
at te ndees take n at t h e lunc h e on.         This would
c lear ly indica te t h a t i nter na tiona l peo p le           ASTM Re por t - Liaison De lega te Ron Kidd
do in fac t attend our con fe re nces . He                       repor ted t ha t h e h a d me t wit h Bi l l Cavanaug h ,
a lso s tated th a t h e would l i k e t o see some              Managing Director of ASTM a t the Weigh ts
t ype o f a n I nterna tiona l Workshop a t the                  and Meas ure Conf e rence in July . Ron h o p e s
1 98 0 NCSL Con fere nce a nd solicited ideas                    t o meet wi t h ~J. Cavan augh in the ne ar
a long tho s e l in e s.                                         fu tur e.


Region a l Summa r y - Bria n informed th e                      Dr . Be l a ng e r repor ted that ASTM E-46 Comm i t t e e
Board t hat NBS s p e akers are avai l ab l e f o r              on Qua lity Systems met o n September 20 , 197 9 ,
Region a l Meetings and asked t ha t h e be                      i n Phi l ade lphia . Br ia~ who a ttended t h a t
contacted f o r suc h requests . The Board a lso                 meeti ng , reported t hat original ly E-46 got
recommended t hat when avai lable, NCSL                          off to a rough st ar t . Alt hough i n i t i al
officers s hould be consider ed f o r Regiona l                  meeti ngs h a d some ro ugh goi ng, t hey now
Meetings.                                                        have agre ement on t he scopes of a l l the
                                                                 ma in commi ttees and all the s u b-committe es .
                                                                 The princi pal t hrus t of t he c ommitte e is
SPENDING TRENDS ASSESSMENT                                       to provide g uid a nce to other ASTM commi ttees
                                                                 o n h o w to incorporate q ua lity provis ions
                                                                 i nto ASTM Specs.
Ji m Va l en tino dis trib uted a "NCSL Fi na nci a l
Tr e nd s Ana l ysis " repor t to enable t he
Board t o ma k e a decision whet h e r t he an nual              PMA Re port - Liaison De le ga te George Rice
memb e r shi p dues s hould be raised a t t his                  reported o n the e lection o f th e FY 80 o f fice rs :
t i me . Based up o n a p r esentatio n o f h is
report , Ji m fe lt i t was not a ppropria t e                   Pr e s i de n t                   Rol and Vavken
to consider ra isi ng t h e d ues at this t i me .               Ex ec . Vice President            Hank Voz nick
Af t e r considerable disc uss i o n , a mo t i o n              Vice P r e s i d e n t            Woody Ei c k e
was made and seconded not to raise the NCSL                      s ec r e t a r y                  Ge o r g e Rice
d u es at t his ·time . Motion passed .                          Tr e a sur e r                    Chet Crane
                                                                 Dir ec tors a t Large             Frank Koide
                                                                                                   Doug Strai n
NCSL FY- 8 0 OPERATING BUDGET                                                                      Andy And erson
                                                                                                   Ed Neme r o ff
                                                                                                   Fred Hurne
Based up o n the i npu ts fr om t he various
Vice Pr esidents on t heir 19 79- 8 0 committee
b udget · requirements , Bob DeLapp informed                     Members hi p dropped be low 50 0 with remova l
the BOurd o n t he ame ndments h e h a d made                    o f memb e r s whose d ues were in ar rears by
t o the Proposed Budget f o r F i s c al Year 1 97 9­            mor e t han fo ur mon ths .
80 he had p resented pr evious ly . Se e
attachment #5 f o r amendments . A motion
was made and seconded to accep t t he Proposed                   ASQC Report - I n the abse nce o f Liaison
NCSL Budge t f o r Fisca l Year 1 97 9- 8 0 as                   De lega te M  ax Un is, Jim va l ent i no reported
amended . Motion passed .                                        ASQC is a c t i v e on the ASTM Commi t t e e E- 4
                                                                 f o r wri ti ng Qua lit y S t a n d a r d s a nd Guidlines
                                                                 f o r use by ASTM commi ttees . ASQC h a d a
LI AI SON REPORTS                                                v ery s uccessfu l Te chnica l Con fe rence in
                                                                 Hous ton on May 1 4 t hrough 1 6, 1979 .

GIPED Re port - Liaison De l egate John Le e
reported t hat t he n e x t GIDEP confere nc e was               I SA Report - I n the absence of Liaison
s c hedu led f o r ne xt week and a new l i a i s o n            De lega te Mike Suraci, J im Va lent ino r e a d
delegate was needed to rep lace him.                             s ome e x c e r p t s f r om a l e t t e r fr om Mike to
                                                                 N.E . Hous ton, Preside nt o f I SA.

Meas u rement Science Confere nce (MSC) Report ­
Liaison Del ega te Dean Bru n gart reported
that t he n e x t MSC meet ing is on th e 9th
o f Novem ber . ~ ll e x h i b i t spaces have been
so ld. Dr . Tom Di llon o f t h e Bureau
                                                    - 10­
                                                                                                            Board Mee t i ng


1979	 NCSL CONFERENC E RECAP                                       M.	 J. Co r ri g a n , Jr . - Vi ce P r esid ent ­
                                                                          Loc k h e ed El ectron ics Co .
                                                                   D.	 H. Ga l l ag he r - Vic e P re s ide n t - Leed s
Co - Chairpersons Hartwell Keith an d Ken                                 and No r t h r up Co .
Ar ms t r o ng re ported on Conf erence d e ta i l s :             D.	 M. Doi - Secretary - Loc k he e d - Cal i fo rnia
                                                                         Co .
At ten d a nce :                                                   L. R . DeLapp - Tr easur er - SRI Int ernat ional
                                                                   B .	 W. Bi rm i n g h am - Spon s o r ' s De lega te ­
    249 p a id attend e es (21 walk-ins)                                  Na ti o n a l Bureau o f S t a nd a rds
    9 pr e paid, but di d not p i ck up their p a cke t s          H.	 C . Keit h - Di re c t o r - Ford Ae r o spa ce &
    1 r e f und                                                           COffimu n . Corp .
    1 1 complimentary r e g istrat ions                            C . Corbrid ge - Di r e c t o r - Tek t r o n i x Inc.
                                                                   C. D. Koo p - Di recto r - Ro ckwe l l - Col l i n s
Dinner/ Luncheons:                                                 G. Ric e - Direc t or - Ro ckwe l l - Au t o n et i c s
                                                                   R.	 L . Webe r - Di rec t or - Lock he ed Mi s s i le s &
     o
    M n d a y l u n c h - coll ec t ed 235 tic k ets
                     Space Co.
    Tuesda y lunch - coll ect ed 230 tick ets
                     R . E . Kidd - P a st Pr esident - Mi c r o wa ve As s o c .
    Cookou t - collected 33 5 tic k ets
                           L .	 K. Armstron g - NCSL Secre ta r iat ­
                                                                          Na t i o n a l Bu r e a u of Standards
Room	 Reservations (Harvest House) :                               J .	 L. Minck - Conunit tee Ch a i rma n - Hewl ett ­
                                                                          PacJcard
    Origina l ly h a d 200 rooms , b ut due to
                    R.	 B . Eng land - Commi t tee Ch a i r ma n - Ge ne r a l
    i n terna l cons t r uction prob l ems, NCSL
                         Dynamics
    los t o v e r 1 0 0 rooms.
                                    G. Da vid s o n - Commit te e Ch a i rm a n - TRW/DSSG
                                                                   R.	 M. La d y - C on~ i t t ee Chairman - Loc khe ed
Be s t	 Speaker /Worksho p Awa rd                                         Ge o rg i a Co .
                                                                   H.	 B. W    erner - Commi tt e e Cha irma n - W tin g ­  es
    Best Speak er - Paul W. Sc h weg le r ­
                              h ouse F l e e .
    TRW/DSSG "Hu man Re s o u r c e s : A Profi le
                F .	 A . Fl ynn - Commit t e e Ch airman - HQ
    and Desi gn f or the 80' s . "
                                       Ae r o spa c e Gui d a n ce & Met r o Cen t er
                                                                   R . Guibo r d - Cornm i, tte e Cha irman - TRW/ DSSG
               o
    Be s t W rkshop - Robert Webe r - Loc khe e d
                 J . C . M i n ney , J r . - Me mbe r De legate ­
                                                                               cK
    Mi s s i le s and S pace Co . "Metrology
                             U.S .	 Army M     etro & Ca lib . Ce n te r
    Qu a l i t y Re quiremen t s Wor kshop."
                      P .	 J. Gr o o s - Reg . Coord . ( 6) - Rh o d es ­
                                                                          Gros s Lab . , I n c.
Con~ents     from the Board                                        S .	 P . Smi t h , J r . - Reg . Co ord . (2) - RCA
                                                                          Soli d St a t e Di v .
    Best Sp ea ker / Wor kshop voting mus t
                       M.	 J. Johnson - Membe r Del e gate - JH U
    be simp lifi ed.
                                                     App l i e d Ph ys ics Lab .
                                                                   B.	 Be l an ger - Li a i s o n From OMS - Na tiona l
    Harvest House Breakfast s ervi c e was
                               Bu r eau of S t andards
    un de rm anned a nd unsatisfactory .
                          J .	 G. Ca mer o n - Re g . Coord. (Int' l) ­
                                                                          Canadian De pt . o f Defense
                                                                   L.	 M. Auxier - Past Of f i ce r , NCSL - Be c kma n
1 980	 NCSL CONFERE NCE FORMAT                                            Instruments Inc .
                                                                   D.	 R. O ' Br i a n - Member Delega te - Duk e
                                                                          Power Co.
Dr. Brian Be langer and De n n y Ga l laghe r wi l l                                              e
                                                                   S .	 L. Da v i d s o n - M mb e r De le ga te ­
be Co -Chairpersons for t he 1 98 0 Con ference .                                                 e
                                                                          Sc hl umberg e r W l l Services
Brian r eport ed t h a t t h e 1 9 8 0 con ference                 J .	 S . Ka toc h - Re g . Coord . (5) - Gould Inc.
would e i t h e r start on t h e 13t h or 2 0th o f                       Ins t ruments Div.
October .       He ask ed for feedback conce rning                 B .	 Wil lett - Guest - Rockwell /Co llins
o t h e r ac t ivi ti es during that same ti me                           Av i o ni c s Di v .
fram e s o he could firm u p the Conference                        C .	 J . Le a n e y - Membe r De l eg a t e - Park - Da vis
date a t the e ar li es t poss ible time.        wi t h                   P harmac e u tical
th e exc eption of the b an q u e t, a l l Conf er enc e                  c
                                                                   S . M Kn igh t - Membe r De leg a t e - AGMC
activiti es wi l l ta ke p l a c e at t he Bureau.                 D. W. Pack er - Gue s t - TRW/DSSG
Brian s tated that pos s i b ly b y the J a n u a ry               W.	 F. Fitz gera l - M           emb er De l e g a te - Ba x te r
Board Meeting t h e y would ha ve some p r o p o s a l s                  Travenol Lab. Inc .
to o f fe r c oncernin g t o pics for speak ers and
wo rk s hop se s s i o n s and possibl e p r opo s a l s
for the confer ence theme . He asked th e
Bo a r d for f eedbac k on this mat ter.


ATTENDEES :


J.	 A . Val entino - Pr esid ent - Sande rs As s o c .
        Inc .
J .	 Le e - Ex ec . Vi c e P r e s ident - U.S . Instru­
        me n t Ren ta ls
H.	 C . Starling - Vic e President - General
        El e c t r i c Co .
D.	 A. Brunga r t - Vic e Pre s i de n t - Te ledy n e
        Syst . Co .

                                                           -11 ­
       e
Board M e t i ng



                                                   NCSL BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 1 979-8 0

                                              (Octo b e r 1, 1 979 thru Se pte mbe r 30 , 19 80)

 BUDGETED EXPENSES - Committee Accounts

 lA   -   Meeting a nd Programs .•......•.. •.•.....•••• •......•..•.•.•...•..                                                   $        60 0. 0 0
 IB   -   Hon o r s a nd Awa rds .•..•......... ••...••...............•.•..•...••                                                      3, QO O. 0 0
 lC   -   Education and Tr a i n i n g •• •.•..• ••••...• ....•..•• • •.. •. ..•. ...••..                                              3 ,600 .0 0
 4A   -   Newsletter .•..•....••..•.••.......•••.••.•.......•••••.••••..• ••                                                         1 0, 000.00
 4B   -   Inf ormati on and Directory ••..•. •. ••••.••.•....•......•.••••.. •.•                                                       1, 0 0 0 . 0 0
 SA   -   Ot he r Commi t t e e s • . • • . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . •• • • . . • . . . • . . • . • • •• ••            4 0 0. 0 0

 Total Committe e Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . .                   $ 18 ,60 0 .00



 BUDGET EXPENSES - Ope r a t i ons

 Bl   -   Se cretariat ...........•..•.•.••.•.•... ••. • •..• •••..••....•.•••.                                                       4 ,000. 00
 B2   -   St ation ary a n d Pos t a ge •.•••••.••.....•••..•••.••••••.. •.• • .••• .                                                    30 0. 0 0
 B3   -   Petty Ca s h •......•..•.•......... •...•..•....•...•.•••...•..•.•.                                                            1 00 . 0 0
 Cl   -   President I s Expenses • . . . . . . . . . . . •• •.••• •••..•.•......• •.••.•..•                                           3 ,000 .00
 C2   -   Treasurer's Expens es •.•••...••• • .•... •......•• •. • •• •• • •.. •.•.•.                                                    5 0 0.00
 C3   -   Regional M   eeting Support .•... •...•.••..••...•• •.... ••. ••....•.•                                                        6 0 0. 00
 C4   -   Wil dh a ck Award ....••••••.•..•....•.••..••••••• ••.••..•...•.••..                                                        1, 0 0 0. 0 0

 Total Op e rat ions .....•• •..•••••...••..•..•••...•.......•.•....•..• • •                                                     $ 9, 50 0. 0 0


 Total Bu d geted Expens es                                                                                                      $2 8 , 100 .00


 EST IMATED INCOME

 197 9 Conference ..•• ...•.••... •..•.•....•....•.••.•.•. •..•. • •.•....•.                                                     $ 4, 0 0 0. 0 0
 Dues a nd Newsletter Subscription s . . . . . . . • . . ... . • • • .• . • . . • . • . . • • . . • • .                           20,0 00. 0 0
 Interest on Sav ings Account s • • • . • • • • . . . . . • . . • . • • . . . . •• . • . . • • . • . . . . • .                     2 , 46 2 .00

 Total Estimated Inco me •.......•.•. • •• ••..••••..•••....•....•...•..•.                                                       $ 2 6 , 4 6 2 . 00


 EST IMATED I NCREASE (DECREASE)                       IN F UNDS • ••.••.••.••......•..•. ••.•. •.                               $( 1,638 .00)


 Ap p roved b y ac tion o f NCSL Board o f Dire ctors o n Oc tob e r 18, 1 97 9.




                                                                                -12­
                                                                                                                          Board Meeting



                                                NCSL TREASURER'S REPORT

                               Fina l	 Expense Budge t S tatus Fisca l Year 197 8-79
                                        1 October 1 9 7 8 th ru 30 Se p t e mbe r 1 9 79


                                                                                   Expenses                          Budget
               Acc ount                                 Budget                     t o Date                          Ba lance

lA   -    Meetings and Prog rams                 $        600 .00             $        4 93. 50                 $        1 06. 5 0
IB   -    Honors and Awards                           3,000.00                      2 , 01 6 . 55                        9 83 . 4 5
lC   -    Ed uc a t i on and Train ing                3, 500 .00                        3 35 . 0 0                   3, 165 .00
4A   -    News lette r                               10 , 000 . 00                1 0,4 36. 71
                        ( 4 36 . 71 )
4B   -    Informat ion and :Di r e c t o r y          4,500.0 0                     5,2 8 5. 10
                       (785 .10 )
4C   -    Other Committees                            1 , 0 00. 0 0                       €I                         1 , 00 0. 0 0

          To ta l	 Comm ittee Ac counts          $22,600 .00                  $ 18 ,566.86                      s    4,033 . 14



Bl   -    Secr eta r i at                        $ 3,000 .00                  $ 4,308 .00                       $( 1 ,308 .00 )
B2   -    Sta tio n a r y an d Postage                 300 . 00                   358 .28                              (58.28)
B3   -    Petty Cas h                                    50.00                            €I                            50 .00
Cl   -    Presi dent's Exp e nses                  3 , 0 00 . 0 0                  2 , 866 . 47                       133 .5 3
C2   -    Tre asu r e r 's Expen s es                  500 . 00                        2 1 6 .5 0                     283 .40
C3   -    Re gional Meeting Support                    600.00                          227.2 7
                       372 .73
C4   -    Wildh ack Award                          1,000 .00                       1 ,000 .00
                              €I

          Tota l	 Operati on Ex p e n s es       $ 11,4 50 . 00               $ 8 , 9 76 . 6 2                  $       (526 .62 )

                  TOTALS                         $3 1,050.00                  $27,54 3 .48                      $ 3 , 5 06 .5 2


                                                                                                     Balances
 Line                                                                              Sta rt                            Finish
      1       Ch ec king Accoun t                                             $ 1,473.74                        $ 5,008.36
      2       Sa v i ngs Ac co unt                                             35 , 0 87 . 9 3                   29 ,11 1.45
      3       Secretar iat Acco un t I n Boulde r                                   466.00                          (382 .00)
      4       1 97 9 Conf er e nc e Ac c o un t                                   (NOTE)
                        12 ,465.4 0
      5       To tal Re s e r ves                                              37,02 7 .67
                      46,203.21
      6       Inc re as e (Decreas e ) i n Funds                                                                  8, 245 .54

      7       Receipts , To tals                                                                                    40 ,892 .47
      8         Dues and Newsle tte r SUb scri p t i o n s                                                          20,744 .95
      9         I n t e r es t on Savings Account                                                                     2,461.74
     10         Re g i o na l Meet ings                                                                               1,161.7 8
     11         1 9 7 8 Co nfe rence Income                                                                           4,170.00
     12         1979 Conference I n c ome                                                                           1 2 , 35 4 . 0 0

     13       Disbursements , Tota l                                                                                31 ,716.93
     14         Mee tings a nd Programs                                                                                  493.50
     15         Honors a n d Awa rd s                                                                                2 , 01 6 . 5 5
     16         Education and Tr a i ni n g                                                                              335 .00
     17         1979 Confe rence                                                                                     2 ,388 .60
     18         News let ter                                                                                        10,436 .7 1
     19         In forma tion and Di rectory                                                                         5 ,285 . 10
     20         Secreta riat                                                                                         4 ,308 .00
     21         Stationary and Postage                                                                                   358 .2 8
     22         President ' s Expenses                                                                               2 ,866.47
     23         Tr e a s u r e r' s Expenses                                                                             2 16 .60
     24         Regional Mee tings                                                                                   1, 31 8. 0 5
     25         Misce llane ou s                                                                                         694 .0 7
     26         Wi ld hack Award                                                                                     1, 0 0 0 . 0 0



NOTE:	       This was the f i r s t year t hat the c onference a ccount has been set up wit h an i n i ti al
             d e p o s i t by t h e NCSL treasury . Past con ferences ha ve not b e e n reported to the
             treasurer unti l a l l expenses h a v e been met . F u t u r e 1 9 79 conference receipts and
             e xpendi tures wi l l b e reported in fis ca l year 1 9 79-1 9 80.




                                                                      -1 3­
~9 7 9   Annual Con feren ce




                                                            CO-CHAIRMEN KEN ARMSTRON G AND HARTWELL KEITH

                                                            LOOKING PRETTY PLEASED WITH THEMSELVES . AND

                                                            WE LL THEY SHOU LD BECAUS E THEY ORGANIZED THE

AN ANNUAL CO~FERENCE REQUI RES LOT S OF VOLUNTEER
          BEST CONFERENCE YET.
HELP LIKE OUR HARD-WORKING REGI STRATI ON PEOPLE.





                                                            TOM KELLER OF WEST INGHO USE ENCOURAGED ME TRO­

                                                            LOGIS TS TO HELP ATE DES IGNERS WITH TIlE CALI ­

DR. MANNY HOROWITZ FROM THE NBS NATIONAL                    BRATION STRATEGY FOR THEIR SYSTEM MEASURE ­
MEASUREMENT LABORATORY REVIEWS THEI R PROJ ECTS .           MENT ASSURANCE .




                                                            NEWS LETTER EDITO R JOHN MI NCK PLEADS FOR

                                                            EDI TORI AL RAW MATERIAL FROM THE MEMBE RS.

DR. FE LIX KAPRON GAVE A FIN E PAPER ON THE
ON -RUSH OF F IBE R-OP T ICS TECHNO LOGY .




PETE ENGLAND' S ATE CALI BRATION COMMI TTEE WORK­           DAVE O ' BRIEN 'S EDUCATI ON AND TRAINI NG WORK ­
SHOP ZERO' S I N ON MEASUREM ENT ASSURANCE FOR              SHO P F I ND S THERE IS A CONTI NUOUS DEMAND ,F OR
SYSTEMS .                                                   MORE AND BETTER TRAI NI NG P ROGRA}IS .

                                                    - 14­
                                                                                        19 79 Annual Con f ere nc e




LAUREL AUXIER (L) PRESENTS THIS YEARS
WILDHACK AWARD TO J ERRY HAYES AT THE                       HELEN VALD EZ , NBS , GET S A WELL- DESE RVED
WESTERN COOKOUT.                                            AWARD FROM KEN ARMST RONG FOR BEHIN D- THE- S CENE
                                                            CONF ERENCE ARRAN GEMENT S.




RETIRING VP GRAH AM C F~ill RO N ( R ) ACCEPTS A            MAC MCKI NN EY (R ) WILL BE RETIR IN G F ROM T HE
GIFT OF APPRECIATION FROM RON KIDD.                         BOARD .




BEST PAPER AWARD WENT TO PAUL SCHWEGLER OF
TRW, PRESEN TED BY HARTWE LL KEI TH.




ROLF SCHUMACHER RECEIVED A SPEC I AL AWARD                  IN'l'ERNATICNAL VISIroRS & H OSTS INCLUDE PHI L JOYCE,
FOR EXCEP TI ONA L REGIO NAL MANAGEMENT . JIM               Ck'lADA, GRAHAM CAMEOCJN , HOST, KNUr BIRKLAND, NORWAY ,
DRIVER, DIREC TOR MARI NE SYSTEMS P RODUCTION ,             FELIX KAPFON , CANADA, SPEAKER, MAC ~aINNEY , HOST,
DICK ERN ST , DIRECTOR QA, GEORGE RI CE (ALL                KO OlIEN-YEH , TAIWAN, OVAIro NEJAMIS , ARGENTINA ,
ROCKWELL ) HARTWELL KEITH, FORD, ROLF , DAVE                PER-0WF LUNDPDM , SWEDEN, DANIELA KRUH , ISRAEL, JIM
MIT CHELL, ROLAND VAVKE N.                                  VALEJ:\lTINO , HOST
                                                   - 15 ­
                                       HIGHLIGHTS OF THE MEMBER DELEGATES MEE'i'TNG


\'1ELCOME                                                                    with PMA and NBS and deve l oped "Ad ju n c t"
                                                                             t ra i ning c ourses for t echnicia ns a t the
                                                                             r e g i o n al leve l .
Incomir. g NCSL Pres ident, Jim va lent ino , o p ene d
th e mee t ing by e x t e nd i n g a warm we lcome to
a l l memb e r delegates and attendees to the                                VICE PRESIDEN T LAB          ~J® A G EMENT   & OPERATIONS ­
1 97 9 Co n f e ren c e .                                                    Dean A . Brunge rt

                                                                                 CALI BRATI ON SYSTEM MANAGEMENT - Geo rge Ri ce
J i m then proceeded to introd uce t he NCSL
Board o f Dir e ctors fo r the n ew f i s c al year                               Accomp l ishment s - (1 ) Co mpleted phase I
by hav ing t h e i n d i v i d u al stand a nd a lso by                      o f the rev ision t o NCSL Publ icatio n, "A
dis p layi ng his photo on the sc reen .                                     Co mpi lation of Gover nment Spec i ficat io ns
                                                                             Affecting Ca l i b r a t i on Labo ratories . "
                                                                             (2)     Complet ed and p u b l i s he d s urvey o f NC SL
Fo l lowing the same above format, Jim intro ­                               memb er l a b o r a t o r y ' s salaries f o r various
duced those i ndi vidua ls who wou ld no t be                                categories of labo r a t or y p e r s o nne l .       (3)
s erving on t h e 1 97 9-1 98 0 NCSL Board of                                De v e lop ed and p ropos ed p roject fo r p re pa rat io n
Directors.                                                                   o f a g uid ebook f or l a bo r a t or y ma n a g e r s .

                                                                                  1 9 8 0 Go al s - (1 ) S ta f f a d ho c subcommitte es
Each Vic e Preside nt f o r the 1 97 8- 1 9 7 9 fis c a l                    to compl et e r-evisio n o f ;\ICSL pub l i cat ion
y ear pres ented the commit t e e c hai r men unde r                         "A Compila ti o n o f Gove rnmen t Speci f ications
h i s cog nizance and t he ir respect ive f un c tio n s                     Af fe cti n g Ca libra t ion Lab o ra t or i e s . "       (2 )
and accomplishme nts fo r t he past yea r.                                   Staff ad hoc subco mmit t ee to draf t "Gu i debo o k
                                                                             f o r Ca librati o n Labora to ry Managers ," and
                                                                             s ubmit to Board of Directors for r ev iew a nd
VI CE PRES I DENT ADMINISTRATION            ~   Hug h Starl i n g            c oordi nate with NBS Of f ice of Meas ure ment
                                                                             Ser vice to pub li s h as NBS Monog rap h .
                                                                              (3) Cond uc t sa l ary survey . Because of our
    MEETI NGS AND PROGPAMS - Sam L . Dav idson                               in f lati o na ry e n v i r o n me n t , i t i s r e c o mme nd e d
                                                                             t hat this become a n annua l survey and r e s ul t s
    Re s p o n s i b i l i t y - Th is c omm i t t e e is                    compared to p revious ye ar s .
res pons ib le for o rganizing a nd admin iste rin g
t he va rious NCSL me e t i ng s an d p r o g r am s as
author ized by t h e Boa rd o f Di rectors .                                     MK~SUREMENT       ASSURANCE - Gary Dav idson

                                r
      Accomp l ishments - M . Dav idson rev ised                                  Accomp lishments -          (1 ) A s e c o n d Sou thern
th e c ha rte r o f the Meetings and Prog rams                               Ca lifo rn ia Vol t a g e Tra ns fer M    AP p r og r a m ha s
Co mm i t t ee to in s u re strong cont inuance of                           sta rted a n d com p l e ted t h e Pha s e J e x p e r ime nt .
t h i s commit te e and to i n s u r e g reater r e g i o nal                (2) Voltage tra nsfer gro up s a r e i n the
p ro gr am p l a n s up po r t.   I n a dd it i o n , t h e                  pr o c e s s o f sta rt in g i n Northern Ca liforn ia ,
cha ir man of t h i s c o mmi t t e e woul d a l s o serve                   Texas , Oklaho ma, and the Northeast . ( 3 ) A
as t he NC SL Conference Co-Cha irper.s o n f o r                            Gage Block MAP has been s t a rted in So ut hern
the f o ll o wi n g y e ar .                                                 Ca lifornia wit h ten com pan ies , a nd are now
                                                                             i n Phase I .       (4)   Comp leted experiement us ing
                                                                             Zene r Diodes a s t he a rti fact between c o mp a n i e s
    HONORS AND AWARDS - Rob e rt M. Lady                                     of a Vol tag e Tr a n s f e r Group.

    Respons i bi l ity - Th is commit tee i s                                     1 98 0 Goa ls -   (1) Extend interva ls of
respo nsib le for admin ist er i ng the hono rs a nd                         vo ltage tran s fe r with NBS ma i ntai n ing a
awards and scho larships s et up a nd approved                               y ea r ly c ompar ison j ust with the gro up .
b y t h e Board of Directors .                                               (2) Cr eate mo r e u s e r g roups in p re se n t MAP
                                                                             di sc ip l i nes, and i nv e s t i ga t e f e a s ib il i t y o f
      Accomp l ishments - Mr . Lad y ha s p rovided                          expanding MAP i n t o othe r dis c iplines.
e f f ic ient a n d e f f e c t i v e coord i nat ion o f t he se
activities s ince he t oo k of fi c E; . Has
se l e oted a nd procu r red a l l ma t er i al s a nd                           PRODUCT DESIGN & SPECIFICATIONS - Char les
awards on a t i me l y ba s i s, service t he n e eds                            Corbr ~dge
o f ~JCS L i n a mo s t commendable way .
                                                                                   Accomplishments -        (1) S ubmitted RP3
                                                                             rewr ite to Re cornrnerid ed Practice Committee .
    EDUCATIO N AND TRAINING - David R . O'Brian                              ( 2 ) Submitt ed p r o po sed RPS to Recommended
                                                                             Prac tice Co rrmi t t e e . (3) In itiated committee
    Responsib i l i t y -      Co mm i t t e e i s respo nsible              action o n termino logy f o r I n t elli g e n t / Smart
to p r ovide i n s t r uc t ion a l material s and                           i n s t r ume n t s .
ed ucat iona l gu ide l ines f o r t ra in ing and
rec og n i t ion of me t r o l o gy l ab o r a t o r y personne l .               1980 Goals - (1) Co nt i nue c ommitt ee action
                                                                             on t ermino logy fo r I nte l ligent/Smart instr u ­
    Accomp l ishments - Committee h a s been ve r y                          me n t s . (2) Comp let e work of termino l ogy
active in i d e n ti fy i ng needed tra ining within                         incorpora ted into RP5 term ino logy.          (3) De fin~
NCSL , has publ is h ed a Metrol ogy Course                                  r ecommend and pub l icize need f or i n t e rnal
Registe r , d e v el o p e d a t wo-year cu rr i cul um                      diagnost ic s fo r t est and me a s ur eme n t e q u i p ­
gu ide li ne , deve loped a traini ng interfac e                             me n t.
                                                                    - 1 6­
                                                                                                                   e
                                                                                                 Member Delegates M e t i ng

    CALIBRATION LABORATORY AUTOMATI ON - Pete                        mai ntain and update the NC SL Information
    England                                                          Manual.

     Accomplishment s - ( 1 ) Developed and
published an NCSL Director for Au t o mat i c                            RECOMMENDED PRACTICES - Bob Weber
Test Equi pment Us e r s .              (2 ) Developed and
p ub l i s h e d an NCSL Directory for Ca l c u l a t o r                  Ac c ompl i s hme n t s - St a f f e d and p ub l i s h e d
Tape Pro g rams and a procedure f or obtaining                       RP2 "The Evalu ation o f Measureme nt Con t r o l
c opi e s .       ( 3 ) Co n t i n ue d managem ent of the           Sy s t e ms o f Ca l ibr a t ion Laboratori e s" and up­
Ca l c u l a t o r Tape Exchange Pro gram. (4 )                      d a t e d other existin g r ecommend ed practices,
Developed three wor k s ho p sessions for the                        pr esently inv ol v ed with potential recommeded
1979 NCSL W          orkshop s.                                      practices. As s is t ed the Inf ormation a n d
                                                                     Directory Commi t tee in u pdating the NCSL
   1980 Go a l s - (1 ) c o n t inue management of                   Information Manual.
the Calculator Tape Ex change Program and
expand it t o inc lude software dri v ers for
IEEE b u s sy stem.    (2 ) Gather informati on,                     DI SCUSSI ON SESSION
pictures, e t c . , f or per i o dic ATE article s
in the NCSL Newsl etter.
                                                                     Dave O ' Br ia n stated that since the Commi tte e
                                                                     System i s the l ife blo od o f the NCSL or gani za­
VI CE PRESIDENT MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS ­                           tion a n d ca nnot function wi t ho u t support o f
J. Graham Ca mero n                                                  the membership, he urge d more vol un t a ry p a r t i c ­
                                                                     ipation i n committee activiti e s.
   NATIONAL MEAS UREMENT REQU I REMENTS ­

   Frank Flynn

                                                                     As part o f a pr e vious a ction it em, Jim
     Ac c omp l is hme nt s - (1) Prepared a nd present­             Va l e n t i no asked the attendin g de lega tes their
ed a report to NBS management l isting NCSL                          thoughts c oncern i n g a sin gl e c onferen ce pro gram
user o p i n io n s of c a l ib r a t ion services f or              mailing v ersus two mailings . Af te r consider­
53 paramet ers current ly prov ided by the                           abl e d is cussion, Jim thanked the dele gates
Bureau o r r equired in the f u tur e.                               f or their comments.
( 2 ) Inve sti gated vari ous apporahces to be
taken t o obtain NCSL c ommunity satisfaction
information.                                                         Award s o f Appr ec i a t i on went to four 1978­
                                                                     1979 Vi c e Pr e s ide n t s :

   LABORATORY EVALUATION COMM I TTEE - Denni s                                    Ji m Starling

   Ga l l a gh e r                                                                Dean A . Brun gart

                                                                                  J. Gra h am Came r on

     Ac comp l i s hme n t s -    ( 1) Followed and                               J on Lee

r eport ed t he a c t i v i t i e s of fed eral a n d
pri vate agencie s invol ved with a ccreditation.
 (2 ) Comp l e te d and r el ea sed Re c omme n d e d                Awa r d of Ap p rec i a t ion went to Dr. Brian
Pra c tice No . 2 c over i ng the self-e valuation                   Belanger f or outstanding ac h i e vemen t in NCSL!
o f Mea sureme nt Control Systems a n d Ca l ibr a ­                 NBS r elati ons.
tion Laboratories.

                                                                     Awa r d o f Appre c i a t i o n went t o Dr. Ba s c om
   BI OMEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL COMMITTEE ­                        Bi rm i ng h a m for hi s outstanding cont r ib u t i o n
   Geron Smith                                                       as Sponsor's Del e gate.

    Ac com p l i s hme n t s - (1) Dr e w to gether
r epr esentative s o f the Biomed ical and Ph arma­                  On behalf o f th e Nati onal Bureau of St a nd ard s ,
ceutica l manufacturers to learn the impact                          Boulder, Co l o r a d o , Dr. Bascom Birmingham
new reg ulations are having on their metrolo g­                      a ccepted an Awa r d o f Ce r t i f i c ate f rom Ron
ical functions. (2) E ight represent atives met                      Ki d d commemorating their 25th anni versary.
in Chi c a go for a day-long s es sion in Jul y.
 (3) Members o f the group ar e parti cipating
in the Zl Comm i t t e e undertaking development
of a Qua l i t y Standard f or Ca l i b r a t ion Systems
and M  easur ements.


VICE PRESIDENT COMMUNICATIONS & MARKETING ­
J ohn Le e

   NEWSLETTER - Jo hn Mi nck

   Ac c omp l i s hment s - Pu blish the NCSL Ne ws ­
letter e a c h q u a r te r .


    INFORMATION & DIRECTORY - J i m Gilbert

   Ac comp l i s hme nts - Publ i s h Dir ectory o f
Standards Laboratori es, NCSL Brochure,
                                                             -1 7­
1979 An n ua l Confere n ce

                                                                    D
                           ELECTRON ICS , I NDUSTRI AL AUTOMATION AN MATHEMATICA L MODELI NG

                                                        J OH N W. LYONS

                                        Dire ctor, Nat ion a l En gine e ring Labo ra t ory

                                                     NBS , Ga i t h er s b urg



I NTRODUCTION                                                            An intermediate ste p in the e v a l ua t io n o f
                                                                         such a measurement syst em has b een substan­
                                                                         tially achieved thr o u g h the three-dimensional
Goo d morning.       It is a pleasure f o r me t o be                    measuring machine d evelo ped at NBS . Here
h ere and to h a v e t h e oppo r t u n i t y to examine                 a classically d es i gned measu ring machine
futur e c ha l l e nge s f ac i ng the metrolo gy                        was r e t r o f i t t e d wi t h laser interferometers.
c ommunity.      It is c le a r to me from loo king                      Machine mo t i o n s were c o n t r o l led b y a mini­
at the pro gram for this work sho p that the s e                         c o mpu te r ; the mo t ion s we re programmabl e in
c h allenge s center on r esponding t o advance s                        a hi gh lev el interactive languag e. Da t a
in technology and I k no w that y ou will be                             link s were p r ovi d e d to a larg er computer
interest ed in learning how we in the                                    for sophisti cated data p r o c e ss ing . Th e
F ederal g overnme n t are ge a r i ng to meet this                      lasers provided a machine-independent
chall enge.                                                                                               e
                                                                         coord i nate sy st e m. M as u r eme n t s ma de in
                                                                         thi s reference fr ame were transformed into
                                                                         the c o o r d i na t e s ys t em of th e me a s ure d obj ect
 y
M p re s e n t a t i on today will d ea l wi t h mea sure­               using the techniques of ri gid body kinematics.
ment t echnol o gy a ctiviti es underway in the
Nationa l En gi n e e r i n g Laboratory (NEL).
                                                                         In our work with this device, we are a t te mpt ­
                                                                         ing to model those aspects of the measuri ng
The Na t i o na l Engi n e ering Laboratory is one                       instrume nt b ehavi or that influenc e the
o f th ree operating un its with th e Na t i o n a l                     quality of the measurements and, sub sequently
Bureau of St a n d a r d s (NBS ) . We provide the                       to impr ove the measur ement accuracy.         Linking
public and p r i v a te s e c t or s with impro v ed                     the de vice t o the computer p r o v i d e s the means
t e chnology and t echnical s ervices that                               f or detailed statistical anal ysi s o f the
address natio nal needs.            e
                                   W accompl ish thi s                   measurement data and the d etermination of
by de v eloping e ng i nee r i ng measure ments and                      measurement e r r o r s . In this wa y , this
data ; t est methods , p r op o se d e ng i nee r i n g                  instrument is u sed to provide industrial
standards and code chang es; and new engineer­                           us ers with calibrations o f similar, though
ing p r ac t i c e s . Al t ho ugh we hav e a great                      l es s accurate, measuring machine which
d eal of work underway, I will fo cus on                                 v erify th e performance of num erically con­
only t wo areas:        industrial automation, and                       trolled machine tools.
electrical and e le c t r o n i c s measur ements.
Throughout my discus si on, I will touch on
mat h ematical modeling whi ch i s an inte gral                          Ro b o t s al so afford opportunities for
part of both effort s. Much of our exp e r i ­                           indu strial automatio n. Ty pical industrial
mentation is now conducted on the computer                               r o b o t s are quite limited in what they c a n
rather than on th e bench.                                               d o . The y are primarily u sed to per f o r m
                                                                         simple r epetitive tasks, especially in
                                                                         e nv i r o nme n t s that ar e dangerous to human
I NDU STRI AL AUTOMATI ON                                                workers.         At NBS we are wor king i n t h e
                                                                         robotics ar ea to e x tend thes e capabilities.
                                                                         By coupling a built-in microprocessor,
The future of metrolog y is dictated by                                  a solid state TV c a me r a and a strobe light
changes , i n p r o d u c t i o n technology and p r odu c t             source with a conv entional robot d e vic e,
c h a r ac te ri s t ic s . Therefore , indu strial                      we have built a robot able to locate objects
automation is one area with po t e n t i a l                             a nyw h er e in its rang e o f o peration an d to
signifi c ant impact.                                                    adjust it s elf to gra s p o bje c t s fr om the
                                                                         pro p e r angle. A special f eature of the NBS
                                                                         robot is th e innov ati v e us e of a f l a s h g u n
  a
M n y peop le b elieve the e c o n omi c s of ma s s                     to p r o v i d e light f o r th e TV "eye". A
pro d u c t i o n can b e achi e v ed in f u l l y - a u t oma t ed,     s pecial fe edbac k system which compare s the
s ma l l batch manuf a c t ur i ng . A General                           TV i mage, f r a me by frame , allows t h e robot
Ac co u n t i n g Office (GAO) s t Udy d etermined that                  to control the timing a nd intensity o f the
a substantial g a i n in p r o d u c t i v i t y c o u ld be             flashe s to bring th e o p t imum amount of
a chieved by adopting automated ma n u f a c t u r i n g                 light to the camera.            e
                                                                                                        W are working on
in the discrete p a r t s b a t c h ma n uf a c t ur i ng                ref ini ng th e capability of the robot to
a re a . The GAO s t u d y identified the following                      distinguish betwe en different kinds o f
factor s as imp ediments to the ado ption o f                            obj e cts and on increasing th e e a s e with which
automate d manufacturing me t ho d s :           ( 1) lack               the s ystem is pr ogr a mmed for different tasks.
of di ff u s i o n of t echno lo gy, ( 2) the n e ed f or                With thes e e x t e n de d capabilities we may be
standards a nd guidelines, and (3 ) t he                                 in a position to us e su c h devic es for making
extension of comput er language s t a n d a r d S .                      q ual i t y control measuremen ts on parts wi th­
                                                                         out r emo ving t he m from the p roduction line.

Exp e di t i o u s develo pment of automated manu­
fa cturing in th e United S t a tes re quires a n e w                     e
                                                                         W are also building a s t a t e - o f - t h e - ar t work
g e nerat i o n o f measurement t echnology includ­                      station for s imulating discrete p a r t s
i n g on-line measur ement a n d ins pection of                          bat ch metalwork manufacturing.          The f a c i l i t y ,
b o t h the ma c h i n e tool and the product.                           to be c o mpo sed of a ma c h i n i ng cen t e r , a robot,
                                                                  -18­
                                                                                                        1 97 9 An n u a l Conf erenc e

associ a t ed c ompu t e r , cont r o l ler and o the r                  me c ha n i c al, e le c t rica l and c r y s t a l l ogr aphlc
hardwa r e, wi l l be u s e d a s a t est b e d f o r                    prope rti es of semic onduct ing mate ri a l s ;
d e v elo p ing me as ureme n t me t ho ds , standa r d s ,              imp ur i ty c ontent o f s e mic o n duct in g and
and i n te r f a c e s f o r a utoma t ed ma n uf a c t u r i n g .      other e lec t ro ni c ma teri a l s ; f a ctor s in t h e
Th e ma ch ine to o l wi l l h a ve s o f tw ar e compe n ­              co n t ro l o f d ev ic e fab riatio n a n d t h e ass err~ ly
s a tion to im p r ov e ma ch ining a c cur a c y, sen s o r s           pro c ess ; a nd the rm al and e lec t ri c a l p r ope r tie s
to provid e correc t ion and c ontro l of vi b ra ­                      of f in i s hed de v i ce s .
tio n , t orque , t h erma l dis tort ion, t oo l
s ett ing, e tc . , a nd p r ovis i o n f o r ada pti v e
co n t r o l . Th e robot wi l l u se an e lemen t a r y                 One of t he c r i t ic a l p rob lems in s e micond ucto r
vi s ion sy s tem t o p r ovi d e t h e b a sis f o r a                  de vice s de s ig n a nd manuf ac t u ring is con t ro l
high l y fl e x ibl e ma nu f a ct ~ ri n g work s t a t io n .          o f t h e d i mens i o n s o f the s ubdivisions o f the
Empha s i s wi l l b e ? l a c e ~ o n t h e p r oce s s i ng            de v i ce . Mi cro scop ic mea s u reme n t s r e quiri n g
o f s e nsor y d a ta a ne t ~e deve l o pment of                        i n t erpr e t ation of the o p tic al i mage o f a l ine
contro l pro cee u re s t o o p t im i z e t h e s yste m                o r s pa c e ar e i nv o l ved.     Un t l l r e c e n tl y,
~esp oh se .      Adva n c e d compute r so ftwa r e wi l l              e r ro r s of a 1/ 4 of a mi c rome te r o r more
b e used to au t oma te a nd o ptimiz e t he v a r i o u s               b e t we en di f f ere nt typ e s o f i nstrument s and
wor k st a tion opera tio n s s uch a s acqui rin g                      be twe en l a b or a t o r i e s were i ns i g ni fican t .
par ts f rom inc omi ng c o nv e y o r s, ma c h i n e                   Th is i s no l o n g er a c c e pta bl e sinc e fea t u r e
c o n t ro l, sens ing f a i l ure c o nd i tio ns , d ete r­            si ze fo r fu ture i nte gra t ed c i r c ui t s wi l l b e
mi n i ng e r r o r r ecovery p roc e d u re s and                       i n the mi cromete r and s ub mi cr ometer ra ng e .
i nsuri n g d ime n s i on a l i n t e gr i t y o f the
wor kpi ece a t every s ta ge of t he ope r a t i on .
Th e wor k incl ud e s d e v el o pme nt o f comp ute r                  To s o lve t h i s p r o b lem, NBS r es earc he rs e x te nded
so f twa r e f o r a utomatic i n spec t ion o f t h e                   the e xis tin g t h eor y Of t h e optica l mi c r o s c ope
gr oss fe a t u r e s of man u f a c t ure d pa r t s . Thi s            a nd de ve l o ped an au t omated compu te r -co n t r o l l ed
invo lv e s t h e a pp li c at ion of pa t te r n rec o gni ­            s c an ning p ho t omet ric mi c r o s cope wi t h a no vel
tio n and i mag e p ro c e s s i ng t e chniq ues.                       l a s e r- c ontr o ll e d s t a ge t o mak e the me a s ur e­
                                                                         me n t s. W     ith thi s i ns t rumen t, i t is n ow
                                                                         p o s s i b l e t o ma ke l i ne-widt h meas u re men t s
  e
W a r e al s o dev e lo ping mat h ema t ic a l mode l s                 a cc ur a te t o abo u t 50nm on l ine s a s n a r r ow
f o r pred i c t i ng thermal ly-ind uc e d de fo r ma­                  a s 0 .5 mic r o mete r .
t i on s i n a met a l - wo r k ing mac h ine t ool c aus e d
by s e lf - i n du c e d h e a t s our c e s . Re s u l t s fro m
t his work c a n b e u sed for ma ki ng on - l in e                      'de a l s o worked ou t p r oc edur e s t o permit
cor r e ct i on s i n t h e mac h i ne t oo l po s i t io n              a c c u r a t e mea s u r e men ts o f l ine-wid t h s with the
d uri ng a c u t ting ope r a t i c n using a mi c r o ­                 ~ s e o f s u itab l e i ns trumen ts a va i l a b le in the
c omp u t er , p a rti c u l a r l y a s h ig h a c c ura c y             f ~e l d .    Th e s e techn iq ues a r e being tra n s f e rr ed
p o si t i o n i ng b e c o me s increas i n gl y i mporta n t           di r e c t l y ~o t h e i nd u str y a nd a n e w Sta nd a r d
a s i ndu s t ry fa c e s the t i g ht er p r oduc t ion                                     a
                                                                         Re f e r e nce M t e r i a l (SRM) f o r l i n e- wi dth
t ole r a n c e s r e q u i r e d f o r in t e rc h angeabil i ty        meas ur eme nt wi ll b e ma d e ava i lab l e l a t e r
o f parts . Cl e a r ly , o ur a u t omation work                                                           ~
                                                                         t hi s ye ar . Th is Sfu con t a i n s a p a t t e r n o f
d raws heavi ly o n mi c r o p r o ce s s o r s and i nvo lv es          l in e s a nd s p a c es in t he 1 / 5 t o 1 0 mi c r omet e r
ma t he ma t i c a l mod eli n g of the p r Od uc t i o n                r ang e t o g e the r wi t h o ther p a t t e r ns wh ich
p r oce s s and d e ve l opme n t o f s o f twar e p acka g es           perm i t li n e spac ing cali b ra tio ns a n d s et ting
f or p r o c e s s con tro l .                                           of edge d e t e ctio n th r e sho l d s o n a utomat i c
                                                                         me a sur i ng i n s t r ume n t s . Ca librat ion of th is
                                                                         SRM i s car ried o ut u s in g a micr o p r o c e s s o r­
ELECTRIC AL AND ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS                                 con tro l l e d scan ni ng , photometric o pt i.c a L
                                                                         mi cros co pe.         S t a t i s t i c a l a n al ys i s o f t h e
                                                                         l in e-wi dt h a n d l ine- s p a c ing c a l i bra ti o n
De v€l o pme nt in t h e e lect ro nics area are also                    data gene r a ted is done o n t h e computer.
cr ea t i ng new de mand s for me t r o l o g i c a l                    Re l a ted wor k invo lve s com pu tat iona l e v a l ­
serv ices. Pr a c t i c a l me a sur ements now r e quire                ua ti o n of a mo de l and al go r ithm for l i n e­
un p r e ced e nted s e n siti vity, p re c i s i o n , a nd             wi d t h me a s u r eme nts t o e x t e n t c urre n t mo d eli n g
acc u r acy ov er an e x t r e me l y wi de ra ng e o f                  t e chn i qu e s f o r t he op t i c a l i maging o f l ine s.
p r ope r t ie s and s i gna l characte ristics .

                                                                         Man ufac tur e of s emicond uc tor d e v i c e s i nvol v e s
One e x a mp l e i s i n t he f i e ld of semicon d ucto r               r e p e t i tive p a t t e r ni ng o f t h e s emicond u cto r
d e v i ce s a nd in t egrated c i r c u its. Here n e w                 wa fe r by mea n s of a p h o t o g r aphi c p r o ces s .
an d r ef ine d t ec hn i q u e s ar e e ssen t ia l f or                Re g i s tra tio n of the va r i o us l a y e r s to sub­
u s e in both ma nu f a c tu ri ng con t ro l an d in t he               mi crometer t olera n c e s i s c r it i c al. W        e
mar k et pla c e . Mea s uremen ts must b e ma d e o f :                 deve lop e d a mi c r o el ectr o n i c t e st s t r uc t ure
 (1 ) tr a ce i mp ur i t i e s at c o ncen t ra t io n l e vels         t o de t e r mine re g is tra t ion e rrOr s . Th e t e st
ranging f r om p a r t s per t r i ll i o n t o pa r t s                 stru ctur e i s f abrica ted o n a s il i c o n wa fer
per mill i o n, ( 2 ) dimensio na l i nte gr ity of                      u s ing manu fa c tu r in g p r oc e s s e s s i mi la r t o
ten ths t o hu n d r e dths of a mi c r ome t e r,                       t hos e u s e d for ma k i n g i n t egr a ted c i rc uit s .
 (3 ) circui t e lemen t densiti e s of h undr e d s                     Us i n g t h is d e v i c e, e lec tr ical me a su r ement s
of thou s a nds per squa r e c en t i me ter , (4)                       ma d e wit h an automat ic waf er p ro b e r ca n b e
s i g n al s in the g iga h e r t z range , a nd                         u s e d t o d etect tra ns lat io na l, r otational an d
 ( 5) c urren t s i n the pi coa mpere r a ng e a nd l e s s.            di stortion er rors with a res o l u tion o f
                                                                         abou t 1 / 1 0 mi cromete r.

The NBS progr am in semi conduc tor mea sureme n t
t e c hnology i n cl ud e s res ea rch a nd d eve lop men t              Mathema tica l mo d els o f th e t e st str uc tu r e
o f me asu r ement tec hno logie s r e l ate d to                        h ave a lso be en de ve loped . Th es e a r e bei n g
                                                                 -1 9­
1979 Annual Conference

used at NBS t o c arry out p arameter studies                   of measurement b ecame o b s o le te as micro­
of the various physical phenomena including                     wav e measurement s covering a wide sp ectrum
field, current, and co ping p r o f i l e s . Adapti v e        of frequ ency wer e required to su p port b r o a d ­
finite e leme n t technique s are e mp l o yed t o              b a n d s ystems, and the time taken f or re t ur ~ ­
solve the coupled s y s t e m of part ial d ifferen­            ing at each change of frequ e ncy bec a me an
tial e q u a t i o n s for semiconductor d evices .             intolerable d i sadvantage. New meas u r ement
These simulations provide a tool for the                        systems, known as automatic netwo r k a nal yz e rs
d esign of new submicrometer t est patterns                     have substituted complexity of com putation
and for the calculation of the limitations                      for ac curacy of workmanship and ope r a t o r
of existing structures.                                         sk i l l . They operat e under the control o f a
                                                                com puter and calibrate themselves with the
                                                                aid of s i mp l e check standards at e a c h
Th e development of high speed signal p r o c es s ­            frequen cy at which measurements are to be
ing and digital signal processing techniques                    mad e . Ra w mea surement data are stored in the
are also creating new demands for metrological                  com puter, which then applies the appropriate
services . M     odern instruments utili ze fast                corrections to the measurements automatically.
signal-sampling t echniques for which there                     The accuracy of e a c h individual measurement
ar e few a n a l o g o u s physi cal standards,                 i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed from the manual
adequate characterization methods and                           measurement, but the great speed and
rigorous calibration proc edures. Further,                      efficienc y of th e new t echnique provides a
the n ewest test instruments themselves have                    gr e a t e conomy i n measurement and enables a
digital p r o c e s s i ng capabilities "built- in"             much more thorough characterization t o b e
by means of mi croprocessors a nd other                         made of the device t o be measu red.
selected data processing devices. The
validity o f measur ements mad e by these
instruments is dependent on the software                        An excellent e x amp le of the n ew style of
algoithms and th e int egrity o f th e di gital                 measurement system is the 6- por t , which was
l ogic as well as on the data acquisition                       invented at NBS several y ears ago, and is now
hardwar e. Aut.ornat i c test e quipment i s in                 in an advanc ed stage o f development. The
thi s category. At present, neither militar y                   sy s t e m is based on the general p r o p e r t i e s
nor industrial procurement of automatic                         of waveguide junctions with six ports.
test equipment is satisfactory from the                         Typically, one of the six p o r t s in connected
p o i nt of view of performance a ssurance.                     to a s i g n a l generator, another d e fines
                                                                the plane at which mea sur ements are to be
                                                                mad e, and the o t h er four ar e connected to
Our program at NBS in s u p po r t of high­                     simple amplitud e detectors, such as diodes
accura cy electronic instrumentation and                        or b olometer s. No phase measu rements are
equipment involve s the development of new or                   ma d e . Ge ne r a l microwave scattering theory
im proved physical reference standards,                         leads t o a s et of simultan e ous equations
associated test methods and calibration                         that relate the com pl ex d escription o f the
techniques. For e xam ple, we developed two                     wa v e at the measuring port to the amplitudes
precision linear digital-to-analog converter s                  o bs e r v e d at the four measuring p or t s . The
t o s e r ve as reference s t a nd a r ds for                   e quations apply to any arbitrary 6-port
c ompletely characterizing th e static and                      junction, but to obtain useful solutions
dynamic performance of high a ccuracy digital­                  it is necessary to design the junction s o
to-analog and analog-to-digital converters                      that the equations are truly independent and
such as those used in ATE systems. One of                       the c oefficients in the equations are deter­
these is an IS-bit digital-to-analog                            mined by a simple calibration routine
converter which has a relatively high current                   under computer control.
output capability and can b e used to drive
remotely located loads without degrading its
output performance. Thi s unit can make                         In addition to the measurements on microwave
20,0 00+ c o nv e r s i o n s per second and will be            circuit com ponents, NBS provides a measurement
used f or testing dynamic performance para­                     s e rvi ce f or complex antennas. On e of the
meters such as the settling time of                             techniques used is the systematic scanning
c o mme r c i a l l y available precision c onvertors.          of the n ear fi eld of the ant enna to measure
                                                                p h a s e and amplitude over the whole beam.
                                                                From this information, the far -field radia­
Precisi on wave f orm sources using digital                     tion pattern is reconstructed automaticall y
s ynthesi s t echniques ar e also being developed               by a computer.           Th e algorithm e mp l oy s a
to s erve as standards f or calibrating the                     th eory based o n a combination of Maxwell' s
dynamic performance o f instruments and equip­                  s ub r o u t i n e s for matrix multiplication and
ment. The emergence of such fast signal                         the fa st Fouri e r transform o p e r a t i o n are
ele ctronics is having a dramatic impact on                     used. The accurac y is as great as an y that
signal transmission for telecommunications,                     can be o b t a i n e d on a far field antenna range
navigation, and remot e s ensing . To support                   while maintaining freedom from e nv i r o nme n t a l
development and trade in signal transmission                    effects.
technology, NBS is responding in areas which
include mic rowav e and millimeter wave
c omponents, antennas, satellite ground sta­                    Develo pments in the electri c power industry
ti ons, optical fibers, and laser s.                            have created new demands for low frequency
                                                                and v ery high voltage measur ements. The
                                                                trend t oward incr easing the power e ~ e r g y
Ten y e a r s ago, microwave calibrations were                  densit y of available rights-of-w a ys " t he
performed on a c curately mad e and carefully                   transmi ssion of electr ical e n e r g y is one
tuned manual s ystems. Accurate workmanship                     example. The n eed is arising t o ~ r o v i d e
and patient tuning were required.      This mode                high v oltage me a s u r emen t s o n th e us er's site,
                                                         -20­
                                                                         1979 Annual Conference


n ew measur ement methods ar e required for
e nv i ronmental investigations and new
mea s u r e me n t s needed to aid the industry t o
develop new und erground transmission tech­
nolcgy.        NBS is working in al l these areas.


In the environment area, for example, we
have a growing effort in deve loping measure­
ment requirements relating to the effects
of electroma gnetic radiation on biological
systems and electronic equipment.         Instru­
mentation to make such measu rements must
be capable of dealing with c omplex fields,
such as those with reactive near-field
components, multipath reflections, arbitra ry
polarization, multiple fr e quency components,
complicated modulations and l a r g e field
gradients.    No instrument is available that
can actually measure pow er density in the
n ear fiel d, the q ua n ti t y on which most
radiation exposure limits are based:          no
single probe has been developed that can
cover the frequen cy range of concern
(DC to 3000 GHZ)i no calibration technique
is availabl e for p resent measurement
instrumentation.


NBS is currently developing such calibrat ion
a nd measu r eme n t t e c h n i q ue s , and a s s o c ia t ed
i n s t r u me n t a t i o n , includ ing a pp ro p r i a t e
probes.          We devel o ped a t r an s ver se
electroma gneti c ce ll f o r t e st ing both
electromagne tic em is s ion s and suscep tibility
to electroma gnet ic i nte r f e r e n c e of equi p­
ment placed i n s i de . The cell's frequency
range is from DC to a wavelength which is
propor tional to the cell size.                   This develop­
ment has already found wid e application in
industry.            It is also beginning t o find
application in bioeffects research .


CONCLUSION


There a re only a few examples to give you
a flavor of our work.   But let me note
that in each effort I described and, indeed,
in all our work at NBS, we pay close atten­
tion to the process of delivery to the
user of the services or technology we have
been asked to develop.   In this regard, it
is important that we maintain close c ontact
with users such as yourselves so that we
can insure that our work meets your needs.


I invite each of your to become more
familiar with our research and to interact
with u S regarding y our interest and needs.
Thank you.




                                                                  -21­
1979 Annual Conference


                             MEASUREME NT SCIENCE AND APPLICATI ONS IN THE 80'S

                                            NEW DEMANDS AND DI RECTIO NS

                                             DR. EMANUEL HO ROWITZ
                                De puty Director for Re s o u r ce s a n d Operations
                                        National Measurement La borator y
                                               NBS , Ga ithersburg


ABSTRACT                                                           c ommunity, those i n government, i n du s t r y ,
                                                                   and un i v ersities, will b e vital t o mee t i n g
Th ere will be a g r o wi n g d e mand in the 8 0's                th es e d ema nds.       Th er e will be gro wing
f or measurements of increas ed a ccurac y and                     d emands for measurements o f increas ed
s ensitivity, f or me a s u re me n t s that ar e                  a ccuracy and sensiti vity, f or me a s u remen t s
ra p id, dynamic and more highly automated                         that are ra pid, d ynamic and mor e highl y
and f or measurements in a wi d e v a r i e t y o f                automate d, and for measurements in a wi de
e nv i ronme n t s including e x t reme temperatures,              vari ety o f e nv i r o nme n t s including e x t r e me
p re s s u re s , or co r r o s i ve atmos pheres. Th ese          t emp eratur es, p re s s u re s , o r c orrosiv e a tmos­
d emands will be driven i n pa r t b y health and                  p he r e s, NBS will b e addressing these demands .
saf et y, p rod uc t rel iability, and effici ent                  J ohn Lyons j u s t de s c r i bed some o f the
e ne rgy and ma te ria l ut il i zation c oncerns.                 e x c i t i ng p rospe c t s i n e le c t r o n i c s , industrial
In order t o mee t these demands a strong                          automati on, and math ematic al mode l i n g.               Th i s
sci enti fi c b a s e must be built and ma i n ­                                          c
                                                                   afternoon Ar t M Coub re y will b e d escribing
tained in n ew and e x i s t i ng fi elds of                       th e measurement chall eng es associated wi t h
measur ement s ci ence. The mo s t effecti v e                     automat ed testing.
and timely a p plicat ion o f this sci ence can
be achi eved throu gh the involvement of th e
whol e me asur emen t c ommunity. Exa mple s o f                   This morning, I will d e scr ibe some new
r ecent NBS wor k and futur e p l a n s are us ed                  d irections in measur ement acti viti es at NBS
to h i ghlight the changing nature o f measur e­                   wh ich illust rate the changing n atur e and
ment t e chnolo gy and to illustrate the nature                    sco p e o f mea s u r eme n t n e eds e xpec te d in the
of the ra pid e xpa n s i o n in the scal e and                    8 0 ' s . I will draw upon examples o f NBS
s cope of measur e ment n e eds e xpe c ted in the                 work pertaining to h ealth, safety, failure
80 ' s .                                                           analysis of mat erials and basic metrology.
                                                                   But, ours wi l l o n l y b e one p a r t of th e total
                                                                   e f f o r t in the 8 0 ' s . NC SL and o t he r g ro u p s
I t is a tradition f or mos t i n s t i t u t ion s and            s uc h as th e Institute of El ectr ical and
organizations to fac e each new de cade with                       Electronics En g i ne e r s , the De partment o f
an analys is of the pa s t and a r eas on ed                       Defe n se , the Amer i c a n Soci ety of M      echanical
proj ection of the fut~re.           I am p le a se d to           Engin eers, and the American National Stan­
b e her e today with y ou t o fac e the 80 ' s                     dards Institu t e, to name only a f ew, will
because our two or ganizations have a mutual                                         e
                                                                   be active. W wi l l all n e ed to wor k t o­
goa l to promote the accurac y and uni formit y                    g ether so that the measurement n e eds of the
of me asurements. An d , we have worked to­                        80's can be me t in an e f f i c i e n t , e c o no mic ,
g ether sin c e 1961 in promo t i ng this go a l .                 and timely way.          Unl ess we wo r k together,
We c a n l ook back On 18 y ears o f jo i n t efforts              im pr oved q ua l i t y control, r egulatory r eason­
including th e i n t r o d u c t ion of th e conce pt              a bl eness, pu b l i c health and safety and
of traceability o f measur ements to national                      e n e r gy and materi als c ons ervation will be
standards, to the introduction of Measur e­                        mor e difficult.
me nt As s u r a n ce Programs, and to the refined
us e of calibrations; with a s ens e of
accomplishment.                                                    Let's look for a minute at the measur ement
                                                                   community we ar e a p a r t of and explor e the
                                                                   p o s s i b le intefactions and results we can
I wonder wheth er NBS e mp loye e s such as William                achi e v e. Th e dr i v ing f orce behind all our
Wildhack,          Joe Cameron and Bob Huntoon who                 e f f o r t s i n basic research, d e v elo pment of
were so instrumental in assisting in the                           i mpr o ved t est methods and standards, cali­
e s t ab l i s hme n t of the Conf erenc e could have              brations and measur ement programs is to
predi cted how this confere nce would evo l v e                    pro vide the accurac y and q ua l i t y of measure­
into partnership with NBS in the delivery                          ment n e e d e d b y the final u sers.      In addition,
of needed measurement s ervic es t o all sectors                   we want to achieve traceability t o the
of the e co nomy . This is a p a r tne r s h ip that               n a t i o n a l sta ndards. By traceability I mean
I'm c ertain will c o n t i n ue to g r ow in the 80's             the production on a continu ou s basis of
in such areas as r e gional measurement assur­                     sci entifically ri gorous daLa or evidenc e
ance program d evelopment, automated testing,                      that th e measurement p ro ce s s is p rod uci n g
and the develo pment o f n ew and im proved                        measurement results f o r wh ich th e t otal
tran sfer standards.          Int era ctions such as               measurement uncertainty r elativ e to national
those of NCSL and NBS assure t he vitality                         or designated standards is q u a n ti fie d .
of the nation's measurement system .                               A systems approach to these problems can and
                                                                   do es wor k. On e such system for transf err ing
                                                                   accurac y and assuring trac eabil ity for the
The d emands on measur ement science and                           e nd user is r epres ente d in F i g ure 1. Here
appl ications in the 80 's are g oing to be of                     we see six t echnical com ponents of a measure­
such magnitude and diversity that the                              me n t s yst em that u se s standard re f e r e n c e
involvement of th e whol e measurement                             materials as the tr ansfer mechani sm thr ouqh

                                                            -22­
                                                                                                1979 An n ua l Conference

the hierarchy of measurement methods begin­                            The National Committee for Clinical La b o r a ­
ning with the basic measurement units and                              tory Standards (NCCLS) h a s developed a
ending in field methods and applications.                              standard practice for temperature calibration
Th e function of each component is to trans­                           of temperature sensors whi ch incorporates
fer accuracy to the level immediately below                            the NBS SRMs into the measurement protocol.
it and to provide traceability to the level                            Proc edures ha ve also been p ub l i s h e d f o r
immediately above it, thus assuring measure­                           using NBS SRMs (or other high accuracy
ment compatibility in the overall system.                              c ommercial t emper ature standards) t o e v a l ­
As we proceed from top to bottom, accuracy                             uate thermometers used in routi~e clinical
r equirements diminish at the e x p e n s e of                         laboratory a p plicat ions.
increased measurement e f ficiency.       Let me
note that experience has shown that formal
quality assurance procedures are necessary                             Th e SRM 933 and 934 thermometers are an
if accuracy is to be maintained in measure­                            i mportant step toward accurate and trac eabl e
ment systems over a period o f t i me . Varia­                         calibration o f clinical laboratory thermo­
tions of this system are now in use in                                 me t e r s.      But the mo s t desirable calibration
many industri es and are also being imple­                             in thermometry is based on using a fixed
mented in clinical and environmental                                   point n ear t he temperature at which the
analysis.                                                              thermometer i s to b e us e d . Consequently
                                                                       another temperature SRM, th e g a l l i um fixed
                                                                       poi n t , has been issued. This standard,
That a comprehens ive system to achie v e                              containin g high p u r i t y g a l l i um has a me l t i ng
appropriate acc uracies and traceability                               po i n t at 29.77 23 0C in t erms o f I PTS- 68 , and
can be constructed to meet new challen g es                            therefore pro vides a ve r y conven ient and
can be seen in our recent e x p e r i e n c e s at                     r e p r od u c i b le fix ed point for cal ibrating
NBS with clinical measurements. One of the                             e lec t ro n i c thermometer s and p r ob e s us ed in
challenges of the 70's, if you will, was                               clinical measurements.            The NBS staf f i s
tha t of assuring accuracy in the clinical                             now working with ASTM and NCCLS to develop
measurements arena where o ver four billion                            re ference methods f o r in strument cal ibrati on
clinical me a s u r e me n t s are made each year                      to be used by instrument manu factur ers an d
but where i t was r ecognized that im proved                           clinical laborator i es . The acceptance o f
accurac y was needed.                                                  the g a l lium melting point t e mperature a s the
                                                                       r eaction t emperature fo r mea s u reme n t of
                                                                       e n z yma t i c activity will si gnificantly
Prior to 1970 e s se n t i a l l y all clinical                        d ecreas e the interlaboratory variability
measurements were conducted on the "lab                                of results.
normal" conce pt.           That is, as long as a
laboratory could p r od u c e re p roduc ible
results on a day-to-day bas is, absolut e                              Mor e r ecent work on the g a l lium t r ip le p oin t
accuracy was considered no n- e s sent ial .                           i ndicates that it is q ui t e suitabl e as a
This means that phy s ic ians with patie nt s                          fut ur e defining t e mperature f ixed point o f
at more than on e hos p it al might have to                            the IPTS.    In fact, it s e e ms that the gallium
accommodate more than one "normal" rang e ,                            triple point will b e mo re reproducibl e than
with r esulting confusion and p o t e n t i a l tests                  the triple p o i n t of water.
have grown more compl ex and sophisticated
caused the professional and governmental
g r o u p s i nvo lve d to a g r ee that clinical                      At the pr es ent time over 30 SRMs are con­
l aboratory me a s u remen t s mu s t be based on                      tributin g t o improved accuracy in hospita l
accuracy r a t h e r than on p r e c i sio n (repro­                                            o
                                                                       labora tories . M r e will b e produc ed in the
ducibility) alone.             NBS, the Center for                     8 0 ' s . I n c l ud e d among these will be low
Disease Co n t r o l , F'DA, American Society o f                      level, shor t life-time radioactiv ity S RMs
Clin ical Pathologists, American Association                           for nucl ear med ic ine applications, a s eries
for Clinical Chemistry , the National Co m­                            of temperature f i xed point standards for
mittee for Cl i n i c a l Laboratory Standards                         laboratory ap plications, and opt ical
 (NCCLS), He a l t h Industry Manufacturers                            p r ope rt y SRMs for exampl e, absorption and
As s o c i a t i o n , Pharmac eutical M nu f a c t o r s
                                        a                              strayli ght, f or the cal ibration of clinical
As s oc i a t i o n and the Scientif ic Ap pa r a t u s                s p ectr o photomet ers. Th ese SRMs and t he
M n uf a c t u re r s Assoc iat ion have all become
  a                                                                    re f erenc e methods assoc ia ted wi th them
involv ed in making the clinical che mistry                            p r o v i de the basis f or the re gulat ion o f in
measurement system work ef fecti v ely. One                            v i t r o dia gnostic products by the Food and
recent example of a measurement pr oblem                               Drug Admi n i s t r a t i o n an d the proficiency
which is being r esolved by the systems                                t estin g in 1000 laboratories i n the Med i c a re
a pproach is found in the temperature area                             network by the Center f or Dis ease Con t ro l .
as related to cl inical measurements.                   Th e           They will p r o v i de a cr itical c ompon ent o f
accurate measurement and control o f temp­                             the new National Reference Syste m for
eratur e is e s s e n tia l f o r assuring the                         Cli n i c a l Che mistry currently being e s t a b ­
reliabil i ty of many cl inical meas ur ements                         l ished.
such as e nz yme analysis. At the r e q uest of
the Coll ege of American Pathologists, NBS
developed a series of precision thermometer                            In another health related area, imp a c t of
SRMs (NBS SRMs 9 33 and 9 34) to be used as                            the medical d evice amendments o f 1976 and
p r ima ry t emperature reference st andards f o r                     the g oo d manu fac tur in g p r a c t i ce s r egul ations
clin ical l aborator i es.         Becaus e these S RMs                wh i c h requ ire traceabil ity to the prime
ar e cons iderably more c ostly than ordinary                          s t a n d ard s at NBS, are p u t t i n g add it ional
thermometers, they are not intend ed to be                             d emands on the measurement system .
useu f o r routine f ield a p plications .

                                                               - 23­
1979 Annual Conference


NBS recognizes this. We have just entered              eleven NDE laboratories involved in

into an Interagency Agreement with the                 testing real aircraft parts f ound on the

Food and Drug Administration to perform                a verage less than half the defects known

technical support of activities within the             to be present. A second round-robin dealing

Bureau of Medical Devices. We will be                  with aircraft structural components reported

doing such things as calibration of lab­               in December, 1978, covered several techniques.

oratory standards, test method development,            Among the most pertinent of the conclusions

failure analysis, material property eval­              was, and I quote, "of foremost importance

uation and the measurement of performance              is the realizat ion the current 90-9 5

characteristics of specific medical d evices.          percent reliabil ity criteria (90 percent

I am sure our activities in this new area              probability of detection at a 95 percent

of measurement science and application will            level of confidence) c a n no t be attained

have direct bearinq on the biomedical                  for any flaw size with typical inspection

concerns of this Conference and that we will           techniques applied by the average technician.

be working together in the 80's to put these           with one exception, the NOE techniques

measurements on a sound basis.                         employed in the program demonstrated con­ 

                                                       siderable d i f f iculty achieving a 50 percent

                                                       probability of detection with 95 percent

In the 80's we will find that high accuracy            confidence for 1/2-inch crack sizes.

and traceability will be needed in the                 However, the limited use of more advanced,

arena of nondestructive evaluation (NOE)               semiautomated eddy current and ultrasonic

e ven more than in the 70's. The basis for             equipment (incorporated later in the program)

traceable NOE measurements will be put                 indicated that the 90-95 percent reliability

firml y into place during the next decade.             criteria may be achie vable at crack sizes

As more Standard Reference Materials and               somewhat smaller than the 1/2-inch measured

calibration service s become available,                by this program." This last statement

reproducibility and quantitative results               reflects the current operator dependence

will become the key words in NDE Measure­              of NOE.

ments.

                                                       These results are typical of some of the

As the headl ine in a recent "Iron Age"                problems associated with NDE. There is

article entitled, Structural Integrity:                c ommon agreement that in order to ascertain

It's Now or Never, stated, "Like it or not,            reasonable detection requirements that

the newspapers and television are having               NOE must become more rel iable, more repro­ 

profound effect on engineering.   Both                 ducible and more quantitati ve. The NBS

media are pleading for product safety."                Program on NOE is designed to address three

The article goes on to point out that                  needs. First, attention is given to the

Structural Integrity is fast becoming as               measurement requirements of the presently

important in design and manufacture of a               used NDE methods. Secondly, new or modi­ 

tractor as it is in the Space Shuttle.                 fied NDE methods are emphasized to provide

Measurement and quality controls procedures            more quantitative measurements and to

to determine and assess s tructural integrity          provide measurement capability for perfor­ 

will become even more important in the 80's.           mance-related material characteristics.

In fact, it is predicted that it will be a             Thirdly, performance criteria will be

basic way of life in many industries.                  emphasized in order to help provide better

                                                       information about the actual influence of

                                                       defects and material parameters on per­ 

The science which is becoming most useful              f ormance. NBS is working to help industry

in assessing and predicting structural                 develop methods for accurate and repro­ 

integrity is fracture mechanics.    In turn,           ducible NOE measurementS. This includes

the tools of NOE are part o f the tools of             technical investigations of standards

frac ture mechanics because NOE p rovides               (both physical calibration standards and

information on the dimensions of flaws,                procedural documents such as recommended

a fundamental requirement in fracture                  practic es ), characterization of instru­ 

mechanics. As a result, quantitative NOE               ments, development of improved techniques,

which can provide reliable measurements of             and the assessment of the meaning of the

flaw size can augment proof testing.     It            NOE measurement relative to mate rial

is difficult to quanitfy the overall size              performance.

of the nation's NOE activity but some idea
of i ts magni tude can be appreciated from
recent authoritative estimates. The non­               I would now like to spend a few minutes

destructive inspection of gas pipe costs               discussing some of our ongoing work.

about $1,000 per mile; more than 7,000
miles of pipeline of gas, oil, and petroleum
products alone are constructed each year               Pulse/Echo ultrasonic techniques are

in the U.S. The Def ens e Department's                 commonly used in nondestructive evaluation.

annual expenditure for NOE in its main­                In this technique a piezo electric trans­ 

tenance operations is approximately $2                 ducer launches a pulse of ultrasonic waves.

billion. Yet without a complete measure­               Each time the pulse crosses an interface

ment system including primary and secondary            between materials with different sound

standards, training programs and reference             velocities, part of the pulse is re = l e c ted

methods, NDE measurements can lack accuracy,           back to the transducer. Front and r e a r

measurement assurance and traceability. For            surfaces of a part produce large r e ~ 'e c t i o ns.

example, results of an Air Force magnetic              Defects inside the part produce s mal l e r

particle test round robin showed that the              refl ections. This method rel ies he a v i l y


                                                -24­
                                                                                                          1 97 9 Ann u a l Confe r enc e

on com pa rative roeasurements a nd thus is                                       me a s ur emen t sys t e m that wi l l us e r edundant
s ensit ive to mea s u remen t eq uipment charact e r ­                           data collection to n ot on ly pro vide f o r
i s ti c s and to the c on di tion of the r e f e r e n c e                       e r r o r correction , but mo re i mpo r t a n t l y ,
a rtifacts us ed . For t h i s r eason NBS now                                    to approac h mor e c los e ly a system that is
o f fers measurement servic es f o r trans duc ers                                fai lur e p r o o f .
and re f er ence b locks . For e x ample , within
th e l i mi t s o f our laboratory c a pacity ,
a luminum ultrasonic r e f e r e n c e bloc ks can b e                            Fo r mo s t of us, the d ecision to automate
s en t to us for com pa ris o n wit h an interim                                  is usua l ly bas ed on e c on o mi c s and ef fi ­
r e f e r e n c e b l o ck . Th e s e r v i ce p r o vide s a                     ciency , includ ing shorter turn a round times .
mechanism f o r com p a r ing s ets of b locks with                               We are a u t o mating severa l of our cali ­
the NBS data b a s e a nd wit h othe r reference                                  b r a t i o n fa c il i t i e s such as temperatur e
b locks th roug h t he NBS u ltrasonic system.                                    and vo ltag e for th i s r e a s o n . Some of you
I n add ition, car eful ly charac teri ze d ult ra ­                              a re fami lia r with our vo ltag e fac i lity
soni c source transduc0.rs and a lumin um                                         wh e r e t he volta g e Measurement Ass urance
re f erence blo c k s can be mad e availab l e f or                               Pr ogr a m (MAP) d a t a a re co l l ected.     The MAP
l oan .                                                                           s ervic e is now a fu l l y automated o peration
                                                                                  which makes it p o s s i b le to p r o v i d e bett er
Lo o k i n g s p ecifi cal l y to th e BO's, we have                              se rvices and fast er t ur n around to yo u . W         e
just i ni tiated ca libra tion s ervices for                                      are c urrently in the p r o ce s s o f a utomati n g
steel b lock s an d p l a n to o ff er the same                                   the re gula r vol t a g e c a libratio n s e rvice . W e
s erv ic es f or t itanium b l oc k s . F u r t h e r                             p lan to f u lly a utoma t e the ohm f a r a d faci l ­
dir e ctio ns f o r this e f fo rt inc lude the                                   i t i es in t h e n ear futur e .
d eve lo pment of mat e ria l -- i nde p endent t e s t
b locks using amo r pho us l ow- a t t e n uati on
materials a nd t h e d evelopme nt of we l l­                                     Automatio n will me a n that s taf f time p re se n~
cha racterized fati gue c rac ks t hat cou l d s erve                             l y d evo t e d to re petitive MAP a nd c al i br a t i o n
as a calibration artifact f or many NDE t e s t s.                                s e rvi c e o perations wil l b e avai l ab le for such
                                                                                  t h i n g s as d e v elopment o f n ew o r ex t ended
                                                                                  MAP s ervices . As impo rtant as this is ,
The f o r mal p rogra m Ln NDE began onl y i n                                    there is a n additiona l advan ta ge in auto ­
1975 at NBS.           Sinc e t ha t t i me we have be e n                        ma t ion an d tha t i s in p r o v id i ng a ca pabi lity
a ble to work with i ndus try and gove rnmen t                                    to pe rfor m mo r e mea s u remen t s which increas e
to ident i f y n eeds and set p rior ities . W                   e                the d a t a co l lected a nd im p rove our abili ty
are movi n g into the BO' s not on ly i n ult ra ­                                to cha r acteri ze a nd a na lyz e t h e se data f o r
so nics but al s o i n acoust ic emi s s i on radio­                              random and sys t ema tic e rro rs.
gr a phy , mag ne tic partic l es, l i quid p en e ­
trants and e ddy cur r e n t te s t i n . In t he
l a t t e r c a s e f ac i li t i es o r de and a c                                 e
                                                                                  W c o n s i der or-e of t h e i mpor ta n t new direc­
e l e ctr i c a l con d uc -ti v " ty mcasu r e rr."'nts h a v e                  tio n s :;;o r a Sl;i u ri ng more convenient and
b e e n c omp l e ted .     :In th e ;1e ;": ~ f ew mon t hs a c                  accu r a t e c a l i b r a ti o n t o be t he d evelopme nt
a nd d c ca l i bra t ion ser v i c e s wil l b e cf f er ed                      of bas ic p hy s i c a l s tandards bas e d on funda ­
f or e ddy curr e r-t i nst rumen ts .            I n ad d i t i o n ,            men tal ? r o p e r Li e s i n n a t u r e . For examp l e,
s tandard ref e r enc e conduc t i vity samp les                                  solid state phase trans itions i nto th e
over the ra nge o f 1 -1 00 p e rc e n t o f the                                  superco nductivity s ta Le have been us ed to
Inter natio na l Ann e aled Co pp er Sta ndard wi l l                             develo p cryog enic fixe d p o i n t s . Th e r e n ow
be p r epar ed .                                                                  exist t en suc h fixed po i n t s be t we e n O.OI SK
                                                                                  and 7 .2K . Fiv e o f t h e se have be en incor ­
                                                                                  po r ated in a n ew p ro v i s i o na l tempera tu re
I ' v e s pent such a l a r ge f r a ct i o n of my time                          sca l e , Eche l l e Pr ovisiore de Te mperature
today d i s c u s s i n g t h i s new mea s ur eme n t fi e ld                    de 1 9 76 e ntr e 0 .5K et 30K (EPT- 7 6 ) , whi ch
b e caus e ma n y of you h e re t o da y ar e in a                                extends t he I PTS- 68 down t o 0 .5K . Th e ten
po s i t i on t o h elp put the p iec e s of a measure ­                          fix ed poi n ts a re achi eved by us e of t wo
ment system to gether in t h i s fie ld .             I                           sta ndard dev ic es, S ~1 767 and SRM 76B .
wo ul d e n c o ur age you t o b ecome Lnvolved wi th                             The se fixed p o i nt d evic es l end the ms e lves
t h e s ta ndards as p e c ts o f no n - de str u c t i v e                       readi ly to i n si tu ca librat i o n of t he r mo ­
e v a l u at i on .                                                               me ters a nd t o auto matic t e mp era tu r e contro l
                                                                                  a p p lica tion s . So lid -s tat e transitio n d evices
                                                                                  are not s ubj ec t t o p r o b lems r e la ted to the
Let me now mo v e o n to a ge ne r i c pr o b lem we                              s amp l e ho ld er o r c o n t a mi n a t i o n as ar e
a l l wi l l con tinue to f a ce in the 80 's and                                 melt i n g- po int d evices . I t is quite p o s s i b le
that is automation and da ta co l lection                                         that t he adva nta ges of s o l i d - s t a te p h a s e
withi n o u r o wn l a b o r a t ori e s. The Tim e and                           t r a n s i t i o n s c an be used in t h e 80's t o
Fr eq uency Division h ere in Bou lde r has a                                     e sta b l i s h fix ed p o i nt s betwe en the a l umin um
p a r t i c u l a rl y uni qu e s e t of p r o b l ems to f ac e                  po i nt (660 0C) a nd th e si l ver point (962 0c) .
in maintaining a nd d i s semi n a t i ng t im e . The                            Fo r e xamp le , th e phas e t r a n s i t i o n s for
time system has f u l ly automa t ed in th e l a te                               ir on , a to B a t 7 60 0C and B t c y at 910 0C,
60 's . A n ew sy s t e m is c u r ren tly b eing                                 and z i r c oni um, a t o e at 870 0C a r e po s s i b l e
in s t a ll e d that wi l l p r o v i de p i c o s e c o n d accu­                candida t es .
racy wit h a lmost 100 % r e lia b il i t y , they
cannot affor d a f a i l ure of t h e standa rd
clocks, the associated measure sys tem a nd                                       Let me s ummariz e th e c ha l l enges I s e e fo r
output. Th e hear t of the syst em is a pico­                                     us i n t he 8 0' s.
s econd t i me differ enc e mea s u reme nt d eve lo ped
b y Dave Al len h e r e a t Bou l d er and Herm a n                                    New Class es o f SRMs
Da ams at t h e Na tion a l Research Counci l in
Ot tawa . Th ey a re installing a para l l e l                                         Measur ement As s ur a n c e Program (MAP )
                                                                         - 2 5­
1979 Annual Conference


      Au t oma t e d Ca l i b r a t i o n s

      Measurements to Predict P erformanc e
      and Se r v i c e Life

      Advances in Nondestructive Evaluation

      Extr emely stabl e a nd reliable standards
      based on fundamental properties of
      natur e


As resources to address these challenge s
will likely be finite, we must car efully
consid er our plans in c on j u n c t i o n wit h others
within t h e measurement s ystem so that a
timely e c o n omi c a l and us eful s e t of solu­
tions can b e found.


Planning is a continuing and interativ e
process. NML is currently reviewing its
published five yea r plan and up-dating
it f or the first half of the 80's. We
welcome yo ur comments and guidance and the
opportunity to discuss your e xpe r i e n c e s
and the n e eds for the future.




                                                           -26­
                                                                                                1979 Annual Conference

                               THE IMPACT OF AUTOMATI C TESTING - CHALLENGES FOR

                                                 MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY

                                              DR. ARTHUR MCCOUBREY

                                   Associate Dir ector f or Measur ement Servic es

                                                 NBS, Gaithersburg



INTRODUCTION                                                         Perha ps the most demanding chall enge o f a l l
                                                                     involv es the n e ed f o r a hi gher l evel o f mo re
It has now b e en mo re than f if t y y e a rs since                 e f fec t ive coor dination of the many i n tere s t s ,
el ectronic t echnology b ecame an i mp o r t a n t                  disci plin es and institutions which e n te r
f a c t o r in mea s ureme n t s and measuring instru­               into the d esign, us e and support of increas­
ments.         Through the a pplicat ion of e l e c·t r o n i cs     ingly funct ional, c omputer c o n t r o l led
it has bec ome p o s s i b le t o ~easure many                       measurement d evices an d s yst e ms.
q u a n t i t ie s with incr eased s ensitivity and
o f ten with i n c r e a s e d a ccuracy.   I n some
cases, i t has b ecome poss i bl e to measure                        I t is useful to c onsider the t rends which
q u a n t i tie s which, otherwis e, c ould not be                   are r elat ed to the e xp a n d i ng use o f infor­
measured at all.           In all cas es the us e of                 mation pro c essing t echnolo gy for the auto­
e l ec t r o n i c s has permitted mea s u reme nt s to              mation of mea s u reme n t s. They may b e summar­
b e made more rap idly.                                              i zed as follo ws:

                                                                           Merging functions of measurement and
During the past twenty-five years electronic                               control;
com pute rs hav e led to mor e e x t e n s i v e
applicat ions of e lec t r o n ic t echnology to                           Increasing complexity o f mea s ure men t
metrology. Au t o ma ted s ystems f o r the high                           e quipment;
speed ac q u i s i tio n of me a s u re d data have
b ecome commonplac e and on-line r eal time                                Increasing mea s ur e me n t int ensiv en ess o f
p r o ce s s i ng of measured information has                              product ion;
pr ovided a broad basis for hi ghly function al
control of c omplex o perations.                                           Decreasing labor intensiveness, increas­
                                                                           ing capital int ensiveness o f me a s u r e me n G

Th e most rec ent innovations involving lar g e                            Dec r eas ing numbe r of human i n te r f a ce s
scale int e gration of el e ctronic circu its,                             in p r o d uc tio n pro ce s s e s ;
low cost micro processors a nd r e lated d e v i ce s
have r esults in the most revolutionar y                                   Au t oma ted us e of technical data and
advances i n the fu n c t i o n a l p e rfo rm a n c e of                  values o f mathemat ical function s ;
measuring instruments and systems.                 Inde ed,
the technical advances in e le c t ro n i c compon­                        Increasing dependence upon function
ents hav e outpac ed the appl i cations and i t                            performance of software;
is clear that the dramatic developments of
the rec ent p a s t reflect only a beginning                               Sh ifting emphas is upon transducer
for what has now become p o ss i b l e in the                              p erformance character istics.
field of measurements and the tasks for
which they are needed.
                                                                     In my talk today, I want to focus att ent i on
                                                                     upon th e impact of microprocessor t echnology
The advent of mi c r o p r o c e s s o r s and low c o s t           and its many im plications for the p r a c t i ce
i nformation storag e (and processing c o mpo n ­                    o f met r o l o gy . In this c onnection , I will
ents for use with th em) has cr eat ed new                           b r ief l y outline the nature o f state-of-the­
ch~llenges in the fi eld of metrology which                          art a ppli cations of the n ew technology and
demand a thorough reconsideration of all                             the implicati ons for the futur e.          I want
the factors which e n t e r into reliabl e                           to c omment briefly upon the r ealization of
measurements at lev els of accuracy appropri­                        a c c u r a c y in hi ghl y automated and i n teg r a ted
at e to modern needs. Thes e challenges a r e                        measurement systems and then point out the
rooted in :                                                          nature of some of the new metrolo gical
                                                                     frontie rs which provid e new oppo rtunities.
      The vast increase in c apa c i t y for the                     Finally, I will attempt to identify some
      generation of large v o l ume s of                             specific c h a l l e n g e s for the 1980' s which
      measurement informat ion ;                                     n e ed to be addresse d withi n industry and
                                                                     government.
      The e qually important increase in
      capacity for d ynamic response and
      extremely h igh spe e d;                                         y
                                                                     M discussion today is b a sed upon a study
                                                                     carried out at NBS on the "Impact of Micro­
      The realizat ion of accur acy in highly                        p r o c e s sor Based Technology upon NBS Mea s ur e ­
      inte grated measurement syst ems;                              men t Servi ces." This study invol ved contri­
                                                                     butions by a large number of peopl e working
      Th e r eali zation of a dequat e l evels                       as a committ ee chair ed jointly b y Jud Fr ench
      of r ealia bility in measuring d evic es                       and me. My colleague, Kathryn Leedy , was
      and systems which incorporate c ompl ex                        the Principal Investi gator for the project
      el ectronics.                                                  an d I am ind ebted to her f or her assistance
                                                                     in the p r epa r a t i o n of this talk .
                                                              -27­
1979 Annual Conference


AUTOMATION IN MEASUREMENTS                             a matter of critical importance to the
                                                       performance of the instrument since the
Modern microprocessor have made it possible            internal reference does not relate in any
to automate the functions of relatively                way to their operation.
low cost test instruments. The same devices
along with more versatile input and output
facilities, memories for the storage of                Without going beyond the generalities of
complex programs and data, and suitable                automated instruments it is essential to
communication provisions provide the basis             recognize that, like their conventional
for Automated Test Equipment which incor­              counterparts, they function as a part of a
porates and controls the use of multiple               measurement system which includes a support
instruments. The same principles, carried              environment interfaced with the operating
a step further may be used for the auto­               environment. As indicated in Figure 2,
matic operation of a complex manufacturing             the support environment includes the local
process.                                               and remote metrology laboratory services
                                                       which are necessary to the maintenance
                                                       of the metrological qualifications of the
TEST INSTRUMENTS                                       ins·trumen t .

The use of a microprocessor in a test instru­
ment is illustrated very schematically in              AUTOMATED TEST EQUIPMENT
Figure 1. Depending upon the quantity to
be measured, a sensor or transducer provides           Automated test equipment is generally based
an electrical signal often from a remote               on programmed control of a number of
location. A signal conditioner, which may              stimulus sources and test instruments to
be located as close to the sensor as                   carry out a sequence of tests within an
conditions permit, generally provides for              established routine.  Present day Auto­
any necessary amplification to a suitable              mated Test Equipment is usually applied
level.  The signal conditioner may include             to the high speed testing of electronic
AID conversion if the signal is not already            system components and, therefore, they
in digital form and it may provide sufficient          measure electrical quantities. However,
power level for any transmission which is              the principles can certainly be extended
required.  The signal conditioner may also             to include the measurement of any quantity.
include filter provisions to avoid the                 An automated test equipment is illustrated
processing of noise which does not lie within          schematically in Figure 3.  I do not wish
the necessary signal bandwidth.                        to suggest that the architecture suggested
                                                       here is either practical or desirable.
                                                       However, it will serve to bring out the
In appropriate digital form, the signal may            points which I consider important.
be processed in order to obtain the statis­
tical information of interest, to make
appropriate adjustments to its value, to               In general, automated test equipment provides,
derive calculated results which may involve            under program contro~well characterized
other parameters and to determine its value            stimulus signals to the various input
in appropriate units.  The processor may               connections of the Unit Under Test.   The
also generate control signals to adjust ' the          responses at the various output connections
range of output indicato~s or recorders.               are measured by appropriate test instruments
                                                       which are controlled on an addressable
                                                       basis.  Communications between the Unit
The calculations carried out within the                Under Test, the stimulus sources, the test
processor may involve a variety of essential           instruments, the system controls, the output
data which are introduced from the outside,            displays and recorders and other facilities
from stored tables of numbers, or from the             are accomplished by means of a system bus.
internal execution of special programs.                Depending upon the specific requirements,
For example, the temperature, pressure or              this bus may be capable of operation at
other characteristics of the environment               very high speeds or at low speeds and it
may be introduced . The response functions             may have different levels of capability
of nonlinear sensors may be obtained from              to accommodate large numbers of address­
suitable data stores or the values of math­            able components. A system bus may, in
ematical functions may be obtained from an             practice, consist of a number of industry
internal routine and introduced into the               standard buses, such as the IEEE 488,
measurement calculation.                               operating in parallel.


Automated instruments, like their conventional         The important point I want to make here is
counter parts, generally include some form             that Automated Test Equipment includes
of internal references for the quantities              large amounts of stored information which
measured.  Such references may provide a               is essential to the calculations carried
well known value for the quantity measured,            out, which provides the required design
e.g., a thermal junction, a potential cell,            responses and tolerances for the unit under
or a laser interferometer signal. Alter­               test, and which provides a basis for any
natively, the references may relate to an              necessary adjustments due to environmental
electrical representation of the quantity              conditions. Automated Test Equipment also
measured.  In this cas e the reference might           includes, in some form, the necessary
be, for example, a Zener diode or an                   internal measurement references with which
electrochemical cell.   In such cases, the             the stimulus sources and test instruments
stability of sensors or transducers become             may be compared.
                                                -28­
                                                                                                   19 7 9 An n ua l Co nf ere nc e

Automated Test Eq u i pme n t a lso f unc ti o n s                    primaril y t ak e the form o f l a r ge i nc r e a s e s
a s p a r t o f an exte nsi v e me a sureme n t system                in ca p a c it y f or t h e ac q u i s it ion of me a sure­
a s s uggested by the F ig ure.           It must b e                 men t information a n d e x t re mely high s pee ds
d e si gne d t o int erfa c e wit h a me a surement                   in t he execu t i o n o f mea sur eme nt r outine s.
suppor t e nv ironmen t . Thi s enviro n ment                         Th ere are a d di tiona l advantage s whi c h a r e
will i nclud e a gain, t he l oc al and remote                        a vailabl e b ecau se au tomat ed p roc e d u re s may
metrolog y lab oratory f a cili ti e s, t he                          b e ca rr ied o ut more uniforml y t h a n s i mi l a r
severa l exter na l so u r ces o f e ssent i a l dat a                proc edur e s pe r fo r me d r outinely b y h uman
an d , ve ry imp o rtant, sou rce s o f ac cep ta b le                l abor.
mea surement metho d s a n d p rocedures . S uc h
me t ho d s and p roce d u re s ar e , in f a c t,
incor porated within t h e Au t omated Te st                          Th e full r eal i zat i o n of all th e po ten t ia l
Eq uipmen t by the d esig ner a nd r efl e ct ed in                   b e nefit s fr om th e u s e o f microproc e s sors i n
th e c ha rac ter is t i cs o f th e h a r d war e a nd               mea sure ment sys tems r e qui r e s t he thorough
so f t wa re .  It i s , perh a ps, not full y                        s olution o f a wi de ra nge o f en g ineer i n g
apprec i a ted that the q ua l i fic at ion of me th ods                               a
                                                                      prob lems . M ny of these pro bl e ms hav e b e en
and proc edur e s i s a n e s s e n t i a l fir s t s tep             e nco u n te red b e fo re, e .g . , i n mo d ern, hi gh
in sy s te m d esi gn .    Th e y mus t be a c c e ptabl e            per fo rm a nce commun ic a t ion s s yst ems.     Howe ve r ,
f r om th e v iewpo i nt of th e eq u ipmen t u s er                  the y d efin e some n ew f ron ti ers f or the
and t he me t ro log i c al s upport expe rt .                        metrol ogist and t he d es i gner s o f measurement
                                                                      eq u ipmen t .

AUTOMATED PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS
                                                                      In ge ne r a l , the n ew fr onti e rs may be iden­
I t is a s i mpl e ste p t o ex tend t he p r inc iple                tifi e d wi t h th e f ollowing c o nsiderations:
o f mo de r n Au toma ted Test Eq uipmen t t o auto­
ma t e d p r o cess con trol sys tems in the fa ctory                       High Speed Meas ur e men t
a s s ugges ted in F ig ure 4.         Si nce ma nufactur­
ing p ro ce s ses and th e r ea li z ation o f                                Th e high s peed s ampli n g o f q u an t it ie s
q ua l i ty are measureme nt i n te nsi v e, a l l of                 t o b e measured invol ves complex q u e s t i o n s
t h e mea surement re l a ted con s i de ra t io ns e n t e r         r el ated t o the unc ertainty in th e sampling
the p i ctu re . Au toma t e d p roce ss cont ro l                    p roce s s . Th e d ynamic pe r fo r ma n c e charact er­
s ys t ems a l so fu n ctio n as a par t of an                        istics of AI D con v e r te rs en te r i nt o s uc h
e xtende d sys tem wh ic h includ es the sup port                     u nc erta inty c o n si d erations. M   ore over, the
e nv i ronmen t a s sug g e sted i n Figur e 5.                       s a mpl i ng pro cess i ntroduc e s comp l e x limit­
Th e s a me con sid eration s a p ply a s di scus s ed                atio n s in th e r es p onse o f t he measuring
in con n e c t io n wi t h ~ut oma t e d Te st Eq u ip ­              sys tem t o time v a ry ing phenomen a . The
men t .                                                               fid elit y a nd stab i l i ty o f th e d y nami c
                                                                      res ponse characteristic o f t he ove r a l l
                                                                      s ystem will , in man y c ase s , b e an im p ortant
REALIZAT I ON OF ACCURACY                                             me t ro l og ic a l f actor.

Us er s of a u toma ted meas u r e me nt sys tems                            Se nso r s
gene r a l ly r e quir e d emo n strable assur anc e
t hat th e mea sur ement res u lt s they o b t a i n                            In a t l eas t o ne s ense , the us e o f mic r o­
li e wi t h i n ac c e p t able l evels of ac c u r a cy .            p roc e s sors wi l l re d u c e the dema nd s plac ed
Th e r e al i zati o n o f a c c u racy i mpli es , a s               u pon s e n sors . Sp ec i f i c a l ly , the p r o p e r t y
stated in F ig ure 6 , that t h e mea sureme nts                      o f lin e arit y th r o ughou t t h e d ynami c ra n ge
ar e tra c eabl e to spec i f ic refere nce st a n ­                  o f inter est i s an i mpo r t a n t attribut e in
dards.        Th e t raceability p a t hways include                  s en s or s u s ed wi t h c onve ntional instrumenta­
t h e inte rnal ref erenc e s t an d a r ds wi t h i n                t i on .    However, th e fl exib ility of micro­
the a u t o ma t ed me a surement sy s tem , a s we l l               p r o c e sso r s mak e s it p6s s ibl e to adju st the
as l o cal , r egi onal a nd n ational (or c en tral )                o u tpu t o f sensors at high speed in real
r eference s t andar ds in the s y st em s uppo r t                   t i me if the s ~g na l re s p o n s e func tion i s
e nv i r o n me n t .                                                 k nown a nd stab le . Thu s, t h e d e s i g n o f
                                                                      s enso r s may be a p pro ached with trade-offs
                                                                      th a t fa vor o ther fac t or s.
Th e a dven t o f au t o mat e d meas uremen t sys tems
ha s i n t r od uc ed a new se t of cir cums tan c e s                        Th e stability of s en s ors i s a n im po r ­
wherein a sign if i c a n t par t o f th e tra ce­                    t a n t c o n side r atio n for the de si gn er who
ability pa t hways are inc o r p orat ed within                       mus t proviae for the periodi c v e rifi cation
th e d e s ig n of equ ipmen t . Such pa t hway s ,                   o f t h ei r per fo rma n ce b y on e me ans o r another.
ex te n d i ng f rom s e n sors thr ough chai ns o f                  The effects o f e nv i r o nmen ta l c h an ge s u pon
r efere nc e st a n da rds, invo l ve a number o f                    sensor s , e.g., t emp era tur e and pre ssu r e
e ssen t ia l i n te r f a ces within the opera t i ng                may b e c omp ensated b y the mi cro pr ocessors
en v i ro nme n t a nd th e su p port envi ronme n t .                if the a p pro p ria t e pa rame t r i c re s pons e
Th e d e si gn of thes e in t e rfac e s with a de quate              functi o ns are adeq ua te ly kno wn and stab le .
p r o v i s i o n s f or c ompatabilit y impli es new
me trolo gic al cons i de r a t ions .                                        Th e noi s e c ha r a c te r is t i c s o f senso rs
                                                                      will als o be a n increa sin gl y im p or tant
                                                                      co n sideration in high speed hi gh sens i ti v i ty
NEW FRONTIERS I N METROLOGY                                           s ys t ems.   Th e ultimate p e r f orma n ce o f a n
                                                                      inst rumen t or a u t o mate d te st eq u ipment will
Th e us e of micro pro ce s s ors in t est instru­                    b e limi t ed b y s en s o r n o ise in c ombi n atio n
men t s and automated t es t e q u ipme n t provide s                 with d ynami c r espon s e .         Th e re wi l l be
oppc r t u n it ies fo r major a dvanc e in me a sure­                inc rea sing d e man ds to p us h t hese char a c ter is ­
ment sy s t em p e r f o r ma n c e . These adv a n c e s             tic s to thei r f undamenta l p hys ica l limits.
                                                             - 2 9­
1979 Annual Conference


     Measurement Reference Standards                    TECHNICAL R&D

     The need for reference standards for               SOme of the specific opportunities for
measurement systems which utilize computers             research may be summarized as follows:
is essentially equivalent to the correspond­
ing need in traditional systems. However,                   Fundamental scientific limitations of
there is a strong possibility that internal                 measuring devices and measurements
reference standards in automated systems
will be used in ways that involve new                        New principles for measurement standards
demands upon their performance.        Specifically,         and methods
if the properties of i n t e r na l standards
are utilized in the system on a sampling                     Improvements and new principles for
basis, their dynamic loading characteristics                 transducer? with emphasis upon dynamic
must be taken into account.                                  characteristics and response to
                                                             environmental changes
     The noise characteristics of active
reference standards such as Zener diodes                     New principles and improved foundations
may also be an important consideration to                    for microporcessor related software
the designer .
                                                             Anticipation of the need for new
     The demands for the long term stability                 Standard Reference Materials and
of internal reference standards for auto­                    Standards Reference Data compatible
mated measurement systems will be a matter                   with microprocessor-based automation.
of increasing importance.  The burden upon
the equipment designer to provide the
means for verifying the performance and                 In the case of engineering development,
the related cost will be greatly influenced             there are also important opportunities:
by this consideration.  Internal reference
standards based upon the intrinsic properties                Accelerate programs which address
of materials will provide the greatest                       high speed measurements
advantages.  The discovery of additional
principles for such reference standards is                   Develop and maintain the most advanced
most desirable.                                              laboratory capability for accurate
                                                             measurement of fast arbitrary wave­
     System Design                                           forms; include precision sources,
                                                             detection, sampling, conversion and
     Perhaps the most demanding new metro­                   digital storage.  Incorporate emerging
logical frontier which has emerged with the                  technologies.
advent of microprocessors in automated                       (Dynamic Equivalent to Static Precision
measurement systems involves the need for an                 Volt Laboratory)
integrated system design logic which takes
into account the cost effective maintenance
of performance at adequate levels, including            INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
the maintenance of traceability.  There is
an essential need for a systems approach                In view of the inevitable pervasiveness of
to design which includes the important                  automated measuring equipment, there is a
interfaces with the support environment                 clear need for increased capabilities within
as well as the internal architecture of the             all of the institutional components of the
operating system.  There are clearly differ­            measurement system.   These capabilities
ent strategies for the maintenance of trace­            must include a thorough understanding of
ability and accuracy and trade offs between             the new technologies to the extent that
cost and performance are to be expected.                the necessary R&D can be accomplished and
                                                        utilized effectively, new services can be
     The development of design logic for                developed and delivered and complex systems
automated systems should include the                    can be effectively maintained.  In this
possibility of building into the equipment              connection, the systematic realization of
provisions for realizing measurement assurance          traceability to acceptable reference stan­
in the sense that this approach has come                dards will be a most important consideration
to be recognized in traditional measurement             and required new forms of coordination among
systems.                                                all of the institutions involved.


CHALLENGES FOR THE 1980's                               The metrological impact of new information
                                                        processing technology is bringing about
The rapidly expanding use of information                very important changes in the program
processing technology in measurement systems            planning within the National Bureau of
provides a wide range of challenges in the              Standards.  Such changes will be equally
areas of:                                               important in the measurement laboratories
                                                        of other government agencies, including the
     Technical Research and Development                 states as well as industrial metrology
                                                        laboratories.  It will be important for
     Institutional Development                          regional and local metrology laboratories
                                                        to play an increasing role in the planning,
     Service Delivery                                   development and the effective utilization
                                                        of highly complex automated measurement
                                                        systems.

                                                  -~-
                                                                                                           1979 Annual Conference

SERVICE DELIVERY
                                                                                           Automated Instrument
Some of the specific needs for new service                                                                        SEnSOr Response
                                                                                                                    Function
delivery programs include:                                              remceretcre                               Range seiecucn
                                                                        Pres9ure             Ll;W~1   Control     SCaleJUnlLs
                                                                        Forte                Impedance Melching   Calculation       Conlrol

                                                                        Eleclrical           Noise Rejectloo
      Accelerate introduction of alternatives                           Ol-splacemenl        Ala cco-ersten
                                                                                                                  stensucar
                                                                                                                    Pfoce&Sing
                                                                                                                                    Record

                                                                                                                                    Indicale

      to traditional calibration's (e.g .,
      MAP's) with emphasis on verification
                                                                         Quanti
      of Automatic Test Equipment performance

      Establish criteria and guidelines
      for the use of Standard Reference
      Devices. Explore alternatives for
      government and industry programs to
                                                                                                  Zener DIode

      qualify standard reference devices                                                          StandardCell

                                                                                                  Lase'
      Introduce evaluated schemes for auto­                           FIG. 1
      mated use of numerical data and
                                                                                            Measurement System
      establish priorities for evaluated
      data necessary to microprocessor-based
      systems

      Increase qualified NBS representation
      on selected technical standards
      committees addressing microprocessor
      related issues.


CONCLUSION

In sun~ary, it is clear that the realization
of the full benefits of advanced information
                                                                                                                        Sensor Response Funclions
processing technology in measurement equip­                                                                             Environmental Adjustmenls
ment requires a systematic approach to                                                                                  Properties o( Mi'llertals
                                                                                                                        SiandardReferenceData
the design of equipment which takes into
consideration the i mpo r t a n t i n t e r f a c e s with
other elements of the measurement system as                           FI G. 2
necessary to the achievement of traceability.
                                                                                         ATE Measuremenl System
The design considerations for such systems
mu s t include the accuracy in the results
they produce.    From the viewpoint of q u a l i t y
in the measurement results of automated
systems, it will be essential to design the
philosophy of measurement assurance programs
into the hardware and software which
together define the functional performance
of systems.    In view of the many interfaces
between the components within the automated
measurement equipment and the additional
interfaces between the equipment within the                                o
                                                              WoJ1llng Envir nment
operating environment and the service
sources in the support environment, it is
also becoming increasingly important to
develop effective technical standards which
will assure the com patibility at such
interfaces. These technical standards must
incorporate the needs and the constraints                             FIG. 3
imposed by users, equipment designers,
those who are experts in the logic of                                                   Measuremenl-Based Control System

measurement accuracy (traceability) and
finally, those who are responsible for the
delivery of supporting services. The
realization of effective interface standards
will place the highest demands upon our
consensus standards development institutions.




                                                                     FIG. 4


                                                         - 31 ­
1979 Ann u a l Con fe ren ce

                               HUMAN RESOURCES :       A PROF I LE AND DESIG N FOR THE 8 0'S


                                                  PAUL W. SCHWEGLER

                                Vi c e President and Director, Industrial Relat ions

                                         TRW Defense and Space Sys tems Gr oup

                                              Redondo Beach, Californ ia



What 's i t going to be l i k e in 1984 . .. l98B?                     National statistics for the late 198 0's indi­
Well, let me begin my presentation with a                              cate that the makeup of the work force will
story about a pea s a n t.       When this p a r t i c u l ar          c ontain three critical group s who will exert
pe a s a n t e n t e red a city for the first time,                    n ew p r e s s u r e s and demands on industry .
e veryone stared at him because his clothes                            ( 1 ) Those born during the baby boom years ,
were so od d and shabby.          Impress ed with the                  ( 2) those born during the recent y e a r s of
clothes he saw others wearing, he went into                            zero population growth, and (3) those workers
a store and bought a n ew outfit. When h e                             who will b e 45 y e a r s o f age and older.
returned home and put on the new suit h e'd
bought, it didn't fit . He complained about
this to all his fri ends until on e pointed                            First, I want to talk about the baby boom
out, "of course it doe sn't fit~ You put on                            p e r i od, those yea r s when there was a signifi­
th e new s u i t right o ver your old clothes.                         cant increase in the birth rate . It dates
You have to take off the old before you can                            from the mid-40's until about 19 60. This
put on the new ."                                                      age group has had, and will continue to ha v e,
                                                                       a tremendous influence on the wor k force.
                                                                       During the BO's, those born during this baby
There's a moral t o t h i s s tor y. In man y                          boom will be somewhere betwe en the p r i me
respects, we as managers must "take off the                            worki ng ages of 2 5 and 44. By the late 8 0 ' s
old suit" before we c a n " put on the new suit"                       there will be 60 mill ion people in this age
of the 8 0's.                                                          group, a 5 5 % increase when compared to the
                                                                       current 39 million peo ple in the late 70's.

Now, when we buy a new suit, we don't always
buy a new scarf or tie.        In other words,                         The second maj or critical group is made u p
changing our o u t f i t do esn't mean that we must                    of the p o s t boom babi es. Born into the era
mak e a complete break with the past.       Pe r h a p s               of zero population growth, birth control , and
we ' l l retain our shirt, blouse or shoes                             two-children families, this group will be
because the y a r e still in good condition and                        between 1 6 and 24 years of age in th e 80 ' s.
may, in fact, enhance our n e w appearanc e.                           Be caus e of the comparatively low birth rates,
                                                                       t h i s age category will be in scarce suppl y .

Such style coordinati.on i s, I believe, our
charter for the earl y part of the n e xt decade .                     For these tw o critical groups of peo ple there
                                                                       are two very opposite c onditions; one of
                                                                       o ver sup ply, and one of scarcity .
I will admi t to having b een somewhat concerned
when I wa s ask ed to s peak at your conference.
At t e mp t i n g to predic t the path of any portion                  The t h i r d critical group will c o n t a i n thos e
of industry is a task that ha s proven diffi­                          people who will b e 45 year s of age and over
cult in recent years.          In the book, "The Wall                  in the late BO's. This age group will more
Street Journal Views America Tomorrow," Mar k                          than lik ely decline in major labor market
Kendall, an Economi st with the National                               acti vity. At on e major company, American
Planning Association, is quoted as saying,                             Telegraph and Telephone, slightly less than
"There's n ot much interes t in long-range                             2 5% of managers work thr ough until a ge 65
forecast s around h ere a nymore. We' ve been                          n ow. Even with the elimination of ma n d a t o r y
wron g too often."                                                     retirement, it is still predicted that this
                                                                       age group will o ccupy l ess and less a per­
                                                                       c entage of the total traditional work f o r c e .
We, in both the pri vate a s well as the public                        The day wh e n there are too many Indians and
sector, cannot afford to gi ve up our need                             not enough chiefs may be h ere sooner than
for fore casts this early.                                             we think.


I've h eard many times in the last few years-­                         Given that the age com position of the labor
as I'm sure you have--that t h e only cons tant                        forc e will differ sharply from today, other
i s, was , and s h a l l be, change itself. I                          characteristics of the 19BO's worker will
believe we'll both hear and see this more                              shift substantially. For example:    the work
often and more clearly in the future.                                  force will be the best educated in the nation's
                                                                       history. More than 40 % o f the work force
                                                                       will attend college by the ti me they a re 3 0
During the next decade, change will be par­                            years of age .
ticularl y evident in our employee base ...
change that will occur in the demo g r a p h i c s ,
personal v a l u e s , and mo·tivations of tomorrow's                  It is predicted that the work force demograph­
employ ee s. Let me explain in more detail.                            ics will show a decline in the typical blue
                                                                       c ollar industrial wor k e r and an increase in
                                                                       the white collar wor ker, particularly in the
                                                                       p r o f e s s i on a l and technical disciplines.
                                                                -32­
                                                                                             1979 Annual Conference


The 1980's will also shaw a substantial in­                         have a work force composed of many who r eache d
crease in t h e numbers of minoriti es and                          maturity during the turbulent 196 0's.         It i s
women in the work force.              The minority por­             likely to be a p roa c t i v e gr o up . They under­
tion of the work forc e i s expect e d to                           stand th e ad vantages of collective a ction.
increase by about one-third, compared to
about only on e-f ifth for whit es. Women will
incr eas e t heir rate of partici pation in                         Another dimension of the 1980's which cannot
e mp l o ymen t from t he p r e s e n t 41 %. The rate              be ignored is that along with a s h i f t in
of increase for women will be p a r t i c u l a r ly                th e demographic composition of the wor k forc e,
true i n prof essional and managerial rol es.                       there will be a compounding factor of Sh i f t i n g
                                                                    e mph a s i s on values and exp ectations. The key
                                                                    wards are:       shifting emp ha s i s . If you look
It seems ev i d e n t that these predicted p op­                    at som e of your own organizations today, you
ulation trends wil l cause c o n s i d e r a b le st ress           will find the beginnings of this shift. NOW,
on our management systems. M        ove me n t of                   these v a l ue s and expectations are in the
employ e es barn during the baby boom years                         minority. By the late 80's it is clear they
through the l a b o r mar k e t creates a tremen­                   will be the norm .
dous b u l ge i n the labor for ce. By the 1980' s
members o f this gr o up will be in fierce
compe tition t o move up the organizational                         Yankelovich stated in the August 1 978 issue
h eirarchical ladder.                                               of "Industry Week" that changing American
                                                                    attitudes toward work are a maj or factor
                                                                    contributin g to our nation's decline in pr o ­
Th e competition will become e ven more k een                       ductivity. Peo ple who work at all levels of
as a result of various anti-discrimination                          the e n t e r p r i s e , and particularly younger
laws which have brought women and minoriti es                       middl e-mana gem ent people, ar e no longer
into the once p r ivi leg e d c o r n e r s with the                moti vated to work as h a r d and as effectively
enterprise. Whereas in 1975 ther e was an                           a s in the p a s t.
avera g e of ten workers competing for one
middle management position, during the 80 ' s
the siz e of the bul ge will bring the average                      A majority of the population will demand an
to 19. Of these 19, thre e will b e women                           integration of work, family, and leisure.
and thr ee will be mi n or i t i e s .                              Th e im portance of wor k will be challenged
                                                                    as the concern for satisfying u s e o f leisure
                                                                    time continues to increase. Even today when
The mid-care er wo rke r s will exert p r e s s u r e s             le i s u r e and work are compared as a source
t o expand their p r o fe s s i o na l a nd personal                o ~ sat isfaction, 80 % of a n employment sample
hor izons.    In a v a r ie t y o f ways t hey wi ll                s tated that leisure meant more to them than
want to " encourage" older wor ke r s who have                      wor k or their families.      Studies indicate
o ccupied places i n middl e a n d to p mana g eme n t              that many wor kers p r e fe r vacations and
fo r Same p e r i od of t i me to l eave.     I don't               exte nd ed time a way from work to pay rais e s
know whether that i s a comfor t i ng tho u ght                     and othe r for ms o f add itional f r e e time. A
fo r some of us who are here today.                                 rece n t na t ional survey o f 2,0 00 worker s
                                                                    found that e x t e nde d vacation s and work s a b ­
                                                                    baticals wer e at the top o f the fringe bene­
The baby bulge workers, in their struggle                           fits list.
for upward mo vem e n t , will present a v ery high
potential for unionization, or some for m of
collective ac tion for at lea st the following                      There will also be a strong feeling fo r what
reasonS:      (1)    Because of the extreme com peti­               Yankel ovich calls:        "Entitlement." Entitl e­
tion a smaller percentage of those workers                          ment mea ns that wo rk e r s will feel that a good
will be able to achi eve their career expecta­                      job, a good income, better than a vera ge
tions .    (2)    They will allege that manage­                     employee benefits, are no longer privil eges,
ment is unfair in it s selection processes,                         but they are fundamental ri ghts. The ri ght
and that statutory pressures are un fai r.                          t o have a job that is compati ble with an
 (3)   Their y e a r - to- y e ar g r owt h ra te in earn­          individual's p e r s o n a l goals. A d e mand f or
ings will be l ess than their e x p e c t a t i on s                self-fulfillment. The burden for p r o v i d i ng
b ecause of the supply and demand equation.                         incentives f or hard work will r est more
Their anSwer may be to seek out th e union                          squarely in the f uture with the employer
f or hel p.    Unions, on the other hand, are                       than under the old value s ystem.
actively preparing to meet this demand.
I r ving Bluestone, Vice President of the United
Auto viork ers, in his articl e "Emer g ing                         Emp l o ye e s will want more than just money from
Trends in Coll ect i ve Bargaining" urged u n i o n                 thei r jobs and th ere will be an increas ed
leaders to assess social changes in order to                        l o y a l t y to the profession v ersus loya lty t o
predict the union-management relationshi p                          the c ompany.
of th e future.

                                                                    Employe es will no longer expect authority t o
Howeve r, I don't believe coll ective action                        r est on positio n al on e . Manager s will have
in the traditional sense of unionization is                         to demonstrate skills and personal value s to
all that we will have to deal with in the                           establish c r e d i b i l i t y with their employees.
1 980's.   I would expect that we will see the                      Emp l o y e e s will want to have the flexibility
d evelopment of more p re s s u r e groups. Both                    and fre edom to share in d ecision making.
organ i zed and unorgan ize d. Chartered, non­                      Fifty-five p ercent of Americans today feel
chartered. Gr ou ps such as ethnic groups,                          t h e y have a right t o share in the decision s
Women's grou ps, professional groups.       We will                 that affect their j obs.
                                                            -3 3­
1979 Annual Conference


The enormous size of this bulge, 50 % of the                          will defend the group against "outsiders";
labor market, will make it impossible to
ignore these p ressures/ these changing values,                       will help e ach o t h e r in times o f need;
and expectations. The fact i s these people
will be managing both the private and public                          will produce well under stre ss;
sectors.    In 197 5/ 60 % of the senior man age­
ment in the country was in the 45- to 65­                             will get the chores done e v e n if "Mom"
y ear age bracket.      In the late 1980's over                       and "Pop" are g one, e t c .
80 % of the total management population will
be under 45 years of age.         In other words,
tomorrow's p r od uc t ivi t y will be in the hands             Se c o n d , through special efforts and p r o g r a ms /
of what many perceive to be yesterday's                         these businesses will invol ve a greater
a ctivists.                                                     number of employees more deeply in the busi­
                                                                ness proce ss itself . The employees will
                                                                feel that they are valued and known as
The idea of change in people--human change,                     indi viduals. Clearl y the hot organizations
peo ple c ha n g e - - i s elusive and difficult to             will p a y as much attention to how they do
document. Also, as I'm sure some of y ou have                   things as to what it is they are accomplish­
seen/ this type o f change is often threaten­                   ing.
ing and disa greeable to even contemplate.

                                                                You will also find that in our hot systems
Nevertheless, it i s cl early in our b est                      of the 80 r s:
interest to be proacti ve and begin to re­
d esign o ur human systems in ways that are                     Some whe r e in the organi zation there will be
compatible wi t h our basic business objectives.                a state of the art R&D effort going on and
Redesign in such a way to a void the conflict                   everybody will know about it.
which will exist in the 8 0 ' s between employee
expectations and many of our current prac­                      There will be a strong belief  or mythol ogy
tices .                                                         or folklore which says the company is a good
                                                                place to work and "it treats its people
                                                                well."
Let me p o s t u l a t e that high performing s ystems
in the 80's will be marked by two feature s:                    The s pecific work that an individual is
 (1) high p rod uc t i v i t y and ( 2 ) good quality           doing and work itself will be h eld in high
of work life. Organi zations which do not                       regard by employees.
provide both will not attract nor keep the
people the y need to prosper and grow. The                      Th e organization will be heavier on p o l i c ie s
organizations which ha ve both high produc­                     and lighter on rules /procedure s.
tivity and a high q u a l i t y of work life I
will call "hot systems." The organizations                      Competition will be c ondoned and, in fa ctI
which do not have both I will call "cool                        encouraged when it facilitates.   On the
s y s tems . " But before I go on, I would like                 other hand, it will be condemned when it
to establish that I am:                                         b ecomes destructive.  (The game will still
                                                                be to win, but not at all costs.)
      talking about large organizations,
                                                                There will b e a str ong emphasi s on education,
      not going to be making any observation s                  development and training.
      about physical aspects of the environ­
      ment/ machinery, work fl ow, p r o ce s s e s /           The organi zation will s e e itself as growing
      materials, etc. They are also most                        at lea st as fast as the GNP is expanding.
      important, but that is subj ect matter
      for another talk.                                         The organization will pose it s most signifi­
                                                                cant business problems throughout the organ­
      I am going to talk in p o l a r i t ie s , not            ization in the form of "What would you do?"
      s ha d e s of gray/ to make a point.                      or "what do you think about that ?" kinds
                                                                of q u e s t i o n s .
      What I say is not based on c la s s i c a l
      research but it is based on trained                       The values within the organization will
      obs e r v a t ion today projecte d into                   sup port and in c ertain ways r eflect the
      tomorrow.                                                 positive values in the society.          (Of t e n these
                                                                will be moral/ethical values and/or reflect
                                                                the s o c i a l l y a cceptable practices in the
Extra polating fr om current-day "hot syst ems"                 society. )
to tho se of the 80's, I b e l i eve you will
find the following characteristi cs.
                                                                Now, relax for a moment and take a walk with
                                                                me through a number of "ho-e' systems and
First, these "hot systems" will remind you                      a number of "cool" systems in 1985. Using
of e xtended families. That is, the employee~                   our imaginations, let's see what c o nver s a ­
or memb ers:                                                    t i o n s would we hear? What would be the
                                                                quality o f th e discussions? How would thes e
     wi l l have a number of rol es t o fill,                   organiza tions sound differ ent from each
     not just one o r tw o;                                     oth er when they were talking about the same
                                                                issue ?
      will respect e a c h other;

                                                         -34­
                                                                                         1979 An n ua l Co n f e re nc e


Allow me to predict             .
                          The Cool Sy stem Will Sa y :

                                                            People sh ould p e r i od i c a l ly b e e valuated

                                                            f or performance and d evelopmental r easons,

First, I will make a statement as the "cool
                but this information n e ed not nec essarily

system" will say it, and then a statment
                   be p a s s e d alon g to th e individual being

about that same dimension as I b elieve the
                eva l ua t e d .

high-producing, hi gh-quality-of-work-life

s ystem will s ound.

                                                            The Hot System will Sa y :

                                                            P eopl e should p e r i o di c a l ly be e v a l ua te d and

The Cool System will Say:
                                  these e valuations f e d ba ck in detail to the

When hiring someone the best proce dur e is
                indi vidual.   Feedbac k wid ens horizons.

to put him in a job, p a y him at entry level,

l et hi m pro ve he can do it, and g i ve him

t itle a nd mo ney as he proves h is worth.
                The Co o l Syst em will Say :

                                                            It is important that p e o p l e ha v e on e boss and

                                                            that there be identifi ed functioning chain

The Hot System will s ay :
                                 of command.

Hire a p erson for the j o b , put h er i n the

p o s i t io n , gi v e h er the titl e, p a y h er at

the position's rate, and assume that sh e
                  Th e Hot Sy stem wi l l Say:

can d o the job un t i l she p r o v e s that she
          Organizat i ons cannot work v ery well with a

cannot.
                                                    strict Roman military c omma n d model. To

                                                            survive you n e ed matrix network, and

                                                            probably some as y et unknown forms of o r g a n ­

The Cool System will Say:
                                  i z i n g .

The internal s election and plac ement o f

p e op l e in j ob s should b e care fully p l a n n e d

and controll ed . For e x amp l e , whe n you are
          What I've tr ied to do today is g ive you a

a candidate for another job, your b o s s has
              g l a n ce into a po s s i b le futur e. In fa ct, I

the right and the responsibility to de c ide
               thin k it is a lik ely futur e.

wh e t he r yo u should b e look ed at . I f it is

not an opportunity for advancement or does

not solve some p r o b lem, your candi dacy ne ed
          Le t me r eturn to my o r i g i na l premise.         "The

not b e mad e known to you .
                               onl y constant is change." Des pite all the

                                                            rhetoric, the notion of c h a ng e as a way of

                                                            l i fe has b e c o me more f a mi l i a r . we can no

Th e Hot Syst em will Say:
                                 longer b e c o n ten t with ta king a react i ve

Internal select ion and placemen t of i n d iv i d­ 
       copin g position but i n s t e a d need t o take

uals in j o bs should be an open pr o c e s s over
         a proa ct ive stanc e.      It's time t o ass ess

which the individual can h a ve a g reat
                   l i kel y impacts , anticipate futu re p rob lem s

deal of control.      (P erha ps job p o s t Lnq , )
       as well as opp o r t un i t ie s and p u rpo s e l y

Everyone likes to be not iced and the fre­ 
                contrive change for the benefit o f the

q ue nc y of job opp ortunities i s one index
              enterprise.

of your valu e i n the e y e s of the world.


                                                            As a well k no wn s cholar o nce p o sed :   "Is it

The Cool System Will Sa y :
                                th e purpos e of the employ ees to c h a nge t o

In the natural stat e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,
       suit the n e eds of their c ompany ... or is it

c o mmu n c a t i o n s start at th e top and flow
         the p ur p o s e of the compa ny t o chang e to suit

downward throu gh a chain of command. There­ 
              the ne e ds of their e mployees?" The anSwer

fore mo r e i de a s should b e fl owing downwar d
         to that question--to a lar ge ext ent--will

than upward at anyone p o i nt i n time. More­ 
            determin e whether your organization in the

over, communication s should be based on a
                 future wi l l b e "hot " o r "cool ."

need to k n ow .



The Hot System will Say:

Communications should aim at t elling people

as much as they want to know.       Ideas should

fl ow u pward and downward freely.     Therefore

more i de a s at an yon e point i n time should

be fl owin g up, not down.



The Cool Syst em will Say:

Confrontation is discoura ged in this organ­ 

i z a t i on . As we see it, it means som eone has

l ost his cool, and without cool, b u s in e s s

decisions bec o me flak y.



Th e Hot Sys tem Will Say:

Confrontation is no t an e xtraordinary mode

h ere and is used as one good wa y of ident ify­ 

ing and bringing impo rtant parts of business

problems out i n t o th e open.

                                                 -35­
1979 Annual Conference

                         REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOMEDICAL SERVICES IN THE 80'S

                                            JOHN J. LEE
                                           Vice President
                              United States Instrumental Rentals, Inc.
                                       San Mateo, California


ABSTRACT                                                 The biomedical industry is by no means the
                                                         only industry that has severe service pro­
New technology is rapidly changing the entire            blems today and the potential for worse
instrumentation world.        This is especially         problems in the 80's. The computer industry
true in the area of biomedical instrumenta­              is a good example. There are many others.
tion.  The introduction of microprocessor
based biomedical instrumentation has already
created severe service problems in the health            CURRENT SERVICE CAPABILITY
care community. Manufacturers are just
beginning to recognize the problem. The                  Service on biomedical instrumentation is
end user (p r i ma r i l y hospitals), unfortunate­      currently being provided in a combination
ly, is not aware of the impact this new                  of three different ways:
technology will have in relation to service
of the equipment.                                          - Manufacturer

                                                         The manufacturer mayor may not have a satis­
Equipment serviceability is and will con­                factory in-house metrology capability. The
tinue to be of prime importance, but the                 larger companies usually do very well in
primary problem is and will always be people~            this area.   The smaller companies frequently
Where will they come from, how will they be              not only have little or no metrology capabil­
trained and who will train them, are just a              ity, they are not even aware of the need
few of the problems that haven't been answer­            for this capability. Recent federal legis­
ed.                                                      lation has established the "Good Manufacturing
                                                         Practice" act that outlines, in some detail,
                                                         the requirements fo r manufacturers of medical
This paper examines the current capability               instrumentation to have an in-house metrology
for biomedical service and compares it to                program.   The federal government actually
the requirement of the 80's. Problems are                audits these manufacturers and can close down
identified and some possible solutions are               a production line if documentary evidence
suggested.                                               of good metrology practices (among other
                                                         things) is not available.   There has been a
                                                         "great leap forward" in this area over the
INTRODUCTION                                             past couple of years.   "They" have "seen the
                                                         light" because they can't sell their products
The re quirement to provide service for                  if they ignore the law.
biomedical instrumentation is not new.   The
key word is re quirement.  The requirement
has always been with us.   The primary                   Manufacturers also provide warranty service
problem is that we are not doing a very good             on their equipment. This is provided on
job of satisfying the cu rrent requirement               site or by returning the instrument to the
and now we have a technology explosion that              manufacturer. When the equipment is out-of­
will significantly compound the existing                 warranty, the owner has the choice of calling
problem.                                                 the manufacturer for service, calling a
                                                         third party service organization or servicing
                                                         the equipment with his own in-house capability.
People can be divided into three groups:

  - Those who make things happen                           - Third Party Service Organization
  - Those who watch things happen
  - Those who wonder, "what happened?"                   Third party service organizations generally
                                                         fall into two categories: Profit, Non-Profit.
Most people today are watching things happen.            There are many independent companies thr ough­
If the biomedical industry continues to                  out the United States that provide service
ignore instrumentation service requirements,             on biomedical instrumentation for a profit.
the 80's will be full of people wondering,               There are also many companies that provide
"what happened?"    This will include manu­              service on a non-profit basis (usually
facturers, hospitals, laboratories and third             called "Shared service" organizations).
party service companies.       Some manufacturers,       Together, they make up the third party service
some large hospitals, some large laboratories            organization. Most of them are very small
and some third party service companies have              (two to five people) and have no knowledge
properly established the relationship of the             or capability in regard to the Science of
Science of Metrology to the prope r service              Metrology.  Traceability to a national ref­
of biomedical instrumentation (a s it exists             erence standard very rarely exists and
today), but as a percentage of the total                 usually there isn't even an awareness of the
industry, that number is startling low.       It         need.  There are, of course, some companies
will be worse in the 8 0 ' s ~                           that do have an existing program that is
                                                         very satisfactory--but they are rare indeed1


                                                  -36­
                                                                                                         19 79 Annu a l Con fe rence


  - In-Hous e                                                            Th e p r ob lem i s wit h the BMET . Th ere ar e not
                                                                         eno ug h BMET' s now , most of th em d o not ha ve
This group p r ovi de s the p r e ponde r ance o f all                   the sk i l l s nece s sa ry t o do the job pro p e rly,
bi omedical instrumentation service. Th e y ar e                         and a l most t otall y, they do n o t hav e any
the hos pital s and laboratori es that a c t u a l ly                    me t r ology k now ledge o r b a c kgro und . Thi s
buy and us e the in strume ntation . Th ey                               prob lem i s c ompo un ded b y the fact t ha t in
usuall y have n o idea o f wha t metrology means                         a l mo s t all cas es, the peo p le that th e y r eport
and have no c onc e pt of t race a b i l i t y t o a                     t o a nd r e c eiv e s uperv i s o r y guidanc e and wo rk
                                          o
nat i o n al r eference standard. M s t hos pitals                       direc tion from ha v e no metr ology back g r ound
ar e f ortunate i f th e y c a n tr ace to the bas e­                    or knowl edg e. The BME T usually h as a l imited
ment:      I k no w that sou n d s h ar sh, but unfor­                   technical bac kground and h as difficul t y
tuna t ely, i t ' s the tru t h: This, o f c ourse ,                     trou bl e-s hoot i n g to th e c omp o n ent l e vel . This
do es n o t r e f e r t o all hos pital s and labora­                    v a r ie s of c ours e. Some of the m a r e ve r y
t ori e s.   Some o f them are v ery we l l es t a b ­                   good a nd ha v e o u t s t a nd i n g a b i li t y . This
li shed and ha ve ou t s t an d i ng p rogr a ms . But                   i n d iv i d ua l wo u l d b e an exc ep t io n .
they are v ery, v ery rare~

                                                                         Ex per ience ha s s ho wn t h a t the BMET has t o be
So f a r , we h ave talked abo u t metrol ogy, o r                       a si gnificantl y di ff er en t individual than the
to us e a more c ommon t erm, c a l ibra t ion . A                       ex i s t i ng e lec t r o n i c o r calibra tion t e chnician.
bigger, even more s ign i f ica n t ( i f that' s                        Th e BMET must b e a q u as i - app l i c at ion e ng ine er.
po s s ib le) problem exi s ts . Remed ia l main­                        He mu s t k n ow how and why a n i n s t r ume n t is
tenanc e o r repa i r , if you pre fe r , is the                         be i ng used in s ever al di f f e r ent p os s ibl e
r ea l p r ob lem. The manufacturer , of c ours e,                       appl i cati on s. He must be we l l t rain ed in
c a n handle this p rob l em b ecause they h av e                        physiolo gy and a ma j or r e quirement i s in the
the p a r ts, tec hn ica l documentati on and                            ar ea of p u b l ic r elation s.        I f a BM ET do es
skill ed p ersonnel. Oh , i f this we r e only                           n ot hav e the a b ility to e ffe c t i ve l y c ommunic a te
true! Th ey d o ha v e t he c a pability, but                            a n d wo r k with th e p ublic a nd the ho s pita l
us u a l l y it o nly exis t s a t the manufact uring                    staff, h e will not b e abl e to fun ct ion in
fa cility.         Se v e r a l ve r y l a r g e companies               th e hea lth c a re community.            Th e ability t o
p r ovi de lo c a l servi c e in most large c i t ie s ,                 t ake abus e (without r eturning it ) is a ls o
b u t ther e ar en't many.              Too many manufa ctur ers         sometime s n e c e ss a ry.
t end t o i gnor e s ervi c e r e quirements a f ter
the warrant y p eriod and just assume that the
eq u i pment will b e / can be p rope r ly s ervi c ed                   We are all awar e o f the r e c ent delu g e of
b y third p a rt y se rv ice compa n ie s, o r b y the                   malpracti c e law suit s in the h ealth c are
in-hous e g ro up. Thi s i s r eally a p r o b lem.                      community .            It will ge t wor s e:      The BMET is
It i s being do n e b y a c ombination o f all                           in the " f ront lin e" i n this area. Techni cal
thr e e ways , but it is b a re ly a cc e ptabl e (if                    q ua l i f i c a t i o n s ar e being q ue s t i on e d and , if
even that) . Th e p r i ma r y rea son i s t h e lac k                   prope r documentary evi de n c e in relat i on t o
of a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s k il l ed t e c hnic i a ns .           c ali b r atio n a n d r e pai r i s n ot a vaila bl e,
There j us t a r e n ' t e no ug h t e c hn i c i a n s a va i l ­                                                              o
                                                                         ser i o us c o n seq ue nce s can r e sult. M st s ma l l
a ble t o p rov i de th e ne c es sary s ervice:                         third p a r t y servi c e or ganizations do not
                                                                         e ve n c arry liability i ns uranc e. Th at will
                                                                         b e c ome a v ery s e rious p ro b l e m in the 8 0' s.
Technici ans tha t serv ice biomedi cal instru­
me n t a t i o n g ener ally fall int o two ca teg o r i es .
En gineers or e n g i neer i ng t e chnici ans tha t                     Al mo s t all of the p r ob lems ass o cia t ed with
work for the manu fa cture r i s the fir s t c ate­                      s erv i c e a s it e xists t oday in t he health
go r y . This would in clude the me trology                              c are commun i ty will have t o b e c orre cted.
engine er s o r technicans that staff the in­                            This will requi r e an i n crea s e in the d ollar s
hou s e metrol o gy la bora tor y.      Th e manu fa cture r             s p ent: f o r ma i n te na nce . This come s at a
will always control t hi s work f o r ce and ca n                        time wh e n the e ntir e health c ar e indu stry is
hire and train based on the p r o d u c t s being                        being s eve re l y pr ess ured to reduc e c o s ts . I f
manufa ctur ed.         Th e large r manu fa c turers that               you h a v e been in a ho spi tal r ec ently, yo u
have a field s e rv ic e organi zation will have                         c an understand why.
sOme p r o b lems , but the y should b e abl e t o
tra in internally on their own p r od uc ts .
Ava i l ab l e manp ower to t rain, of cour se, i s a                    Anot he r probl em t ha t e x i s t s f or today' s BMET
basic problem that i s unresolved now and will                           i s that there i s a v ery l imit ed career p a t h .
ge t much wors e in the 8 0' s .                                         This i s e spec i a l l y t rue f or the in-hou s e
                                                                         individual. M     ost ho spital s a r e l e ss than
                                                                         3 00 bed hos pital s and 3 0 0 bed ho spital s do
The s econd c a t egory of r e quir ed t e chnician s                    n ot (u sually) h a v e a Bi omedical Eng i nee r i ng
is the big ge st probl e m. Thi s individua l is                         Department. The BMET usually r e ports to
usually r eferred to a s a "Biomedic al Equi pment                       the head of maintenance (al l t y pes of
Techni cian" (BMET) o r a Cl i n ica l Engineer.                         hos pita l main tenance ) o r some simil ar functi o n.
The BMET i s the individual that wor ks i n a                            There is n o whe r e f or him t o go ~
hos pital o r f or a third p ar t y s ervic e organ­
i zation. Larg er ho s pi tal s wi l l usuall y hav e
a Cl i n ica l En gi neer on their s t af f . He                         Th ere i s discuss i on tha t all BMET ' s sh ould
would usually be the head of the Bi omedical                             be ce r ti f ied . There is one v ery l ar ge
En gineering De partment and t h e BMET would                            Assoc ia t i o n that do es certify BMET' s . This
report t o him.                                                          c er ti fi c a tion i s v a l ued in the industry and
                                                                         the i ndividual that is cert ifi ed u sually
                                                                         c ommand s a higher s a l a r y . The NCSL is c ur re n t ­
                                                                         ly a t t emp t i ng t o es t a b l i s h liai son with th i s
                                                                 - 37­
1 9 79 An n ual Con fe re nce

As s o c i a t i o n in ord er t o h elp i d e nt ify the                     Th e pr i mary r e q u i r ement fo r s a ti s f a c t o ry
n e ed fo r trac eab ility to a n a t i o n a l r efe r­                      bi omed i c al s ervice in the 8 0 ' s i s t ra in ed
e n c e standard and the i mp l e m~n t a t i o n of                          peopl e.       I b eli eve this to be true f o r the
such a pr o g r a m.                                                          e nti re e l e c t r o n i c s industry and f or that
                                                                              r e a so n, I wi l l i nclude us all.         I us e the
                                                                              t erm "el ectro n ic industry" i n a v ery bro ad
Th at's th e curr ent s erv ic e capab ility.         If                      s ense.     Do n ' t b e o ff end ed. Ou r i nd u s t ry
it sounds bl eak, it should!           There i s a                                                                       e
                                                                              do esn't h ave e no ug h peop l e : W d o n't know
v er y s e r ious p r ob lem tocay . It i s t o the                           Wh ere to ge t them a n d e ve n mor e i mpo r t a n t,
cred it o f the manu factur ers that th e job                                 i f we could find the peopl e , we do n't know
ge t s don e as well as i t do es.        Th ey wor k                         where we c ould ge t them t ra ine d.            For man y
clos ely with the third p a r ty s e r vi ce organ­                           yea r s , we have been us ing t he peop le leav ing
i zatio ns and the i n - ho u se g r o up s .                                 the mil itary a s a man p owe r t ool.           They ar e
                                                                              we l l train ed, h ave a wea l t h o f e xper i e n ce
                                                                              and are r elat ively young . It wa s gre a t
SERVI CE REQUI REMENTS FOR THE 80'S                                           while it l ast ed , but thos e days are g one,
                                                                                                              e
                                                                              prob a b ly fo r e v e r. W will a l way s g et a
New t echnology i s changing the e n t i re                                   f ew, but i t won't b e n e a rl y e no ug h .         I'm
                                       i
i n s t r ume n t a t io n wo r l d . M c r opr o ce s s o r bas ed           talking p r i ma r i ly a bout t echn ici a ns and not
biomedic al instrumentation is alr e a d y h ere.                             e ngineer s. En gin e ers ar e a p r o b lem too ,
Th e biomedi cal s erv ic e i n d us t ry c an't                              but the coll e ges will cont inu e t o graduat e
handl e what the y have now and the y ce r tai n ly                           e ng i nee rs and junior c oll eges ar e t r ying
will not be able to handl e the n ex t g ener a­                              to hel p.       Th e y hav e Assoc i a t e De gr e e p r og r ams
tion, unl ess ther e are som e drastic c h a nge s .                          in e lec t r o n ic t echnology a n d biomedical
Ex is ti ng f ed eral and state r e gulations (i n                            t echnology , but th e e n ro l lme n t isn ' t nea r l y
some areas) d e mand that the equ ipmen t u s er/                             e no ug h and th e s ki l l l e v el upon g r a d u a t i o n
o wne r hav e a totall y do cumen ted mai n te na n ce                        isn't go o d e n oug h to fill the n e e ds of
mana g ement p rog r am for th e ir b iomed i cal                             i ndus t r y .
i n s t rume n ta t ion . Thi s i s to i n c l ude cal i­
bration trac eable to a national r eferenc e
s t a nd a r d. Fo r t u n a te l y o r unfortunately                         Sa l a rie s (a nd as so cia ted fr ing e b en efit s ) ar e
 (i t d e p ends on how you look at it ), thes e                              a no t he r p r ob lem . 1 b el i eve o u r indu stry i s
r e gulat ions are not b e ing f ol l owed o r e v e n                        comparat iv ely underpa id.          I p ay a s much
impl emented i n mo s t cas es.             Th ere e i t he r                 (hourl y cost ) to get my c ar's e ngine tuned
a re no ins pectors or, i n t he f ew cases                                   in a l ocal s ervice s t a t i o n (by a hi gh school
wher e th ere i s an i n s p e c t i n g a gency, th e                        stu de n t) as a major e lec t r o ni c manufactur er
ins p e c t ors ar e no t ad e quatel y t ra ined or                          char g es (h ourly c o s t) to calibrat e my
knowl edg eabl e e n o ugh to prop erl y in spe c t .                         s pec t r um anal yz er.    Th e r e is a sign ificant
The Jo int Conwissi on on Ac c re d itat i o n of                             d ifferenc e in skill l e v e l and investment for
Hos pitals, for e x amp le , has a fir m r e gul a­                           capita l eq u i pme n t . Th e av era g e b us d r iver ,
tion that e ac h hos pital mu s t ha ve a                                     o r str e et s we e p er, in Sa n Francisco, ma k e s
fu nctioning, document ed mai n t e na nce ma nage ­                          mor e than t he a v e rag e calibration techn i cian.
me nt p r og ra m. Th e y do n ot, ho we v er,                                  e
                                                                              M t r o l o gy La b oratory Manag ers' s a l a rie s
r e qui r e t h a t t est e qu i pment be cal ibrat e d                       hav e no t kep t pa c e wi t h the und erpa i d
 (e v e n t o the b a semen t ) .                                             cal i brat ion t e c hnic i a n salar i es.


The s e things a re changing ho we v er.              I                       TRAI NING
b el i e v e that the n e xt seve r a l y ears wi l l b e
r e volutio nar y in the med i c a l i n d u s t r y and                      The major point that I want to mak e is that
th e things that seem conwonplac e to the                                     someho w o u r i ndustry must es t a b l i s h a
e lec t ro n ic s and p hy s i c a l measurement s                            p r o g r a m to a t t r a c t and t r a i n q ua l i f ied
m etrolog y communi t y (th a t most o f us he r e                            e lectro n i c (i nc l ud i ng b i o medi c a l ) t e chnic ians .
                                             o
t oday l iv e in ) will b e c ome c omm np l a ce to                          W have no other c ho ice : Manufactur ers
                                                                                e
th e me d i c a l industry.        Th e y, too , wi l l                       a r e already trying to d es i gn in str umen tation
l earn of the "Royal Egy p tia n Cub it" and                                  that can b e s ervi c es by l es s s k ill e d
what it c an do for th em.              Yes, Do c t o r ,                     t echn i cal indi v iduals (modul e replacement,
there i s a Na t i o na l Bureau of Standards.                                p ri n ted ci rcu it b oar d e x c h a nge , "self­
It's i n Ga i t he r s b u r g a n d Boul der and it can                      cali brat ing", wha t e ve r that mea n s , A . T. E . ,
hel p us a l l : Th es e t hi ng s will p r obab l y                          e t c . ) b ecause th e y k now the t e chn ic ians
happ en b ecaus e f ed eral and state reg u l a ti o n s                                                                     e
                                                                              won't b e there in t he 80's. W hav e d e l ayed
will forc e them to happ en. Law su its and                                   f o r far too long. A g oo d q ue s t i o n t o as k i s
i n s u r a nc e r e qu ireme nt s will also br ing                           why? I bel i eve tha t it is b ecau s e we f e el
a dd itional pre ssure.                                                       it costs u s too muc h whe n we can't prot ec t
                                                                              o u r i nv e s t me n t of p a y i ng to train peop le .
                                                                               "You p ay t o train them, when the y gr a d u a te ,
I wo u l d like to emphasiz e that I b eli e v e                              I'll offer them a l ittle mo re than yo u a re
that mos t ma j o r me di c al in s trume ntation                             g i v i ng them and then I won't have t o pay
manufacturer s ha ve an e xce l len t me trolog y                             to t ra in t h e m." We cou ld e v e n wind up in a
a nd s e r vice c ap a bi li ty an d most o f my                              bi d din g wa r and become l ike maj or lea gue
n egat i v e c omme n t s are direc t ed t o t he in­                         bas eball or the Nat ional Football League.
hous e and third p a rt y s ervice organi zations.                              e
                                                                              W must solve thi s p r o b lem .             I be l i eve that
I als o realize that some o f the in-hous e                                   most c ompanies would b e wi l li ng t o p ay to
a nd third p a r ty organization s ha v e an                                  ha v e indi v iduals tra ine d if t hey coul d b e
e x c e l l e n t metrology and s ervic e capab i l i t y- ­                  sure that the ind ividual woul d r ema in f or
but not ma ny !                                                               say a minimum of four ye a rs or the training
                                                                              c ost wou ld b e r efund ed--at l e ast on a
                                                                      -3 8­
                                                                                                       1 97 9 An n u a l Confer ence

        pro-rata basis. We must find a way to put                                                                   e
                                                                              I don 't think we have a choic e . W must
        our new ly trained individua l into "GOLDEN                           f ind a way t o train our technic ians .  If
        HANDCUFFS."                                                           we don't make things ha ppen, then we watch
    \                                                                         things hap pen, and dur ing the 80 's , we wi l l
J       "Golden Handcuffs" isn 't a new idea.        It 's
                                                                              wonde r I "wh a t happened?"

        been around for a long time.        It was esta­
        b lished to keep va lued executives bound to
        the company.   "Go l d e n Handcuffs" we re the
        rage in th e 1950 's.     Th e basic pr inciple
        is to make it f inancially unsound to leave
                                                a
        one company and go to another. M yb e it's
        time we applied thi s basic principle to the
        training of our technicians .


        I have no doubt that there are individua ls
        and/or c ompa n i e s that c o u l d and wou ld mak e
        the nece ssary inv estment to se t - up and
        conduct the training our industry requires,
        if, (and that has been t h e big p r o b l em ov e r
        the y ears) they could be assured of a
        sustaining student enr o l lm ent .      I be lieve
        that our industry could and wou ld p rovid e
        such a susta in ing enro l lment if they were
        assured that thei r investment woul d have
        some protection .


        A possible a p plication of the "Golden Hand­
        cuffs" idea would be f or th e individua l
        that is to under go the t raining to si gn a
        bind ing l e g al document to cover the entire
        training cost . He wou ld a lso be a p a r t y t o
        a contract with his compa n y where in the
        com pany woul d agree to r eimbur se h i m ( on a
        month ly basis , for e x a mp le ) a s long as he
        remain ed with the com pany or unti l t he
        tr a ining c ost h ad b e en pa i d in total . Let's
        assume a cost of $5 , 0 0 0 for a tr a i ni n g
        course . The individual wou ld be r eimburs ed
        monthly by the com pany so he cou ld t h e n pay
        the month l y pa yme nt to the f inanc e agency .
        This could be s et u p for a four y ear payoff
        for e x a mpl e .   If he l e f t before tha t t ime,
        he wou ld p e rsona l l y owe t h e rema ining ba lanc e .
        If he stayed f or the e n t i r e four y ears , th e
        c ompany wou ld have re inm ursed him fo r the
        e n t i re amount .


        There ar e many p rob l e ms associat e d wit h this
        idea: wh a t if he doe sn't pa ss the cour se,
        what if the company f ires the individua l
        for cause , what ha ppens in hardsh i p transfe r
        c ases, l on g term i l lness, what are the tax
        consequenc es to the ind iv idua l , to the
        com pany, etc. I e t c . , e t c . , . ... I believe these
        things can be worked out . We finance every­
        thing e lse in our individua l l i v es (homes,
        autos , f urniture, education, cred it cards ,
        etc . )


        There a re other po ssible adaptations of t h e
        "Go lden Handcuffs" theory.                Things such a s
        c a s h bonuses that s tart each year, but r e­
        qui r e three consecutive year s i n o rd e r to
        c o l lec t , r e s t r i c t e d stock o ptions over a
        number of y e a r s , and there i s e ve n one theory
        that says "just p a y the he ll out of them."
          a
        M j or l e a g ue bas e bal l tried that and th e y
        s e em to have a few p r ob lems with that
        s olut i on .



                                                                     - 3 9­
1 9 79 Ann ua l Co n fe re nce


                                 TECH NO LOGY CHALLENG ES OF THE 80' S - A DECADE

                                      ' OF OPPORTUNI TY FOR THE LAB MANAGER

                                                      J . D. MI TCHELL

                                                 Ro ckwe l l I n te rnat ion a l

                                                      P i t t s bu rg , PA


                                                        Pre sented by
                                                        GEORGE RICE


Th e id e a s dis cu s s e d wi l l be p r esen ted in                  a nd wh i c h ultimatel y l e d t o r emote p rog ram­
t hr e e p art s: Th e p as t, the future a n d the                     ming a bili·t y, the IEEE 4 8 8 bu s, a nd the
o p po r t un i ty .                                                    ca p abilit y o f the small est l ab t o c rea te
                                                                        i ts own auto ma tic t est s t a ti ons.

THE PAST
                                                                        One c ould e xp lo re a v a s t array o f t he s e
As an historical pers p ective t o s e t the s t age                    tec hno logy achi e vemen t s--digital s y ste ms
for a s s e s s i n g our fu ture, a l ook at som e                     in p l ace of analog, laser s and th eir us e in
r e c ent occurrences in the admi n i s t rat ive a n d                 proc e s sing and mea surement, and so o n .
t e chnological arenas is in o r de r . W ha v e     e
a l l expe r ienced t h e r e volution in t echnology­
i t af f e c ts n o t o n ly o u r work exper ience s,                  We ha ve also fac ed a wid e v a r i e t y o f a dmin­
but our social ex pe r ien ce s a s well. A c o up le                   istr ativ e c ha l le nge s- - s o me of us for the
o f exa mp les wi:l s uf f i ce a s r e pres entat i v e                f i r st t im e . These ch alleng es may b e viewed
o f the chang es mad e in the las t de cade.                            a s t ho se r elating to our s o ciet y and indus­
So l i d sta t e e lec t ro n i c s and i t s impact on                 tri es i n general and t ho se havi ng a mor e
me asuring a n d te st eq u i p men t a re mentioned                    d i rect r el ationsh i p o n uS a s l a b mana ger s.
fi r s t. Elimina tion o f v acuum t u b e s and                        I n the f i r s t group ma y be men tioned p ro lifer a­
c reation o f fir st t ube r e placeme nt ( t r a ns is­                ti on o f r egul a tions. Abo ut t wen t y yea rs
tors ) , then c i r c u it re p lacemen t (Integr ated                  a go, the DoD i s sued a ne w s p e cificatio n
c i r cuits ) and fin all y s y s t ems r e pla c emen t                int ended to go v ern the ca librat i on p r o g r am .
 (LSI's and VLSI ' s) have l ed t o i nstrumenta­                       Mi l -C - 45662A , alt hough me t a t fir st with
t ion c apa bi l i ty i n p roduct ion p o s s i b l e on ly            s ign i f ic a n t object i o n s, has p r oven in two
i n the sta nda r ds la b a f e w year s a g o.                         d~cades that i t was - - a n d con ti n ues t o be - ­
So l i d sta t e e lectron i cs t e chnology i n tes t                  a ge ne ra l ly appl icable a nd f undamental
eq u i pmen t ha s p rovi ded d ecre a s es in powe r                   d escri ption o f what a c al ibr ation lab manag er
r e q u i r eme n t s, h e at ge ne rate d , si z e and t hus           is expec ted t o accompli sh u nde r mili tary
d emands f or spac e and - - n ot i ncons e quen tiall y-­              c o ntrac t s . Se veral time s in t he p a s t t en
cos t .      I t ha s i ncr eas ed t he number o f fun c­               ye a rs, at t e mpt s h a v e b e en made t o r e v i s e this
ti on s wh i le im pro vi n g acc u r acy, s en siti v i t y,           s pec i f icat ion but a l ways wi tho u t succ ess.
r eli ability , ma i ntaina bility and s peed.                            o
                                                                        M st s u c h sugg e sted r e vi si on s ha ve fl ounder ed
Ac c u r acy o f p rod uc t ion t est equ ipme n t ha s                 on the ro c k of d etail a l t ho ugh t o a l es s er
impr ov ed at l e a st 1 0-fold in measuremen t o f                     extent the l o gi c al q ue s t ion s "why i s this
vo ltage , current, resi s t a nc e and f r e qu enc y.                 c ha nge ne c essary ? " and "what b en efit will
                                                                        d eri ve from is s ui n g this r e vi si on?" h a ve
                                                                        c ontribut ed to their withdrawal. Th e pr o­
Th e in cr eas e in r eli ability ha s no t o n ly                      lif eration o f r e gula tions ha s occ u r red in
re d u ced maintenance co st s; i t i s l eading to                     no n-Do D industrie s and i nc l u d e the FDA ' s
a fundamental reass e ssment o f in strument                            GM f or biomedic al devic e s, t he NRC's v a ri ety
                                                                            P
beha vi or. M      ost c a l i b rat ion sy s tems , speci ­            o f q u a l i t y p ro g r a m r e quir ements, OSHA
fi cally t he inte rval a ssi gnment a n d a d j u s t ­                r e gulation s which cr o ss o v er most ind us tri es,
m ent s e gment, h a v e ass umed some r elation­                       a nd o t h e r e f f o r t s in a lmos t all industrial
s h i p betwee n th e time s i nce la s t c a l i b r at ion            a p plicati on s.
and t he p r o b a b i l i t y of the in strument b eing
wi t h i n s p ecif i c ation l imits. Some experi ­
me nts s ugges t that t his ma y no t b e tr u e,                       A s i mi la r p henomeno n i s that o f c on sumeri sm
that t he proba b i li ty ma y be c o nsta nt f or                      p e r h a ps person i fie d b y Ra l p h Nader a nd
mo s t re a sonab le t i me i n t er val s. Furth er,                   e mpi t omized by the Co nsumer Prod ucts Safet y
t hese experime nt s suggest t h a t it i s fa r                        Ac t. Re l a ted t o t h i s is th e cont i nu i ng
mo r e l i k ely tha t an ins trument wi l l ca ta ­                    d i alog ue o n wa rrant ies --expressed , im p l ied
stro p hi c a l ly fail-- t h u s being ob se rvab le t o               o r whateve r .
a n y us er--th an f o r i t to "drift" o u t o f
to lerance. The expe ri ments a re f ar from
c ompl ete; mor e d a ta needs to be g ather e d.                       I n all of these mor e o r l ess ext er na l
But , we may be o n the ve rge of a funda mental                        influe nces, the Ca libr a tio n Lab manage r ha s
change i n o u r a s sump tion s a nd t he re fo re i n                 b e en a s p e c t ato r - - a v ita l ly in te re s ted
o u r s y s t ems.                                                      s pec t a tor - - b u t one who in gene r a l has h ad
                                                                        l i ttl e infl uen c e in sha ping even t s bu t one
                                                                        who ha s had rather to r ea c t t o the m.
A s pino ff of th i s s olid stat e t ech no logy ha s
b e e n the d e v elo pment of th e mi cro proc es sor-­
the computer on a chi p-- which fir st l ed t o                         We ha v e also h a d a dmini str ati v e c h a l l e n ges
" smart ins truments " ca pabl e o f being prog r am­                   in our b asic s y stems - - how we go about
med to measur e o r c a l c u late and a n a l y ze                     me etin g the "wh at" of t he r egulations or
                                                                -4 0­
                                                                                                           1 97 9 Annua l Confe rence

"good busin ess" requirements we i mpose on                                one to s peculate that some form of ca l ibra ­
ours e l ves . Principa l subjects i n t hese                              ti on l a b accreditation o r certificatio n at
Met ro logy-re lated e vents are t r a c e ab il i t y ,                   the f ede r a l l e v el wi l l be a n idea whose
i n t erva ls , qua lity of re liab i lity, measu re ­                     time has come i n th e n e x t decade.       Some
me nt assura nce programs , l a bo r a tor y accredita­                    fee l i t's time has al r e a dy come .
tion, NBS s ervices , and o f cour s e qua lifica­
t ions and training of p e o p l e and costs . A
wo rd o r two on these fo l lows :                                         NBS Se rvices o r more correct ly, t he conti nu ­
                                                                           i ng pressure to re duce and /or e l i mi n a t e
                                                                           s ervices h a s been a prob l e m give n c lose
Traceabi lity is a conc ept many of us hav e                               sc ruti ny in the past f ew years . The s queez e
used, a lthou g h a s Bria n Be l a n ge r has so                          on t he Bureau 's r esources to s imu lta neous ly
e loq ue n t ly poi nted out i n a rece nt pap er ,                        pe r f o r m a l l o f the t asks i n the Organic
wi th d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r etatio n s . As me tro lo­           Act, subsequen t l e g i sl a t i on in t he measure ­
g i s t s , our ob jec tive is or should be to                             men t and standards fi e ld and the var iety
q uan t i f y measu rement uncerta int ies in a                            of s afety or c o n s ume r r e lated tasks of recent
known re la tionship with nat iona l standards .                           y ears wi t h l i ttl e o r no fund ing h a s demanded
Th is sub jec t is gaini ng in c r e a sing atte n ­                       creat ive i ngenu ity not a lways successfu l.
t ion i n a l l s e c t o r s but i s particular ly                        This vita l task mu s t be carefu l l y a ssessed
no t i c e a ble in i n d u s t ri e s unde r n e w regu la­               by us-- the users of the services - -and keep the
t i on s.                                                                  Bu r e a u adv ised of our c o n c ern s.


Int erva ls or freq u encies of ca l ibrat ion are                         Peop l e and cos ts ha v e been a p r i n c i p a l
of fu ndamenta l conce r n t o l ab man agers fo r                         co ncern . The rec ent upturn in technologica l ly
no t on ly do they a f fe c t t he qu a lity of u s e r                    advanc ed ind us tr ies has l e d to a s ho rtage
me a s u r eme n t but a lso the costs of the                              of qua l ified me t r ol o gi s t s wh ich n e v e r have
ca librat ion o pera t ion . S tud i es by the NCSL                        be en l a r g e i n numbers. Bot h a t t he pro ­
st i l l show wid e d iff erences a mong members                           fession a l and techn ic ian l e vel s , l a b ora t o r i e s
as to their bas ic in t e r v al systems rang ing                          have had diff icu l ty staff ing t he ir organiza ­
from arb itrary t o scien tific . As p r e v i o u s l y                   tions with the tra ined peo p l e necessary.
me n t i o n e d , t his sub ject is di rect ly l i n k e d                We a re becom ing increasing ly concerned about
t o re liab il ity .                                                       t r a i n i n g programs for both t y p e s of people .
                                                                           The cost p a r t of th is equ a t i o n i s somewhat
                                                                           related to i n fl ati o n but a lso to the d iffi­
Qua lity or re liab i l ity r efers to the in to ler­                      cu lt y that man y ca lib rat ion l a b manage rs
anc e condi tion of instruments in u se or at                              have in j u s t i f yi n g budgets to carry out what
r eca l l.   So me member o rgan i za t ions us e this                     they s ee as t hei r charters.          Inf lation is
st a tist ic a s t he ba s is f o r t h e ir i nt e rv a l.                for t h e mo s t part beyo nd our ab i lity t o
ad jus tmen t programs; ot her s, how eve r, do                            con tro l; o u r abi lity to justi fy nec essary
no t measure th i s c haracte r i st ic of t h e                           budg ets i s re lated to our perc e ption o f
ca l ibra t ion sys tem. The so l i d state e lec­                         the future an d it s re quirements.
tronics te st equ ipment e v o l u t i o n i s , as
stated, causing a second l o o k t o be taken
a t o ur assumptions o f be havior.                                        Product ivi ty , a ca tc hword of the mid -7 0's ,
                                                                           i s a me a s u r e of our abi lity to im prove what
                                                                           we do . At the la b l e vel, i n c r e a si n g numbers
Measureme n t As s u r a nc e Pr o g r a ms , sponsored by                 o f f i r ms are u sin g p r o du c t iv i t y me a s u r e s
the NBS , are mea ns f o r providing contract­                             a s a n i ndex of manag e ment per forma nce .                I ts
ua l ly r equired t r a c e a b ilit y through i n di v i­                 importance t o the e conomy as a who l e sugg ests
dua l or group comparisons. A s ingular                                    t hat product i vi ty measuremen t wi l l i n c r e a s e
advantag e o f MAP ' s o ver the more traditiona l                         in use i n a l l sectors .
method of having standards ca librated
d irec t ly by t he NBS is t hat MAP 's s e r v e to
prov ide estimates o f th e t otal uncertai n ty                           In our r ev i ew o f recent h istory and p re p a r a ­
i n a me a s u r e me n t i n clu d i ng not only the                      tion fo r our l o o k at the futur e , I am
standard b ut a lso the human c o n tri b u ti on                          reminded o f a statement by Shake speare:
to e r r or . Another advantage is t hat it wi l l                         "Th e past is p r o l o g u e . " And so it i s.
l e a d t o r educed demand for NBS services .
A l e s s used but eq ua l l y v iab le f o r m of MAP's
is that which i s adop t ed within an i n s t itu­                         THE FUTURE
tion to contro l measurement e r r o r s at a l l
l e v el s o f t r a n s f e r i ncl udi ng t h e p r od u c t             What are our expec tations? How can we
measuremen t l e v el .                                                    predic t the fut ur e ? Our near t erm ac tio ns
                                                                           and probab ly our l o n g term action s as we l l
                                                                           wi l l depend up o n how we pe r c e i v e t h e f u t u r e:
Labo ratory Accreditation and t he Natio n a l                             but th e l a b o r a t o r y man ag er d oes not a lways
Vo l un t a r y La bora t ory Accredi tation Prog ram                      have a c l ear v i ew o f th is . The r esu lt is
ha ve as y et not b roke n the barri er to serv ic e                       t hat most often we r eac t to chang es rathe r
l a bs ( s uc h a s ca libration) , t hus far con­                         than acting to i n fl u e n c e t h e na t u re of
centrating on ly on specif ic produc ts . The                              th e changes wh ich are ce r tain t o occur .
on ly known req uest f o r accr editi ng a ca li ­
bration l a b or ator y was that made by W          einsche l
Engineer ing for RF- -a r e qu est that i s s ti l l                       Ou r method o f forecasting wh i c h has been
be ing reviewed.           The pro li fera tio n of                        u s e d is the Delphi method which is a soph ­
r e g ul a t i o n s , specifications, rul e s and l a ws                  isticated survey/interview technique d rawing
impacting ca l ibration lab operations l e a d s                           upon t he background a nd e x p e r ie n c e of
                                                                   - 41­
1979 Annual Conference

selected experts in several fi elds.         The             were allowed to forecast that a ~ event
method includes:                                             would never occur before a concensus wa s
                                                             judged to have been achieved.)
1.	   Opinions of s e lec t e d individual experts
      leading to a group judgment.
                                                                 1982 - Accuracy and finish as me t a l
2.	   Anonymity assuring complete fr eedom in                removal r ate in 95 % of all mac h i n a nq.,
      speculating and r educing the external
      pressures a nd other p sy c h o l o g i c a l              Scientific method for completely describ­
      friction.                                              ing all roughness characteristics of a
                                                             surface will be d eveloped.
3.	   Sequential rounds of interrogations/
      questionnaires leading to the c oncensus.                  Abo u t 10% of new machines will use on
                                                             line gaging with feedback to maintain part
4.	   Statistical anal yses such that summaries              accuracy .
      are able to accurately reflect each
      expert's opinion.                                          Laser and electron beam welding in manu­
                                                             facturing assembly will increase by 50 %.
5.	   Minimum committee barriers.
                                                                 Five percent of assembly systems will
                                                             use robotic technology.
Rounds leading to the concensus are:

    Round 1 - Initial questionnaire and                          1985 - Sensors d eveloped and in use to
response.                                                    instantaneously and continuously measure
                                                             the surface finish in machining in process.
    Question: What significant events­
inventions and scientific breakthroughs-­                        Lasers used extensively for in process
are expected over the next 50 years?                         control of accuracy.

    Editing process retains only discrete                        Lasers used in 25 % of firms (on panel)
and relevant e v e n t s for future rounds.                  for selected cutting and welding.

                                                                 Seventy-five percent of assembly systems
    Round 2 - An edited event list is sent                   are automatic inspection (75 % of which
to each participant to answer th e question                  will use programmable control) .
"Estimate the date when Sa l realization will
be achieved" f o r each event listed.
                                                                  1987 - Non-contact, high speed, high
    A summary is made of responses to                        accuracy 100 % in line ins pection systems in
determine the median estimate, the spread                    machining with closed loop feedback in wide
of opinions and the current concensus (the                   use.
interquartile rang e of the estimates ). All
results are forwarded to participants.                           About 25% of n ew machines use on line
                                                             gaging with f eedback.

    Round 3 - Reconsideration of previous                        Fifteen percent of assembly systems
estimates is solicited.  If revised opinion                  use robotic t echnology.
falls outside of concensus, reasons are
asked for.
                                                             We can make informed speculation ourselves
                                                             as to future changes, particularly changes
      Round 4   and subsequent.                              in general scope or in broad category. What
                                                             are some of these? In no particular order,
     The process is iterated with all parti­                 some educated forecasts are:
cipants receiving the statistical analyses,
minority opinions and reasons for variations                 1.	   A continuation of the microprocessor
from the concensus until the concensus is                          r evolution. This will most certainly
narrowed or estimates are polarized to just                        occur.   Smart instruments will evolve
two positions.                                                     into wise instruments and most, if not
                                                                   all, will be remotely controllabe.
                                                                   This will continue the trend of recent
Ano ny mi t y in the method assures that e a c h                   years to (Itew 2).
estimate and its reasons ar e considered
solely on the merit of the idea.                             2.	   The universal use of automatic test
                                                                   systems, a large part of which will be
                                                                   "user" designed or adapted. Even the
The Society of ManufacturLlg Engineers and                         smallest laboratory will be using ATE
the University of Mi c h i ga n conducted a                        concepts and hardware.
series of studies using t he Delphi method
to predict technology and manufacturing                      3.	   The dialogue between the regulator
changes expected to occur through the early                        (usually the government) and the regula te e
1990's. Some of those predictions of                               (industry and others ) will continue.
particular interest to NCSL members are                            The re gulator will concentrate o n th e
mentioned below.      (One additional qualifica­                   details of how a task is to be carried
tion in the s t u d y l e ~ ~ 19 to these predictions              out while the regulatee will hold out for
was that less than 2 0% of the participants                        what tasks are required, citing f l e x i ­
                                                                   bility and costs.
                                                      -42­
                                                                                                             1 979 An n ua l Con fe r e nc e

4 .	   Th e fi rst nat ional concen s u s s tandard                             Th e re a re other nat i onal g ro ups whi c h
       o n cal ibra tion and me a s u reme n t sy s t e ms                      ne e d yo u; ASQC, PMA , I EEE , ANSI ar e som e.
       wi l l b e i ssue d .   I n work toda y, this                            Yo ur c o mpa ny ma y a lso b e a me mbe r of EIA
       standard will d e f i ne the basi c structure                            or AlA or other trade assoc ia tio n. Al l o f
       o f mea s ure men t a dministratio n but its                             thes e ar e inv o l v ed in act iviti es wh ich
       a p prov al will not co me without l o n g and                           will ult imat el y a f f e ct all o f u s.
       diffic ul t nego t iat ion s .   This standar d ma y
       p r ovi de th e s pec i fic ation b as e fo r (Item 5) .
                                                                                SUMMARY
5.	    Ca l i b r a t i o n La b ora to r y Accre d ita t i on ,
       an i d e a whose t i me will c ertainly c ome                            Th e k e y word o f th e h i s t ori ca l p e r s pect ive
                                 he
       in t he 8 0 's . W ther t h i s will o ccu r                             was cha ng e .
       under th e basic id e a o f the DOC 's
       Na t i o na l Vo l u n t a ry Laborator y Acc red ita ­
       tion Progr am or under wholl y n e w                                     The	 key wo r d o f th e f u t u r e will be c hange .
       r e gul ations i s n o t fore seea b le .

6.	    s o c ie ta l changes wi l l a f fect the Ca l i ­                       Th e key wor d of th e o p portunity is involve­
       bration Laborato r y.              Pri n ci pal a mon g                  men t .
       thes e c ha ng es wi l l be that o f g ro up
       d y n a mi c s - - t he s o me t ime s emo t i ona l i n ter­
       action o f th e ide a s of pro f es sional ism
       and u n i o n i s m.      The o utcome is ye t in
       do ub t b u t on e n e ed o n ly to e x a mi n e
       r ec ent h istory t o see that more a nd more
       p ro fe ss io na l s are o r gan izing t o a c h i eve
       g roup g o a l s a nd n ot just wo r k- r elated
       g o a ls .


Yes, c hanges will o ccur . wi l l we react t o
them, or will we t ry t o act t o influ e nc e
the m? What is y o u r pe r c e p t ion o f the futur e ?


THE OPPORTUNI TY

Each of us has a n oppo r t un l ty to a ct t o
i n flue nc e the eve n t s of th e n ext d ecade and
b eyond.      Some of thes e acts will b e small
and others not so; ta ke n togeth er, th e y could
mo re tha n infl ue nce th e future, th ey co u ld
pro foundl y ef f ec t it.     What c a n y ou do ?
One word:        VOLUNTEER .   This mea ns work,
ge t t i n g inv olved and p a r t i c ip a ti n g . How
c a n you start?


F i r s t , start whe re y o u ar e.       Look at y o u r
o wn co mpany and it s p l ace in th e e c onomy.
Tr y t o fo r e c as t y o ur c ompa ny' s f utur e an d
it s me a n i n g t o yo ur l a b oratory; p r epa r e an
outlin e of a p la n t o i nfl uence that f uture
in t e chnolo gy or a d mini strati on o r both.
I n th is start, involv e y o ur management--t est
yo u r ide as with h is judgment. M ke corr e c­a
ti on s t o yo ur pr e d i c t i o ns i n y o u r p l a n
b a sed on that judgm ent.           Rev i s e p lan s wh en-­
and o n ly when - -even ts s u g ge st th ey a re
n e c e ssary.    Inno vat e.


Your a b i l i t y t o f o re c a s t c h a nges affectin g
y ou r c ompany wi l l be va stly e n h an ced by the
s econd p h a s e o f thi s b eginning--inv olvin g
yoursel f in the work o f vo l un tee r organiz a­
tion s. As memb ers o f (or p ers ons i n te re s ted
in th e) NCSL , you s hou ld know t hat ther e ar e
a n umbe r o f c ommitt e es n e ed i ng y o ur i d eas
a nd your time to solv e prese nt p rob l e ms and
to plan the a ctivities aimed a t changi n g
th e fut ur e .    Simi l a r oppor tun it ie s ar e
availa bl e i n th e r egional activiti es o f th e
NCSL.



                                                                       - 43 ­
1979 Annual Co n fe r e n c e


                          AUTOMAT IC TEST EQUIPMENT - A CHALLENGE FROM THE DES IGNE RS


                                                    THOMAS A . KELLER

                                                  MATE Pro gram Mana g er

                                                   Westinghous e Co r p .


In kee pin g with th e theme of th is conference                           - Acq u is i t i o n/app l i c a t i o n g u i d e s for the
"CHALLENGES FOR THE PROFES S I ONAL METROLOGY                                p l a n n i ng and impl ementation of a vionics
MANAGER OF THE EIGHTIES," t he aut hor has                                   sy s t ems main t enance sup port.
chos en the topic "Au t oma t i c Te st Equ i pment ­
A Chall enge from th e Des i g n e r s . " Th e initial
impu lse was to ge ne r a t e a p ape r stres sing                       I n t he fol l ow-on i n c r e me n t of the MATE p r o ­
t echnica l probl ems a ssoc iated with c a l ibra ­                     gram , a p r o t o t y pe MATE s ystem will b e
tion of automatic t est equ i pme n t (ATE ) with                        d evelo p ed a n d th e e v a l u a t i o n and r efinement
r es p ect to system architectur es , meas ur e ment                     of the MATE System end p r o d u c t s wi ll con ­
t echn i qu es, e t c .   I n the pro cess of res earch­                 tinu e ."l
ing the l i t e r a tu r e a nd manag i ng a ma jor Au t o ­
matic Te st Equipment Re s e a r c h and Devel o p­
me n t pro gram , i t ha s b ecome a p par ent that a                    Proj ec ts i n th e other incr eme nts o f the o v er­
more imp o r t a n t task to b e accompl ished i s t o                   al l MATE p r og r a m i n clud e th e deve lo pment of
en lighten th e metro logy l e a d e r s h i p gathe red                 P r o g r a mmi ng Aids s u c h a s Ana log Automatic
h ere t o the o v era l l c o n c e p t of ATE i n the                   Test Program Ge ne r a t i o n ; Di g i t a l Au t o ma t i c
1 9 8 0 's.                                                              Test Program Generat ion; Hybr i d , u n i t Un d e r
                                                                         Te st Simulation i ATE Software Documentat ion;
                                                                         Handbooks & S t a n d a r d s and Techni cal S uppor t
Th e p r i ma r y iss u e f ac ed b y the ATE deve lop ers,              co ntract to the Gr o u n d Equi pment SP O.
mana gers and users in th e 80's is the i mp l e ­
mentation of ATE o n projects wit ho ut r ecommit­
ting the costly e r ro r s of th e p a s t .    Th e                     Th e re are fo ur p h a ses t o t h e in it ial contract:
me trol o gy mana g er c a n and must contr ibute                        Su rvey/ St udY, Study / Verif ication and Demon­
to the de v elopment of ATE for th e BO' s to                                                                              a
                                                                         stration to be compl ete by the e n d o f M r c h ,
mak e ATE work in a cost effective mann e r .                            19B1, and th e fo l low-on e f f o r t , to be com­
                                                                         pl et e i n 1 9 8 4 .

One major ATE p r o g r a m p rese n tly in th e r e ­
s e a r c h and dev e l o pment sta g es and planned                     The p r obl ems to be addressed by the MATE
for im p l ementati on i n th e mid-19 BO's is th e                      prog ram inc lude:
Modular Au t o ma t ic Test Equi pment (MATE)
p ro g r a m sponsored by th e Ae ro n a u t i c al Sy s tems                 • Pro l iferation of ATE
Division Gro und Equ i p me n t Syst em Program
Offic e, Wright-Patterson Ai r Fo rc e Base,                                     s ub sc an t i a t acq uis ition c o s t
Da yton, Oh i o .     It h as b een de signed by th e
Air Forc e to curtai l th e spira ling cost o f                                  Substan t i a l   sup po rt c o s t s
automatic test e q uipme nt app r oache s in sup­
port of avionic systems .           "The project is                              Lack of organized/ systemat ic a pproach
di rected to the f oll owi n g goals :                                           f or imple mentation & app l ica tion

l.	     Reduce lif e cyc le costs o f we apon                                    Misapp licat ion of ATE
        system s upport and ATE.
                                                                                 Pa rochia l atmospher e of pro gram offices,
2.	     Reduce p r o li f era t i o n of ATE.                                    p rocurin g agen ci es and contractors

3 .	    I mpr o v e operationa l   utility and test

        effici ency .
                                                   The r eso lution o f th e p rob l ems fo c us upon :

4.	     I mp r o ve ATE management.                                              Modularity throughout the Ai r Force

5.	     Improve ATE procureme nt practi c es .                                   Def i n i t i o n and specification of mod ular
                                                                                 e l e me n t s - ha rdware, software, human
                                                                                 i nt e r f ac e

Th e overall MATE program obj ecti v e wi ll be                                  Determination of unit under t est (UUT)
achi e ved through an incre mental p r o g ram . Th e                            d esi gn criteria for t estabi lity
initial segment of t h e MATE p r o g ram is the
MATE Sys tem c on tract which wi ll dev el op a nd                               Sy s t e ma t i c approach to integrated
demonstrat e:                                                                    logist ics sup port

   - Design concept s for MATE

   - De s i g n proc edur es a nd guides which wil l                                          i
                                                                           l Ke n n e t h D. W lkinson, Lt. Co l . U. S.A . F . ,
     p rov i de fo r the consideration of t e st­
                                                                         Mod u lar Automatic Test Eq ui pment (MATE ) p ~~
     ability i n th e d esi gn o f avionics and
                                                                         gram, S umma r y of the , Tr i- Serv ic e Br i _in on
     test e q u ipme n t sys t e ms.                                     Au tomat ic 'r e s t i n g, Ar l i n g t o n VA 1 5- 1 6 J U:1e
                                                                         1 9 7 7 , pp. 1 7 5, 1 9 7 6


                                                                - 4 4­
                                                                                                     1979 An n ua l Co n fe re n ce

       Development of a management proc e dure                               Av ion ics Tes t ab i l i ty De sign Gu ide
       t o im plement ATE
                                                                             MATE Pr odu ctio n / Op erational Gu i d e
       En compas s a methodology t o s uppo r t and
       integrate new technol o gy i nto ATE .                                - Co n f ig u r a t i o n

                                                                             - Co rpo r a te memory


Th e MATE program ha s s ix s p e c i f ic a reas of
intere st designated:                                                 The Surve y /Stud y Ph a s e ha s been co mp le te d .

                                                                      It includ ed o n -s i te surve ys o f ATE d e v elop­ 

        Ac q u i s i t i o n - the a c qui sition ta sk               e r s , sup plier s, u sers and ca l i b r a t i o n

include s the development o f anal ytic t ool s                       f acilitie s throughout indu stry and the mi l i ­

and trade studi es ne c e s s a ry t o d etermi ne the                tar y (Ai r Force , Navy and Ar my). The data

po s itive /ne gat ive e f f ec ts o f ATE p eculiar                  has b e en g a t her e d and con t i nues t o be s t ud ied

t o spe cific p ro jec t needs.            It will pro vide           f or the p ur po se o f development of the guides.

the logis tician inv estigating the wor th of
ATE in p ro d uc i n g a l ife cy c le cost e f f ec t i ve
main tenanc e p l a n f o r a wea pon s y st em th e                  I n the current S tud y / Verification P hase th e

proc edure s and cont r ac t u a l authorization t o                  Ai r Force ha s de si gnat e d 1 5 UUT ' s f or fu r ther

perfo rm the anal ysi s e a r l y in t h e weapon                     analysis and ve r i f i c a t io n o f the d r a f t p r o­ 

s y stem development phase b efo r e the p roj ect                    ce d u res in t h e guide s.

i s autho ri z ed t o procee d into production .
This wi l l includ e all the inte grated logi s­
ti c s s u ppor t e l e me n ts SUc h a s t r aining,                 In th e de monstra tion Pha se t he Ai r Fo r ce

te c hn i c a l publication s, s u ppo r t eq u ipme n t              wi l l d e si g nate three o f 1 5 UUT's f or pap er

and its ma i nte n a nce and calibration, s pares,                    red e s i gn utili zin g th e Te s t a b i li ty Design

e tc .                                                                Guide.


        Hardware - De signer s o f MATE mo d u le s and
MATE s y ste ms will ha ve g u i des wh ic h s pec i fy               The El ect r onic Te st Equipment Av ion ic s

bu s structure s, calibration a n d maintenanc e                      Acq u is i t ion Gu i de demons tra ti on will e mp ha ­

re quirements, e t c . , n eeded t o i nterface wi t h                si z e th e u sability o f the p r o ced ures t o

so f t wa re and human interface conside rations                      co n st r u c t maint enanc e p l a n s u s ing ATE con­ 

t o e f f ec t ive ly t est UUT ' s .                                 ce pts o n a wea pon system deve lo pmen t scenar i o

                                                                      pos t ul.ated by the Ai r Force.

        Software - Softwar e g u ide s for UUT Test
Sy s t em Software, Supp ort Sof t war e and Co ntrol
Sof t ware wi l l b e d e v elo p ed.                                 ATE s y ste ms wi l l b e fa bricated t o actuall y

                                                                      t est f o ur Air For c e cho s en UUT 's t o d emon­ 

      Huma n Int e rfa c e - This e f fo r t includes                 s t r a te the MATE De v elopme nt Gui d e .

th e development o f p r o c e d ures t o de t ermin e
th e criteria f or s e le c t ion o f ATE o p e r a t ions
and maintenance pe rsonn el. Training f o r                           When t h e MATE co nce p t is f ull y deve lo p e d

tho se per so n ne l and a ctual human/ATE inter­                     the Ai r Force will h ave the module spe ci­ 

fac e t e chniques ar e al s o p art o f this ta sk.                  fication s, l ogi stic s t o ols, tes t a b i li t y

                                                                      pro c edur es a n d management methods t o e f f ec­ 

        Un i t Und er Test Testab ili t y - On e of                   ti v ely d e v elop and manage ATE .

th e mo re s e r i o us o f th e techni cal problems
a ssoci ated wi th ATE is th e i mproper desi g n
of UUT' S t h a t are s u pporte d by ATE . This                      F ig u re 1 d epicts the effectivenes s o f the

g u i de wi l l be used by a vi oni c desig n ers t o                 MATE c onc ept whe n depl o y ed in the mid- 80's.

insur e cr iteria s u c h a s tes t point , partition­                The c o nce pt emp h asi zes modul es o f hardware

i n g, bu i l t in t est eq u ipmen t , etc . are                     and sof t ware t hat are u sa bl e and in te r ­

d esigned into th e UUT if ATE is part of its                         ch ange able a mo ng the f our l e vel s of main­ 

maintenance Scheme.                                                   t en an c e de s c r ibed, i. e. , F l i g ht line (or g a n ­

                                                                      iza ti on al ), Field Sho p ( I n t e r me d i a te) ,

          Con f i g ur a t io n - Methodology f o r ma i n­           Depot a n d Fa c t o ry . Modul es o f s oftware

t a i n i ng a ccurate con f igu r a t io n ac counta­                are tran s por table b e t ween lev els.             MATE

bilit y o f t h e UUT , ATE hardwar e and s oft­                      stati on s, wh i le unique to th e l e vel o f ma in­

wa r e will be pro vided . Al so , hi story of                        te na nce to wh i c h appli ed, r e tain a high

problems a s soc i a te d with th e UUT/ATE wi l l                    d egre e o f module commonalit y.             S i mi l a r ly ,

b e d e veloped and documented into th e                              commo n a l i zed modul e s are e q u a l ly inter­ 

"co r porat e memor y" to b e r e so lved , or a t a                  changeable betwe en p r ogra ms suppo rt i ng

mi n i mum not r e pe a ted on o t her p r o j ec t s .               d i f fe ren t sy s t ems . Ot her el ement s o f s u ppo r t

                                                                      a r e c o n s eque n tl y common a l i zed, i. e., S p a r e s ,

                                                                      Handbo oks (Da t a) , Man p ower Sk ills and Train­ 

Th e del iverabl e e n d i tems for t he init i al                    i ng wh i c h subsequentl y c o mmon a l izes Pack­ 

t h r ee MATE phases are :                                            aging and Handling , Transportation and

                                                                      Fa ciliti es.        The MATE conce p t is highl y

       MATE Developme nt Gu ide                                       cos t e f fe c t i v e fo r th e s ys tem ' s lif e cyc le .

                                                                      The potential for c os t e f fec t ive metrolog y

       - Hardware
                                                    concepts is r eadily apparent.

       - So f twar e

       - Human Inte rface

                                                                      "Program a" (d e picted i" "F i g u re 1) has

       El e ctroni c Te s t Equ i pment    Acq u i s~ t ion           d e termined thr ough the us ~ o f the g u ide s

       Gu i de
                                                              -4 5­
1979 Annua l Conference


t hat its most e f fe c t i ve ma inten a n c e plan                          p e c u l a r de si gn s of AT~ to meet individ ua l
i s ATE suppor t a t t he f light li n e, inter­                              unit u n d e r tes t (UUT) r e q u i r e men ~ s or - ca n
media t e maintenance l e v el , de p o t ma intenance                        b e c on f igured in to famil ies o f !          to ro­
l evel and the f a c t o r y . The ATE a t each                               vide f un c t i o n al f a mi ly approac he s -or 5 u. po rt.
main t enance l e vel i s pecu l i ar t o tha t mai n ­
t enanc e leve l ne eds ye t al lows t e s t p r o g r a ms
u s ed at t h e f light l i ne to be d u p l i cated a t                      Avion ics s y ste ms wi l l be supported on a
any other maintenance l e v e l s . Intermediate                              s o und tec hn ica l basis with r e d uc e d ac q uisi­
maintena nc e l e v e l test programs c a n b e                               t ion ha rdware/so ftware cos t a n d o n an o pt i ­
r epeated a t t h e d epot and f a c t or y . The                             mal Life Cyc le Cost basis when MATE is
n et resu lt a l lows test programs u s e d at the                            f u l ly imp l e men te d . This reduced Life Cyc l e
f ligh t l i n e l e v e l t o be re peated wi th mino r                      Co st basis ca n on ly be a ch i e v e d by co nside r ­
mOdific ation at the other main ten ance l e v el s .                         ing a l l of the Integrate d Logistics Suppor t
                                                                               ( I LS ) e l eme n t s f o r t h e MATE as we l l as t he
                                                                              avionics syst em.            Inc luded in the ILS cost
This capab i lity is needed t o r e duc e the                                 i s the p r ice of main tain ing i n t e g r i ty o f
"RETOK" ( Re - t e s t ) problem.     It has b een                            t h e ATE te st meas ureme n t ca pabi lity , i. e . ,
stated by p e r s o n s at al l l e v e l s of t he                           ca l ibration. To r e a l i ze the c ost e f f e c t i v e ­
mi li tary t h at a h ig h perce n t age o f the UUT 's                       ness o f MATE a l l the ILS f a c t o r s , incl uding
s e nt from one maintenance level t o t h e o the r                           calibra t ion. must b e cons idered early in the
f o r re pa i r are ei the r foun d to b e " ok" or                           acqu isition . In pe r f o r mi ng r esearch Eor
dif fer ent fai lures a r e found . As a result ,                             t h i s presenta ti on , I have f o u nd that t his
inventory is kept f l o a t i n g b e t we en ma inten­                       is not t he common practic e .
ance l e v el s r athe r t h a n in use i n weapon
syst ems . One c a u s e of RETOK i s l a c k of
transpor tability o f a pp licat ion t e s t s o f t­                         Th e ca libration commu nity h as n ot rea l ly
ware between maintenance leve ls . ~~TE                                       b e e n de ep ly invo l ved outside it~ own disci ­
wi ll f i x t h i s pr o b l e m.                                             p line , i n t h e ATE arena unt il it wa s in c l ude d
                                                                              in t he Ind ustr y /Joint Serv i ces Au t o ma t i c
                                                                              Te s t Pr o j e c t in November , 19 77 , and held
                                                                              it s f irst organi za t iona l me e ti n g in Jan uary ,
                                                                              1 9 7 8. Thi s is not s tated to re f l ect
                                                                              negative ly on the various ATE convent ions /
                                                                              p r o j e c t s or the ca libration commun ity . The
                                                                              s tatement i s made to emp hasize the need fo r
                                                                              more active part ici pation by t he ca l i bra tion
                                                                              community i n t h e ATE fi e ld if ca libration
                                                                              and trac ea b ili ty t o the Nat iona l Burea u o f
                                                                              Standards i s real ly as i mp o r t a n t a s we
                                                                              b el i e v e.


                                                                              I p r o j e c t tha t the greatest c ha l l eng e from
                                                                              t he ATE des igne rs in t he 80's t o b e the
                                                                              p o s s i b i l i t y that once again ca libra tion
                                                                              r e qui r eme nt s wi l l receive "a f t e r the f a c t"
                                                                              design considerations, un l e s s tho s e know­
                                                                              l e d g e abl e i n me t ro logy es t ab lish a working
                                                                              group devoted to t he " no t emerg ing " bu t
                                                                              actu a l ity of ATE . ATE does no t l e nd itself
                                                                              to ca libra t ion methodolog i es of 5- 10 yea rs
                                                                              ago and t he resu lt is tha t t h e re is g re a t
                                                                              c o n f u s i o n in the ATE industry wit h r e g a r d
                                                                              to what a r e neede d/des ired /acc eptable
                                                                              ca l i bra t ion p r a c t i ce s and proc e dures . This
                                                                              i s a task f OE me t r ol o gy invo lvement .


                          FigL l\'e 1                                         The me asur e me n t tec hniques mus t and wil l b e
                                                                              deve loped conc u r rent ly wi th new t e chology
                                                                              a dvances.    I t i s t h e managemen t contr o l
Anothe r important p rob lem to be a ddr e s s e d i s                        over the a pp lication and t racea b i l ity o f
the a ccu rac y of measur e men t at di ff e rent                             t he techniques with r e gar d to ATE t hat needs
ma int e na n c e l e vel s. Th i s i s f u r t h e r c o mp l i ­            d eve lopment.
cat ed by the f a ct t h a t the ATE at th e
di fferen t l e v e l s usua lly is no t the s a me.
Thus we have to c ontro l t he h a r dwa r e acc ur­                          Typica l ly , an ATE designe r cons i de rs a s
acy t hrough the us e of a good, e s t a b l i s h ed ,                       ad e quate ca l ibration p rocedures whic h li e
enfor cea b le ca libration scheme . This is                                  in one o f t he fo l lowing categor i e s ;
where metro log is ts can a nd must h el p if
the overa l l objec t ive s o f t h e ~~TE program                                  ATE Se l f Te s t
a r e to be ac hieved .
                                                                                     In s t rument " o ff l i n e" ca lib r a t i o::

The MATE conc ept a l lows f o r system c on f i g ura ­                            Pe rformance against a " go 1. de n [J UT"
tions as varied a s t he imagination c an
envision . Th e c o n c e p t wi l l sup port e i t he r                            ATE calibration u s i n 9        sy s te~   techni ques

                                                                     - 46 ­
                                                                                                            1979 Ann ual     Con f e r e~ c e



ATE Se l f Test                                                              s t i l l have th e probl e m o f signa l d e gradation,
                                                                             etc. , at th e UUT t e st i n te rf a ce . There for e ,
This procedur e involves th e u s e of ca librated                           tr u e ATE syste m ca libra tion is n o t a c h i eved .
"s ta ndard s " whic h a r e re s ide n t i n th e ATE
i tse lf .   The s e s tandards , ge nera l ly co~    ~er ­
cial i n s t r ume n ts , are us ed with a "wr a p                           Per for man ce a g a i ns t a "gol d en UUT "
around " d esign te c h n i q ue and s e l f - t es t s o ft ­
wa re t o c heck other instrumen ts i n the tes t                            Th e use o f a g ood "golden " UUT can p r o v i de
sta tion and t he r e b y ca l ibrate t h e ATE stati o~.                    me a s u r e me n t t e s t s at th e UUT c onn ection
                                                                             bu t t h i s accounts on ly for go /no -go t y p e
                                                                             c heck ing and do es no t addr ess t he p r o b lems
The use of ca librated standards wi thin t he                                o f dri ft of s ti mu l u s or mea s uremen t a c curac y .
ATE itse lf is no t an im proper p r o c e d u r e . The                     Ad d i t i o n a l l y , it i s c o s t l y to have s pare
d if f i c u l t y arises when th e s tandards cannot                        units to rep la c e UUT ' s tha t f a i l l e t a lo n e
be e ff e c ti ve l y app lied to all t he si gnal                           have a n addi tion a l " gol d e n UUT " for ca li ­
p a t h s u s e d durin g s ystem o p erations of                            b rati o n /se l f t est .
testing UUT's.          As a res u l t , th e se lf-c heck
is on ly partia l and not a rea l ca libra t ion
a t a l l-- i t is on ly a syste m c onfidence                               ATE ca libra ti on us ing s y s tem t e c h n i q ue s
che c k to de te rmine if t h e r e are basic h a r d
fai l ures in th e ATE .                                                     Thi s p r o c e d u re se e ms t o show th e mos t merit ,
                                                                             wi th r espec t to the t e c hn i c a l a c c u r a c y o f
                                                                             t h e calibra tion since it e mp l o y e a c a l i ­
Ad d i tio na l dif ficulti es a ris e wh en the s tan­                      bration s ys t e m s p eci fica lly con f igured f or
dards mus t be removed f rom the ATE f o r                                   ATE calibra tion.             Th e ca libra tion syst e m
ca libr a tion.                                                              is indiv i dua l ly tai lor ed t o eac h ATE a nd
                                                                             p r o vide s th e ab i l ity to ca libra te to sy stem
                                                                             spe ci f i c a t io n s r a t he r than t o i ndiv idua l
  a)   I f the standa rds ar e a lso used during                             i nst rumen t ma n u f a c t u r e r s' s p eci fica tions.
actua l UUT t est p ro ced u r e s th e ATE is ou t o f                      Al t ho u g h i t has ma n y b ene f i ts no t prov ided
commiss ion while the standard i s r e mo v e d                              by the prev i ou s ly d escribe d me t hod s e ve n
for ca l ibrati o n.                                                         t h i s app ro a c h is l i mi t e d i n effe c t i veness
                                                                             b ec a use it i s not i nve stiga ted e a r l y enoug h
   b)  If additiona l p r evi o u s l y ca l ibrat e d                       i n ATE s ys t e m de sig n .        Th e MA TE c onc ep t can
s tandards are subs ti tut ed whi l e t he ATE                               fi x t hat i f y o u g u ide i t p ro p erly .
standa rds ar e b e ing r e - ca librated , s par e
s tandards must be availab l e, a c o s t ly
approach .                                                                     y
                                                                             M p urpose is not to challeng e any o f t he
                                                                             ap p r o a c h e s disc uss ed in this p ap e r . The
   c)     Instr ument standards ca n be unnece s sar ­                       message is t o pr o vide " f e edba ck " t o the
i ly overca librated ad d ing t o th e ATE support                           metro logy community o f a bro ad inte rp r e t a ­
c ost s .                                                                    t ion o f what t he ATE commun ity "hears and
                                                                             unders tands" about me t r ol og y from t h e
    d ) Th e sta ndards may be ca librat ed in th e                          me t r o l o g i s t s t h e ms elv e s.
manua l cod e cau sing t he m t o o p erate inco rrect­
l y in t h e a ut o mat i c mod e i n t he ATE.       (T h e
use of t he IEEE 4 8 8 can mak e the use of                                  I p r o fe s s a gai n t ha t un l es s t he metro logy
automa tic /semi-automa tic ca libra tion more                               mana gers r ecogn iz e t hat ATE is no t simp ly
f e a s ab l e bu t , un t i l co ncepts lik e MATE a re                     emerging but has arrived, an d t ha t t he
ready f o r imp l ementation the bus struc ture                              appr oac he s t o t he ATE ca libration n eed t o
o f i n s tr ume n t s u s e d in ATE will c on t i n ue                     b e or gani zed and l e d by y our di s c i p l i ne ,
t o vary) .                                                                  we t he ATE con~uni t y will k e e p on r e p eating
                                                                             th e mista k es o f t he p a st and adversely
  e)   I ns t r ume n t s t andards ar e damag ed by                         i mpact t he effec tivenes s o f ATE .
remova l , trans portat ion, e tc . , in the c a li­
brat ion p r o ce s s , which adds t o sup por t costs.
                                                                             The MATE P ro g r a m offer s a u n i qu e o p po r tuni ty;
                                                                             It is in t he Re sea rc h & Deve l opme n t p h ase ;
Instrument "off lin e" ca libra ti on                                        it us e s a bus struc tur e d a p proach whi ch can
                                                                             accommodate metro log y n e e ds; it r ecogn iz es
Thi s i d ea d i f fers f r o m s e lf t es t s inc e i t                    t h e n e e d f o r sup por t of MATE ATE; it can
do es no t c o n t a i n emb edde d s t andards within                       p r o v i de connections f o r ca librat ion needs
t h e ATE . Each ins trument mu s t be cal ibrated                           a nd it c a n p r o v i de a mec han i sm to ha v e metro ­
by r emoval t o a me trol ogy f a c i lity/ l a b o r a ­                    l o g y considera tions invo ked v i a contrac tua l
t or i es .  I t has t he same ne ga t ive f e a t u re s                    re quir e me n ts on ATE s u p pli e rs a nd use rs .
as sel f t e st p rev i o u s l y dis cus sed and an                         ATE n e eds y our coll ective in puts now t o b e
add e d p rob lem,      u n le s s e a c h i n s t r ume n t ha s            effec t i ve i n t he 19 8 0 's .
t he same cal ibra tion cyc le, th e s t a nd a r d
units wil l be r a n d o ml y remove d r es u lting in
ATE that will b e o p er a ti ng muc h o f t he time
a t l ess t han it s f u l l c a p a bi lity.          Th i s
f a c t ha s b e en borne o u t in o ur s urveys.


We try to mi nimize t h e ATE down time, da ma ge
d ue t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n, etc . , by ca l ibr ation
on s i te us i ng po rta b le stand a rds but we
                                                                    - 4 7­
1 979 Annual Con fe re nce

                                             METROLOGY AND FIBER OPTICS

                                                  DR. FELIX P. KAPRON

                                                 Bell-Nor t h ern Re s e a r c h

                                                      Ottawa, Canada



My tal k b e gins wit h a hi storical r e view                        vs . light i np u t , dar k curr en t, s p e e d,
ran ging fr om the obs ervations o f li ght r efl ec ­                ca pa citanc e and g a i n . Nois e i s pa r t icul a r l y
tions wi t h i n a wat er s t re am in 1 854 , along                  im portan t at this e n d o f the c ommunica tion
the brea kthrough s around 1 970, to the rapid                        link, and the r eceiver s en sitivity vs .
c ommercial d e v elopment s of t h e p r e sen t da y.               s ign a l li n g rat e h e lps d eterm in e the l e ngth
Th e a dvanta g e s of fiber transmis sion are                        be t ween r e p eaters.
outlined--hi gh bandwidth, l ow attenuation,
small s i z e , wei ght, e l e c t ri c a l immunity,
signal sec ur ity , f ewer r e p eater s, and fallin g                Int erconne cti ons i n c l ud e source-t o-fibe r
c osts. Appl i c a t i o n s i n c l ude the gover n ­                couplers tha t c a n exh i b it near- end or far­
men tal / military, industr ial control com puters                    e n d f eed back e f fe c ts t hat c a n v a r y the mea­
and t ele com munications.                                            sur ed c oupling effi cien cy wi t h sepa r a t io n and
                                                                      wave leng t h . Fiber joint s (rema t ab le
                                                                      con n ec t o r s or per ma n e nt s plices ) affe ct bot h
Ne xt, maj or com pon ents of fib er c ommu n i ca t ion              sy st em atten uat i on a nd distortion. Th eir
s ystem are r eviewed-- sourc es, fib ers, d e­                       p rope r t ies depe nd up on the intrin sic j oint
te ct ors, int erconne ct i on s -- along wi t h p ro ­               d esign and upon e xt r insic f a c t o rs s uc h as
bl ems in their measurement . Light e mi t t i n g                    fib er t yp e a nd j oint loc a t io n wi t hi n the
diode s and inj ection laser di od es ha v e                          commu n ic a t ion s link. Di rectional co up lers
differing pro perti e s of light output vs.                           are us ed to t a p s ign a l s onto o r o f f of a
current output, wav elength spec t r um, r a dia­                     po ss i b ly d irec ti o na l trunk f ibe r; another
t ion pa t te r n , spee d , a n d r e l i a b i li ty . More­        us e is in wavelength-d i visi on multi plexing
over, d ynamic and t emp era ture-d e pendent                         wi t h s e parate wav el eng ths c a r ry i ng s epa r a te
e ff ects add to mak e the com plete c h a r a c t e r ­              s ig n a l s . Pa r a me ters s uc h as c o up lin g r atio
i zation of fib er sourc e s a l ength y p ro ­                       and dir e cti vi t y a r e important , and t he se
ced u re .                                                            a r e c l os e ly related t o the mod al a n d back ­
                                                                      scattering pro perti es of t he fib er.

The var i e ty o f graded a n d s t ep ind ex, multi­
mode a nd m      onomod e fibe r s is now cons i de re d              In s umma ry , c a r e f u l measurement up on f iber
al ong wi t h the p ecu li a r p r oper ties of mo d es               o pt i c component s can be ve ry c o mplex , and
        ea
and m sure d f iber p r ope r t i es - - n umer ica l                 value s o f ten vary wi th the l o ca tion o f the
apertur e (t heoretical and actual ), atten­                          d e vic e within th e o ptical link . Unlike
u ati on (a b sorp t ion and s catt er ing ), distor­                 othe r comm un i c a t io n media , sy s tem per fo r ma n ce
tion (multimod e and c hr omat i c), refractive                       i s not a c curatel y ca lc u l a b le , and compo nen t
ind ex p r o f ile , c a b le e nv ironmen t . Th ese                 d esigner-u s e r interaction i s oft en r equir ed.
p r ope r t i e s v a ry wi t h sou rc e wa v e len gth and           So me standard i zati on in measurement s and
fibe r length; a n umbe r o f compe ti ng methods                     s pecifi c ations i s nec e s sary, a nd we o utl in e
to me a sure them ar e outlined.                                      some pro g r es s i n t his area. F inally, the
                                                                      tal k conc l ude s wi t h a d escri ption of a
                                                                      f e w of the hundred s o f trial fibe r sys tems
Det ector s are reve rsed - b i ased j uncti on s of                  oper a t i n g worldwide.
the P IN or avalanche photodi od e t y pe.
Mea sured parameter s incl ud e c ur re n t o u tpu t




                                                              -4 8­
                                                                                                         1979 Annual Confer ence

                                    TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES FOR EFFE CTIVE

                                    PRESENTATIONS AND PERSUASIVE PROPOSALS

                                                     W. P . NI LSSON
                                            Mana ger, Corporate Training
                                                  a
                                            and M na ge me n t Dev elopment
                                                    Hewlett-Packard


To k ee p up with ra pi dly a dvanc ing technology,                   the organization. The id ent if ication of
Metrology Manag ers in the 1 980's will n e ed                        needs is the first ste p in the p rocess we
to spend an increasing amount of time compet­                         will be discussing. Effective ne eds anal ysis
i n g f or th e resources that ar e essential for                     is more than simple n eeds identification,
doing an e f fe c t ive and p r o fe ss ion a l job.                  a nd it mu s t include an analysis of the
This task is b ecoming both more difficult                            e nv i r o nme n t i n wh ich your organi zation o pe r ­
and im portant du e t o som e r ec ent e c o nomi c                   ates and where you fit into the organization .
trends i n the u n i t ed Stat es. Producti vity,                     One starting place is to r ev i e w and c lea r l y
which is mea s ured by dividing Gross National                        state th e e n d pur pose of y o u r d epartment.
Product by total employm ent, has b e en                              It may not b e possible to de fin e a c ommon
steadily declining during the last d e c a de .                       p u r po se f o r each o f y o u r metrology organiza­
Th e a verag e per c e n t a g e rate of chang e during               tions. Howev er, here are some exampl es:
the p e r i od 1 96 3-19 73 was 1.9 %. Ove r the
pe riod 19 73-1979, the corresponding figure                          1.	    To insur e th e qu a l i t y o f th e or ganization's
was 0.1 %. I n 197 8 i t was actually negati ve,                             products or s ervices.
-0. 2 %.1 A s econd trend is th e amount of
ass ets ne eded by U. S. companies, a s me a s u r e d                2 .	   To insure appro priate lev els o f p r od uc ­
by dollars o f a s s e t s p e r e mpl oy e e . This                         tion.
number has been steadily rising. At Hewl ett­
Pa c k a r d , for exampl e, we n e eded $22K per                     3.	    To insure the acceptance of the organi za­
empl o yee in 19 74 an d r equ ired $ 3 0K p er                              tion's p r od u c t by the customer (including
emp l o y ee in 1978. Similar fi gures f o r DEC                             a government in spector).
ar e $26 K and $ 32K. As se ts ne eded p e r employee
ha ve ris en because of inflation, which has
go ne up fr om a rate o f change of 2.8 % i n the                     In wr iting a s t a teme n t o f purpose, keep it
1 9 60's to ov er 10 % f o r the past 1 2 mo n t h s ,                a simpl e , y et cl ear d efinition of the
and also because o f increas ed t echnological                        reason y o ur p a r t i c u l a r d epartment exists.
sophistication. 2 Int egrate d circu it manu­
facturing requires much mo r e cap it a l e qui p­
men t than assembly p r oce s s e s usin g discrete                   Gi ven a p u rpo s e , the o rg a n iz at i o n must
components.                                                           f i g u re out a means of aChi e ving it, and this
                                                                      requ ir es a strategy.       It's di fficult, however,
                                                                      f or most o f us to tak e a strategy and im ple­
 o
M s t business and e c o no mi c scenarios f or                       ment it without going through s ome additional
th e 19 80's s ug ge s t that ma na ge r s will need                  planning ste p s.      I n our c ompany, we spend
to spend much mo r e e f f o r t on increas ing                       c onsiderabl e time teaching new managers the
productivity and asset util i ziation. Cap i t a l                    c oncepts of purpos e, strategy, and tactics.
eq u ipme n t ac quisitions will mo s t lik ely b e                   Let me outline the main points that we cov e r
more difficult to justify unl ess a direct                            in our management d e velo pment programs.
relationship to p r od u c tivi t y can be d e mon­                   Fi gure 1 illustrates the r elationshi p between
strate d .    In this e nv ironment, a sign ificant
cha l lenge fo r the p r o f e s s i o n a l Metrolo gy
Manag er will be com peting for and obtaining
the peop le and e qui pment that will be needed
to do an increasingl y more com pl ex j o b .

                                                                                                                        STR A TEG IC
My talk is d i v id e d into t hr e e segments.                                                                         POSITI ON
First, I would l i ke to di scuss the role of
Metrology Manag e r in plann ing f o r the
organization's ne eds by d eveloping a d e par t­                                       T1   T ACT ICS
mental strate gy. Second, we will sp end som e
tim e d i s c u s s in g the basic elements o f pre­
paring proposals for additional resources.
F i n a l l y , we will conclude by discussing s ome
k ey com ponents o f e f f ecti v e p r o po s a l
p re se n t a t i ons .
                                                                                                         T I ME



PLANNI NG AND NEEDS ANALYS I S
                                                                                     FIGURE 1. ST RAT EGY AND TACTICS
In order f o r a p r o po s a l t o b e acc e ptabl e, i t
must b e a solution to a n eed that confronts

lEconomic Outlook, OECD (J u l y 1 979), p . 26.
2 I b i d, p . 5 3 .
                                                             - 49 ­
1979 An n u a l Con f erenc e

a strat egy , or l o n g- t e r m strat egic po s i t i o n ,            In t his s hort p eriod of t ~
an d the tactics f o r ach i eving it . Th e                             cov er a l l o f the asp ec t s 0:
strat egic p o si t i on is r eached by first achiev­                    we can revi ew some o f t he ~ ~ 1m o~t n
ing a s erie s o f shorter t erm                                         basi c e lements that can b e of immed " e
tacti ca l p os i t i o n s, Tl, T2 ' e t c . One o f the                to yo u in se l ling p r opo s a l s f c~ a d d i ' i o
too ls to he l p ma n age r s r each th e ir goa ls is                   r es ources . Th e mos t im po rtant o f          hes e
the t act ica l p l a n . This i s a writt en p l a n                    p r i n c i p le s, and one t hat is k ey in p l a nn i n .
consisting o f concis e s tat ements o f goa ls                          your prop osa l p re sen t a t i o n , is to i d ent i f y
t o g e t h e r with action p l a n s for r eac hing                     t h e d ecision mak e r or mak ers who wi l l have
thes e goa ls.           In our com pany we e nc o u r a g e             f i na l say on your r e quest . A common mi s t a k e
our mana g e r s to l i mit their tactica l p lans                       is to assume tha t t h e d ecision wil l b e mad e
to the f ive or six k ey o b j ect ives that wi ll                       at t oo Iowa l e v el . Mak e sure you r eal ly
ind eed make a di ff er enc e i n "the ir de par t me nt 's              k now . Sinc e v e r y fe w decisions a r e made
p e rf orma n ce d u ri ng the nex t fisca l y ear .                     in a va c ~um, mak e sur e t hat y o u id entify
Some of t h e b est p l a n s , an d the ones th a t                     the oth e r individuals who wi ll in fl u e nce
ar e usua l l y mo st succ e ssfu l ly implemented ,                     the decision. Most decis ion make r s se ek
a r e t y p e wr i t t e n o n one sheet of p a per . We                 advic e , o r in some wa y, obtain op inions
a lso encourage wide internal dist ri b ution                            from o the rs on p r opo s a l s pr i o r to making
of de partmental t a c tic a l p l a n s , as t h i s                    a fina l dec ision.        Th ese p e o p l e ar e your
so lid i fies c ommi tmen t.                                             customers a lso , and you must identify them
                                                                         wel l i n advanc e o f p reparing y our p r op os a l .


  e
W s ho u l d not unde r estima te the value of a                         PREPARI NG THE PROPOSAL
s ol i d p l a n n i n g pro c e s s , and the tactica l
p l a n is an exce l lent manag ement too l t o k e e p                  Proposals a r e accepted or r ejected u s u all y
your organ ization foc us ed o n i t s purpose                           for very rati ona l reaso ns .            If the p roposa l
and th e ar eas wh e re it can ma k e a con tr ibu­                      wil l result i n a more succ essful t o t al
tion to t h e t o tal or ganization . Ca r r y i n g                     organi zat ion , and the cost recovered with
ou t the tactica l p l a n, h owe v e r , wi l l require                 an adequa te re turn on t h e i n v e s t me nt , i t
peop l e and mat erial r esourc es . To obtain                           wi l l n o r mall y b e acc e pted; o therwise i t
the s e resources, yo u wi l l mo s t l i k ely n e ed                   doesn't stand a chanc e , a nd I would l i k e t o
to p r epa re a proposal . Proposa ls t hat ar e                         add that they p r o b a b l y shou ld not . Sa l es ­
a pproved an d a r e successful ly i mp l emented ,                      p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e t hat custome rs g eneral ly
must b e based on r e al organiza t ional ne eds,                        do thing s for th eir reasons , no t the s a l e s­
and the b est way o f focusin g management's                             persons's. They do t h i n g s because t o do so
att en tion on these ne eds is through a n                               wil l resul t i n a pos it ive benefit to them .
e f f e c t i ve and t h o r o u g h tactical p l a n n i n g            Your tas k i n se ll ing a p r o po s a l is to t i e
p r o ce s s .                                                           y o u r request i n t o specific benefits for
                                                                         your c u s t o me r s . Th e bene fi t to you is
                                                                         i r r e l event; y o u r p roposa l must b~ a b ene f it
Let 's assume that you have d e v e l oped a                             to t h e individua ls who are being asked to
tactical p l a n f or your depar tme n t f o r your                      a p prove it . Ask yourself, " I f I were h e
next fisca l year, and a key e l ement in you r                          or she , wha t bene fit would th i s p r o p o s a l
plan re quires t h e addition of people and                              br ing t o me?" This is why i t is so impor ­
c a pita l a ss e ts . You know that yo u wil l need                     t a n t f o r you to know yo u r b us iness and t he
to submi t a p ro p o s a l , b ut who should th e                       p r o b lems o f the pGo p l e who manage it . It
p r op o s a l be di re c t ed to? I would exp e c t                     is t he only way tha t you c an possibly iden­
that i n most o f our o rganiza tio ns, we wou ld                        t i f y al l o f the potentia l benefits o f
submit the proposal t o o u r b oss . Let me                             your p r opo s a l . Us e y our staff to help you
sug gest that we use t he p lural o f the wo r d                         i n iden ti fy ing p o te n t i a l benef its . As k
" bo s s" , i. e. , "bos s es" , as most o f us work                     q u e s t i o n s of ind ividual s who a re famil iar
in c ompl ex organizatio ns where man y i n d i v i d ­                  with tha t p a r t of the organi zat ion t h a t
uals expect per formance from us, influence                              y our pr o p o s a l wil l affec t . Final ly, t ry
our dai l y ac tivi ties, and mos t lik e l y have                       to identify e a c h benefit wi th the indi vidua l
some inf lue nc e o n our car e ers . Th i s , to me ,                   de c is ion ma ker , or p e r s o n inf luencing t h e
d e fin es a "boss " , and I have at l e a s t fo u r                    d e cisio n , so t h a t you can l a t e r d irect y o u r
or five of them at anyon e momen t in t i me .                           p roposa l on a more p e r s o n a l basis .
What real ly brou gh t t his home t o me on e
d a y , was wh e n I listened " o my boss, our
                                   t
Vic e - President o f Personne l, give a we l c om­                      A pessimist ic sa lesman once said tha t for
ing t a l k to a n ew group o f emp l o yeep . He                        every benefit , a somewha t reluctant customer
encouraged them t o t h i n k o f t h ems e l v e s a s                  will think of an obj ect ion . Al t ho ug h I
"s e l f - employ ed. " Th ey were, in e ffect,                          wo u l d e n c o u r a g e you to be a who le lo t more
se l ling their s ervic es t o our organi zation,                        o p t im i s t i c than tha t, you mus t p r e pare for
and t he i r i ndividua l success wo u l d be                            t he many ob j ec tio ns t h at cou ld qui t e
d et ermin ed by ho w va luab l e t he i r service wa s                  poss ibly give your pro posa l a p re ma t ure
t o the ir c u s t o me r, in this ca se , our company.                  dea th . Try t o t h i nk o f ev ery con ceivabl e
When i n t h e future they b ecame conc erned                            r eason why someon e migh t r eact n egatively
about t h e ir p r o g r e s s in the com pany , he                      to your p r opo s a l . Iden ti fy who may b ring
suggested that t h e se ne w employees ask th em­                        up each ob j ection, for this wi l l b e use ful
selves whethe r t he i r p r o d uct ~as s ti ll "u p                    l at e r i n presel ling y o u r propos a l . Deve l o p
t o snu ff" and competi tive wi t h wha t was a lso                      r es ponses t o e a c h objec ti on. Try t o t u r n
"on the marke t ." I think that ma n a ge rs mus t                       each objec tion into a bene f i t . Us e your
recogn ize tha t ac quiri ng resou rces is a                             s ta f f t o h e lp you her e by b o th p l a y ing a
selli ng p rocess, and that bosses ar e , in                             d evi l 's a dvocacy role a nc th ~ n k ing of cr ea­
r e ality , customers.                                                   t ive r e s p o n s e s t o t he p os s i b le objection s.
                                                                - 5 0­
                                                                                                     19 79 Annual Confer ence

Anot~er       basic proposal s elling concept is                              Timing . Are you r e ady? Is the t ime
t h e develo pment of an i mp l e me n t a ti o n plan.               you se lected ap pro pr iate f o r y o u r customers?
This is simply a p lan for p u t t i n g your p ro­                   wil l they be ab l e to devot e t h elr a ttent ion
posa l into effect onc e i t i s ap proved . On e                     t o y o u r pr op o s al ?
of the r easons for doi ng t h i s i s obvious;
y o u wil l eventually have to ma k e your pro ­                              Location .      I f po s sible , ma k e sur e t ha t
p o s a l o p e r a tiona l and cost effective . Th e                 th er e wi ll b e no ln te r r up t i o n s a nd t h at you r
o ther reason is a l i t t l e mo re subtle; i t                      c u s tomers wi l l b e c omf o rt a b le . Often you
is an exce l len t t echniqu e for build i ng                         can u s e your own f a c il i t y to an advantage .
confid ence i n your p r op o s a l . A wel l thought                 A p r opo s a l fo r a dditional r e sou r ces f or your
out imp lementation p l a n de mo ns t ra te s t o                    department c an be more e a s iL y explai ned to
your cus to mers that you have had the f o r e ­                      th e deci s i o n mak e r s when yo~ are a b l e to
si ght to th ink through how you will i mp l e ment                   show them how your faci lity will funct ion
your pro posal .          It demon s trat es t hat you                wh en th e pr opo s a l i s approv ed . This a lso
have confide nce that yo u r p r opo sa l is worthy                   gi v es you an exce llen t op por tu ni ty t o
of bein g a p prov ed, and it builds confi d ence                     demons tra t e to t he d eci s i o n ma ke r s how wel l
in your c ustomer both in your proposa l and                          you hav e mana ged y o u r existing r e so u rce s .
in you as a ma nage r .                                               I 've o b s erv e d t h a t in a lmost a l l cas es whe re
                                                                      resourc es must be a l loc ated , t hey f l o w th e
                                                                      faste st a nd eas i es t to those ac t i vities and
A v er y succ essful ma n a g er i n our com pa ny                    ma n a ge r s t h a t obtain the b e st r etu rn on
a lmost nev er has a prob l em i n winning                            th eir exis t ing r esou rc es .
people over to h is i deas, and i n partic u lar,
has been v e r y success fu l i n e s t ab l i s hi ng                         Suppor t Eq u i pme n t . I f y our p r esenta tion
n ew p ro j e c t s and p ro ced ure s where ap prova l               requir es visua l alds such as ov erh ead t r a ns ­
was n eed ed at a high level.           He always                     p a re n c ie s , prepare them we ll in advan c e .
f o l l ows th e proc ess that we have been t al k i ng               Make sure tha t th ere is a projector that
abo ut this morning, but he conce ntrates extra                       works , in t h e mee ting r o o m, and have a s pare
hard o n iden tifying t he peop l e who are l i k e l y               bu lb .     If you p lan on a d e monstrat ion, h ave
to b e his o pponents a n d thei r possible                           everyth ing rea dy be f o r e the mee t ing and mak e
obj ections t o his propo s a l . He develo ps                        sure e ve ryth i ng o pe ra t es as p l a n n ed . A poor
answers f o r t he se objections, a nd indiv idua l ly                or no n - wor ki ng de mons tra tion wi l l hu rt your
meets wi th th ese ind i vidua ls pr ior to t h e                     p r o po s al and damage you r c red i b i l i t y wi th
ma i n pro posa l me et i ng . By meet ing t i me he                  your d e cision makers .
has usua l ly ra l li e d t he i r su p po rt .
                                                                                Vi s u a l Ai d s . The most common l y us ed
                                                                      t yp e o f visua l aid fo r pr es e n tations s eems
PROPOSAL P RESENTATIONS                                               to be the o v e r h ead tra ns par ency . On e o f
                                                                      its a d v a n t ag e s is that i t can be u s ed i n a
Up to this p o i n t , we have t al k e d abou t the                  room o n l y s light ly d a r k e n e d , and this a l lows
p la nnin g and pr e p ar a t i o n of p rop o s a l s . The          you to re tain v isual con tact with your
next s t e p i s to p r e se nt the p r o po s a l in a               audience. Ano t h e r advanta ge is t hat a n
manner so that it i s acc e pted .            In my opinion,          overhead tra nsparency is fu lly v isible to
t h e mos t effec t ive and p e r s u a s i v e p r opo s a l s       the person makin g t he p r e s e n t at i o n , and for
a r e p r e sen ted i n per son , for as a devic e used               sma l l g r o u p s , no opera tor assista nce is
a lone, the written p r oposa l can often be                          r e qu ired . Yo u can a l so hi gh l i ght an d
ineff ective.         The custome r o f t e n misunde r ­             e mphasi ze key p o in t s b y writing di r ec tly on
stands the actual benefit of the p r opo s al .                       t h e overhead slide . As p ar t of your p r epa r a ­
Two - wa y oommun i.c a t.Lon cannot t a ke p l a ce ,                tion, pr ojec t the t r an s p a re nc ie s by you rself
a n d f eedback is impossib l e . Th i s d oes not                    i n the room you wi l l be u s ing for the pre s ent a ­
sugg es t that you shou l d totally ignor e t h e                     tion , and mak e sure tha t e ach trans parency
wr itten pro posal , as your boss may demand                          is legibl e a n d c a n b e seen fro m th e mo s t
it . Also , fo r some reason you ma y n ot b e                        r e mo t e part of the room . You ma y wish t o
ab le to me et persona l ly with t h e d e c i s i o n                u s e 35~n c o l or s l ides , part i c u l a rly if you
ma k i ng group , and a w ritte~ pro posal may be                     want to show your f a ci l i t y to d ecision ma ke r s
t he on ly chance you have . The re i s no                            who ar e n ot ab l e t o meet at your l o c a t i o n .
di fference in the planning of a written                              I have seen some outstan din g 35mm sl id e
p r o p o s a l , but o n e mu s t b e careful to be v ery            presenta tions , but t he y ar e more c ost ly .
c lear and expl icit . Question s f r o m th e                        You a lso need a compl et ely dark en e d room .
reader a re im possib l e . The cOntent o f th e                      You should ob tain the s e r v i c e s o f a g oo d
writ ten proposal needs t o be benefit o riented .                    p h o t o gr a p h e r for a 35mm p r e s enta t io n . Text
Object ions can often b e antici pated and                            and diagrams on 35nun sl i d es can us ua l ly be
answered by including a l i s t of pos sibl e                         obtained from a g r aph i c ar ts organi zation .
is sues that the pr o p o s a l migh t rais e a long
wi t h answers for these issues .                                            Ha ndo uts .  It is genera l ly a good idea
                                                                      to gi v e e a c h meeting pa rt ic ipant a sununa ry
                                                                      ou t line o f your pr opo s a l that l is t s th e ke y
An effecti ve o r a l p re s e n t a t i on can be ma de              b ene fi ts . You ma y wa nt; to provide t hem a lso
to o n e person or to a group; your situa tio n                       with a c opy of you r i mplementa tion p l a n .
wi l l dep end on the number of peo p le t ha t                       Keep handout s brief, as I sus p ect that t h e
ar e invo lved in making the dec ision.              In               vast majority o f this ma t e r i a l i s n o t used
pre paring fo r y o u r prese n t a t i o n , I think t h e           a gain after th e me et ing .
fi rs t t hing to worry about is the ma na geme n t
of t he phy sical f a c t o r s . Th e se i n c l ud e :
                                                                      Th e p r e se nta t io n i ts el f should be we l l
                                                                      p r e p a r ed and r e he a r sed. Wri te a n o u t l i n e of

                                                              -5 1­
1979 Annual Conferenc e

the presentation, with more detailed o p e n i n g                    I've ve r y much e n j oy ed t ~ i s o p p c r t unit y
and closing sec tions.            I t is v e r y important            t o s h a re some i d eas wi t h you, a n d        sin c e r e y
tha t you get off t o a good s t a r t , and that                     h ope that all of y o u r f u t u r e p r o po s a 5 a ~ e
y o u con c l ud e in a conv incing manner. Most                      successful both for your orga n i z a ~ i o n and
of us have had cours es o r seminars in pre­                          f or you indiv idually.
s entation techni ques where we were instructed
to (1) t ell the group why y o u are there and
wh a t you will present, (2) p r es ent th e
content o f your presentation and, (3) sum­
mariz e.      Th ere is not r eally much that can
be add ed to this basic t echni que, e x c ept
when making a presentati on t o gain a pproval
o n a pr oposal, don't forget to ask for the
o r de r : In preparing your talk, c oncentrate
on clarity and s impli city. Stick to the
ma i n ben efits of yo u r propo sal.            Remember
that you must convince the deci sion mak ers
that y o u r pro posal will benefit them.
Before writing your final o u t l i ne , go o ver
your presentation i n your mind s everal
times.      Don't merely read it, but think your
way through i t.           Is it logical? Does one
idea flo w smoothly into th e n ext ? Put
yourself in the listener's pos iti on. What
effect wi l l y our wo r d s have? An t i c i p a te
th eir q u e s t i o n s and consider your responses .
If you expect the audience to take the time
to listen t o you, be sure that yo u ta ke the
time t o p r a c t i c e .   Us e an empty ro om, if
nec essary, but c onsider the us e o f y ou r
staff as a "guinea pig " audience.                   Th ey have
a s t a k e in your p r op o s a l too.      F i n a l ly , when
you begin the a ctual p r esentation, b e
natural and o p e n wi t h a s mi le .         There is no
better wa y to r a d i a te c onfidence.


SUMMARY

This morning we discussed why and how metrol­
ogy managers in t he future will need to ma k e
e f fe c t ive proposal pre sentations. We talked
about three phases o f proposal gene rati on,
(1) Pl a n n i n g and Ne e d s Anal y sis, (2J Pro­
p o s a l Pre pa ration, and ( 3 ) propo sal Pre s e n t a ­
tion.


In the planning phase , we discuss ed the n e ed
to id entif y the ove r a l l end purpose of y our
department and y our l ong te rm strategy for
ma k i n g a contribution t o y o u r organization's
s u cc e s s . Your strategy i s achi eved by the
successful execution of tactical plans.
Thes e tactical plans should form the basis
for your proposals for additional res our ces.
A final, but key, point of p l a n n i ng is to
identify your custome r, i.e., the decision
maker s and people who will influenc e the
decision.


Sec ondly, we talked about the need for
generating pro posals with cl early identified
benefits. A benefit , remember, exi sts o n l y
in the eyes o f your c u s t o me r . Make sure
that you identify possibl e objecti ons to
you r proposal along with appropriate respon­
ses.   And , d on't f orget the impl ementation
plan for your proposal.


F i n a l l y , we talked about s ome of the basic
elements of the presentation it self.



                                                               -52­
                                                                                     1979 ANNUAL CONFERENCE
                                                                                            Workshop Report



                                     BIOMEDICAL- PHARMACEUTICAL WORK SHOP



The workshops organized by the committee a n d                   pharmaceutical community with the qua lity
presented at Boulder were small and lively,                      standard for calibration sy s t ems and
made up to a large e xtent of people from                        measurements.
the health care community.    There were 8 to
1 2 attendees at each sessi on.  Some 16 t o                                        Geron Smi t h
18 attendees were identified as keenly                                              Workshop Developer
interested individuals with potential for
committee member ship.

The sessions c ontained 50 % pharma ceutical,
30 % d evice manufacturers and 20% third p arty
supporting calibr ation laboratories. As far
as was known, n o hospital representati ves
attended.

Each workshop had individual themes:

   1)	   Setup and mana gem ent o f

         standards laboratories;


   2)	   Training and education; and,

   3)	   Provisi on of third party

         c a l i b r a t i o n services.


In gen eral dis cussion foll owed t hese themes.

The c ommittee plans a no t he r all day meeting
in the Spring o f 1980, tentati v ely in Apri l
in the Chicago area.

This c ommittee will likel y grow in s i z e
and orient its activities toward bi omedical
and pharmaceuti cal requirements.         It will
take steps t o encourage participation by
re gulatory agencies r e l a t i n g to measurement
problems and c o operation with NBS. The
general feeling at thi s time is that a f ull
blown workshop s ession may n ot be required
for	 the 1 9 8 0 Conference.

I was n ot able to address the item conce rning
                              e
"The P roficienc y o f M t ro l og i c a l Na t u r a l
De v i c e s and Instrumentation" whi ch was d ue
t o not attending the last Board o f Directors
meeting in Ph i l a d e l p h i a .

The	 c ommittee chairman and I request that
this t opic be withdrawn s i n c e we n ow
consider it to be inap propriate a n d unnec­
essary. This topic wa s a derivation of the
work the p re v i o u s c h a i r man , An dy Dickson,
had	 beg un in respect to the re commendation
for the e valuation o f proficiency ­
metrologis t medical devi ces and instrumen­
tation. The s ubject of p r oficienc y o f
metrologica l nat ural devices l i es in the
domain of gov ernmental agencies a n d we
recommend it s h o u l d be withdrawn.

The	 Chairman and I attended the ASQC z-l
conuni ttee mee ting y e s te r d ay and Geron plans
t o maintain a c l o s e tie with this group
since it may pr ovide the biomedical/




                                                         -5 3­
1 97 9 ANNUAL CONFERENCE
Wo rks hop Report

                                           METROLOGY QUALITY REQU I REMENTS


The Metr o l ogy Qua li ty Req ui reme nts Wo rks hop                  MIL-C -45662 (Propo sed       R ev is i o~l
consisted of four (4) p ape r s :

                                       Pane list                       The U.s . Ar my (specifical ly t h e U. S . Ar!l:Y
                                                                         e
                                                                       M t ro logy and Ca lib r a tion Center) se r ve s as
Trac e a b ili t y                Dr . Brian C. Be lange r             the p r e p a r i n g ac t i vi ty for DoD in t he
                                                                       p r epa r a t i on o f MI L-C-4 5662 . Br u ce Cou l ter's
 e
M a s ur ement As s u r a nc e    Dr . Br ian C . Be lange r           r e s po ns ib il ity was t o revi ew, e v a l u a t e a nd
   Pr o g r ams (MAPS )                                                coor d ina te comme n ts by I ndustr i al As s oc i a t i o n s
                                                                       and DoD De partments t o a pro po sed r e vi si on
MIL-C-4 5662 (P roposed           Bruce Co u lte r                     of MIL-C -45662.           Bruc e di sc us s ed seve ra l
  Rev is ion)                                                          of th e c oo rdina tion co~nent s f rom ind u s try
                                                                       and DoD 's po si t ion o n ma j or p o i n t s o f conc e rn
Concen sus S ta n dards           Ro l f B. Schumacher                 ind i c a t e d by ind us try .


Tr aceabi li ty                                                        The r e c omm endation t o Headq ua r t e rs , U.S . Ar my
                                                                       Materi a l Deve lopme n t a nd Rea di n e ss Command
                                                                       at th e time of the Oc t o be r , 1 979, NCSL
Dr . Be lang e r 's p re s e n t a t i o n prov ided att e n de~       Confe r ence in Bou lder was to d i s c o n t i nu e
wi th a n e x ce l l e n t o verv iew o f "tra c e abili t y"-­        th e e ffo r t t o rev ise MIL- C-4 56 6 2. Ho we v e r ,
t he va ry i ng d e f in i tions , purpo ses a nd u Se                 t he mos t r e c ent informat i on i nd i cat es t ha t
of tr ace ab il it y and f i n a l ly the var i e ty o f               Do D wi l l proce ed wi t h p u b l i s hi ng a r e v i sed
ways th at t r a c e ab ili t y t o NBS can be achieved .                I
                                                                       M L- C- 4 5 66 2 . The c h ange s t o the doc ume nt
Techni qu es commo n ly us e d to estab lish a n d                     a r e not y e t k no wn a l t ho ugh i t is un de rstood
mai ntai n t r aceabi lity t o NBS incl u d e:                                                  ea
                                                                       t ha t l a b elin g o f M s u r ing a n d Te s t Eq u i pmen t
 (1) NBS ca librat i o n of s tand ard s o r i n s t ru­               wi l l pro b a b ly b ecome o ptio na l .
me n t s ; (2) Standa rd Re fe r e n c e Materia ls
 (SRM's); ( 3) M     easurement As s u r a nce Programs
 (MAP 's) , and (4) o th er t e chni que s such                        A Second Genera t ion St a nd a r d f o r Ca libr a tio n
as time a nd f r e q u e n c y i n forma t ion fro m r a d i o         Sys tems and Mea s ureme n ts
s ta tio ns , TV signal s a n d an exper i menta l
sa te l l ite se rvice . Dr. Be langer conc lud ed
his prese n tation by di s cus si n g t h e s ubje c t                 Th e Amer ican So c i e t y f or Qua l i ty Con t ro l
of t r a c eab ilit y for Au t oma t e d Test Equ ipmen t               (ASQC) , u nde r the aus pi c e s of the Ame rican
 (ATE) and d ynamic mea suremen ts no t ing t his                      Nati o na l St an da rd s I n st it ute (ANS I ) , h a s
to b e a c ha l lenging area f o r futur e NBS                         c o ~ne n c e d wr i t i ng a s e c ond g e n era tion
at tention .                                                           c o n s ensus standa rd for c a l i br at ion systems
                                                                       and measu remen t s . Rolf Sc humac her was
                                                                       a p point e d to c ha ir "   the Wri t i ng Gr oup tasked
 e
M a s u r e me n t Ass u rance Pr ogr a ms (MAPS)                      wi th d e vel o pi n g the s tandard . Th is s t a n dar d
                                                                       wi l l be ba s ed o n t h e ob jec tive a nd sys tema t ic
                                                                       d e t ermi nat i on of a ctuall y ac hieved ca l i b r a t i on
Dr. Be lange r ini t ia t ed t h is p r e s e n t a t i on b y         a nd me asur eme nt acc u r acies (e .g ., b y me asure ­
def i ni ng a Measureme n t "Assura nce Pr o g r a m                   ment assu rance methods) and l e a v e the
 (MAP) a s a mea suremen t qua lity ass u ranc e                       e s tab l is hmen t of a s p e c i f i c system to ach iev e
program t h a t a llows one t o demonstra te                           r equi red a cc ur a ci es to the res p onsi b le
t ha t th e t otal meas u rement u ncerta i nt y,                      manag ement . Mr . Sc humacher d i s c u s s e d the
including both ra n dom e r ro r a nd s y stematic                     unde r lyi ng philoso p hy, th e wri ti ng g roup
compo nen ts o f e r ror r el a t i v e t o na tiona l                 membe r shi p, and the p r o g r e s s a c h i e v ed . He
or o t he r d e si g n ate d s ta nda rds , is q ua n t i f i ed       ind i c ated tha t comme n ts t o t he wr iti ng
and sufficien t ly small t o mee t the requ ire ­                      Grou p re lating to th e consens u s s ta n dard
men ts fo r measure men t proce ss . He desc r ibed                    wou ld b e we lcomed fr om any memb e r o f the
th e genera l p h i l o s oph y of t h e me a s ur eme n t             metr o logy commu nity.
a s sura n c e p r o g r a m s e rv i c e s p r o vi d e d b y NBS
and t h e r e gio n al appro a ch fo r d i s s emina tin g
t h es e services . NBS bel i e v e s th at the                                                      Bob Weber
reg iona l MAP i s a ve ry p r omi s i n g a pproac h                                                Works ho p De v elop e r
t o p ro vi d ing hi gh c on fide nce t r a c e a b ili ty
to n a t i on al s tand a r ds f o r t hos e who mus t
d e mons t r a te t ha t th e ir me a sur e ment s a r e
su f f ic ien t ly accu rate for the intended p u rpo se .
I n t h e f utu re , NBS i n tends to con ti nued
t o exp lore the fe a s i bi lity o f t h is a pproach .
I f t h e ir e xpe r iences c on tinue t o b e f avor ­
able , NBS wi l l e x pand reg io nal MAP 's t o
o t he r a rea s o f meas u r e men t a n d to many
reg io n s of the U.S . NBS wo u l d al s o we l c ome
info rm a tion f rom o rga n izat ions i n othe r
c oun tr i es tha t ma y h a v e u s e d s im i lar t e c hn i­
ques f or providing tra c eab il ity to n a tional
standards and faci l i ta t i ng mea sur ement
a ccuracy .

                                                                -54­
                                                                                                        1 9 7 9 ANNUAL CONFERENCE
                                                                                                                  Workshop Repo r t

                                           AUTOMATIC TEST EQUIPMENT WORKSHOP


The 1 9 7 9    W r ks hop on ATE consis t e d of thre e
                 o                                                      Ac hievi ng ATE Trac ea b il ity t o NBS . " Tim e
sess ions      h el d on Tue s d ay , Oc tobe r 1 6. Al l               did not pe rmi t t he full explor at i o n and
se s sions     were c hai r ed a nd moderat ed b y                      d i sc u s sion of this and o t he r i ssues o f th e
Pe te En g l   a nd , Gen e ra l Dy n a mi cs /Po mo n a a nd           rath e r c o mpl e x su bj e c t o f ATE c a l ibr a t i on .
incl ud e d    the fo l lowi n g pa ne l i s ts :                       Howeve r , th e r e surfac ed an i s sue fr om all
                                                                        se s sions t ha t a d efinite n e e d e xi s ted to
Mr .                       e
     Thoma s Kell e r, W stinghou s e Corpo rat ion                     im p r o v e th e calibration and me t ro l ogy s u ppo r t
Mr . Bar ry Be l l , Na t io n a l Bureau of S ta ndar ds               fun ctions f or ATE a n d, t ho s e me tr olo gi st s
 r
M .  Ar t Aff a, Nava l Ai r Eng i ne e r i ng Ce n te r                wi t h th a t n e e d, shou ld t ake a mo re ac t ive
Mr.  Dic k W add ing ton, Ge ne ra l Dynamic s /                        r ol e i n i n f l ue n c i n g the de s ig n o f f ut u re
     Pomon a                                                            ATE s y stems.
Mr . Jack Vogt , Na t io na l Bu rea u of Sta nda r ds

                                                                        In r espo n se t o t h i s i ss ue, the NCSL Ca l La b
The t h eme o f t h is yea r ' s work s ho p wa s "Th e                 Au t o ma t i o n cOIT@i ttee ha s c h a nged its n ame
Next Gene rat ion o f Au t o ma t i c Test Eq u i p men t- ­            t o t h e " Auto mati c Te s t a n d Ca l ib r a t io n Sy s tems "
Ho w W l l we Ca l ibr a te? " Th e o bj e ctiv e of
       i                                                                cOIT@i ttee .      Addi t ion a l ly, the c h a rte r h a s
t he wo r k s hop ses s ion s was t o p r o v i d e an                  be en expa nded to i nc l ud e s o me of the s e n e w
o p portunity f o r M   etr o logy Manage rs to gai n                   ATE is su e s.      Re f e r t o th e spe ci a l r epo rt
a n in si ght into some o f th e n ew c a l ibra t i o n                e ls ew here in this News le t te r f or more d e ta i l s .
r equir eme nts im po s ed by a dvanc e d ATE
concepts .      Pa pers p r e s e n ted or ma d e a v a il­
ab le t o at te n d ee s i nc l u ded:                                  An NCSL ATE Ca l ibrat ion Surv ey was pr epa re d
                                                                        for t hi s y ea r' s c o nfe r e nce on the subj e c t
" Ch all e n g e s in Ac h ievi ng ATE Trac e ab i l i ty               o f c ali b r ation suppo rt .           The res u l ts a r e
t o NBS " by B . Be l l, M. So ude r , B. Be l a ng e r                 i n clud e d a t the e nd o f th i s r e po rt . Th e
a nd R . Kamper                                                         p e r c e n t a ge f i gure a p p e ar i n g i n pa re n the s is
                                                                        i mmedi a te ly f ollo wi ng e a c h q u e s t i o n i s a
" Sy stem Ca l ibra t io n a t t he Interfac e" by                      POS I TIVE PERCENTAGE FACTOR.
A . F. Af f a

"Univ e r s a l Pi n co nce p t" by F r a n k Moeb u s                  Acknow ledge me n t~


"Au toma t ic Te s t Eq u i p me n t Ca l i b ra t i o n in
the Uni ted St a tes Ai r F o rce " by May na r d D.                    As Ch ai r man a n d Mode ra t o r of thi s ye a r 's ATE
La y                                                                    Work s hop , I wi s h t o express my a ppre ci a t io n
                                                                        a nd thanks t o all t h e panel i s t s and co n t r ib uto r s.
"Na v y Metrolo g y and Ca li b ra t ion Pr o g r a m                   Spec ia l r eco gn ition i s i n o r d er fo r th e f i ve
and Au toma tic Tes t Eq u i p ment Ca l ibrat io n "                   pa ne l is t s b e cau s e, b y th eir commitme nt t o
by De lber ~ H. Caldwell                                                pa r ticipa te in all t h re e se s s io ns, t hey
                                                                        we re un a bl e to attend an y o f t h e ot he r
"Dynami c \IS S t a t i c Ca lib r a t ion " b y S a y                  s c hedu l ed wo rk s hops . Again, my th ank s
Kob a y ask i                                                           fo r a j ob we l l do ne.

" De s i gn f or S y s tem Ca l ibr at i o n " b y Amos M.                                               R . B . Eng lan d
Gree n                                                                                                   Works ho p De v el oper

"PATEC - An Ai r Force Ap pr o a c h t o ATE
Ca libra tion" by J o s e ph C . S a n t o


The la t e una v ailability of some of the
origi na l ly s chedul e d p a n e li s t s r esulted in
a shift fr o m th e a f o re men tioned work s hop
objec t ive t o on e that ex plo r e d the need for
me tro log is t s t o t a k e a more ac tive r ol e i n
influen ci n g the de s ig n o f ATE . Eve n whe r e i n
a d ire ct influe nc e on desig n i s n ot p o s sib le ,
i t wa s genera l ly agreed that e ar l y metrolo gy
invo lvement i n t h e ATE d e ve lo p me n t c yc le
wou ld re sult i n a h i gher aw areness wh ic h
cou ld l ead to a mo r e e ffe ctive ATE c a lib ra ­
t i o n p r og r am .  Du r i ng the se ss ions i t was
also po in ted ou t t h at eve n "buy e r" in flu e nc e,
i n some i nsta n c es, cou ld b e b ro ug h t t o
bear o n commer ci a l ATE manu fa ctur e rs throu gh
th ei r r es pe ct i v e metrolo g y g ro up s .


Ea ch wor ks hop session includ ed a n i nt e res t ing
a n d in forma t ive slide pr e s entatio n b y
Barr y Be l l fr om NBS , Ga i t h e rsbu rg, on th e
pe.re nn i a l a r ea o f concern- - "Ch a l lenges in
                                                                -55 ­
                                  1979 NCSL ATE CALIBRATION SURVEY


                                                                                                No
                                                                      Yes   No   Somet imes   Opin "on
1.     Should ATE system test requirements dictate calibra­            81   15       4           o
       tion requirements?  (85)
2.     Where feasible and economical, should built-in-test
       be included to increase system confidence levels? (1 0 0 )     100    o       o           o
3.     Should the use of embedded standards be encouraged?     (85)    70   15      15           o
4.     Do you feel d ynamic calibration a pproa ches for time-­
       dependent ATE p a r a me t e r s are a must? (100)              58    o      27          15
5.     Should human factors be given more consideration b y            78    o      11          11
       ATE designers? (10 0)         ---­
6.     Wherever practical, should s oftware be used as a               70   11      19           o
       calibration tool? (89)
7.     Do you feel ATE is over-calibrated? (i.e., more than the        11   59      15          15
       minimum needed to maintain system integrity) (30)
8.     Does your organization maintain 4:1 AR for ATE?                 55   19      23           3
       (ATE to calibration requirement.) ( 8 0 )
9.     Does your organization use in- place calibration                44   15      38           3
       a p proaches for ATE? (84)
10.    Would you favor an ATE calibration approach utilizing           75    7      15           3
       portable roll-up standards controlled by the system
       com puter? (93)
11.    Does your organization verify /check any calibrations or        55   15      27           3
       performance at the ATE's UUT interface ? (84)
12.    Does your organization use any calibration artifacts at         51    7      35           7
       the OUT interface? (static or dynamic) (89)
13.    Does your organi zation consider signal mi smat.c hes ,         35   23      35           7
       loading effects or crosstalk during the ATE's calibra­
       tion routine? (75)
14.    Should the aforementioned interactions be considered            74    o      19           7
       during ATE calibration? (100)
15.    Has a degradation of switching matrices ever been               63   19       7          11
       discovered through a scheduled calibration process? (78)
16.    Is there a need for a better understanding of what             100    o       o           o
       consti t.ut.e s a total ATE system calibration? (100)
17.    Are environmental factors considered during your ATE's          54   23      23           o
       calibration process? (77)
18.    Does your organization use the segmented approach to ATE        35    2      63           o
       calibration? (Remove-calibra~e-replacecom ponents) (98)
19.    Does your organization use "Gold-Plated" UUT's for system        8   42      48           2
       verification? (57)
20 .   Do you feel it would be beneficial to use the non-test          66    o      19          15
       time of a system computer to analyze system measurement
       data to determine statistical trends for long term
       variances? (100 )
21.    Should calibration and metrology criteria be considered        100    o       o           o
       during ATE design ? (100)
22.    Are calibration and metrology requirements established          46    o      46           8
       after ATE design in your organization/experience? (100)
23.    Are the ATE calibration intervals established by your           64   15      19           2
       organization's metrology section? (85)
24.    Do you think their influence in the aforementioned              93    3       2           2
       activity is /would be beneficia l? (97)
25.    Does your metrology organization actively participate           19   35      44           2
       in the design reviews or acquisition phaGes of ATE? (64)
26.    Does your metrology organization have the control and           19   58      23           o
       safeguard responsbilities for ATE calibration soft­
       ware ? (42)



                                                 -56­
                                                                                                                              No
                                                                                          Yes        No   Sometimes         Opinion

27.	     Does your organization utiliz e Calibration M    easure­                           2        68         15             15
         ment Re qu i rements Sununary (CMRS ) for ATE? (20 )
28.	     Do you f e el that the maintenanc e and calibration                               74         7         19              o
         sup port functions for ATE should be pe r fo r me d by the
         same personnel? (9 3)
29.	     Should users b e p er mi t t e d to perform ATE c al ibrations                    31        46         23              o
         p r o vidi ng no adjustments /maintenanc e actions a re
         n e eded ? ( 54)
3 0 .	   Sho u l d ATE b e designed to t est both marginal fail and                        55         7         11             27
         ma r g i n a l pas s c o nditions f or g o - no -go systems? (90)
31 .	    Within your o r ga n i za t i on/expe r ienc e , is the tracking                  43        19         23             15
         and control of softwar e changes resulting from ATE
         reconfiguration a common probl em? (7 7)
3 2 .	   Is th e "Tweaking" of an ATE system after sche duled                              15        55         19             11
         calibration a co n~on act ivity in your organization /
         ex perienc e ? (38)
33 .	    Does the ATE d o c ume n t a t i o n you are famil iar with sup port              11        27         51             11
         and compl ement th e calibrator o f ATE?         (6 9 )
34 .	    Do you f ee l th e automatic p o r tion of an ATE c a l ibr a t i on              51         7         15             27
         pr o c e d ur e should b e "partitione d"? (90 )
35 .	    In yo ur o pinion, could many downstream ATE problems b e                         83         o         15              2
         e l i mi n a ted if Metrology wa s involved early in the ATE
         d esign or acquis ition planning? (35)
36 .	    Does the u s e o f so ftwar e e n ha n cemen t of ATE measure­                    35        19         20             26
         men t p a r a mete r s create any spec ial ver i ficati on o r
         a pplication p r o b lems for your organization? (74 )

37 .	    Do you f i nd it difficult t o apply /r elat e Mil-C-45 662                       20        38         15             27
         require ments to ATE s y st ems? (49)
38.	     I n yo ur opinion, is the calibration of existing ATE                             27        38         11             24
         syst ems suffic ientl y com plex and d iffe re n t f r om manual
         equi pment and i n s t r umen t s as to require a s pecifica­
                              il
         tion other than M - C- 4 566 2 ? (50)


Please check answer bloc k that most clos ely fits y o u r opinion or situation.         If no ne apply,
c heck "*" and co mment in spa c e p rovided.   If you ha v e any addit ional informat i on or suggestions,
                       e
p lea se c o n~en t . W a ppreciate your att endance and thank you f or your i n p u t s and comments.

                                                                               Need                                   No
                                                       I n a d eql.late     Improvement   Ad equ a t e    Good       Opinion        *
l.	      Ca l ibr a t i o n p r o c edu r e s   (11)           2                80               3          7           8
2.	      System maintenanc e manuals (5 )                    23                 65               2          3           7
3.	      Cali b ration s o f t wa r e (3)                    11                 75               3                     11
4.	      Ma i n t e n a n c e softwar e ( 2 )                35                 55               2                      8
5.	      De si gn for ser v i cea b i l i t y ( 0)           11                 82                                      7
6 .	     System sup port audits (14 )                        12                 44               7          2          35
7.	      Sc hema t i c s   &   drawings (1 5 )               20                 59              12          2           7




                                                                   - 5 7­
1 97 9 ANNUAL CONFERENCE
wor ks hop Repo r t



                                            LABORATORY SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT



The La b oratory Sy s t e ms Man age men t W    ork s ho p                 An a he i m; NCSL Re gion 8 Coor d ina to r)
di s cu s s ed a numb e r o f topi cs o f c o n ce r n t o                 pre sented that p art of his pre p a r e d p a per
labo ratory manage rs and we r e pre s ented by                            d e a l i ng wi t h t he t echni cal a spe cts o f
three s epa r a t e team s.                                                c a l i bra t io n c o n t ro l throu gh mea surement
                                                                           ass u r an c e . Derived from his work o n the
Se s s ion 1 wa s mode rate d by De an Brungar-t                           ASQC/AN SI 3 - 1 Commi t t e e hi s talk c ove r e d
                                                 a
 (Te l e dy n e Sys t e ms ; NC SL VP o f M r ke t i ng).                  the appli c ation o f pro cess c ontrol a n d
F r a nk Westmoreland (U.S . Ar my , Redst one                             f eedback n o rmal t o ma ny produ ction
Ar s e n a l) p r ese n ted a re p o r t o n the Ar my 's                  o p era t i o n s to the c a l i bra t i o n con tro l
interval programs wh ich are established f or                              s ystem.        Th r oug h int roducti on o f " c he ck
th r ee gen eral sit uation s: Field a pp l ic a t ion ;                   fixtu res" or ot he r arti fa ct s wi t h kno wn
R&D , P r o c u r e me n t a n d Prod u c t ion , a n d Test               c ha r ac t e r i s t ic s a fe edba ck sys tem in the
Eval uation a p pli cation; an d Sta nda rds                               c a l ibr a t ion proc es s c a n le a d t o a system
Laboratory appli cation. The p oli ci es a nd                              without s o me of the mo r e t raditionally
p roc e d u r es , altho u gh simil ar, all ow fl e xi­                    spe cifi e d attributes such a s l a bels,
bilit y in attaining the o bje cti ves o f                                 intervals, accuracy rati o s, e tc . The k ey
o p t imi z i ng intervals, r ed u c ing cos ts and                        is th e c ontinued anal y sis o f d ata le a ding
ma i n t a i n i n g q u a l i ty . A soph i s t ica t e d model           to a kn owledge o f t h e mea surement un certain­
is us ed as th e bas is for deci sions in                                  ty at all times.
inter val assi gnm ent and a dj us t me n t .
                                                                           As in the fir st workshop, dis cussi on wa s
Doy l e P acker (TRW) pr es e n t e d a p a p er he and                    lively.          Interest in the t opi c o f au tomation
Al St ra nd (als o o f TRW) de vel o pe d o n the                          c e n te re d on the pro blem o f d e t ermin i ng
                                  an
su bj e ct of Equipment M a gement. From                                   c a l i b r a t ion statu s (in o r out o f tolerance)
c e n t r a l i z ed procurement, throu gh mai ntenanc e                   f o r s y ste ms with a mu l t i t ud e o f parameters.
and ca l ibr a t ion , and ultimatel y t o dispo sal,                      This sUb j e ct n e e ds f u r t h e r inve stigation;
t h e life c y cle e qui p ment mana gement co n c ept                     it pro b ably s ho u ld center o n a n y e quipment
h a s pe rm ea t ed most la rger o r g a n iz a t ions .                   with ma n y cali brat e d c h a r ac t e r is t ic s whethe r
Benefits c i te d by the a u t hor s include                               or n o t the item is a utomated. The con c e p t
in c r ease d utili z ation, ef fectiv e d i s pos a l                     of measurement a s s u r a nce is s till one th at
p ro c e s s e s , r educti on of acqui sitions,                           is d iff i c u l t to unders tand a t l e vels in the
re du ction in de l a ys in te st an d p roduc t io n ,                    proc e ss be low the l e v el of interface with
a n d the retenti on o f hi ghly s pe ciali z e d                          th e NBS . Th e d i scu s s io n refl e cted this
t e chni cal skills involved in p r edesi gn                               d if f iC Ul ty .
analys e s and review s.           Di sc u s s i o n f ollowing
th e f ormal presentati on s was lively and                                Se ssion 3 was moderated by Walt Ca ss a d y
re lat e d to b o t h t opics, as expe cte d.                              (Roc kwe l l International - Tulsa ) . Ch et
Man agement of e q uipment i nventories is mor e                           W ells (Sol ar En ginee ri ng Re s ea rc h Instit ute,
and more a major conce rn to La borato ry                                  Go lden , Co l o r ado) prese nt ed the a pproa ch
Ma n ag e r s - wh ether from the view of main­                            b e i ng taken b y SERI a s t hat la boratory is
tenance c ost al one (as is dir e ctly affe cted                           b e i ng devel ope d.      The relatio nship b etwe en
by intervals b e t ween c a l i b r a t i o n s) or f rom                                    a
                                                                           Equi pment M n a g e me n t and M    etrol ogy is o n e
the v i e w o f the enterpris e as a whole (a s                            tha t i s n at u ral a n d s hou l d be foster e d.
i s affe cte d by de c i s i o n s on a c q u i r i ng ,                   Each fun ction can d e r ive a b ene fi t f r om this
ma i n t a i n i n g and d i spos ing of c ap i t a l                      inte racti on.        Ch uck Ge bhardt (Loc k heed
e qui pment ) .                                                            Mi s s i le and Sp ace Co . , Sunnyvale, Ca l i f .)
                                                                           dis cu ssed th at o rg a n iz a t io n s c u r r e n t study
Se s s ion 2 was moderate d b y Cl i ff Koo p                              o f th e e ff e ct o f interval l ength o n
 (Ro c k we l l-Co l l i ns ; NCSL Dire ctor ) . Tom                       in strument reliabilit y. The study, a p p rove d
Pea r son (Di rec to r , Metrol o g y, Nava l Av ion ic s                  by local r e gul atory g ro up s at the Lo c kheed
Center) p re s e n t e d his p a p e r o n the decision                    plant, i s still in proce ss. Es sent i a l ly
criteri a u se d by the Nava l Avi oni cs Ce n ter                         the s tud y has di vided a group o f instruments
in con s i d er ing a u toma t io n o f calibrati on                       in t o s u b se t s e a ch wi t h an interval which is
systems .       Emp h as is o n pl anni n g th e e f fo r t                a di f f erent mUltiple of th e ba si c o r
f o r a s ystems s o lution included such c a l ­                          indic a te d inte r va l f or that inst rument t ype.
i bration fa ctors as d efining test p a r a ­
me t e r s , t est metho ds, data acquisitions an d                        At the conclusion o f the s t Udy it is ho ped
analysis, and quality assuran c e. A realistic                             that some general state ment c a n b e ma de
v i e w of the co s t s i nvolved (h a rdwa r e , so ft­                   a b out the r elation ship be t we e n the length
war e and pe rso n ne l) and the potential bene­                           o f the interval and r eliability.        Based o n
fit s (red u c ed test time s, more e f fec t ive                          the g e ner a l state ment furth er in v esti gation
equipThent utilizati on, anu Thore con sist ent                            may then De inoicateo..          'Ooth t opics i n t his
testing ) als o s erv e t o v alidate the propos al.                       workshop al so recei v ed si gnificant c omme n t .
Implementation of aut o matic ca l ib r a t i o n ­                        Perh a p s the mo s t co n t rove r s i a l t opic wa s

wi t h all its be n e f i t s - wi l l be ac c ompanie d                   Ch uc k ' s implying a s it d id that serios r e­ 

by a s et o f n ew ch a l le n g e s in quality                            e v aluati on of s ome of our most ba si c

assu ranc e, inte rval c ontrol, c o st an d                               a ssumption s s ho u l d b e un de r t a ken .

sC h edu le co n t r o l and per son n e l .
                                                                                                          Geo r ge Rice
Rol f Sch umac he r     (Ro ckwe l l Metrology Ce n ter ,                                                 Wor kshop De ve l o p e r

                                                                  - 5 8­
                                         N CSL N E                              S NOT                   s

I SA HEADQUA RTERS                                                              M c romea s ur emen t s o n I n t e g ra t e d Ci r c u i t
                                                                                 i
                                                                                Si l icon Waf ers ; J u l y 1 5-1 8 , 1 9 8 0; J o h n M.
                                                                                Jerk e , El ai ne C . Co hen , (30 1) 92 1 -3621 , 37 86 .
ISA Interso ci et y St anda rds Dir e c t o r , Mr . P .
Bl iss o f Prat t & Whit n e y, has n ote d t hat th e                          Elec t r i c a l M asu r eme n t s at High Vo l t a g e
                                                                                                  e
ISA h e adq uarter s i s mo v i n g t o th e Re s e a r ch                      Le v e ls ; Apr i l 1- 3, 1 980; F . Ra l p h Kot t er ,
Tr i a ng l e Park i n No r t h Caro l ina. Th e                                (3 01 ) 92 1-3121 .
Se p t emb e r New s le t te r i nc orrectl y repo r ted
t h e mo v e as Me n l o Pa r k , Ca li f o r ni a .                                               od
                                                                                Met r o logy o f M e rn Elec t r on i c In str ume n ta­
                                                                                          a
                                                                                t io n ; M y 1 3-1 5 , 1 98 0 ; Ba rry A . Be l l ,
                                                                                 (30 1) 92 1-2727 .
NBS	 ANNOUNCES 1 98 0 SE RIES MEASU REMENT SEM I NARS
                                                                                Tra c ea bi li t y for Ion iz ing Rad i a t ion M  easure ­
                                                                                ments ; M   ay 8- 9, 1 98 0 ; H. T . He a t o n , II ,
Th e Nat io na l Bur e a u o f S t a ndar ds (NBS) has                          (30 1 ) 9 21 - 2 551.
an no unced th e 1 98 0 sc hed u l e f o r it s po p ula r
s eri e s of M  easur emen t Se mi n a rs . NBS will                            NBS	 EM! Me t r o logy Semi n a r ; Ju l y 22 -24 , 1 980;
con d u c t 1 2 s e mi n a rs i n th e 19 8 0 series e i t h e r                M. Ge ral d Ar t h ur , (303) 4 99 - 1 0 00 , e x t. 36 0 3.
at th e ag ency hea d q ua r t er s in Ga it h ersb u rg,
Maryland, o r at th e NBS Bo u l de r La b o r a t o r ie s
in Bo u l de r , Co lo ra do .                                                  F ur t he r inf or mation o n NBS 1 98 0 Mea s ure men t
                                                                                Semi n a r Ser ie s can b e o b t a ined f r om
                                                                                             a
                                                                                Joann e M r s ha l l , Of f i ce o f M      eas u r eme n t
Ea c h Mea s u r e men t Semi n a r , l a sti n g f r om o n e                  Se r vic e s , P hys i cs Bu i ld i ng , Ro om B362 ,
t o fi v e d ay s, o f fe rs a p r a c t i c a l cours e i n                    Na t io n a l Bure a u o f S t an da r ds , W   ash ing t on ,
t h e t e chni qu e s a n d i n st rume nt s us ed i n                          D. C . 2 02 3 4 , t el e phon e:    ( 3 0 1 ) 9 21 -3 80 5 .
maki n g pr ecis e me asur eme nt s i n o n e of
a va ri e ty of f ie l d S r ang ing f r om ga ge b l o ck
mea s ur e me n t s an d th e r mometr y through tim e                          DESK TOP CALCULATOR EXCHANG E PROGRAM
a n d fr e qu enc y a n d e l ec t r o magne t i c r a d i a t i o n
measu remen ts .       Th e c o u rs e s c on cen t r a t e on
th e me a s ur e me n t a nd ca libratio n p r ob l e ms                        Th e Aut o ma t ic Tes t a n d Ca l i br a t i o n Sys t e ms
i n eac h fi eld ; d is cus s t h e l e vel s o f a cc urac y                   Co mm i t tee (for mer ly th e Ca l Lab Au t o ma t i o n
n e c e s sa r y in mea sur e ment s ma d e f o r res ear c h                   Commit tee) i s e x p andi n g i t s De s k Top
wor k , f actor y prod uc t i o n , o r fiel d e va l ­                         Ca l c u l a t o r Ta pe Ex c h an g e Pro g r a m to include
uation s; an d expla i n ho w measure ments and                                 c on tro l subrou ti n e s.        Th e r a p i dl y e x p a nd i n g
ca li brat i ons can b e st b e trace d to t h e                                u s e o f th e I EEE 4 88 S t and a r d Int erfa c e h a s
a p pro pr iate NBS standar d s .                                               c re a ted a si t uat io n wher ei n mu c h d uplicatio n
                                                                                o f e f f o r t is p r o b a b l y o ccu rr in g i n t he
                                                                                ge n era tion and de b ugg i n g o f con t r o l sub ­
Be c a u se most of thes e s e minars and work s hops                           ro u ti nes u s ed to d ri ve th e l ar ge v a r i e t y
e mp h a s i z e " ha nds o n " t rai ning usi ng equ ipment                    of wide ly- u sed c omme rc i a l i ns tr umen ts . Th e
i n NBS la b ora t orie s, enro l lmen t in th e s e                            AT & CS c OIDnli tt e e f e els th a t some o f thi s
s essio n s is genera l ly limite d.                I ndi vi dual s             d up l ic a t i on e f fo r t c ould be a v oided in mu c h
fro m me a suremen t an d s t a ndards la bo rato r i e s                       the same man n e r a s we h a v e don e wi t h t h e
who mus t r e gularl y make prec i se meas u r ements                           Ca l ibr a t ion Ta p e Ex c h an g e Prog r am . Acco r d ­
i n t hei r wo r k a n d who hav e ap propr iate p r e ­                        i n gly, t hos e wi l l i ng to vo l un tee r th e
r e q uisi t i e s i n ed uc at i on a nd e x pe r ience                        f r u it s o f th eir p rogramming l a b or s ho u ld
a r e p arti c u l a r ly e n c o u r a g e d t o a tte nd .                    co n tac t R . B. "P et e" En g l a nd a t :

                                                                                            Ge ne r a l Dyn a mi c s , Po mona
Th e li st of 19 8 0 Mea s u r emen t Semi n ar s f ollo ws,                                P .O . Box 25 07 MZ 4- 32
to g eth er wi t h th e a p pro pria t e NB S co nt act for                                 Po mo n a , CA 9176 6
f u r t h e r info r ma t i o n. So me d ates a r e o nl y
t entat i ve:                                                                   wit h the f o l lowin g i nforma t i o n f or e a c h
                                                                                co n trol s o ft war e s u b ro utin e :
Ca l i br a ti on a n d Us e o f Piston Ga ge s ; Spr i ng
a nd Fall, 1 9 8 0 ; Be rn a rd W elc~ ( 3 01) 92 1 -2 121.                     1.	    Ins t r ume n t Contro l l ed - Mak e, mod e l a n d
                                                                                       o p tio n s.
Time a n d Fre q ue n c y Us e r ' s Semina r ; Sp r i n g and
Fall , 1 9 8 0; Ge o r g e Kamas, (30 3) 4 9 9- 1 00 0 ,                        2 .	   Host Co n t r o l l e r - Mak e , mod e l and opt i o n s .
ext . 33 78 .
                                                                                3.	    I n t e r f a c e Syste m - Note mo dific a tions.
P r e cis io n Th e r mo met ry Semi n a r ; M rc h 10-14,
                                              a
Sept e mbe r 8-1 2, 1 9 8 0; Nancy e E . MC Bryd e ,                            4.	    Lan guag e - So ur ce lan gua ge of su bro u t in e
J a me s F. Sc ho o l e y , (30 1) 9 2 1-33 1 5 , 3 31 6 .                             i n c l ud i ng r e vis ion num b ers, e t c .


                                                                       - 5 9­
                                                                                                                       Ne ws i'lotes


5.	   Limitat ions - Does supporting system and                   e s p e c i a l l y he lp ful fo r p ; np o i n t i n g l a bs
      int e rface test software exist? Does                       to invite to NCSL r -e q i.on a I mee ting - .
      comp l ete do cumentatio n (f low charts,
      d escription, etc . ) exist?
                                                                  The other publ ication is a sho r t Ne ws l c L e ­
                                                                  ca l led "PMTE Upd a t e . " It is in t e nd e d
Th e compi led list o f contributions wi l l be                   as a metro logy information i n terc hange f o r
disseminated as part of the Tape Exchange                         fede ra l agencies . The c irc ulation i s
Program to faci litate interaction b etween                       unrestricted, howeve r, and Kathy said she
generators of sof twa re and potentia l us e rs .                 would be happy to p ut a ny interested persons
                                                                  on the mai ling l i s t.
Pete England, Chai rperson
AT & CS Committe e
                                                                  Kathy is anx ious to inc lude information on
                                                                  NCSL activit i es in this Ne ws l etter.            In
AN APPEAL                                                         pa r t i c u l a r , she would l i k e to include
                                                                  no tices of r egiona l meetings.           Th e s e notices
                                                                  wou ld then reach metrologist s no t norma lly
The Education and Tra ininq Committee is                          on the mai ling l i s t s for NCSL materia ls.
moving f orwa r d on deve lopinq one d ay and on e                Ca l l her at ( 3 01) 921-2 805, o r write to
week segmented cour ses in met r o l og y . However,              her at the Of f i c e of M     easurement Services ,
we're not interested in reinventing the                           National Bur e a u of Standards, Washington,
w hee l ~ I f you know of metro l ogy courses                     D.C. 2 0 23 4 .
and cour se materia l, p a s t or p r e s e n t ,
we urge you to p a s s the word o n to the                        H. Bryan ~~erner
committee s o that these may be u t il i z e d                    Cha irmun , F.d ~cation and Training
in our work .                                                       Committee


We'r e a lso p u t t i ng together smal l·task
groups to work with NBS to hammer out
detai led outl ines for these courses . The
t ask groups wi ll be comp rised of two or three
NBS personne l and two o r three NCSL members
with spec ia l ex pe r t i s e i n each subject t o
be deve loped . Initia l areas of interest are
temperatur e , mass, d imensio n, a n d e r ro r
ana l ysis.                                                       LATE NEWS ABOUT MIL-C-45662A


The payoff? The committee's r e c e n t Nationa l                 At pr e s s time , we received wor d fr om Geo rge
Training Survey o f NCSL members showed a                         Rice that the MIL- C-45662 A revision i s about
9 8% need for t raining programs, with an                         t o b e issued . Th e i nd i c a t i on was t h a t on ly
ext rapo l ated st uden t population of 6,000                     " n e c e s s a r y " change s were being mad e such as
from NCSL me mb e r organizations . The more                      the additi on o f an " out- of- t olerance " c lau se.
you can he lp uS on the above points, the                         The NCSL board wi l l discuss this topic at the
soone r the committee wi l l be ab l e to p r ovi d e             Janua ry meeting .
you with training and educationa l cou rs es .
Sen d any i n f o r ma t i o n to the committee
chairman:

          H. Bryan Werner 40 l -5X40
          Westinghous e Electric Co r po r a t i o n
          1 31 0 Beulah Road
          P i t t s b u r g h , P A 1 52 3 5


LETTER TO THE EDITOR


NBS has two publications wh ich should b e of
specia l intere st to r egional c oordinators .
Th ese both com e o u t of Brian Be lange r's
Office o f Measurement Se rvic es, and are
authored by Kathryn Le edy .


Th e first i s NBS Special NBS Pu b lication 54 6 .
"Cata logue of Federal Met ro logy and
Ca libration Ca p a b i l i t i es . " Kathy patterned
this a fte r the NCSL Directory, but t his one
contains a ll the l a b or a t or i e s in the
Department of Defense , Depar tment o f Ene r g y ,
NASA, and Depa rtment o f Transpo rtat ion .
Eighty -n ine percent of the 223 labs lis t ed
a re not in the NCSL Di rectory . Kathy 's
map locating the v a r i o us l a b s could b e
                                                         - 6 0­
                  REPORTS FRO M THE REGIONS


      ~ EG/0f\l              Sept. 13, 19 79                      g ive n to t h e Di r ect ors at t he last Bo ard o f
                             Lockheed Electronics Co .
           Dir ector s Meeting.        Results a re a s follows:


          2
                 P l a i n f i e l d , NJ
                             Se l wy n Smith
                             Re gion 2 Coo r d i n a t o r
                                                                  Do not s p l i t Region 2 up into small er units.
                                                                  If Delegat es a r e on the outer ed g e, they
                                                                  could alwa y s go to adjac ent Re gional Meetings
                                                                  if closer. No matter how y o u cut the pie,
                                                                  som eone will be missed or left out.           The
                                                                  k e y to attendan c e and Regional p articipation
Lo ckh eed's Product and Sy s t ems Divi sion                     is an interesting a nd timely subj ect matter,
General Manager, Pat Miner vini, wel comed th e                   p res c h e d u led meeting s published in time to
NCSL Delegates to the Plainfield facility                         budget fun ds a year in advan c e. Mor e timely
and extended the hospitality and servic es of                                                         e
                                                                  directi on re quired by th e M eting and Pr og r a m
the company . Pat encourag ed th e partici­                       Committe e . Hold meeting s in airport mee t i ng
pants t o f eel at hom e and c omplimented th e m                 ro oms to eliminate the problem of getting to
on their ability to sol v e mutual probl ems                      comp a n y p l a n t s for a o ne (1) day meeting
c onc ernin g the Fi eld o f Metr ology.                          and then getting back to catch a p l a n e . As
                                                                  a by-product to our discus sion, it wa s
                                                                  suggeste d that we should l earn to sell our
Moe Co r r i g a n , the host, c a l led the busin e ss           needs f or trainin g, trav el (b oth time and
meeting to o r der . He fill ed in f or the                       mon ey ) , to o ur higher management so we can
Regional Coor d i n a t o r , S elwyn P. Smith                    take a more active part in what NCSL has
(Smitty ) , who was call ed o u t o f town on                                        e
                                                                  t o o f fer . W talked about having a
business.                                                         management workshop giv en by Financial
                                                                  Ac coun t i n g types to educate us in present ing
                                                                  the v a l ue o f Metrology t o our individual
First o r d e r of busin ess was the Delegates                    c o mpa n ies .
introduction and r e vi ew of th e g eneral
operating rules of th e r e gion.          Briefly;
me etings are schedul ed f or F a l l , Winter and                Moe finish ed the morning session with the
Sp ring each y ear alt ernating locations through­                NCSL slide pres e n t a t i on.    The slides and
out the Region, the host tak es th e mi n u tes                   text will be a vailable to member del egates
and supplie s o n e (1) clean c opy to the                        for their use b y c o n t a c t i ng e i t h e r Smitty o r
Co o r d i n a t o r ; Lunches Dutch, no t ours required;         Moe.   Reviewing our program, comments were
off facilities meetings ar e perm issable ,                       made that the slide s ho w should be t a ilored
Coo r d i na t o r s a r e elect ed for a one (1 ) o r            to fit the n eeds of the u sers, su ch as;
two ( 2) y e a r term only.                                       explaining ju st what benefit on e g ets out
                                                                  o f the commi t te e participation, etc.            All
                                                                  in all, members wer e pleased with the Board's
This meeting wa s more informal than usual                        work in producing and d i s t r i b u t i n g it.
b e cause of the "Ba sic Metrology" W    orkshop
being held in another building. Delegates
attended the r e gular meetin g then a s their                    Th e ne xt ag enda it em, "Measurement Assurance
turn came they went t o the lectur e hall to                      Pr ogr a m (MAP) , Where we Stand 1" started o u r
give thei r portion of the c o u r s e . Both                     afternoon session and well it should . We
programs went o f f smoothl y.                                    s t a n d u nor g a n i z e d , half started and r eady
                                                                  t o ref orm for another try a t it.            Initi all y,
                                                                  there were two (2 ) g r o u p s , the south s ec t i o n
Moe Co r r i g a n r eported on the result s o f the              of th e Region and the north section. The
Board o f Director's meeting held in                              s outh part icipant s ar e within one (1) hour of
Philadelphia, PA, o n July 26 and 2 7 . Are as                    each o t h e r (b y car) . The northern group
that gener ated Ro u n d Table discussions were                   are spread o u t from Ea s t e r n New Yor k to
Pete En gland's cal culator program ta pe                         Ce n t r a l New York t o W       estern Pennsylvania.
listing. The question was as ked if ther e                        Not a workable group so we're tOld.                So
was an easy wa y t o c onver t from 9 8 25 and                    we will, under a s e p a r a te mailing, reque st
983 0 programs to a 9845 tape? Ge ner a l ly ,                    additional Regional p artici pation in our MAP .
everybody complimented Pete on an e x c e l l e n t               I n th i s mailing, we will explain the pro gram
job.    Dave O ' Br i e n ' s training c ommittee                 and the ad vantages in participation. Tar g et
report generated much interest and attention .                    date f or the mailing is set at 1 2/1 / 79.
Obviously, the Region i s concerned wi t h the
n e ed for techni cian trainin g demon strated
by the partici pati on in o u r wor kshop ( 21                    Again, taking dir e ction fr om the Board, we
students ). The results of our workshop will                      held a Round Table di s cussion o n M  etrication-­
be addressed later in the minutes o r                             wh a t are we d oing? Summarizing the o p i n ion
attached as a s e p a r a t e report.                             and r e marks, we find that the peopl e who are
                                                                  going Metric are doing it s l o wl y and o n l y
                                                                  if they ar e forc ed to.   Th os e who are n ot
Next, we discus sed at len gth Re gional                          mo ving in thi s direction are by the most
Boundaries a s directed by an action item                         p art, read y to go (p ertaining to training
                                                          - 61­
Regi onal      Repor ts


and docume n tat ion) b ut wi l l not s p e nd a n y                      1.      As t he works h o p intere s tin g ?
mon e y unl e s s it is n e c e s s ar y .
                                                                                   1              2            3             4         5
                                                                                  {J }           [ 8}        fll}          { l}
Ra t h er tha n d i s c u s s mu t ua l prob l e ms , we                        ve ry                   Moderat e ly                  Dul l
a l l a g r e e d t ha t t ec h nician t r a in i n g was o f              I n ter es t ing             In te res ti ng
p r ime int e r e s t s o we a d jou r n e d o ur me e t i ng
so tha t we c ould observe the r e ma i n i ng                            2.      Was th e wor ks ho p wor t hwh i le?
p o r t i o n o f the Me tro logy Wor ks ho p .
                                                                                   1
             2          3              4          5
                                                                                  {4 }
         { 9}	      { 61
Before we l e f t , Dic k Pa lmer , J ohn Mi l ler                           Ve r y
                    Moderate ly               Wor th less
an d Bi l l Irby o f f e r e d t o h o s t fu t u r e me etings            Wort hwhi le
                 o
                                                                                                        W rt hwh i l e
and Doug Hober won th e d o or p r i ze- - a c r edit
c a rd c a l c u lator .                                                  3.      Wou ld y o u recomme n d th i s wo r ksho p to a
                                                                                  c oll e a gue ?

REGION II TRA IN ING WORKSHOP                                                      1              2           3             4          5
                                                                                  [2J            [ 8}        (8)           u:
                                                                               S t r o n g ly                                         No t
On Septembe r 1 3, 1 9 7 9 , Re gion II con d uc ted                           Recomme n d               Re c o mme nd                     e
                                                                                                                                  Rec o mm n d
it s fi r st ad junc t trai n i n g c ou rs e t it led
"B asic Metr o lo gy :    An I n t r o du ctio n . " I t                  4.	     Do yo u ha ve a ssoc ia te s wh o wo u l d b e n ef i t
wa s a six hou r sessio n i n whi c h t h e f ollow­                              f r om thi s wo rk sho p ?
ing s u b j ect s wer e p r e s e n t e d :
                                                                                                 1                          2
1 .	   Int r o duc tion and Commen ts on Ac c u r a c y                                         [17 J                      (2 )
                                     er
       a nd Precision , b y Bry a n W ner .                                                     Ye s                       No

2 .	   M ss an d Leng th , by Ma x un is .
        a                                                                 5.	     How man y se ssion p re sented ma te r i a l new
                                                                                  or u s e ful t o y o u ?
3.	    Temper a t u r e a n d Ti me and Freq u enc y ,
       by S ta n Ha l e .                                                          1              2           3             4          5
                                                                                  { 5}           [4)        { 8)           {2 }
4 .	   Vo l ~ ag e ,   by Ken Koe p .                                             All                    Ha l f t h e                No
                                                                               Ses sions                 Sess ions                 Session
5 .	   Re s i s t a n c e , b y Bi l l Go u l d.
                                                                          6 .	    I s th e ma te ri a l pre s e n ted tod ay l i k el y
                                                                                  t o b e usef u l to you on the j o b, e i t h e r
The ma ter ia l pr e s e n t e d wa s in tend e d to be                           d i r e c tl y o r indi r e c tl y, by r el atin g
introduc t o r y i n nat u r e, con ce n t ra t ing on                            to s pec ific wo r k o r p r o v id i n g b e tt er
hi s t oric al background , S I u nit s, a n d th e                               b ac kg r o u nd f o r y o u r wor k ?
ar t i fa c t s u s e d a s s t and a rds .
                                                                                   1              2           3             4          5
                                                                                  {9 )
          [4}         {5 )          [1 J
Twen t y -on e p e op l e at tended f or a f e e o f $10                        Ve ry
                  M d e r a t e ly
                                                                                                         o                           Not
eac h , a nd we g ave th em lu n ch, a n d thr e e                             Likely
                     L i k e ly               Lik e l y
books t o t a k e h ome as p e r s o n a l refe re nces.
Th ey we r e: ( 1 ) NBS S P 3 30 Th e In t er n a t i o n al              7 .	     o
                                                                                  W u l d y o u be in t ere s t e d in a o n e -day
S y s t e m o f Un i ts (SI ), (2) NBS SP 420 Th e
                               wo rks hop , in d e pth , on a s p ec if ic subj e c t
I n t e rna ti on Bur e a u o f Wei g ht s a nd Meas u res,
                      in tro duced    t oda y ?
1 8 7 5-1 9 7 5 , and (3) Cal i b ra ti on- Ph iloso p h y

i n Pract i c e .
                                                                                1                         2
                                                                                                u B)                       OJ
                                                                                                Ye s                       No
The a tt e nd e e s comp l e t ed a q u e s tion n a ire wh ich

s h ows tha t t hey though t t h e co u rs e wa s
                        8 .	    W r i te~ o n t h e bac k o f t h is q ue s t io n n a i re
pre t t y good .     Th ey would r e c omme n d the
                              any comme nts y o u wo u ld lik e t o ma ke ,
wo r k sho p t o co l l e ag ue s; t he y f el t t h at the
                      i nc l ud i ng any subj e c t s y ou wou ld l i k e t o
ma t er ia l wo u l d b e h el pfu l on -t he - j ob; and
                        see p r e s e n t e d i n futur e work s ho ps .
t hey wou l d l i k e t o s e e on e - day i n -d ep t h

wo r kshops on s i n gl e s ub ject s.

                                                                          APPE NDI X B
Loc kheed Elec t ron ic s ho s ted th e s ess ion a nd

                                                                          Writ t en comment s f r o m Qu e st i onnai r e s
wa s v er y h el p f u l wi th equ ipmen t , tra i n i n g

r o om a n d food s er vi c es.
                                          1.      "I li k e i t, no f urt he r comme nts on i t. "

                                                                          2.      "I p e r s o n a l l y f e e l t h at a n i n- d e p th
QUEST IO NNA IRE
                                                                 se s s ion o r sessions o n Ti me and F re q u e nc y ,
                                                                                  ma ss, l eng t h and v o lta ge wo u ld be v e ry
Co u r se:   " Ba s i c Metr o l o gy "
                                          u s e ful.     So me in-de p t h p r o b l e m s ol v i n g
1 3 S e p temb e r, ' 7 9
                                                        a n d a p pli cations ... a good i d e a. "
I n structi ons:   F o r e ac h q u e s tio n , on a s cal e
             3.      "I t ho ught t h a t t h e s peake rs f or t h e
fr o m 1 t o 5, c irc le the number wh ic h b est
                                worksho p d id a v e ry goo d job o n t h e i r
represen t s you r o p i n i o n.

                                                                - 62- ­
                                                                                                          Regi o n a l Re por ts


        resp ec t ive s ub j ects . I t h i n k it wou ld               ATTENDEES
        b e good t o possi b ly prove some o f t he
        i n f o r mat i o n t h a t was exp lained to us ."             Moe Co rr igan          Lo ckh e e d El ectr o nics
                                                                                                   Compa ny , Inc .
4 .	    " 1 would l i k e to s ee a s es sion o n fl ow                 K~n Koe p               Standard Ref e re n c e Labs
        tec hno logy . "                                                Dick Palmer             Bendix, E . C . D.
                                                                        J o hn Martin           Westing house, NES
5 .	    "~vo ul d desir e mor e o n dimensiona l                        Ar th ur Le vine        Lockheed Electronic s
        metro logy, how to c al ibr a t e gages, f low                                             Compa ny, Inc .
        meters, comparators , to meet FDA GM     P                      Bi l l Br e n a n t     Lo ral El e c t ro n i c s Sy s t ems
        re quireme nts . Oriented toward medica l                       Doug Hober                                       e
                                                                                                Ex t r a c o rpo re a l M d .
        d evices . "                                                                               Spec ., Inc .
                                                                        Bob Storms              Perk i n El me r
6.	     " Ta ke a one -day wo r k s hop, in-dept h , on a               Bi ll St ern            Sing e r /Kearfo tt
        s p ecific subj ect by showing an e xa mple                     Ne i l Denny            Genera l Elec t r i c Co mpa ny
        o f e a c h and just ta lk on that subj ect."                   To m Perry                                       o
                                                                                                ERADCOM - Fort M n mo u t h
                                                                        Stan Hale               Be n d i.x
7.	     "r would b enefit a g reat d eal on hands ­                     Max J . Unis            Ga g e La b Co r p o r a t i o n
        on materia l r elat i n g to my j o b a s a                     Bi ll Irby              Goul d - Brown Bo v er i
        met rolo gy t echnic ian conc erning cali ­                     H. Bryan W   erne r     Wes t i ng ho u se El ectric
        bration a nd po s s i b l y r e pa ir work of t es t                                       Company
        e q u ipme n t that I come in contac t with .
        Possi b l e sub jects :    RF, digital conc ep t s ,
        micro wa ve , etc . "

8 .	    "M s el f and I 'm sure ma n y othe rs , wou ld
           y
        be i n te re s t e d in an i n -depth o n e - da y
        worksho p for the futur e NCSL .          It was a
        know l edge a b le and interest ing day a nd I
        am l oo k i n g forward for ot her i n t e r e s ti ng
        to pics to b e discussed i n f ut ure sessions:

9 .	    " I wou ld l i k e t o in t h e futur e, l i t t l e
        more infor ma ti on on Freq u e n c y and Time .
        De f init e ly wi l l ben efi t from s essions
        on mass and we igh t s . "

10 .       o
        "W ul d l i k e to s e e more time s pent o n
        s pecific measurement procedu res a nd
        some 'hands -on ' e xpo s u r e when su b jects
        a re cover ed i n mo r e detai l i n f utur e. "

11.	    "On e- da y works ho ps wou ld be mo r e in f orma­
        t i v e on a 3 o r 6 mo n t h inte rval.   Sp ecific
        subj ec ts fo r t h e e n t i re day would a llow
        be t te r covera ge and partici pant inte r ­                   REGION 2 MEMBER DELEGATE A'ITENDEES.
        chang e. "

1 2.    "I f e el t h a t t h e wor ks hop shou l d hi t mor e
        on th e t echn ica l as p ects of t h e s ub j ect .
        Th i s way r can r el a t e d i t to my work on
        t h e b enc h. Also, hit o n sub j ects peop l e
        can b e more fami liar with .        I per s on a l ly
        don't eve n de a l with weight and ma s s
        measur eme nts ."

1 3.    " Ha n do u t s (out li n e an d diagrams) as g i ve n
        on two o f th e sessions, v e r y he lpful .
        I'm i nteres ted in i n - dep t h p r e sen t a t i o n s
        o n : v o l t ag e , r esistance , time a nd
        fr e que nc y, also AC measur e men ts ."

14.	      o
        "W ul d l i k e to s ee workshops cove ri n g
        more s ub j ects in d e pth howe v er a who l e
        day on one subject would be a bi t muc h . "
                                                                        A CONCURRENT TRArnIN WJRKSHOP l'lAS HELD DURIN THE
                                                                                               G                      G
15 .	   "Re si sta nc e in depth, v o lta ge in d e p th ,                                             SE
                                                                        REGION 2 MEETING . THE COUR WAS TITLED "AN INTro­
        time and f r eq ue n c y not h e l pful fo r la b               D           I
                                                                         UCTION TO B.\SIC ME'1'ROIDGY . "
        work . "

1 6.    " Th e subj ects tha t wer e cov e r ed were a ll
        e n j o yed a n d the i nstructi on was v ery
        go od .    Some material shou l d b e covered
        in on e d ay in d e p th. "



                                                               - 63 ­
Regional Reports




                              Oct. 18, 1979                           Reflectometer. Glen stated that a 6-Port
                              NBS                                     Reflectometer is a v e r s a t i l e device used to
                              Boulde~ Colorado                        measure the impedance o r reflection c o e fficient
                              Cliff Koop                              of I-port electronic components connected
                              Region 5 Coordinator                    t o it, as well as voltage, current or power.
                                                                      Two reflectometers are used to measure all
                                                                      of the scatterin g parameters o f a 2-port
                                                                      device inserted between them. NBS has made
The Ninth Region 5 meeting was held o n                               a design for an automatic network analyzer
October 18, 1979, at the Na t i on a l Bureau of                       (ANA) incorporating two 6-port reflectometers.
Standards in Boulder, Colorado.                                       The desi gn includes the best features s ug gested
                                                                      by res ults of a recent 6-port research pro­
                                                                      ject which was s po n s o r e d by the NBS and the
A list of the a ttende es is attached.   The                          Calibration Coordipation Gro up (CCG) o f the
meetin g was called to order at 8:30 A. M.                            DOD. The details o f Gl en 's presentation
by Cliff Koop, formerly the Region 5                                  goes way beyond t h e s cope of these minutes.
Coordinator and c urrently the Director for                           A number of arti cles and reports have been
Region 5 and 6.    Each of the attendees                              published by Glenn and his associate, Cletus
introd uc ed themselves.                                              A. Hoer of NBS, on the 6- p o r t measurement
                                                                      technique and the dual 6-port ANA . Copies
                                                                      are available upon request.
Regional Coordinator - Joseph S. Katoch was
introduced as the p r e s e n t Region 5 Coordinator.
                                                                      Laboratory To ur -       Glenn Engen conducted an
                                                                      hour tour of the laborator ies that are using
Metric Sys tem Conversion - The NCSL Board of                         the 6-Port Re f l e c t ome t e r s . These are
Directors requested that the progress of                              described as follows:
this topic be discussed at the next regular
              C
meeting. GM reported that all truck s and
carS will be metric by 1982, while foreign                            Dual 6-Port Aut oma t ic Ne t wor k An a l y z e r , 2-18
car productio n is already metric.     Bendix                         GHz - An experimental a utomatic network
reported they a r e using a two-system, soft                          analyzer (ANA ) incorporating two 6-port
chan ge approach, depending upon customers'                           reflectome ters constructed at NBS for
reques ts or needs . Fi sher Contro l s r e po rted                   measuring the network parameters of one-port
t hat t h e metric conversion is provided upon                        and tw o- port devices from 2-18 GHz was
a kn own need or upon request. Others are                             ob served.     The accuracy of a 6-port measure­
merely riding along with the industry.                                me n t is primarily a function of the quality
                                                                      of the c o n n e c t o r s , qualit y of the trans­
                                                                      mission line used in the calibration, and
Next Re gional Meeting -     Joe Katoch re ported                     of the resolution, stabi lity, and lineari ty
that he was considering early Sprin g 1980                            of the 4 sidearm p owe r detec tors. Greatest
for the next Regional Meeting.      It was                            accuracy has been obtai ned with NBS Ty pe I V
reported that the BOD has requested a                                 power meters u s i ng thermistor type p o we r
publication of an annual meeting schedule                             detectors. The t hermistor detecto rs are
prior to January 1, 1 98 0 .                                          housed in an aluminum block where temperature
                                                                      is held constant to O.OloC. The p r e s e n t
                                                                      system has a phase-locked source whose out­
MAP Program - Joe Katoch reported that he                             put power is externally leveled. Connectors
was going to circulate a MAP questionnaire                            at the measurement planes are GPC-7. The
he had c ompo s e d to the Region 5 ad hoc                            system is controlled by programmable
committee consi sting of Dick Weber, Larry                            calculator. Mr. Cletu s A. Hoer is responsibl,
Royce, Joe Katoch and Cliff Koop for review.                          for the laboratory development work and was
                                                                      on hand to g iv e a p e r s on a l i z e d d emonstration.

Door Prize - Larry Royce won the backgammon
set door prize.                                                       Dual 6-Port Automatic Network An a l y z e r , 10­
                                                                      100 MHz - Mr. Hoer also discussed a similar
                                                                      dual 6- port r eflectometer operating in the
Gene ral Overview of NBS Boulder                                      10-100 MHz frequency range.    Similar techni­
                                                                      ques are employed with the exception of
                                                                      the type of components and connectors used.
A slide pr e s e n t a t i o n was made of the NBS                    This system is being developed for the
Boulder a c t i v i t i e s and history.    It was n oted             National Institute of Occupational Safety
that NBS Boulder had just cel ebrated t heir                          and Health (NIOSH) to establish p r e c i s e
25th Anniversary. We are indebted to Ken                              levels on radiation h azards. The fallout
Ar ms t r o n g for arranging the p r e s e n t a t i o n .           of this development wor k could offer some
                                                                      benefit to industry in the f uture.

Presentation:      6-Port Reflectometer
                                                                      Single 6-Port Automa tic Ne t wor k An a l y z e r ­
                                                                      Mr. Ernie Komarek di scussed the single 6­
Mr. Gl e n n F . En gen, Senior Research Consultant                   port reflectometer used to c alibrate power
at NBS , gave a p r e sen t a t i on on the 6-Port                    and reflection coefficient in the 1-18 GHz
                                                              -64 ­
                                                                                                      Regio na l Repo r t s


fre quenc y range.       This system , under

p ro g r a mma b le calculator control, p ro vi de s

NBS with th e p r i mary p r oduction capabil ity

for pow e r ca l ibrat i on work l oa d .



We are indebted to Messrs. Gl enn En g en,

Cle t us Hoer , Er n ie Komarek and Ken Ar ms t ron g

for their time a nd support o f this r egional

meeti ng .
                                                            Harr y Doolitt le, AT I , Re g i o n 7 coord i nator
                                                                       has set th e ir n ext me eting f or March 31, 1 980,
                                                                       with the p r o ba b le loc ation at one of th e
ATTENDEES
                                                             Hewlett-Pack ard p lant s i n Pa lo Al t o . Re serve
                                                                       the dat e.    Th e agenda and meeting details
Jo seph S . Katoch           Gou l d, Inc ., Inst. Div .
              wil l b e mai led to region a l me mb er s in ear ly
Ge o rge F luha rty          Rockwell-Co l lins
                       198 0 .
Ni les Her zog               Emerson Elec t r i c Co .

K. A. Mayner                 Bailey Controls Co.

Mar l in J . J o h n s o n   John Hopk i n s uni versity

Thomas A . Pears on          Nava l Avionics Center

        c
Dan M Kn i g h t             Ba ll Ae r o s p a c e

Er n ie S tewa r t           Cummi ns Eng ine Co.

Edmu nd J . Burck art        G. D. Sea le & Co.

Wi ll i a m F.

   Fitzgera l d              Tr a ven ol Lab ora t o r i e s Inc.
La r r y Royce               GMC
Dic k W   eber               Medt ronic, I nc .
Doug la s M. Smith           Abbott La bo r a t o r i e s
Glenn F . En gen             Nationa l Bu r e a u of
                                Stand ards
Cli f f KOOp                 Roc k wel l - Col l i n s
Ra l ph F . Ber termann      G. D. Sear l e & Co.
Lois Co l l i n s            Bendix A&M Div .
Russel l F . Head            Fisher Contro ls Co.




                                                              - 6 5­
                                       WELCOME TO OUR NEW NCSL MEMBERS


Co llins Interna tiona l Services        Aus tron , I nc .                     Pra t t Whi tney Aircra ft Group
   Compa ny                              1915 Kramer La ne                     Gover nment Prod ucts Division
Box 1 04 62 Mai l S ta tion 403 -100     Aus tin , Texas 78 7 5 8              P.O . Box 1 9 4 2 Mail Stop ; 0 -30
Dal las , Texas 75207                    Delega te :                           W. Pa lm Beac h , F lo r i da 3 3 40 2
Delega te :                                G. Price                            Delegate;
  M . J ames C . Logbe ck
    r                                                                            Mr . Robert R . Kelley


Phi ll ip A . Pa i nc haud               AiResea rc h Man ufac t u ri ng       Datro n I ns trumen ts , I nc .
1 110 W. Doro thy Drive                     Co . of Ca liforn i a              Laguna Hi lls Busi ness Park B10
Brea , Ca liforni a 9262 1               2525 W. 1 90th St ree t ,             230 1 1 Mou l to n Parkway
Del e gat e:                                Dept . #84 -26 MS T-30             Lag u na Hi l ls , Ca lifor nia 92653
   Mr. Ph i l l ip Pai nc ha ud          To r r ance, Califo rni a 90509       Delega te :
                                         Delega te ;                             M . Richa rd D. Mi kee t he n
                                                                                   r
                                            Mr . Lo uis M. Kee hf uss , Jr .


u n iversi ty of Wisconsi n-             Sperry F lig ht Sys tems              Texas Eng i neering Expe rime nt
   Madison                               21111 No . 1 9 t h Ave n ue ,            Station
1 50 0 Jo hnson Dr i ve                     ai
                                           M l Drop H-3                        Mec hanic a l Eng i neering Dept . ,
              i
Madison , W scons in 53 706              Phoe n ix , Arizo n a 850 3 6            Te xas A&M u nivers i ty
Delega te:                               Delega te :                           Co llege State, Texas 778 43
   Vcr . Ge ne D. Nut te r                 Mr . J a mes E . Berg               Delegate :
                                                                                 Mr . Gordon Hop k i ns


                 a
United s t ates M r i ne Co rps .        Heath Company                         Maro t ta Scien t i fic Contro ls ,
Commandi ng Genera l (B36 0)             Heat h Company Hi l l top Road           Inc .
  Marine Corps Logist ics Base           St . Josep h , Mis sour i 49 085      Boon to n Avenue
Bar stow, Cal ifor n ia 923 1 1          De l e gate:                          Boonto n , New Je rsey 0 70 05
Del e g at e :                              M r. Jack F . Park                 De legate :
  Mr. Wil liam L . Gibbs                                                         M . Wil l iam T . Browne , Jr .
                                                                                   r


Tekser v, Inc .                          Rockford Ins t rumen t La b .
        Simpson Elec tr ic Compa ny
14 Lak e si d e Of fice Pa rk            1 71 8 Broadway
                      853 Dundee Avenue
Wakef ie ld, MA 01 88 0                  Rock ford , Illino is 61 1 08
        Elg i n , Il l ino i s 60 12 0
De legate :                              Delegate :
                           Delegate ;
  M . Bria n J . Gurney
    r                                       M r. Dav id A . Neshe i m            Mr . R. T . Va n Der Ka rr


Paci f ic Ga s and Elect ric Co.         Ce n tr a l I ns tr ument             Ed war d s Labo ratories
34 00 Crow Ca nyon Ro ad                    Labora tory , I nc .               Ro ad 402 N
San Ramon , Ca lifor nia 9458 3          777 So . Cen t ra l Expressway        P .O . Box 1 8 0
De lega te :                             Richardso n , Texas 750 80            Ana sco, P uerto Rico 0 0 61 0
   Mr . Charles A. Do o h e r            Deleg a te :                          Delegate :
                                            Mr . Fra nk Wo l k ,                  M . Enriq ue F ue ntes
                                                                                   r


W te Sa nds Missle Ra nge
 hi                                      Hayes I nstr umen t Service           I nte l Corpora tio n
  Ca libration Lab .                     53 0 Bos ton Road                     3065 Bowe rs Ave n ue
          -
STEWS -Q}\. C                            Bi l lerica , MA 01 8 21              Sa nta Clara, Cal iforn ia 9505 1
Whi te Sa nds Miss i le Ra nge,          De lega te :                          Delegate :
  New Mexico 880 02                         M . Da nie l Hayes
                                              r                                   Mr. Richard L . Ka tsc h
De L e qe t.e :
   Mr . James A . Harmo n




                                                      - 6 6­
                                        BOARD OF DIR E T ORS FOR 1979-1980


PR ESIDENT*                                       SECRE TA RY*                                   DIRECTORS

James A. Valentino
                               Dougl as M. Doi
                               Chu ck N . Co rbridge (Reg ions 1& 2)

Sand ers Associat es, In c.
                      Lockh eed-Caiif ornia Com pany
                Tektro nix, Inc.

Danie l Web ster Hwy . NHQ 3-211 1
               D/5 7 -22, Bldg. 322 , Plant B-6
              MS 50-45 1

Nashua, N. H. 0306 1
                             P.O. Box 55 1
                                 P.O. Box 500

(60 3) 885-3 339
                                 Burb ank, Californ ia 91 5 20
                 Beaver to n, Orego n 970 77

                                                  (2 13) 847·509 8                               (503) 64 4 -0161, Ex t . 788 0

EXEC UTIVE VICE PR ESIDENT *
                                                  TR EASURER *                                   Ha rtwell C. Keit h (Reg ions 7 & 8)

John Lee
                                                  Bob DeL app
                                   Ford Aero spa ce & Commun . Co rp.

U.S. In strument Rental s, Inc.

                                                  SR I In ternati onal
                          Aero nu tro nic Division

2121 So uth El Camino Re al
                                                                     Fo rd R oad. EVT 26

San Mateo , Califo rn ia 9440 3
                  Instrume nta tion Services Bldg. 307 -A

                                                                                                 New po rt Beac h, Californ ia 92663

(41 5 ) 574-600 6, Ex t. 2 07
                    333 Ra vens woo d Avenu e

                                                                                                 (714) 759-55 20

                                                  Menlo Park , California 94025

VICE PRE SIDENT S                                 (415) 326-620 0, Ext. 2249

                                                                                                 Cliffo rd D. Koop 137-1 53

Dean A. Brun gar t
                                                                                  (Reg io ns 5 & 6)

                                                  SPONS OR'S DE LEG ATE
Teledyn e Sys tems Co mpany
                                                                     Roc kwe ll-Collins

19 601 Nordho ff Stree t
                         Bascom W. Birm ingham , Director
              4 00 Collins Road N .E .

Nort hri dge, Californ ia 91324
                  Boulder Lab ora tories
                        Ced ar Rap id s, Iowa 52406

(2 13) 886-22 11, Ext. 2 601
                     Nat io nal Bureau of Standards
                (3 19) 395·5554
                                                  Bo ulde r, Co lorado 80 30 3

M. J . Corrigan, Jr.
                             (303) 49 9. 1000, Ext. 3237
                   Geo rge R ice (Reg ion 3

Lockh eed Electronics Co., In c.
                                                                   & In tern ati on al)

Pr oduc ts & Syste ms Division
                   PAST PRESID ENT *                              D120 031 HC02

U.S. Highw ay 22
                                 Ron Kid d                                      Rockwell-Auton eti cs

Plainfield , New Jer sey 0706 1
                  Micro wave Associa tes                         3370 Miralo m a Avenue

(2 01) 757-1600 , Ext. 27 34
                     South Aven ue                                  Ana hei m , Califo rn ia 92803

                                                  Burlinton , MA 0 1803                          (714) 632-2685

Dennis H. Gallagher
                              (6 17) 27 2-300 0, Ext. 17 86

Leed s an d No rt hrup Company
                                                                  Bob Weber (Reg ion 4)
Su mney to wn Pike
                                                                              Lockh eed Missiles & Space Co.
No rt h Wales, Pennsyl van ia 19454
                                                             Dep t. 0/48 -64 , Bldg. 151
(215) 643- 20 00, Ex t. 2194
                                                                    P.O. Box 504

                                                                                                 Sun nyva le, Califo rni a 94086

Hugh St arling                                                                                   (408) 742-2957

General Electric Comp any
Ne utron Devices Dept.                                                                           NCSL SECRETAR IAT
P.O . Box 11 508

                                                                                                 1. Kenn eth Armstrong

St. Pet ersburg, Fl or ida 33 733

                                                                                                 Nationa l Bur eau of St an dards

(8 13) 544-25 11, Ext. 46 2

                                                                                                 Boulder, Co lo rado 80303

                                                                                                 (30 3) 499-1000, Ext. 3787

   *Executive Boar d.




                                              OTHER INTERESTED PARTIES

Dr. A. McCoubrey                                                               Dr. B. Belan ger , Chie f, Office of Measurement Services
Associa te Direct or for Measur em ent Services                                Nat io nal Bur eau of St anda rds

Natio nal Bur eau of Sta nd ar ds                                              Washin gt on , D.C. 20 234

Washin gton , D.C. 20 234                                                      (30 1) 921-2805

(301) 92 1-33 01





                                                                  - 67­
                                         COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN

VP Administration - Hugh Starling	                      VP Lab Management & Operations ­
                                                        Moe Corrigan
1A	   MEETINGS AND PROGRAMS
      J. M. Suraci                                      3A	   CALIBRATION SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
      Lockheed Missiles & Spa ce Co .                         Rob ert Guibord
      S W F PAC Product Assurance                             TRW
      P.O. Box 987                                            Building S-Room 2049
      Silverdale, Washington 98383                            On e Space Park
      (206) 396-4362                                          Redondo Beach , CA 90278
                                                              (213) 535-0368
1B    HONORS AND AWARDS
      Rob ert M. Lad y                                  3B	   MEASUREMENT ASSURANCE
      Lo ckh eed Georgia Co .                                 Gary Davidson
      Dept. 59-1 3, Z/262                                     S1880
      86 S. Cobb Drive                                        TRW DSSG
      Marietta, GA 30063                                      One Space Park
      (4 Q 424-2900
          4)                                                  Redondo Beach, CA 90278
                                                              (213) 535-1684
1C    EDUCATIO N AND TRAINING
                                                        3C	   PRODUCT DESIGN & SPECIFICATION
      H. Bryan Werner
                                                              Dexter J . Franke
      Westinghouse Electric Corp .
                                                              Rockwell Collins
      R&D Center
                                                              P.O. Box 728,137-134
      Beulah Road, Churchill Boro
                                                              Cedar Rapids, IA 52406
      Pittsburgh, PA 15235
                                                              (319) 395-4689
      (412) 256-3420
                                                        3D    CALIBRATION LABORATORY AUTOMATION
VP Measurement Requirements - Dennis Gallagher                R. B. (Pete) England
                                                              General Dynamics , Pomona
2A	   NATIO NAL MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS                      Mail Zone 4-32 , P:O. Box 2507
      Frank Flynn                                             Pomona , CA 91766
      Department of th e Air Force                            (714) 629 -5111, Ext. 4312
      HQ Aerospace Guidance & Metro Center
      Newark Air Force Station, Ohio 43055
                                                        VP Communications & Marketing - Dean Brungart
      (614 ) 522-7400

                                                        4A    NEWSLETTER

2B	   LABORATORY EVAL UATIO N                                 John Minck
      R. Clem Malot                                           Hewl ett-Packard Company, Stanford Park Div. 5U
      Gillette Research Institute and                         1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto , CA 94304
      Medical Evalu ation Laboratories                        (415 ) 856-2060
      1413 Research Boulevard

      Rockville, Maryland 20850
                        4B	   INFORMATION & DIRECTORY
      ( 301) 424·2000 , Ext. 205                              James N. Gilbert
                                                              Automation Industries, Inc.
2C	   BIOMEDICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL METROLOGY                   Vitro Laboratories Division
      Ger on Smith                                            14000 Georgia Avenue
      Yellow Springs Instrument Co.                           Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
      P.O. Box 279                                            (301) 871-3186
      Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387
      (513) 767·7241, Ext. 292                          4C	   RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
                                                              Al Kohler
                                                              Varian , Palo Alto Tube Division
                                                              A·130 611 Hansen Way
                                                              Palo Alto , California 92111
                                                              (714) 277-2732
                                                 -68­
                                    REGIONA L COORD INATORS

REGION I                              RE GION 4                                RE GION 7
Harry B. Haymes                       John P. Riley                            Harry C. Doolittle II
Sanders Associate s, Inc.             TI -INS-41                               ITEK Appl ied Tech., Metro logy Dept.
95 Canal Street                       NASA Kennedy Space Cent er               64 5 Almanor Avenue
Nashua, New Hampshire 03061           Florida 32899                            Sunnyvale, California 94 08 6
(60 3) 855-491 3                      (305) 867-473 7                          (408) 732-271 0, Ex t. 2171

                                      RE GION 5                                REGION 8
REGION 2
                                                                               Rolf B. F. Schumacher
Selwyn P. Smith 2-47                  Jo seph S. Kat och
                                                                               Rockw ell In ternational/Autonet ics
RCA, Solid State Division             Gould, Inc ., Instrument Syst ems Div.
                                      3631 Perkins Avenu e                     Department 120 HC02
Rou te 202
                                      Cleveland , Ohio 4411 4                  3370 Miraloma Avenue
Somerville, N.J. 08876
                                                                               Anah eim, California 92803
(201) 685-6952                        (216) 361-3315 , Ext. 387
                                                                               (71 4) 632-5981
                                      REGION 6
RE GION 3                                                                      INTERNATION AL REGION
                                      Paul J. Groo s
Frederick A. Kern                                                              J. Graham Cameron
                                      Rhod es-Groos Labora tories, In c.
NASA, Langley Research Cen ter                                                 Dept. of National Defen ce
MjS 236                               3409 Andt ree Boulevard
                                      Austin , Tex as 7872 4                   Quality Engineering Test Estab., QETE 7
Hamp ton , Virginia 23665                                                      Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA K1A OK2
(804) 827-111 0, Ex t. 32 34          (512) 92 8-081 3
                                                                               (819) 997-3 411


                                      . LIAISON D ELEGAT ES

Gl DEP METR OLO GY COMMITTEE          OIML                                     AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR
John Lee                              Donald J. Greb                           QUALITY CONTROL
U.S. Instrument Rentals, Inc .        Lockh eed Missiles & Space Co.           Max J . Unis
2121 South EI Camino Real             Dept. 4 8-20 , Bldg. 150                 Gage Lab Corporation
San Mateo , California 94 403         P.O. Box 504                             Buck Rd. , N. of County Line
(415) 574-6006 , Ext . 207            Sunnyvale, CA 94088                      Huntingdon Valley, Pa. 19006
                                      (40 8) 742-2011                          (21 5) 355-5420

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE CONFERENCE        PRECISION MEASUREMENTS ASSOC. INSTRUMENT SOCIETY

Dean A. Brungart                      George Rice                   OF AMERICA

Teled yne Syst ems Company            0102 031 HC02                            J. M. Suraci

19 601 Nordh off Stree t              Rockwell-Autonetics                      Lockh eed Missiles & Space Co.

Northridge, Ca 91324                  3370 Miraloma Avenu e                    SWFPAC Produ ct Assurance

(213) 886- 2211, Ext. 2601            Ana heim , Ca 9280 3                     P.O. Box 987

                                      (714} 632-26 85                          Silverd ale, WA 98 38 3

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION                                                           (206) 396 -4362
OF LABORATORY ACCRE DITATI ON         ASTM
Denn is H. Gallagher                  Ron Kidd
Leeds and Nort hrup Company           Microwave Associates
Sumney tow n Pike                     Sou th Avenu e
North Wales, Pennsylvania 19 45 4     BUrlingt on, MA 01803
(215} 64 3-2000, Ext. 2194            (617) 272-3000, Ext. 178 6




                                                   -69­
                                                                   19 7 9 -19 80
                                                          NC SL B OARD OF D IREC TORS
                                                                                          .. PRES I D EN T

                                                                                        JIM VA LENTINO
                                                                                     SANDERSASSOCIA rES
                                                                                         (6031BB53339
                                        N CSL SEC REt A R I AT                                                                                SPON SO R'S DE L e C A TE
                                L KENNET H ARMST RON~
                                                                                        BASCOM B IR M IN~HAM
                            NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS
                                                                               NATI ONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS
                                 (3031 499 10M Ex 31Bl
                                                                                       (30::1499·1000 b 3237



                                 I                                                                                         l
                         .. SECRETA RY                     .. EXE CUTIV E V IC E PRESID ENT                        • PAST PRE SIDEN T                             *   TREA sUR ER
                         DO U ~ L A S
                              0 01                                     JOHN LEE                                        RON KIOD                                      BOB O, LAPP

                LOCKHEED CALI FORNIA                         U. S INSTRUMENT RENTALS                                    AV
                                                                                                               MICROW E ASS      OCIATES                      S R I I NTERNATI ONAL

                    (213) B475098                                1415J 574 6006 b 201                           16111 272 ::000 Ex 11B6                       (4 151 326-6200 Ex 1149


                                                                                                           ... EX ECUTIVE 8 0 AAD MEMB ER S




   ADM IN ISTR A T ION                            ME ASUA EMI; NT                             DIR ECl O1=l S                   LABOR AT ORY MA N AG EMEN T                       COMMUN ICA T ION S
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GENE  RAL ELECTRIC CO .                     LEEDS AND NORTHRUP CO                                                              LOCKHEED ELECTRONICS CO                         TELEDYNE SYSTEM S CO.
 IB\ 31544 1511 Ex 462                                                                031644,0161 Ex lBBO
                                                                                     15
                                              (1151643-2000 Ex_1194                                                               (1011757 1600 b 2JJa                         (1131 BB62211, E< 260 1
                                                                                     HARTWELL C KEITH                      . a •• • •


                                                                                      FORO AEROS PACE 6
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                                                                                         17141159 5520
                                                                                       CLIFFORD KOO P
                                                                                     ROCKWELL COLLINS
                                                                                         13191396 5554
                                                                                         GEORGE RICE
                                                                                    ROCKWE LL AUTONETICS
                                                                                         1714)631 2685
                                                                                        80B WEBE R
                                                                                 LOCKHEEDMISSILES & SPA CE
                                                                                       140BI 742 2957




                                                                    NC             L REGIONS
         RE GIO N         7
    HARTWE LL KEITH
                                                                     REGI ON               5                               REG ION        1
    HARRY OOO LITTLE
                                                                   CLIFF KOOP                                        CHUCK CORBRIOGE

  (408) 732-27 10 Ex. 2171                                                              JOE KATOCH                                         HARRY HAYMES

                                                                                    (216) 361-3315 Ex. 387                                  (603) 885-4913
                                                                                                                                                                VT




                                                                                                                                                                                    REGION      2
                                                                                                                                                                                CH UCK CORBRIDG E

                                                                                                                                                                                  SELWYN SM ITH

                                                                                                                                                                                   (201) 685-6952




                                                                                                                                                                               REGION       3
                                                                                                                                                                                 GEORG E RICE
                                                                                                                                                                                  FRED KERN

                                                                                                                                                                          (8(JJl) 827-1110 Ex_3234



      REG ION       8
  HARlWE LL KEITH                                                                                                                                                         REGION      4
 ROLF SCHUMACH ER                                                                                                                                                           B08 WEBER
    (714) 632-5981
                                                                                                                                                                           JOHN RILEY
                                                                                                                                                                          (305) 867-473 7
                     TERNATIONAL REGION
                               COOR OINATOR                                                           REGION        6
                            GRAHAM CAMERON                                                            CLIFF KOO P
                              (819) 997-3411                                                          PAUL GROOS                                                        DIRECTO R
                                                                                                     (512)928-08 13                                              REG IONAL CO ORO INATOR

                                                                                                  - 70 ­
                                                 HOW TO 0 1 NCSL


   \ L i fl nonprofit association of laboratories or organizations that maintain or have an interest related to
measurement standards and calibration facilities. Ea ch rnemb r organizat ion ap oinrs a "member del egate"
wit lias he responsibility of representing the membe r .ornpan or organization 11 N 'L . Member ( el l!gate. ,
work ing within authority limits agreed upon with their appoin in g officers, coordinate members' involve ment
in Ne SL' s d iverse activities.

M41kr checks payable to the National eon ferell         of Standar ds Labo atorles and mail with app lica tion for
me mbership to:
           Secretariat
             Na tional Confereuee 01' Standard Laboratories
             elo Na tional Bureau o f Stan dar ds
             Boulder , CO 0 303


P l; E AS E PRINT OR TYPE
                                       APPLI A'1' IC r-.: 1 R !"'lEMBI- RS HIP
                                                          ·

                       I ' 1' lONAL CON FER ENCE OF S ANDA R S LABORA'J                      JUES



Member Co . or Organization


Address


 Ity                                                      t at e                                             Zip Code

here by applies fo r membership in the Natio nal Co nference       0   Standards     boratorie and appo ints as its
mem ber delegate


Dele gate' s Name


TiUe


Delegate' s Business Address


City                                                      State                                               ZiR Code


Te lephone Area Code                                      Number                                            Ex ten sio n

who '....ill serve Ul I;iI furl r notice. The sum of fi fty dol lar s ($ ;" 0) is enclosed f( r membe rship du e fo r th o
curre n t, calend ar year. Mem bership f 'e ra chi des $25 'or su bscri p tion to th . NCSI quarterly newsiet ter.


AppoInting Otfl cer:
                                            - ---- ---------
                       - -- - - -------- -cial of Mem ber-Applican t. Organizatio n- - - - -
                                       Offi

T iUe

Mailin g Ad dress

City                                     State                             Zip Co de                              Dat e

                                                          -71­

				
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