MOTIVATION THEORY by hedongchenchen


Business & Management 2009
A Course Companion 124-126
            Intrinsic Motivation
• Intrinsic motivation occurs when someone gets
  satisfaction from an activity itself without threats
  or rewards from outside.
• Employees are more likely to be intrinsically
  motivated if they:
    Can see their success is the result of something they
    have done: if they put in more work they will achieve
    more positive outcomes.
   Have some control over their results – they are given a
    degree of freedom.
    Are interested in the work they are doing.
          Extrinsic Motivation
• Rewards are extrinsic motivators – motivators
  that come from outside the individual.
• In the workplace pay is an obvious example.
• Extrinsic motivators provide satisfaction that
  the job itself may not provide and may
  compensate workers for the “pain” or
  dissatisfaction they experience at work.

Date Accessed: 19th November 2009
     Frederick Winslow Taylor
• Taylor was a mechanical engineer who observed
  the phenomenal contribution science had made
  to agriculture and the industrial revolution.
• He wanted to apply scientific methods to
  management to achieve similar results.
• He often referred to as the founder of scientific
  management since his ideas on management
  attempted to apply scientific methods of
  measurement under controlled circumstances to
  maximize output.
       Frederick Winslow Taylor
• Taylor believed that standardization of work methods
  and enforced adoption of the best ways of working was
  the way to ensure that output would be maximized in
  the shortest possible time.
• It is worth recalling that Taylor’s ideas were adopted
  when many poorly educated Americans were leaving
  agriculture and starting to work in factories.
• In this situation it is perhaps understandable that
  managers may have decided to take a more hands on
  style in decision making.
• The introduction of his ideas and methods was often
  resented by workers though, and provoked numerous
       Frederick Winslow Taylor
         Time & Motion Study
• Taylor is perhaps most famous his time and
  motion study.
• This involved breaking a job down into its
  component parts and measuring how long it
  took to perform each task.
• One of the most famous studies involved
           Frederick Winslow Taylor
             Time & Motion Study
Fast Food Restaurant Example
• If you watch how a hamburger is prepared in a large and busy
  fast food restaurant, then you will get some idea of the huge
  benefits that can arise if each `bit` of the system is managed
• The burger is cooked at a given temperature, for a precise
  amount of time on each side.
• The fries area also cooked for a precise amount of time.
• Each worker will have a specific role and will only move a few
  feet from his or her position to minimize time wasted in
• The result of this is a consistent fast food cooked quickly and
  efficiently at low cost.
• Skill can be largely removed from the system so workers can
  be employed at low cost with and with little training.
 What did Frederick Taylor say about
• According to the system of scientific management
  developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, a
  worker's motivation is solely determined by pay.
• Workers are motivated solely by satisfying their
  basic needs. (Food/Clothing/Shelter)
• Therefore management need not consider
  psychological or social aspects of work.
• In essence, scientific management bases human
  motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and
  discards the idea of intrinsic rewards.
           Abraham Maslow
• Maslow is most famous for proposing a
  hierarchy of human needs to be explain
• Maslow argued that people have a number of
  needs and arranged these in terms of their
• The basic needs at the bottom of the diagram
  are most important and individual will suffer
  anxiety if they are not met.
    Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs
• The first four levels are considered basic needs.
• Once these needs are met they go away – or no
  longer cause anxiety.
• The remaining needs (self-actualization) are
  growth needs.
• Once these needs are initially fulfilled they do not
  go away.
• In fact the individual will strive to find new ways
  to satisfy these needs.
• These needs involve fulfilling your potential;
  being the best you can be in as many areas as
            Hierarchy of Needs
              & Motivation
• One of key issues for management is that once
  a need is satisfied , providing more of the
  same will not motivate a worker.
• So in Taylor’s factories, workers will have
  initially been motivated by the need for food,
  warmth and shelter, but the failure of his
  factories to satisfy higher level needs may
  explain why his methods often resulted in
  labor unrest.
              Douglas McGregor
             Theory X & Theory Y
Theory X
• A Theory X manager assumes that employees are lazy
  and dislike work.
• Workers therefore need to be closely supervised and
  provided with a stable and disciplined work
• This close supervision is best achieved through a tall
  organization structure with clear levels of
• Employees in theory will be motivated by financial
  rewards that compensate them for the pain of working.
• If workers fail to deliver they will be punished in the
  hope of modifying their behaviour.
              Douglas McGregor
             Theory X & Theory Y
Theory Y
• Theory Y pretty much assumes that the opposite of
  theory X.
• A Theory Y manager will assume that employees will
  enjoy their work and will seek opportunities to take on
  greater responsibility and do a good job.
• Employees can be trusted to get on with their work
  with little direction or supervision because they enjoy
  the mental and physical stimulation work provides.
• They have the desire to be creative and forward
  thinking at work.
             Douglas McGregor
            Theory X & Theory Y
Theory Y
• With Theory Y assumptions about employees it is
  far more likely that the manager will adopt a
  “hands-off” approach.
• In some cases, theory Y managers will try to “get
  out of the way” and allow workers the freedom
  to do the job in the best way they see fit.
• Theory Y managers believe that they do not have
  all the answers and will try to feed of the pool of
  ideas their workers can share with the team.
    Frederick Herzberg
• Herzberg (1957) developed
  a two-factory theory of
  motivation based on
  hygiene needs and
  motivation needs.
             Frederick Herzberg
               Hygiene Needs
• Hygiene needs are those factors that provide
  dissatisfaction at work, if they are not attended
• At school you will probably be less motivated if
  the classroom is not clean or the air-conditioning
• If these things are satisfactory, however, it is
  unlikely to lead to motivation.
• Hygiene factors are the things that are necessary
  for you to get started, but they don’t drive you to
             Frederick Herzberg
               Hygiene Needs
Herzberg’s Hygiene needs are:
• Company policy & administration
• Relationship with supervisor
• Work Conditions
• Salary
• Company Car
• Status
• Security
• Relationship with subordinates
• Personal Life
             Frederick Herzberg
             Motivational Needs
• Motivators are the things that get you working
  because you get some intrinsic reward from
• According to Herzberg true motivators are:
     Achievement
     Recognition
     The work itself
     Responsibility
     Advancement
          Frederick Herzberg
• To motivate people at work, managers
  need to eliminate the causes of
  dissatisfaction – by addressing the
  hygiene needs.
• After that the task is to create
• Herzberg suggests that the could be
  achieved through job enrichment and job
             Frederick Herzberg
               JOB ENRICHMENT
Job enrichment
• This involves giving employees opportunities to
  make use of the different skills they have.
• An enriched job differs from an enlarged job in
  that if involves a range of tasks and challenges of
  varying difficulty, as well as a complete unit of
  work, so that an employee can have a sense of
• On top of this a manger will offer feedback,
  encouragement and support.
            Frederick Herzberg
             JOB ENLARGEMENT
Job enlargement
• Simply increasing the range of tasks a workers
  has to do.
• Example: Replacing an assembly line with
  modular work where an employee (or group
  of employees) carries out a job from start to

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