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Lesson 6 Twelve Angry Men2

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					                       Lesson Six     Twelve Angry Men

 Part One Warm-up
I. On Justice
The whole history of the world is summed up in the fact that, when nations are
strong, they are not always just, and when they wish to be just, they are no longer
strong.                                   —Winston Churchill
世界的整个历史可以归结为这个事实: 一个国家强大时就不太公正, 而当他们希望求得
公正时, 就不再强大。—温斯顿·丘吉尔
I have always found that mercy bears richer fruits than strict justice.
          —Abraham Lincoln
Courage is of no value unless accompanied by justice; yet if all men became just,
there would be no need for courage. —Agesilaus the Second
It is in justice that the ordering of society is centered. —Aristotle
Justice is the constant and perpetual will to allot to every man his due.
     —Domitus Ulpian
If it were not for injustice, men would not know justice. —Heraclitus
Justice consists not in being neutral between right and wrong, but in finding out
the right and upholding it, wherever found, against the wrong.
     —Theodore Roosevelt
Justice delayed, is justice denied.      —William Galdstone
II. Song for Courage
There are those who follow those who take the darker side
It’s courage that will pull you out if you would just decide
and you can be the leader and then those who follow you
can help the lives of others and then they will do it too
Lalalalalala…
If you’re going to speak up then SAY SOMETHING
If you’re going to stand up then STAND FOR SOMETHING
If you want to march on then DO SOMETHING
With the courage in your heart
(You’ll find the) courage in your heart
If you’re going to smile then SMILE ON SOMEONE
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If you’re going to reach out then TOUCH SOMETHING
If you want to feel good then HELP SOMEONE
Find the courage in your heart
(You’ll find the) courage in your heart
III. Poem: Courage
Courage
Anne Sexton
It is in the small things we see it.
The child's first step, as awesome as an earthquake.
The first time you rode a bike, wallowing up the sidewalk.
The first spanking when your heart went on a journey all alone.
When they called you crybaby or poor or fatty or crazy
and made you into an alien,
you drank their acid and concealed it.
Later, if you faced the death of bombs and bullets
you did not do it with a banner,
you did it with only a hat to cover your heart.
You did not fondle the weakness inside you though it was there.
Your courage was a small coal that you kept swallowing.
If your buddy saved you and died himself in so doing,
then his courage was not courage, it was love;
love as simple as shaving soap.
Later, if you have endured a great despair,
then you did it alone,
getting a transfusion from the fire,
picking the scabs off your heart,
then wringing it out like a sock.
Next, my kinsman, you powdered your sorrow,
you gave it a back rub and then you covered it with a blanket
and after it had slept a while
it woke to the wings of the roses and was transformed.
 Later, when you face old age and its natural conclusion
your courage will still be shown in the little ways,
each spring will be a sword you'll sharpen,
                                                                  2
those you love will live in a fever of love,
and you'll bargain with the calendar
and at the last moment when death opens the back door
you'll put on your carpet slippers and stride out.

Part Two Background Information
I. Judges
A judge or justice is an appointed or elected official who presides over a court.
The powers, functions, and training of judges varies widely from jurisdiction to
jurisdiction.
In USA, judges are not trained separately from lawyers and are generally
appointed or elected from among practicing attorneys.
(A professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives
legal advice)
Being a judge is usually a prestigious position in society, and as a result a variety
of solemn traditions have become associated with the occupation. In most nations
of the world judges wear long robes, usually black or red, and sit on an elevated
platform during trials. The standard judges uniform originated with the Roman
toga.
In some countries, notably Britain, judges also wear long wigs and use special
gavels to instill order in the courtroom.
In the People’s Republic of China, judges wore regular street clothes until 1984,
when they began to wear military style uniforms, which were intended to
demonstrate authority. These uniforms began to be replaced in 2000 by black
robes similar to those in the rest of the world.
In most English speaking countries (particularly the USA) a judge is addressed as
"Your Honor" when presiding over the judge's court, as a sign of respect for the
office.
The judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the judges of the
supreme courts of several U.S. states and other countries are called ―justices‖. In
the United Kingdom, a comparable rank is held by the House of Lords; its judges
are not called judges, but Law Lords, and sit in the House of Lords as peers.
II. Barristers
In many common law jurisdictions, a barrister or advocate is a type of lawyer,
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particularly one entitled to appear before the superior courts of that jurisdiction.
The legal profession in England and Wales is divided between solicitors and
barristers. Both are trained in law but serve different functions in the practice of
law. Solicitors are regulated by the Law Society, barristers by the General
Council of the Bar and the individual Inns of Court.
Barristers' work dress is very traditional in that they are required to wear a
horsehair wig when they appear as advocates in court, with a black gown and a
dark suit and a white shirt with strips of white cotton called 'bands' hanging
before a wing collar. This makes them very easy to distinguish, although
individuals can be disguised and anonymous, whereas the garments emphasize
the dramatic nature of their calling.( The question of barristers' and judges'
clothing is currently the subject of review, and there is some pressure to adopt a
more "modern" style of dress, with European-style gowns worn over lounge
suits.)
Most barristers are probably properly equated with US trial lawyers in that they
do not deal with the public (or lay clients) directly, but through the intermediary
of a solicitor.
Barristers are also found in Northern Ireland, Ireland, and Australia (in the states
without a fused profession, namely New South Wales, South Australia,
Queensland and Victoria). In Canada the professions of barrister and solicitor are
fused and many lawyers refer to themselves with both names.
III. Court Working Dresses in England and Wales
Judges hearing criminal cases
     High Court Judge
     Circuit Judge
Judges hearing civil cases
     District Judge
(Judges hearing different cases wear different court dresses.)
Barristers or Advocates
Court Clerk
Court Usher
(red, black) gown, wig; gown, no wig
Judges hearing criminal cases:
Working dress and possible options
                                                                                   4
Circuit judge 巡回法官

Cons: Now it is proposed in Britain—as it is always proposed once every five
years—that this anachronistic dress be abolished, and that judges and advocates,
as in America, should appear in court as normal human beings. It is said that wigs
and gowns intimidate the litigants and witnesses.
Pros: Yet some people argue that formal dress adds to the dignity of the court, is
historic, and distinguishes the main actors from mere participants.


Part Three Text Appreciation
I. General Introduction
Plot: A young delinquent awaits sentencing for the manslaughter of his
aggressive father. One juror feels there is a reasonable doubt—to the frustration
of his eleven colleagues—thus preventing a quick verdict. During the heated
deliberations, the hidden preconceptions and prejudices of the jurors are revealed.
Plot elements: conflict, crisis/turning moment, climax, etc.
Setting: jury room
Protagonists : 12 jurors
Theme of the story: "Twelve Angry Men" is about one individual's ability to
stand up for what he believes, even when others ridicule him. It is also a powerful
study not just of the criminal justice system, but also of the diversity of human
experience, the nature of peer pressure, and the difficulty of ever fully knowing
the truth.
II. Text Analysis
1.No. 7: Bright! He’s a common ignorant slob. He don’t even speak good English.
(para.5)
Question: What tone was No. 10 using when he attacked the accused? What can
we know about No. 10?
He was sneering at the accused in an ironic tone, however he himself made a
grammar mistake, thus revealing himself an incompetent language speaker.
2.No. 12: … It wasn’t very nice to have it sticking out of some people’s chests.
   No. 7: Especially relatives’.
Question: Do you think No. 7 was a humorous person? How do you like his joke
                                                                                 5
here?
NO. 12 and No. 7 are joking about this murder. But in fact this is disgusting and
distasteful to joke about a murder.
3.No. 11: Ah, this then would depend on your definition of panic. He would have
to be calm enough to see to it that there were no fingerprints left on the knife.
Now, where did the panic start and where did it end?(para.15)
Question: Figure out No. 11’s logic of reasoning.
No. 4 thought that the boy could run out in a panic after having killed his father,
after he calmed down, he realized that he left his knife at the scene. But No. 11
didn’t think it held water because if the boy had run out in a panic, he couldn’t be
so calm to be sure that there were no fingerprints left on the knife. So No. 11
asked where the panic started and where it ended.
4. No. 8: Maybe the boy did kill his father, did run out in a panic, …. Maybe all
those things happened. But maybe they didn’t. I think there’s enough doubt that
we can wonder if he was there at all during the time the killing took
place.(para.17)
Question: What is the reasonable doubt here?
It is possible that the boy was not at the scene when the killing took place. (or: It
is possible that he didn’t come back home only to get his knife, risking being
caught.)
5.No. 7: (To No. 8) Ran, walked. What’s the difference? Anyway he got there!
(para.23)
Question: What character did No. 7 reveal here, in your opinion?
He didn’t care much about the details, but in most cases, details can tell the
detectives a lot about what could have happened. In fact, No. 7 had got a theatre
ticket burning in his pocket, he was in a hurry to get out of here, therefore he just
wanted to rush up thus tended to leave out many important things. That just
shows us how little he took another person’s life.
6.No. 3: He was an old man. Half the time, he was confused. How could he be
positive about anything? (He tries to cover his blunder. …)(Para.31)
Question: What blunder did No. 3 make?
No. 3 said that half the time, the old man was confused and couldn’t be sure
about anything, so how could he be so sure that it was 20 seconds?
7. No. 3: Assumed! Brother, I’ve seen all kinds of dishonesty in my day, but this
                                                                                    6
little display takes the cake. What’s the matter with you guys? You all know he’s
guilty. He’s got to burn and you let him slip through our fingers!(para.43)
Question: What did No. 3 assume himself to be? Do you think a conscientious
juror should talk like that?
No. 3 was not the executioner, but he talked as if so. He was not supposed to base
his judgment simply on what he thought to be. Facts and reason matter most. A
conscientious juror should try to be impartial rather than biased.
8. No. 3: Phew, I’ll kill him! I’ll kill him!
    No. 8: You don’t really mean you’d kill me, do you?(para.49)
Question: Why did No. 8 deliberately make No. 3 mad? How do you feel about
the language power?
No. 3 couldn’t mean it when he said that ―I’ll kill you!‖, likewise, it is possible
that the accused boy also didn’t mean it when he said the same thing.
It is a clever way to retort. No. 8 just used the same logic of reasoning to fight
against No. 3’s logic –if the boy said it, he meant it.
9.No. 10: Don’t give me that! I’m sick and tired of facts. You can think any way
you like.(para.55)
Question: In what way was No. 10’s view of facts different from that of No. 9?
Compare and contrast these two jurors.
No. 9: a gentle old man, took his duty as a juror seriously. Decent , upright. ―The
facts of the case are supposed to determine the case.‖
No. 10: prejudiced against poor people and people with little schooling. ―I’m sick
and tired of facts.‖
10.No. 7: … How do you like this guy? He comes here running for his life. And
now, before he can take a deep breath, he’s telling us how to run the show. The
arrogance of this guy. (para.62)
Question: How do you think of No.7?
No. 7 himself was arrogant. He despised No. 11’s identity as an immigrant, and
was impatient with any reasoning and talking which could prolong this discussion,
thus ruin his chance of going to the theatre.
11.No. 9: I think the point is made. No. 10: Big point!(para.86)
Question: What point was made? What did No. 10 mean by saying ―big point‖?
Did he mean it or not? (Refer to Para. 113 for clearer understanding.)

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No. 9 thinks that the demonstration has proved No. 8’s point that the boy couldn’t
have remembered the details when questioned by the detectives, under great
emotional stress. No. 10 was talking ironically. He didn’t mean it at all.
12.No. 3: (pointing to the knife.) Give me that. I’m going to give you a
demonstration. Somebody get up.
(… He holds the knife up and then stabs downward towards No. 8’s chest. He
stops just before the blade reaches his chest… )(para.92)
Question: How do you comment on what No. 3 did to No. 8? Under what
circumstances would one say ―somebody get up‖?
No. 3 took this opportunity to take revenge on No. 8. No. 3 took this argument
very personally. Thus we know that he was narrow-minded. On the other hand, he
was biased because No.3 had serious problems with his own son who beat the
father up, and he believed the accused boy was just like his own son.
It sounds more like an order, which is not a polite way to speak to other jurors.
13. No. 10: … You know how these people lie. It’s born in them… They don’t
know what the truth is. And let me tell you. They don’t even need any real big
reason to kill someone, either. No sir! That’s the way they are. By nature.
Violent!… The kid’s liar. I know it…(para.113)
Question: Was No. 10 talking about the facts or opinions? What kind of person
was No. 10?
No. 10 was not talking about facts, he was talking about opinions, to be exact,
strongly held prejudices.
14.No. 4: I’m trying to settle something. Do you mind?
No. 4: If it’s any of your business, I was rubbing it because it bothered me a little.
No. 4: Very annoying.(paras.122,124,128)
Question: How did No. 4’s attitude change from politeness to irony? Pay
attention to his tone.
He was getting impatient with No. 9, thus we can observe a shade of irony in his
tone: ―if it’s any of your business‖,―very annoying‖
―Very annoying‖ , a pun, is used ironically to contain two layers of meaning:
   one, No. 4 found the two deep impressions beside his nose annoying; the other,
   he thought No. 9’s persistent interruption was annoying.
15.No. 3:…Well, say something! You lousy bunch of bleeding hearts. You’re not
going to intimidate me. I’m entitled to my opinion…(para.164)
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Question: Compare No. 3 and No. 8’s performances in the courtroom. In what
way did they impress you?
No. 3 couldn’t get rid of his prejudices against the accused boy, but he based his
judgment not on logical reasoning but on emotional associations.
No. 8 successfully brought all other jurors around by persistent efforts, logical
reasoning, support and respect he won from other jurors. He was cool, logical and
rational.
II. Further discussion about the story
1.Why do you think the author gives ―Twelve Angry Men‖ as the title of the play?
Why are these people so angry? Do you agree that strong emotions can often
affect our judgment?
2.Do you find it strange that the truth is sometimes in the hands of one person?
Why is it so easy for people to go along with the crowd? What lesson should we
draw from this?
3.How does No. 5 begin to doubt that the downward stab could have been made
by the boy? Do you think he has made a good point? What supportive arguments
does he get from No. 7? In order to convince the others No. 3 also gives a
demonstration. But does his demonstration have the same effect on others?
4.What does No. 10 say that disgusts almost everybody and discredits whatever
else he has to say?
5.What does No. 4 consider ―the unshakable testimony‖? How is this
―unshakable‖ testimony finally shaken?
6.What is the question raised by No. 11? How do those still voting guilty try to
explain why the boy risked being caught and came back 3 hours after he had
killed his father? Do you agree with him?
7. No. 7 says that the old man ran to the door. Is that a faithful description of what
happened? Why does No. 5 make such a fuss about the use of the word ―ran‖ then?
What does No. 8 want the diagram of the apartment for? Can you draw that
diagram to show how everything is supposed to have happened according to the
testimonies? Do you think No. 8’s little demonstration proves their doubt
reasonable?
III. Writing Devices: Pun
A pun is defined by Webster as "the humorous use of a word, or of words which
are formed or sounded alike but have different meanings, in such a way as to play
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on two or more of the possible applications; a play on words."
e.g. Did you hear about the two molecules walking down the street? One lost an
electron, and exclaimed: "I've lost an electron!" The other said: "Are you sure?"
And the first one said: "I'm positive!"
1. Seven days without food makes one weak.
2. Income Tax: Capital punishment.
3. Why didn't the lions eat Daniel when he was thrown in their den? Because he
read to them from his Bible all night. He was the first prophet to read between
the lions.
Ads. Sign on an electrician's truck: Let us remove your shorts.
      Maternity Clothes Shop: We are open on labor day.
      Non-smoking area: If we see you smoking we will assume you on fire and
      take appropriate action.
    On a Maternity Room Door: Push, Push, Push.
    Hotel: "Help!" We need inn–experienced people.
    Butcher's Window: Pleased to meat you.
    Beauty Shop: Dye now!
    Computer Store: Out for a quick byte.
Pun: examples in the text
No.4: Very annoying. (Para. 128)
―Very annoying‖ here is used ironically as a pun: No.4 found the two deep
impressions beside his nose annoying; and he thought No.9’s persistent
interruption was annoying, too.
IV. Sentence Paraphrase
1.But supposing he really did hear this phrase, how many time have all of you
used it? (Para. 2)
Even if he did hear this phrase, we all have used it so many times but we don’t
mean it.
Supposing: adverbial clause of condition, also used as ―suppose‖ in spoken
English
2.The kid yelled it out at the top of his lungs. (Para. 3)
The boy cried out as loudly as he could.
3. Wouldn’t he be afraid of being caught? (Para. 9)
passive gerund, used as the object of the phrase ―afraid of‖
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e.g. He was afraid of being seen by his mother.
       She was fond of being looked at.
       He is not interested in being regarded as a celebrity.
     She did not understand why she was criticized instead of being praised for
     disclosing the dirty dealings.
4. And from what was presented at the trial, the boy looks guilty on the surface.
(Para. 9)
Apparently, it seems that the boy is guilty based on the evidence at the trial.
5. … why did he leave it there in the first place? (Para. 13)
… why did the boy leave the knife at the scene at the very beginning?
6. We can assume that the boy ran out in a state of panic after having just killed
his father. (Para.14)
 We can suppose that the boy killed his father first, then ran out, overwhelmed
with terror.
in a state of panic: More formal than ―in panic‖. Likewise, ―in the course of
history‖ is a more formal version of ―in history‖.
7. Well, if I were the boy and had stabbed my father, I would take a chance and
go back for the knife. (16)
Subjunctive mood: No. 12 tried to put himself in the boy’s shoes and figure out
what was really on his mind.
8. I think there’s enough doubt that we can wonder if he was there at all during
the time the killing took place. (Para.17)
 There is enough evidence so that we can doubt that the boy was there at the
scene.
9. I’ve seen all kinds of dishonesty in my day, but this little display takes the cake.
(Para. 43)
I’ve seen all kinds of cheating, lying and other dirty tricks in my life, but this
little demonstration is the worst I can imagine.
takes the cake : to be worse than anything else you can imagine
10. I feel sorry for you. What it must feel like to want to pull the switch. You are a
sadist! (Para. 48)
I can’t understand what kind of feeling it is that will make you want to pull the
switch. The only possible answer is that you are a sadist. You enjoy inflicting
pain. You enjoy watching people suffer.
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11 Don’t give me that! I’m sick and tired of facts. (Para. 55)
Don’t give me that kind of argument. I don’t need it.
Don’t give me that!少来这一套
Be sick and tired of : be completely fed up with
12. He comes here running for his life. And now, before he can take a deep breath,
he’s telling us how to run the show. The arrogance of this guy. (Para. 62)
No. 11 is a new immigrant, or even a political refugee. He came to America to
escape persecution, but now before he can take a deep breath, almost immediately,
he is telling us Americans how to do everything. The arrogance of this guy is
really something.
run the show :be in charge, maneuver, control
running for his life is used as complement of predicative
The arrogance of this guy is really something is unfinished sentence
13. An important point with the prosecution was the fact that after the boy
claimed he had been at the movies during the hours in which the killing took
place, he couldn’t remember the names… (Para. 64)
14. I’m getting sick and tired of this yakking, yakking. So I guess I’ll have to
break the tie. (Para. 99)
These wordy, boring discussion is unbearable. Now I decided I’ll break away
from my former union.
break the tie: end a relationship with a organization who voted for guilty
15. Whenever you run into it, it always obscures the truth. (Para. 115)
When you run into prejudice, it will make it difficult to pursue the truth.
run into : to start to experience a difficult or unpleasant situation
16. Could these marks be made by anything other than eyeglasses? (Para. 137)
Is it possible that these marks could also be made by something else besides
eyeglasses?


Part Four Language Study
I.vWord Study
1.acquittal
n. an official statement in a court of law that someone is not guilty
e.g. Of 52 prosecutions for police brutality, 46 ended in acquittals.
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v. acquit somebody of something
e.g. The judge directed the jury to acquit Phillips of the murder.
2.avenge
v. to do something to hurt or punish someone because they have harmed or
      offended you
e.g. The Trojans wish to avenge the death of Hector; their misplaced values mean
      that patience in adversity is impossible.
     Half a century later he has finally avenged that defeat.
3.bear
v. a. to bravely accept or deal with a painful, difficult, or upsetting situation
   b. to dislike something or someone very much, often so that they make you feel
         annoyed or impatient
e.g. She was afraid she wouldn't be able to bear the pain.
     Overcrowding makes prison life even harder to bear.
     Oh, I really can't bear him.
     He can't bear spinach.
bear sb. grudge; bear sth. in mind; bear a resemblance /relation to
bear arms; bear fruit
4.blunder
n. a careless or stupid mistake
commit a blunder, make a blunder
e.g. Major management blunders have led the company into bankruptcy.
     The parents face a nightmare week-long wait before blood tests show if there
     has been a hospital blunder.
5.commonplace
a. happening or existing in many places, and therefore not special or unusual
e.g. Car thefts are commonplace in this part of town.
      Expensive foreign cars are commonplace in this Chicago suburb.
6.injustice
n. a situation in which people are treated very unfairly and not given their rights
e.g. The group, called the Wilmington 10, were active in protests against racial
      injustices in the schools in the early 1970s.
     These injustices are intolerable, especially when the victims are children.
a. unjust
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7.intimidate
v. to frighten or threaten someone into making them do what you want
e.g. They tried to intimidate the young people into voting for them.
      Attempts to intimidate her failed.
Synonyms threat
8.lunge        n. lunge
v. to make a sudden strong movement towards someone or something,
   especially to attack them
e.g. The goats lunged at each other with their horns.
     John lunged forward and grabbed him by the throat.
9.object
v. to feel or say that you oppose or disapprove of something
e.g. Robson strongly objected to the terms of the contract.
       I objected to having to rewrite the article.
10.obscure          n. obscurity
v. a. to make something difficult to know or understand
   b. to prevent something from being seen or heard clearly
e.g. Recent successes have obscured the fact that the company is still in trouble.
     The view was obscured by mist.
a. a. not well known and usually not very important
      b. difficult to understand
e.g. an obscure poet 无名的,不知名的
     The details of his life remain obscure. 含糊的,不清楚的
     He’s using an obscure old law to try to stop the new road being built.
       晦涩难懂的
11.recreate
v. to make something from the past exist again in a new form or be experienced
again
e.g. Evan often chimes in, so we work together to recreate the story.
     And we can share best practices so that every educator and employer does not
     have to recreate effective strategies from scratch.
     Arjelo's novel vividly recreates 15th-century Spain.
12. stamp
v. a. to put your foot down onto the ground loudly and with a lot of force
                                                                                14
       b. to put a pattern, sign, or letters on something using a special tool
       c. to have an important or permanent effect on someone or something
e.g. ―I will not!‖ Bert yelled and stamped his foot.
       The woman at the desk stamped my passport.
     The experience remained stamped on her memory for many years.
13. stick
v. a. to attach something to something else using a substance, or to become
             attached to a surface
   b. if a pointed object sticks into something, or if you stick it there, it
             is pushed into it
   c. if you stick a part of your body somewhere, you put it in a position
             where other people can see it
e.g. Someone had stuck posters all over the walls.
       pins stuck in a notice board
     Clara stuck her head around the door to see who was there.
14. testify
v. a. to make a formal statement of what is true, especially in a court of law
   b. to show clearly that something is the case
e.g. Mr. Molto has agreed to testify at the trial.
     Later, the witness who had testified against Muawad withdrew his allegation.
     The empty shops in the high street testify to the depth of the recession.
     The company's experience testifies to the difficulties of opening a business in
     a foreign country.
testify at the court 在法庭作证 testify against sb. 作出不利于······的证明
testify to sth. 证实                      testify that…证实, 证明
15. trot
v. to walk or go somewhere, especially fairly quickly
n. a fairly slow way of running in which you take short regular steps
e.g. Dorothy arrived, with a little dog trotting along behind her.
       He locked the door and trotted down the stairs to my car.
       She broke into a trot (= started running slowly) and hurried on ahead of us.
16. underhand
ad. if you throw a ball underhand, you throw it without moving your arm
        above your shoulder
                                                                                  15
a. dishonest and done secretly
e.g. throw the ball underhand 下手投球
     They did it all in such an underhand way. 他们这么干真是阴险。
Antonym overhand
II. Phrases and Expressions
1. mean it
to be serious about what you are saying or writing
e.g. With children, if you say ―no‖, you have to mean it .
     I meant what I said earlier.
2.in favor of 支持,赞成
all in favor 所有人都赞成吗                     ask… a favor       请某人帮个忙
be in favor with sb. 得宠                 be out of favor with sb. 失宠
do sb. a favor 帮某人个忙                     find/gain/win favor 赢得好感
3.in the first place
 a. used to introduce a series of points in an argument, discussion, etc.
 b. used to talk about what someone did or should have done at the
     start of a situation
e.g. In the first place, I'm too busy, and in the second I don't really want to go.
     I wish I'd never got involved in the first place!
4.see to : to deal with something or do something for someone
e.g. Go on, you go out. I'll see to the washing up.
Cf. I'd better see about dinner.
     They've gone to the airport to see their son off.
     She saw out her last years at Sudeley Castle.
     I could never lie to her because I know she'd see through me straight away.
     I've got enough money to see me through six months of unemployment.
5.take a chance/take one’s chances
to do something that involves risks
e.g. The rope might break, but that's a chance we'll have to take.
     After losing $20,000 on my last business venture, I'm not taking any chances
     this time.
Cf. take the chance/grab the chance/jump at the chance
     You should take the chance to travel while you're still young.
chance n.
                                                                                 16
e.g. What are the team's chances of success?
    She has a good chance of a successful recovery.
    There is little chance of her being found alive.
    The day will be cloudy with a slight chance of rain later tonight.
    He gave the show a fifty-fifty chance of survival.
    It was a million to one chance , but it had happened.
    The operation is performed under local anaesthetic, which lessens the chances
    of infection.
    How can we improve our chances of career development?
    Chances are they'll be out when we call.
6.be supposed to do
a. used to say what someone should or should not do, especially because of
    rules or what someone in authority has said
b. used to say what was or is expected or intended to happen, especially when it
    did not happen
c. used to say that something is believed to be true by many people, although it
    might not be true or you might disagree
e.g. We're supposed to check out of the hotel by 11 o'clock.
      What time are you supposed to be there?
    The meeting was supposed to take place on Tuesday, but we've had to
    postpone it.
    The new laws are supposed to prevent crime.
    ―Dirty Harry‖ is supposed to be one of Eastwood's best films.
    Mrs. Carver is supposed to have a lot of money.
7.cover one’s blunder 掩饰错误
Cf. commit a blunder 犯错误 make a blunder 犯错误
8.bear sth. out
if facts or information bears out a claim, story, opinion, etc., they help to prove
that it is true
e.g. Evidence bears out the idea that students learn best in small groups.
bear sb. a grudge 对某人怀恨在心, 跟某人过不去
bear sth. in mind     记住某事
bear a resemblance/relation to 与……相似/有关系

                                                                                 17
bear sb. no malice/ill will       对某人无恶意,不对某人生气
bear scrutiny                     经得起详细审查
9.take the cake
to be worse than anything else you can         imagine
e.g. I've heard some pretty dumb ideas, but that takes the cake!
a piece of cake 小菜一碟
have your cake and eat it 捞到全部的好处
a slice of cake 一点好处
e.g. ―How do you do that?‖ ―It's a piece of cake! Watch!‖
      They don't imagine they can have their cake and eat it too.
      Both companies expect to get a big slice of the cake.
10.run for : to try to be elected in an election
e.g. Salinas is running for a second term as President.
     an attempt to encourage more women to run for office
     run for his life: to run in order to avoid being killed 逃命
11.bring up
a. to mention a subject or start to talk about it
b. to look after and influence a child until he or she is grown up
e.g. Why did you have to bring up the subject of money? (Synonym: raise)
      He was brought up by his grandparents. (Synonym: raise)
12.make a point 证明论点正确,得一分
Cf.: make a point of:
 to do something deliberately, even when it involves making a special effort
e.g. He made a point of spending Saturdays with his children.
13.break the tie: to swing the balance when two or more people or teams get the
                      same number of points, votes
e.g. If three or more teams tie, the overall record of the tied teams against each
      other shall break the tie.
14.toss and turn/twist and turn
e.g. The river twists and turns through the green fields. 弯弯曲曲
      She had slept badly, tossing and turning before falling into a fitful doze. 辗
      转反侧
15.settle something
settle a bill/ settle an account 结账          settle a claim 支付赔偿
                                                                                 18
settle a score 和某人算账                  settle a dispute    解决争执
settle a lawsuit 解决一个诉讼                settle a conflict   解决冲突
settle an argument 解决争执
17.other than : apart from a particular person or thing
e.g. The truth was known to no one other than herself.
    He doesn't eat pork, but other than that he'll eat just about anything.
    We know he lived in Fleet Road, but other than that we don't know much
    about him.
18.be entitled to :
to give someone the official right to do or have something
e.g. Ethiopian Jews were entitled to immigrate to Israel under the Law of Return.
    Being a member entitles you to discounts on tickets.
Cf. be entitled something:
     if a book, play, etc. is entitled something, that is its name
      e.g. a documentary entitled ―The Price of Perfection‖
III. Word Building
1.prefix – under
under-: beneath or below in position; inferior or subordinate; less in degree, rate
or quality
underground 地下                       underhand       下手的,手不过肩的
underclothes/underwear 内衣 underpass                  地下道
undersecretary 次长, 副部长 undersized                     不够大的
underdevelopment 不发达                 undercooked 煮得欠熟的,火候不够的
2.suffix – al : of, relating to, or characterized by
    parental a. 父母的,家长的                     retrieval n.取回,恢复
3.suffix –ence/ance: the action, state, or quality of doing something or of being
                 something
    existence, occurrence, appearance, brilliance
4.suffix – ward: towards a particular direction or place; our homeward journey; a
                      downward movement
    downward 向下                        skyward        朝天
    leftward         朝左,左边 landward                   朝陆地
IV. Grammar
Subjunctive mood :―Modal + have done‖ construction:
                                                                                 19
   would/should/could/might + have done…
The perfect infinitive denotes a past action or condition. When it is used with
modals, it can express improbability, probability, possibility, necessity and
subjective certainty of a past action respectively.
1.could (not) have done:
   e.g. I don’t remember what he said, but I don’t see how he could have run to
the door. (Para. 25) probability of a past action—He couldn’t have done that.
2.may/might (not) have done
Don’t you think the woman might have made a mistake? (Para. 151)
      Probability of a past action—It is likely that she made a mistake.
3.must have done
For at some moment in the water he must have realized that he would not live if
he continued to hand over the rope and ring to others.
   Subjective certainty of a past action— we guess that he realized…
4.would (not) have
I just can’t see two slaps in the face would have provoked him into committing
murder. (Para. 46)
 probability of a past action—he wouldn’t be provoked into committing the
crime.
5.should (not) have done /ought to have done
―I think you ought to have told me, Alan,‖ said Hughie in a bad temper, ―and not
have let me make such a fool of myself.‖
obligation for a past action—but in fact Alan didn’t tell me.


Part Five      Extension
I.Oral work
1.Group Discussion
(1)Why do you think Juror No. 8 could stand up against all the opposition and
finally won this argument?
(2)Do you think we are all prone to prejudices just like the jurors? Why?
(3)What is the difference between the American judicial system and the Chinese
one? Does reasonable doubt also play a part in the Chinese judicial system?
2.Appreciation of Quotes: Prejudice and Justice
                                                                              20
(1)Common sense is the collection of prejudices        acquired by age eighteen.
      –Albert Einstein
(2)The greatest friend of Truth is time, her greatest enemy is Prejudice, and her
     constant companion Humility. –Charles Caleb Colton
(3)Everyone is a prisoner of his own experiences. No one can eliminate
     prejudices–just recognize them. –Edward R. Murrow
(4)If we were to wake up some morning and find that everyone was the same race,
   creed and color, we would find some other cause for prejudice by noon.
   –George Aiken
(5)When the judgment is weak, the prejudice is         strong. –Kane O’Hara
(6)There are, in every age, new errors to be rectified and new prejudices to be
    opposed.           –Samuel Johnson
(7)I am free of all prejudice. I hate everyone equally. –W. C. Fields
(8) A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging
     their prejudices.       –William James
(9) Never try to reason the prejudice out of a man. It was not reasoned into him,
     and cannot be      reasoned out.     –Sydney Smith
3.Debating
   Prejudices can be eliminated by education.
II. Quiz
Quiz 1 Match the items in the two columns.
冒挨批评的危险                        run the country
摆出证据                           break the tie
歪曲事实                           recreate the scene
重现当时场景                         run for one’s life
设身处地                           present the evidence
逃命                             give a demonstration
打破僵局                           twist the facts
做一示范                           risk being criticized
治理国家                           put sb. in one’s place
Quiz 2
1. I shall paint the wall of my room green next Saturday if it doesn’t rain. It’s high
time it ____.
      A. did            B. was done C. had done             D. can be done
                                                                                   21
2. I ___ you didn’t do anything about it for the time being.
      A. would rather            B. hope C. suggest D. suppose
3. It is highly desirable that a new dean ___ for      this department.
 A. be appointed B. appoint C. will be appointed D. is appointed
4. One of the requirements for a fire is that the material ___ to its burning
     temperature.
 A. is heatedB. will be heated C. be heated D. would be heated
5. Had he worked harder, he ___ the exams.
      A. must have got through B. would have got through
      C. would get through        D. could get through
6. All of us would have enjoyed the party much         more if there ___ quite such
   a crowd of people there.
      A. weren’t B. hasn’t been C. hadn’t been D. wouldn’t been
7. If I hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you __ now.
      A. wouldn’t be smiling B. couldn’t have smiled
      C. won’t smile              D. didn’t smile
8. You __ Mark anything. It was none of his        business.
   A. needn’t have told B. needn’t tell
   C. mustn’t have told D. mustn’t tell
9. There ___ a supermarket over there, but the Council refused permission at the
   last moment.
      A. was to put          B. was to have been
      C. used to be     D. used to have been
10. I’d rather you ___ any cleaning of the house for the time being.
      A. do B. didn’t do C. won’t do D. hadn’t done
11. The main road through Littlebury was blocked for three hours today after an
     accident __ two lorries.
      A. involving      B. including C. combining           D. containing
12. Hotel rooms must be __ by noon, but luggage may be left with the porter.
      A. departed B. abandoned        C. vacated       D. displaced
13. Unless you sign a contract with the        insurance company about your goods,
     you are not entitled ____ a repayment for the goods damaged in delivery.
      A. to             B. with           C. for            D. on
14. On a rainy day I was driving north through Vermont ____ I noticed a young
                                                                                 22
   man holding up a sign reading "Boston".
          A. which           B. where      C. when      D. that
15. In the Spring Export Commodities Fair, the __ of fine china attracted much
    attention of customers from all over the world.
     A. succession           B. array C. string D. procession
16. I can ___ you of the reliability of the news.
          A. assure          B. prove C. ascertain      D. certify
17. China is now experiencing the ___ age of its reform.
     A. crucial         B. credulous C. crude       D. credible
18. Parents should be awakened to the __ nature of their children.
     A. inherent        B. inheritable     C. inherited      D. initial
19. The novel contains some marvelously revealing ____ of rural life in the 19th
    century.
     A. glances         B. glimpses C. glares           D. gleams
20. The doctor is in a ___. He does not know whether he should tell his patient
    the truth.
     A. predicament          B. dilemma C. puzzle D. diploma
Keys: 1-5:BAACB; 6-10:CAABB; 11-15:ACACB; 16-20AAABB.
Quiz 3 Fill out the blanks with the proper form of the given words.
1.His lawyer thought he had a good chance of being _______ at the trial, if no
further evidence was found. (acquittal)
2.One-parent families are now a ___________ in our society. (commonplace)
3.We welcome any _______ criticism. (construct)
4.The paid holiday _______ is 25 days. (entitle)
5. The movie deals with ______ suffered by native Americans. (justice)
6. Robson strongly _______ to the terms of the contract. (objection)
7. That other story, likewise, traced the path from poverty to wealth and _______
to fame. (obscure)
Keys: acquitted, commonplace, constructive, entitlement, injustice, objected,
obscurity
III. Writing
          The Danger of Prejudice
1. What is prejudice in your opinion?
2. What harm does prejudice do?
                                                                               23
   3. Is it possible to be an unprejudiced person?
IV. Listening Lab: Fill out the blanks while you are listening.
No. 1:          8 EBay Sellers Admit to Phony Bids
                           —China Radio International
Eight eBay sellers were ordered to pay nearly $90,000 in restitution (归还, 补偿)
and fines after admitting they bid up products online to ___ the prices.
New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer said more than 120 people will receive
restitution in the settlement of the three cases, which wrapped up last week in
state courts.
Spokesman Darren Dopp said the cases stemmed from specific ____, but the
office has not conducted a broad investigation of the online auction industry and
doesn't know how widespread the practice of ___ ___ is.
One buyer, Brad Clarke, 48, of Peachtree City, Georgia, already has received a
check for $___ after overpaying for a 1999 Jeep Cherokee sport utility vehicle he
bought on eBay from a New York seller in 2002.
"I'd always been ___because it seems like an easy thing to do, to just keep
bidding up," Clarke said. "But I was still just completely shocked and very
surprised."
     Three sellers were accused of making 610 bids on 106 of their car auctions
under the user name ―Mother's Custom Automotive NY Dealer‖. They are paying
more than $28,000 in ___ and restitution, Spitzer said. Their lawyers declined to
comment.
No. 2                   Domestic Violence
                                 —Dame Elizabeth Butler
Domestic Violence: What is it?
It is actually quite difficult to draw neat lines around a definition of domestic
violence… For the purposes of this evening I will concentrate on the most usual
form, being violence ___ by one partner or former partner against the other.
The vast majority of victims are women, although it must be said that there is
significant violence ___ by a minority of women against men. One in four
women will be a victim of domestic violence at some time in their lives; for men,
the figure is __ __ __.
The term 'domestic violence' covers a wide range of unacceptable behaviour
within the family and may take many forms. Violence can take the form of ___ or
                                                                               24
___ abuse as well as physical ___. Indirect violence (threats, verbal abuse and
denigration) may, in certain cases, be as detrimental as actual violence.
Those who commit violence on a partner or other member of the family may
come from any stratum of society. They may be your next-door neighbours. We
cannot ___ this sort of violence away by conveniently labelling it as belonging
only to socially ___ sectors of society. Perpetrators of this kind of violence may
be from such sectors, but often are not.
Keys: No. 1:inflate; complaints, phony; bidding; 3089; suspicious; penalty;
      No.2: inflicted; committed; one in six; emotional, psychological, assault;
            sweep, deprived




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