Slide 1 - Duluth High School by xumiaomaio

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									Early History:
1st civilizations Indus Valley
(2500 years ago)
developed a writing system,
strong central government,
rich overseas trade
Environmental changes led
to decline of this civilization
Stranded cities



                                  Hittite Script
       Early Indian Civilizations
• Aryans: warlike people
   – Spread north into India
     and gradually spread
     culture
   – Dravidians were
     pushed south to farm
     (today: Deccan
     plateau)
   – Spoke Sanskrit: Hindi
     developed from
     sanskrit
      • Example Himalaya:
        meaning “Home of
        Snows”
      Early Indian Civilizations
• Aryan Religion
  – Basic ideas became
    part of Hinduism
  – Pantheon: all the gods
    of a religion
• Introduced strict
  system of social class
  – Caste System:
    developed in which
    people could not
    change their social
    status
             Islamic Empires
• Muslims arrive in the
  north in 1000c.e.
  – Kingdom was founded
    in 1200 c.e. in Delhi
• 1398 Timur invaded
  India and sacked
  Delhi
• 1500’s Genghis
  invades India
                               Empires
• 1500’s Genghis invades
  India
• Grandson Akbar: allowed
  people to practice their own
  religion
   – Muslim
   – Indians still practiced
     Hinduism
• Shah Jahan
   – Built Taj Mahal
   – Religious tolerance ended with
     Aurangzeb
• Europeans will soon take an
  opportunity to rule the area
            European Influence
• Europeans arrive in
  1490’s
   – Wanted to trade
   – Expand their empires
   – Expand Christianity
• New companies
   – Britain’s East India
     Company
   – Indian Cotton became
     important to Britain
• Fight over India
   – Britain and France
                        British Rule
• 1700’s British Rule
   – Defeated French and took
     over majority of subcontinent
   – East India Controls region
     from Britain
• Foreign rule angers Indians
   – Rebellion breaks out among
     sepoys
   – Sepoys killed officers and their
     families
   – Both side report vicious acts of
     cruelty
   – Britain crushed revolt
• Ended East India Company’s
  rule and ruled them directly
  in 1858
                    British Rule
• India, Pakistan, Bangladesh,
  and Sri Lanka = British
  Colony
• “Jewel in the Crown”
• Cotton, Jewels, and tea
  flowed into Britain
• To ensure efficient flow of
  goods built:
   – Railroads
   – Roads
   – Ports
• Introduced
   – English Language
   – Education system
   – Law and government
                  Independence
• Indians did not like the
  treatment they received
  at the hands of the British
   – Many spoke of
     Independence
• 1885: Indians organized
  Indian National Congress
   – Asked for more rights
   – Larger share of
     government jobs
   – British refused
                 Independence
• Mohandas K. Gandhi
  – Led independence
    movement
  – Mahatma or “Great Soul”
  – Believed in nonviolent non-
    cooperation was best way
    to achieve independence
  – Boycott British goods
  – When thrown in jail he went
    on a hunger strike
  – Efforts were effective
  – After WWII Britain granted
    independence
                   Independence
• Hindu’s vs. Muslim
   – Muslim demanded a
     separate state in the north
• To avoid civil was separation
  of two states was granted:
  India and Pakistan
• Kashmir was divided
  between the two regions
• Lines did not solve the
  problem
   – Fighting broke out
   – 16million people fled to the
     country with their religion
   – 1million people died
• 1948 Gandhi was shot and
  killed by a Hindu extremist
              Independence
• Today Worlds most
  populous democracy
• Large number of
  people vote
• India has 28 states
• Government is
  shaped after Britain’s
  government
                 Religions
•   Hinduism: see other power point
•   Islam
•   Sikhism
•   Jainism
•   Christianity
                     Religion
• Islam
  – Largest majority in
    India
  – 2nd largest Muslim
    population in the world
  – 11-14% of population
  – Reflects the heart of
    the former Muslim
    empire
                        Religion
• Christianity
   – Arrived in 500 c.e.
   – Est. along west coast
   – 20million Indians
• Buddhism:
   – less than 1% of population
• Sikhism
   – Combines Muslim belief in
     one God with Hindu belief
     in reincarnation and karma
   – Rejects the caste system
• Jainism
   – Strict moral code based on
     preserving life
                     Culture
• Clothing Sari
  – Cloth that is wrapped
    around the body
  – Choli is warn
    underneath
  – Men wear the lungi:
    length of fabric
    wrapped around the
    waist
  – Skihs and turbans
                         Culture
• Food:
   – Curry flavors gravy base
     served over rice
   – Varies widely country’s
     different climate, crops,
     and culture
• Festivals
   – Each religion has special
     days
   – Holi: northern and central
     India = celebrates spring
     and triumph of good over
     evil
   – Pongal = three day
     harvest festival of
     southern India parades
     cattle elaborately
     decortaed
The Indian Perimeter




            Pakistan
                        History
• Empires
  – Persians
  – Alexander the Great
  – The Mauryan and the
    Gupta
  – Turkic Muslims in
    1000 c.e.
     • Brought Islam with
       them
     • Became the main
       religion
             The Modern Period
• Region Granted
  independence in 1947
• Divide by religious lines
• West and East Pakistan
  (Bangladesh)
   – Major cultural differences
     (i.e. languages were
     different)
   – Government was in West
     Pakistan, east felt they had
     no power
   – 1971 East Pakistan broke       Bangladesh
     away became Bangladesh
              The Modern Period
• Sri Lanka
   – British colony 1802
   – 1948 became independent
• Maldives
   – British Protectorate: gave
     up certain decision making
     processes for protection
   – Full independence in 1965
• Bhutan
   – British Protectorate
   – Fully independent in 1949
   – India still runs foreign policy
• Nepal
   – Ruled by series of dynasty’s
   – Constitutional Monarchy
   – Ethnic troubles, illiteracy,
     and poverty
   – Hard to build a strong
     Democracy
       People and Languages
• Pakistan
  – Religion: Islam
  – Language: Urdu and
    regional languages
     • Similar to Hindi
  – Persian Script
  – Read right to left
  – Many also speak
    English
           People and Language
• Nepal:
  – Indo-Aryan ancestry
  – Speak Nepali
  – North speak Sino-Tibetan
    Languages
• Bhutan
  – 3 major ethnic groups
     • Bhote
     • Nepalese
     • Tribal People
  – Speak: Dzongkha; English
    is used in Schools
       People and Languages
• Bangladesh
  – Bengalis
  – Mix of Turks and
    Southwest Asians
  – Speak Bengali
• Sri Lanka
  – 75% are Sinhalese
  – 25% are Tamils
     • Live in north and east
  – Decades of bloody
    conflicts
                    Education
• Generally low literacy
  rate
• Too few schools
• Too few teachers
• Women are less likely
  than men to be able
  to read
  – Result of cultural
    attitudes
                         Religion
• Pakistan, Bangladesh,
  and Maldives are Muslim
• Nepal and Bhutan are
  Hindu
   – Tibetan region: Buddhist
   – Nepal only official Hindu
     state
• Sri Lanka
   – Sinhalese – Buddhist
   – Tamils – Hindus
• Religion is reflected in       Badshahi Mosque
  traditions and customs
                Influence of Religion
•   1. Powerful influence on daily
    life
•   2. Prayer flags flap in the wind,
    sending out sacred messages
    called mantras
•   3. In India sadhus (Hindu
    teachers) can be found every
    where
     –   wear yellow robes
     –   carry a bowl and blanket
     –   live on gifts from those who
     –   want to improve their karma
•   4. Consider cows to be sacred
•   5. Women in Pakistan dress
    modestly in accordance with
    Islamic law

								
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