BIOLOGY ASSIGN on Diseases

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BIOLOGY ASSIGN on Diseases Powered By Docstoc
					I. Integumentary system

Scabies

Definition: Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by an infestation by the itch mite Sarcoptes
scabies.

Causes

    Scabies is caused by a microscopic mite called Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis.
    The scabies mite causes symptoms when it digs a little tunnel below the skin and causes a
         type of allergic reaction.
    If the person has never been exposed to scabies before, he or she may not show
         symptoms until four to six weeks after the initial infestation.
    Individuals who have been exposed in the past usually show symptoms within a few
         days.

Spread

    Scabies is almost always spread by protracted skin-to-skin contact with the infected
         person.
    Scabies infestation can happen through the sharing of clothes and bedding. Theoretically,
         you can get scabies from touching something that the mite is on.

   Treatment

         Self-Care at Home

          Wash all clothing, towels, and bed linens that are used in the last three days.
          Use hot water.
          Use the dryer at high heat rather than air drying.
          Place the objects that are not machine washable into a bag and store for a week.
          Use the medication as prescribed and instructed.
          You can also treat itching with antihistamine medications.



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          Cut your nails, and clean under them thoroughly to remove any mites or eggs that
             may be present.
          Thoroughly vacuum your rugs, furniture, bedding, and car interior and throw the
             vacuum-cleaner bag away when finished.
          Try to avoid scratching. Keep any open sores clean.

Prevention

    safely keep the clothes of an infected person
    Avoid the contact with the infected person.




Breast cancer

Definition: Breast cancer is cancer of the breast. Cancer is a disease in which cells begin to grow
rapidly and out of control. Cancer cells can travel through the body by way of blood or lymph
nodes. They can then come to rest and start growing in other parts of the body.

Symptoms of breast cancer

          A change in how the breast or nipple feels
          A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area
          A change in how the breast or nipple looks
          A change in the size or shape of the breast
          A nipple turned inward into the breast
          The skin of the breast, areola, or nipple may be scaly, red, or swollen. It may have
             ridges or pitting so that it looks like the skin of an orange.

Causes

Researchers do not know how normal cells suddenly become cancerous. Thus, the fundamental
cause or causes of breast cancer are still a puzzle. They know that certain risk factors are related
to the development of breast cancer. These factors include:



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        Family history of breast cancer occurring in mother or sister.
        Early onset of menstruation and late menopause.
        Reproductive history. Women who have no children or have children late in life have
             increased risk.
        Women who have never breast-fed also have increased risk.
        History of abnormal breast biopsies

Treatment

    Biopsy:-Your doctor may refer you to a surgeon or breast disease specialist for a biopsy.
    Fluid or tissue is removed from your breast to help find out if there is cancer.

Doctors can remove tissue from the breast in different ways:

        Fine-needle aspiration: Uses a thin needle to remove fluid from a breast lump. If the
             fluid appears to contain cells, a pathologist at a lab checks them for cancer with a
             microscope. If the fluid is clear, it may not need to be checked by a lab.
        Core biopsy: uses a thick needle to remove breast tissue. A pathologist checks for
             cancer cells.
        Surgical biopsy: removes a sample of tissue. A pathologist checks the tissue for
             cancer cells.
        An incisional biopsy takes a sample of a lump or abnormal area.
        An accessional biopsy takes the entire lump or area.

Prevention

    There is no way to prevent breast cancer. The best way to deal with the disease is to
       perform regular self-examinations and have regular mammograms. For women who have
       had breast cancer, tamoxifen treatments appear to be a promising factor in preventing
       reoccurrence of the disease.




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Skin cancer

Definition: Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the outer layer of the skin.

Causes

    Heredity is thought to be an important factor in the development of melanomas.
    Exposure to sunlight is probably the most important environmental factor.
    People who work with certain chemicals may be at risk for the disease.
    People with weakened immune systems, such as those who have AIDS, may be more
         likely to develop some kinds of skin cancer.

Symptoms

    The first sign of a cancer is usually a change in the appearance of an existing mole, the
         presence of a new mole, or a change in the appearance of an area of the skin.
    Basal cell cancer usually appears as a small lesion in the skin that lasts for at least three
         weeks.
    A squamous cell cancer generally begins as a small raised bump on the skin. It usually
         does not itch or cause pain.
    A common symptom of melanoma is a change in an existing mole.

Prevention

    The less one is exposed to sunlight, the less the risk of skin cancer.
    At the least, one should avoid the sun during the hottest part of the day, between 11 A.M.
         and 1 P.M when one is in the sun.
    He or she should use sunscreen.
    Regular self-examinations can also be helpful.

   Treatment



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    Treating any form of skin cancer is surgery.
    Radiation treatments are sometimes recommended for older people or in cases where
         surgery is not possible or desirable.
    Surgical removal of a cancer may be followed by cosmetic surgery.




II. SKELETAL SYSTEM

Fracture

Definition: A break in bone or cartilage.

Causes

   Usually it is the result of trauma.
   A fracture can be caused by an acquired disease of bone such as osteopoesis

Symptoms

The most common symptoms of a fracture are:

          Swelling around the injured area
          Loss of function in the injured area
          Bruising around the injured area
          Deformity of a limb

Treatment

    Initial treatment for fractures of the arms, legs, hands and feet in the field include
         splinting the extremity in the position it is found, elevation and ice.
    Immobilization will be very helpful with initial pain control.
    Once the fracture has been diagnosed, the initial treatment for most limb fractures is a
         splint.


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    Surgery

Prevention

    Wear protection while participating in adventurous activities/driving. The protection can
         be in the form of helmets, elbow pads, knee pads, and shin pads.
    Ensure a safe atmosphere.
    Stairways should be gated if possible.
    Any liquid spilled should be swabbed and the area must be wiped dry.
    The use of handrails on staircases and non-skid mats near bathrooms and other places is
         recommended.
    Prevent falls by not standing on chairs, counter tops, or other unstable objects.



Osteomyelitis

Definition: Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic bone infection. Usually, the original site of
infection is elsewhere in the body, and spreads to the bone by the blood.

Symptoms

Some of the most common symptoms of osteomyelitis are:

            Pain in the bone
            Local swelling
            Redness, and warmth
            High fever
            Nausea
            An abscess at the site of infection.
            Restriction of movement

Causes

    Bacteria or fungus may cause the infection. It occurs through open fractures, penetrating
     wounds, or surgical operation.
    Infecting microorganisms may also reach the bone via the bloodstream.

Treatment


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    Use of Antibiotics: - If the infection is caused by the bacteria, it's often treated with
     antibiotics.
    The most commonly used antibiotics are:
    Nafcillin (Nafcil, Unipen)
    Cefazolin (Ancef)
    Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
    Ceftazidime (Fortaz, Ceptaz)
    Clindamycin (Cleocin)
    Vancomycin (Vancocin)
    Surgery: - Surgery is usually necessary, especially if the infection is chronic or if a
     patient has some hardware implanted such as metal plates or artificial joints.

Prevention

    Reducing your risk of infection will also reduce your risk of developing osteomyelitis.
    In general, be careful and take precautions to avoid cuts and scrapes, which give germs
     easy access to your body. If you do get any cuts and scrapes, clean the area immediately
     and apply a clean bandage.
    Check wounds frequently for signs of infection.


Gout

Definition: Gout is a kind of arthritis. It can cause an attack of sudden burning pain, stiffness,
and swelling in a joint, usually a big toe.

Causes

    Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood.
    Many people with high levels in their blood never get gout.
    When uric acid levels in the blood are too high, the uric acid may form hard crystals in
         your joints.
    Your chances of getting gout are higher if you are overweight, drink too much alcohol, or
         eat too much meat and fish that are high in chemicals called purines. Some medicines,
         such as water pills (diuretics), can also bring on gout.

Symptoms

    Nighttime attack of swelling, tenderness, redness, and sharp pain in your big toe.
    It attacks in your foot, ankle, or knees.

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     Last a few days or many weeks before the pain goes away.



Treatment

     Take a shot of corticosteroids.
     The doses will get smaller as your symptoms go away and relief from a gout attack often
         begins within 24 hours if you start treatment right away.
     . Taking ibuprofen or another anti-inflammatory medicine can also help you feel better.



    Prevention



     To prevent future attacks, your doctor can prescribe a medicine to reduce uric acid
         buildup in your blood. If your doctor prescribes medicine to lower your uric acid levels,
         be sure to take it as directed. Most people continue to take this medicine for the rest of
         their lives.
     Paying attention to what you eat may help you manage your gout.
     Eat moderate amounts of a healthy mix of foods to control your weight and get the
         nutrients you need.
     Avoid regular daily intake of meat, seafood, and alcohol (especially beer).
     Drink plenty of water and other fluids.



     Leukemia


Definition


Leukemia is a form of cancer in which the body produces too many white blood cells. Many forms of leukemia have

been identified. They are divided into two general types: acute and chronic. An acute condition comes on fairly

quickly. A chronic disorder develops more slowly over time.




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Causes:

      Smoking and tobacco use.
      Being exposed to large amounts of radiation.
      Exposure to certain chemicals in the work place.
      Past chemotherapy or radiation for another cancer.

Symptoms:

    Fevers and night sweats.
    Frequent or unusual infections.
    Weakness and fatigue.
    Headaches
    Joint pain
    Bond pain
    Swelling in the belly or pain on the left side of the belly or in the left shoulder from a
     swollen spleen.
    Swollen lymph nodes in the armpit neck or groin.
    Decreased appetite.

Preventions:

    Avoid high doses of radiation.
    Exposure to the chemical benzene and smoking should be abstained.
    Other tobacco use or certain types of chemotherapy use to treat other types of cancer.




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III. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Gastritis

Definition: Gastritis is an inflammation, irritation, or erosion of the lining of the stomach. It can
occur suddenly or gradually.

Causes



    Irritation due to excessive alcohol use, chronic vomiting, stress, or the use of certain
         medications such as aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Helicobacter pylori: lives in the mucous lining of the stomach. It leads to ulcer, and in
         some people, stomach cancer.
    Pernicious anemia: A form of anemia that occurs when the stomach lacks a naturally
         occurring substance needed to properly absorb and digest vitamin B12.
    Bile reflux: A backflow of bile into the stomach from the bile tract.
    If gastritis is left untreated, it can lead to a severe loss in blood, or in some cases increase
         the risk of developing stomach cancer.

Symptoms
Symptoms of gastritis vary among individuals, and in many people there are no symptoms. The
most common symptoms include:

    Nausea or recurrent upset stomach
    Abdominal bloating
    Abdominal pain
    Vomiting

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    Burning or gnawing feeling in the stomach between meals or at night
    Loss of appetite
    Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material
    Black, tarry stools




Treatment
Treatment for gastritis usually involves:

    Taking antacids and other drugs to reduce stomach acid, which causes further irritation to
         inflamed areas.
    Avoiding hot and spicy foods.
    For gastritis caused by H. pylori infection, take a prescribe regimen of several antibiotics
         plus an acid blocking drug.
    If the gastritis is caused by pernicious anemia, B12 vitamin shots will be given.

   Prevention

The mainstay of gastritis prevention is to avoid those things that irritate or inflame your
stomach's lining.

    Aspirin
    NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or naproxen Smoking
    Caffeine and other caffeine like substances
    Alcohol
    The medication may be very important for your health

Diarrhea

Definition: frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food
poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor

Causes


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Short-term diarrhea is usually a symptom of gastroenteritis, which is an infection of the bowel.
Gastroenteritis may be caused by:

           A virus, such as nor virus or rotavirus,
           Food poisoning
           Bacterial infection
           Antibiotics
           Contaminated food or water
           Emotional upset or anxiety,
           Drinking too much alcohol and coffee
           The side effect from some medicines.
           A bacterial or viral infection, laxatives and poor diet

Symptoms

    The main symptom of diarrhea is having loose, watery stools.
    Going to the toilet more often than normal.

You may also get:

           Vomiting
           Stomach cramps
           A fever.
           Feeling thirsty
           Not needing to urinate as often
           Having dark-colored urine
           Having dry skin
           Feeling sleepy.

Treatment

         Diarrhea often goes away without treatment after a few days, because your immune
          system will automatically fight the infection.
         Don't become dehydrated:- You can avoid becoming dehydrated by drinking lots of
          fluids.
         Rehydration drinks: - Rehydration drinks do not help to cure diarrhoea, but
          can prevent or treat dehydration.
         Eat as soon as you can: - The old advice was to not eat anything for a day or two, but
          now it is recommended that you eat foods high in carbohydrates and other foods as
          soon as you feel like it. Salty foods such as soup can help replace salt lost from your
          system.
         Anti-diarrhoea medicines: - like loperamide.
         Continue breastfeeding or bottle-feeding
         Painkillers



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. Prevention

            Washing hands regularly, using soap and hot water after using the toilet or potty.
            After playing with pets,
            After gardening, and
            Before touching food.

You can also prevent germs from spreading by:

          Cleaning the toilet with disinfectant after using it.
          Not sharing towels.



Stomach ulcer

Definition: An area of tissue erosion, for example, of the skin or lining of the gastrointestinal
tract.

Symptom

      A constant discomfort in the stomach.
      The pain will subside once you have eaten something.
      2 to 3 hours after you have eaten, the pain will gradually start again.
      There is no pain just after you have had your dinner, but the pain reoccurs in the middle
          of the night / towards morning.
      The pain will subside immediately after taking an antacid.
      A sudden, sharp, stinging pain in the stomach that will not go away.
      Suddenly with vomit fresh blood, or blood of a dark brown color.
      Stools contain blood.

  Treatment

     Treated with over-the-counter medications.
    Protective drugs are also used to treat ulcers.
    One direct method for treating ulcers is to kill the bacteria that is responsible for most the
         vast majority of deaths caused by ulcers



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Prevention

        Elimination of the Helicobacter pylori bacterium
        Avoiding unnecessary use of aspirin and other NSAIDs
        Giving up smoking.
        Cutting down on alcohol, tea, coffee, sodas, and other products that contain caffeine




         IV Circulatory System




Hypertension



Hypertension is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as it
flows through them. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body's tissues.




Causes: Main causes of are:

              Arteriosclerosis, obesity and overweightness, physical, mental or emotional stress
               like fear, worry, anxiety, etc.
              Increased secretion of rennin or epinephrine or aldosterone.
              High intake of alcohol or caffeine
              Intake of certain drugs, smoking, etc.
              It may be primary or essential.

(When causes is unknown and accounts for 90% of all cases) Or secondary (when causes is
known and accounts for 10% of all cases)

Symptoms:


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          A condition of persistent high blood pressure is called hypertension e.g. a condition
           of persistent 150/90 mmhg.
          Mean arterial systolic pressure greater than 110 mmhg under rest is called
           hypertension.
          In malignant hypertensive condition, the mean arterial pressure may be as high as
           130 mmhg and systolic arterial pressure as 250 mmhg


Preventions:
            Diet related measures like reducing alcohol consumptions, moderate sodium
              intake, correcting obesity, etc.
            Encourage regular exercise programmes
            Stop Smoking
            Testing blood pressure level of cholesterol and triglycerides.
            A number of anti-hypertensive drugs are known e.g.
          1. Diuretics like thiazides, bendrotluazide, spironoluctone etc.These diuretics reduce
             the reabsorptionof salt and water by the renal tubules of the kidney.
          2. B-Blockers, like Pindolol, oxprenolol, windoxide, etc. which act as vasodilators
             and increase he blood flow in the blood vessels.
          3. Angiotensin converting enzymes(ACT) inhibitors which inhibit the conversion of
             angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II




Anemia

Definition: Anemia refers to a low red blood cell count.

Causes

The three main causes of anemia are:

      Blood loss
      Lack of red blood cell production
      High rates of red blood cell destruction

Signs and Symptoms

    Common symptom of anemia is fatigue.

   Other signs and symptoms of anemia include:


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      Shortness of breath
      Dizziness
      Headache
      Coldness in the hands and feet
      Pale skin
      Chest pain


Treatment of Anemia.

    Dietary Changes and Supplements: - Low levels of vitamins or iron in the body can cause
     some types of anemia. To raise your vitamin or iron levels, you have to change your diet
     or take vitamin or iron supplements. Common vitamin supplements are vitamin B12 and
     folic acid.
    Iron: - body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Body can more easily absorb iron from
     meats than from vegetables or other foods. To treat your anemia, eating more meat—
     especially red meat, such as beef or liver.
    Vitamin B12:- Low levels of vitamin B12 can lead to pernicious anemia. This type of
     anemia is often treated with vitamin B12 supplements and other food sources.
    Folic Acid:-Folic acid is a form of vitamin B that’s found in foods. Body needs folic acid
     to make and maintain new cells.
    Vitamin C: - Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are
     vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits.
    Medicines: - Medicines can increase the number of red blood cells your body makes or to
     treat an underlying cause of anemia.
    Surgery: -If you have serious or life-threatening bleeding that’s causing anemia, you may
     need surgery.

Heart attack

Definition: A sudden severe instance of abnormal heart function.

Causes

    Increased in the Cholesterol buildup in the blood vessel.

Symptoms

    Chest pain or chest discomfort.
      Chest pressure
      Loss of consciousness
      Cyanosis
      Shortness of breath

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    Vomiting

Treatment
    Surgery can treat the heart attack.




Arteriosclerosis



   A chronic disease in which thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls result in impaired
   blood circulation. It develops with aging, and in hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and other conditions.




Causes:

    It is most common type of caretiovascular diseases caused by deposition of calcium salts
     of cholesterol in the walls blood vessels or increase fibrous tissue in their walls.

Symptoms:

    Arteries become hard, narrow and less elastic so they blood supply to visceral organs is
     decreased which leads to hypertension which sometimes cause haemorrhage of blood
     vessels of the brain.
    Visceral organs causing cerebral haemorrhage or visceral haemorrhage.

Preventions:

     Oat bran increases the conversion of liver cholesterol into bile acids and their ingestion
      with faeces.
     Mevinolin decreases the rate of cholesterol synthesis in the liver.



Treatment

        Coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis can be surgically passed with parts of
            vein or artery taken from else.




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       Atheroma:
   An atheroma, also referred to as a plague, develops due to a process called atherosclerosis. An
   atheroma is an accumulation of inflammatory cells (like macrophages), and other lipids in the
   inner wall of arteries.



Causes:

    Risks factors of atheroma are divided into two categories:
    Fixed sedentary age, male sex and family history and modifiable (e.g. smoking,
     hypertension, obesity, sedentary life style, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, etc.)

Symptoms:

    It is characterized by the formation of fibro lipid plague called angina in the arterial
     intima.
    Coronary arteries.
    Atheroma generally leads to stable angina which is characterized by severe and persistent
     chest pain which spreads to left arm and shoulder but may extend towards the neck.
     Usually, the pain lasts for only a few minutes but in some cases, the patient suffers from
     severe chest pain, breathless, restlessness, nausea and vomiting.




Preventions:

      Avoid smoking and hypercholesterolemia.
      Take regular exercises.
      Maintain ideal body weight.
      Fat mixed diet with fruits and vegetables as well as meat and diary products.




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V. Respiratory System

 Asthma

Definition: Asthma is a chronic lung condition that causes breathing difficulties and wheezing
when air passages narrow and become inflamed.

 Causes

 What causes asthma is not clear, but several environmental "triggers" have been identified.
 They are: -

       Allergens (animal dander and saliva, pollens, molds, dust mites, cockroaches, some
             medications and certain foods.)
       viral infections( colds and influenza; exercise; breathing cold, dry air;
             environmental pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, wood smoke, paint fumes and
             chemicals; strong odors; and emotional stress. )
       Genetic and hereditary.

Symptoms

       Wheezing (a whistling sound as air is forcibly expelled)
       Difficulty breathing
       Chest tightness
       A persistent cough
       A chronic cough is the main symptom. A rapid pulse
       Sweating.
       Flared nostrils and pursed lips
       A need to sit upright
       A bluish discoloration of the lips and fingernails (cyanosis)

Prevention
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      Avoiding or minimizing exposure to triggers (environmental triggers such as cigarette
         smoke, environmental pollutants and strong chemicals.)
      If exercise triggers your asthma, you can prevent an attack by breathing warm,
         humidified air.
      Preventive medicine also can be used before an anticipated exposure to animals.
      Use air conditioning and keep windows closed during high pollen season.

Treatment

 Several types of medication are available to treat asthma. Some treat acute attacks, while
 others prevent attacks from happening.

      Use of Bronchodilators.
      Take regularly anti-inflammatory medications.
      Immunotherapy for asthma appears to be most effective
      Severe asthma attacks must be treated in a hospital, where oxygen can be
         administered, and drugs may be given either intravenously or with a nebulizer.

 Emphysema

Definition: Emphysema is a lung disease that involves damage to the air sacs (alveoli) in the
lungs.

Causes

    Cigarette and tobacco smoking is the most common cause of emphysema.

   Symptoms

    Shortness of breath
    Chronic cough with or without sputum production
    Wheezing
    Decreased ability to exercise
    Anxiety

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    Unintentional weight loss
    Ankle, feet, and leg swelling
    Fatigue

Treatment

     Only quitting smoke.
     Medications used to improve breathing using different devices.
     Antibiotics may be prescribed when respiratory infections occur.
     Vaccines against the flu and pneumonia are recommended.
     Lung transplantation is an option for patients with severe disease.
     Surgery.




Bronchitis

Definition: The swelling of the airways leading to the lungs.




Causes

    Virus
    Exposure to the smoke and from pollutants such as household cleaners and smog.
    Acid from our stomach
    When acid from the stomach gets into food pipe and few drops go into your upper way
    exposure to the irritant


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   Symptoms
        Coughing most days for at least three months a year in two consecutive years.
        Production of mucus, either clear or white or yellowish-gray or green in color
        Shortness of breath, made worse by mild exertion
        Wheezing
        Fatigue
        Slight fever and chills
        Chest discomfort




Tuberculosis (TB)

An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is transmitted
through inhalation and is characterized by cough, fever, shortness o f breath, weight loss, and the
appearance of

Inflammatory substances and tubercles in the lungs




       Causes:
           TB is caused by bacillus bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis (first
               Discovered by Robert Koch in 1882).
           Attack any parts of body (including the brain, skin, bone marrow, lymph nodes,
             intestine, spinal cord and eyes), but most commonly affected organs are lungs
             called pulmonary tuberculosis.



Symptoms:

           Pulmonary TB is characterized by fever, coughing, chest pain and blood sputum.
           If cough persists beyond three weeks the sputum of the patients should be
             examined.
       Prevention:

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         Isolation of TB patients.
         Immunization by doctors and nurses.
         Health education e.g. avoiding indiscriminate spitting or spitting only in spittoons
          containing germicides.
         BCG (Bacilus-Calmette- Guarin) Vaccination therapy.




1. Diphtheria

Diphtheria is a potentially fatal, contagious disease that usually involves the nose, throat, and air
passages, but may also infect the skin. Its most striking feature is the formation of a grayish
membrane covering the tonsils and up per part of the throat




Causes:
    It is caused by a gram positive bacillus bacterium, corynebacterium diphtheria
    It generally affects the children up to the age of 5 years.

Symptoms:
    Diphtheria is characterized by inflammation of mucus membrane of nose, throat and
     tonsils leading to appearance of grey spots and blood-tinged nasal discharge.
    In severe cases, the respiratory tract is blocked causing difficult in breathing and even
     death are due to choking.

Prevention:
    DPTC Diphtheria, Pertusis and treatment vaccine within six months of birth.
    Infected babies should be isolated and their articles and clothes should be disinfected
    Penicillin and erythromycin antibiotics are recommended.




                                                  23
 Vi. Muscular system.

Chronic muscle syndrome

 Definition: Chronic fatigue syndrome is a condition that causes extreme tiredness. People with
 CFS are so tired that they are unable to carry on normal activities.

 Causes
 Clear cut cause for chronic fatigue syndrome is not known. Some factors that are thought to be
 responsible for the disease are:

              Viral infections
              Chemical toxins (poisons)
              Allergies
              Abnormalities in the immune system
              Psychological disorders

 Symptoms

           A person may become so tired.
           CFS can also cause problems with sleeping. A person may wake up being just as tired
             as before he or she went to sleep.
           Muscle pain (myalgia)
           joint pain (arthralgia)

 Treatment


           The first treatment most doctors recommend is a combination of rest, exercise, and
              proper diet

                                                  24
          Counseling and stress reduction (learning how to better handle the pressures of
             everyday life) can also be helpful.
          Many medicine and vitamins are there to treat chronic fatigue.



Prevention

          There are currently no recommended ways of preventing CFS.




Leg cramp

Definition: Nocturnal leg cramps are sudden contractions of the lower leg and foot muscles.
They often awaken you from sleep. The calf muscles are most often involved. The cramps are
harmless. They do not mean that you have a serious disease.

Causes

          Standing on hard surfaces
          Prolonged sitting
          Certain leg positions while sedentary
          Dehydration
          Diabetes
          Hormone disorders (e.g., thyroid imbalance )
          Chemical imbalances (e.g., calcium, potassium, magnesium)
          Blood pressure medicines
          Overexertion of muscle


   Symptoms
    Sudden nighttime calf (or foot) cramps


Treatment




                                                   25
    When cramps occur, pull against them with your leg muscles. Also, grab your foot and
         pull up.
    Standing on the affected leg often stops the cramping.
    Massage and hot or cold treatments will help the muscles relax.
    Medications.


Prevention



    Stretch three times a day and just before going to bed.
    Exercise feet and legs regularly.
    Drink plenty of liquids.
    Eat plenty of potassium-rich foods. This includes bananas, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli,
         cantaloupe, oranges, and grapefruit.
    Wear comfortable, supportive shoes.
    Sleep with toes up, not pointed downward.




Muscle sprain

Definition: A sprain is an injury to a ligament. A ligament is a thick, tough, fibrous tissue that
connects bones together. The most commonly injured ligaments are in the ankle, knee, and wrist.
The ligaments can be injured by being stretched too far from their normal position.

Symptoms

The most common symptoms of a sprain are:

     Pain, swelling, and bruising of the affected joint.

Causes

     A sprain is caused by a ligament being stretched too far




                                                26
        Prevention

Unfortunately, not all sprains and strain can be prevented. Some helpful hints on how to
avoid strains and sprains are listed below.

       Stretch before you exercise or workout.
       Wear proper shoes for the activity.
       Warm up properly before activities.
       Do not run on icy or uneven surfaces.




                                             27
REFERENCES


Rastogi, V.B. (1999).Complete Course in ISC Biology.Udyog Nagar, Rohtak Road, Printers
Publisher Pvt.Ltd.


Jones, M.and Jones, G. (1999). Biology Ansari Road, Fountain Books.


.http://www.medicinenet.com/scabies/article.htm

Retrieved on 25/05/09

http://www.faqs.org/health/Sick-V4/Skin-Cancer.html

http://www.faqs.org/health/Sick-V1/Breast-Cancer.html

Retrieved on 27/05/09


http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/osteomyelitis/DS00759/DSECTION=prevention

http://www.mamashealth.com/bodyparts/fracture.asp

http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3513
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/gout-topic-
overviewhttp://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Diarrhoea/Pages/Prevention.aspx

Retrieved on 21/ 05/09




                                             28
Hardinge, G.M and Shryock, H (1999). Family Medical Guide (volume I). United States of
America, Pacific Press Publishing Association.


ttp://www.emedicinehealth.com/gastritis/page11_em.htmon.

http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/digestive-diseases-gastritis

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Diarrhoea/Pages/Treatment

http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/organ/circulatory_system.htm
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/brnchi/brnchi_whatis.html.
http://coldflu.about.com/od/bronchitis/g/bronchitis.htm

Retrieved on 19/05/09




                                                 29
          tones.html#     Integumentary system


          (1) Acne


Definition


Acne is a skin condition that occurs due to the overproduction of oil by the oil glands of the skin. The oil that normally lubricates
the skin is trapped in blocked oil ducts and results in what we know as pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the surface of
skin. Sometimes it also includes deeper skin lesions that are called cysts.




Causes
A bacterium, known as Propionibacterium acnes, is a normal inhabitant of the skin. It uses
sebum as a nutrient for growth, therefore increases in follicles during puberty. People with acne
have more Propionibacterium acne in their follicles than people without acne. The presence of
bacteria attracts white blood cells to the follicle. These white blood cells produce an enzyme that
damages the wall of the follicle, allowing the contents of the follicle to enter the. This process
causes an inflammatory, which leads to acne disease




                                                                 30
    Symptoms
    Acne is characterized by the presence of one or more of the following:

     Papules. These are small raised bumps that signal inflammation or infection in the hair
      follicles. Papules may be red and tender.

     Pustules. Similar to papules, pustules are red, tender bumps with white pus at their tips.

     Nodules. These are large, solid, painful lumps beneath the surface of the skin. They're formed
      by the build up of secretions deep within hair follicles.

     Cysts. These are painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the surface of the skin. These boil-like
      infections can cause scars.




    Treatment

    . The most common oral medications used to treat acne are tetracycline, minocycline,
    doxycycline and erythromycin.




    Prevention
    Avoiding fat-laden junk foods like cheeseburgers is definitely a step in the right direction for
    other health-related reasons. However, it will do little by ways of acne prevention. Skin hygiene
    is important, and one can prevent acne to a certain extent by increased and regular cleansing.
    However, one tends to go overboard and resort to using extreme measures like a face wash of
    strong toothpaste and other harsh compounds. This will only aggravate the problem by
    encouraging increased compensatory oil production in the skin.


                                                    31
    (2) Athlete's foot disease



    Athlete's foot is a rash on the skin of the foot. It is the most common fungal skin infection. There
    are three main types of athlete's foot. Each type affects different parts of the foot and may look
    different



      Cause

    Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the skin of the foot. Most athlete's foot is
    caused by one of two types of fungus.

   Trichophyton mentagrophytes often causes toe web or vesicular (blister like) infections. The
    infection appears suddenly, is severe, and is easily treated.
   Trichophyton rubrum often causes moccasin-type infections. This condition lasts for a long time
    (chronic) and is difficult to treat.

    You get athlete’s foot when you come in contact with the fungus and it begins to grow on your
    skin.




    Symptoms

    . Common symptoms include:

   Peeling, cracking, and scaling of the feet.


                                                      32
   Redness, blisters, or softening and breaking down (maceration) of the skin.
   Itching, burning, or both.
   Often begins with skin that seems soft and moist and pale white. May cause itching, burning, and
    a slight odour.
   May get worse. The skin between the toes becomes scaly, peels, and cracks. If the infection
    becomes severe, a bacterial infection is usually present, which causes further skin breakdown
    and a foul odour.

    Treatment

    How you treat athlete’s foot depends on its type and severity. Most cases of athlete's foot can be
    treated at home using an antifungal medicine to kill the fungus or slow its growth.

   Non prescription antifungal usually is used first. These include terbinafine (Lamisil AT),
    miconazole (Micatin), clotrimazole (Lotrimin AF), and tolnaftate (Tinactin). Nonprescription
    antifungals are applied to the skin (topical medicines).
   Prescription antifungals may be tried if nonprescription medicines are not successful or if you
    have a severe infection. Some of these medicines are topical antifungal which are put directly on
    the skin.




    Prevention

    You can prevent athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) by:

   Keeping your feet clean and dry.
o   Dry between your toes after swimming or bathing.
o   Wear leather shoes or sandals that allow your feet to breathe.
o   When indoors, wear socks without shoes.
o   Wear cotton socks to absorb sweat. Change your socks twice a day. (White socks do not prevent
    athlete's foot, as some people believe.)
o   Use talcum or antifungal powder on your feet.
o   Allow your shoes to air for at least 24 hours before you wear them again.

                                                       33
   Wearing shower sandals in public pools and showers.




    5, Dermatitis disease


    The simple definition of dermatitis is inflammation of the skin.

     Causes


          Contact dermatitis results from direct contact with one of many irritants or allergens.
           Common irritants include laundry soap, skin soaps or detergents, and cleaning products.
           Possible allergens include rubber; metals, such as nickel; jewellery; perfume; cosmetics;
           weeds, such as poison ivy; and neomycin, a common ingredient in topical antibiotic
           cream
          Neurodermatitis typically develops when something has created an itchy sensation in a
           specific area of your skin. This irritation may lead you to rub or scratch your skin
           repeatedly in that area.




           Symptoms

    The main symptoms of dermatitis are;

    The itching can be severe and persistent, especially at night. Scratching the affected area of skin
    usually causes a rash. The rash is red and patchy and may be long-lasting (chronic) or come and
    go (recurring). The rash may:

   Develop fluid-filled sores that can ooze fluid or crust over. This can happen when the skin is
    rubbed or scratched or if a skin infection is present. This is known as an acute (sudden or of short
    duration), oozing rash.


                                                    34
   Be scaly and dry, red, and itchy. This is known as a sub acute (longer-duration) rash.
   Become tough and thick from constant scratching .




    Treatment


   Avoiding dry skin.
   Avoiding irritants that cause a rash or make a rash worse.
   Avoiding possible allergens that cause a rash or make a rash worse.
   Controlling itching and scratching.




    Prevention

    These steps may help prevent a rash or reduce its severity:

   If possible, breast-feed your baby for at least 6 months to boost his or her immune system. Talk
    to your doctor about your diet if you are breast-feeding.
   When you are ready to give your child solid foods, talk with your doctor about whether your
    child should avoid foods that frequently cause food allergies, such as eggs, peanuts, milk, soy,
    and wheat.




    Muscular system
    1, muscle cramp disease

    What is muscle cramp?




                                                    35
A muscle cramp is a painful spasm of your muscle. It's caused by a prolonged tightening of that
muscle, leading to it being shortened. The spasm can last from a few seconds to 15 minutes.




Causes

There are many causes of muscle cramps. You can get them if you have worked out too hard,
especially if you don’t stretch first. They also can result if you’ve used a specific muscle group
or muscle, much more often than you normally do. For instance you could get cramps in your
arms or fingers after extensive raking of a yard. Kids may occasionally get cramps in the fingers
from too much writing at school, especially if their pencil grip is too tight.

Another common cause of muscle cramps is dehydration. If you fail to drink enough water,
especially when you’re being physically active, and particularly if the weather is warm or hot,
you may suffer from cramps immediately after or even during activity. Sometimes people have
cramps that occur at night instead.




Symptoms
The symptoms of a muscle cramp include:

        Sudden sensation of uncontrollable and painful spasms in the muscle
        Muscle twitching.
        Gently stretch the effected muscle or muscle group.
        Keep the effected areas moving with light activity and gentle massage?
        Continue to apply heat and massage to help promote blood flow.




         Treatment

Treatment includes the following:

                                                  36
        Warm-Up
        Stretching.
        Hydration
        Nutrition




         Prevention
         One of the most useful things you can do to help prevent muscle cramps is to work on
         improving your overall general health and fitness. Improving your cardiovascular fitness
         will improve the delivery of blood to your muscles, which will ensure that they have
         adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients to function properly.
        Another key activity that will help to prevent cramps is stretching. Keeping your muscles
         loose and flexible will help to stop them from tightening up and cramping. Be sure to
         stretch the muscles groups that are most prone to cramping both before and after exercise
         or strenuous physical activity.
        Stretching is one of the most under-utilized techniques for improving athletic
         performance and getting rid of those annoying sports injuries. Don't make the mistake of
         thinking that something as simple as stretching won't be effective.




2, Polymyositis

What is Polymyositis?

Polymyositis is one of a group of muscle diseases known as the inflammatory myopathies, which
are characterized by chronic muscle inflammation accompanied by muscle weakness.




Causes



                                                 37
The cause of polymyositis is not known, but there are indications that heredity plays a role in the
disease.



Symptoms

The following are some symptoms of polymyositis. These symptoms might come and go:

        Muscle weakness
        Difficulty getting up from chairs, climbing stairs, or lifting objects
        Difficulty swallowing
        Muscle ache
        Fatigue
        Shortness of breath due to heart and lung involvement


Treatment

Polymyositis is an autoimmune disease and therefore therapy is directed at altering a patient’s immune system. All of
these therapies therefore have some significant risk of side effects and Polymyositis treatment needs to be
undertaken only with physicians accustomed to using these medications and to monitoring their side effects.
Corticosteroids are often used as a first line therapy to treat polymyositis because they decrease the muscle
inflammation.


Prevention

There is no known way to prevent myositis, except to avoid exposure to those environmental agents that may be
associated with some cases.




3, cardiovascular disease



                                                          38
What is cardiovascular disease?


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an abnormal function of the heart or blood vessels. It can cause an increase in risk
for heart attack, heart failure, sudden death, stroke and cardiac rhythm problems, thus resulting in decreased quality
of life and decreased life expectancy.


Causes


The causes of cardiovascular disease range from structural defects, to infection, inflammation, environment and
genetics.




Symptoms


        Chest pain or chest discomfort
        Pain in one or both arms, the left shoulder, neck, jaw, or back
        Shortness of breath
        Dizziness
        Faster heartbeats
        Abnormal heartbeats
        Feeling very tired.


Treatment

  Many of the treatment modalities for cardiovascular disease are similar irrespective of
  whether diabetes is present or not. However specific issues related to diabetes include the
  difficulty of diagnosing silent cardiovascular disease, the need for the aggressive
  management of all risk factors, and the use of insulin therapy to achieve blood glucose
  control when a heart attack occurs.




Prevention


                                                          39
    Fortunately, there are many things you can do reduce your chances of getting heart disease. You should


            Know your Blood pressure and keep it under control
            Exercise regularly
            Don't smoke
            Get tested for diabetes and if you have it, keep it under control
            Know your cholesterol and triglyceride levels and keep them under control
            Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables
     Maintain a healthy weight.

    4, Myositis disease

    What is myositis?

    Myositis is a rare disease in which the muscle fibers and skin are inflamed and damaged, resulting in muscle
    weakness. There are several types of myositis that affect different parts of the body.




    Causes

    Myositis is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body normally fights infections and
    disease by producing antibodies and white blood cells called lymphocytes in a process called the
    immune response. In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is overactive, and the
    immune system         attacks and destroys the body's own normal healthy tissues. There is no known
    cause to the autoimmune response that results in myositis.




    Symptoms
    Early indications of inflammation of the muscles may include difficulty in rising from a chair,
    climbing steps or lifting the arms; falling; becoming exceedingly fatigued after prolonged
    standing or walking; loss of strength throughout the body; and sometimes difficulty in
    swallowing and labored breathing.
                                                              40
Treatment

        1. Rest. Getting enough rest is an important component of managing myositis. Take
             frequent breaks during the day and limit your activity.
        2. Nutrition. What you eat can affect your overall health. At the Myositis Center, a
             trained nutritionist is on hand to help design a diet that’s right for you and your
             lifestyle. Learn more about our Nutritionist. (link to Nutrition)
        3. Reduction of Stress. It is imperative that myositis patients find outlets for the daily
             stress that most of us have in our lives. To that end, your doctor may suggest exercise
             as a form of relaxation, like yoga, or biofeedback exercises.




Prevention

. To help prevent these illnesses:


        Get a flu shot each year.
        Thoroughly cook pork and other meats.
        Never inject illegal drugs under your skin or into your muscles. With prescription drugs that are injected, the
         injection site should be as clean as possible.
        Keep your skin clean.
        Take the lowest number and lowest doses of medications that are necessary. Routine blood tests may be
         helpful as well.




5, Paralysis disease


What is Paralysis?


Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. Paralysis can cause loss of feeling
or loss of mobility in the affected area.



                                                           41
Causes

Paralysis is most often caused by damage to the nervous system or brain, especially the spinal cord. Major causes
are stroke, trauma, poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and
Guillain-Barré syndrome. Temporary paralysis occurs during REM sleep, and deregulation of this system can lead to
episodes of waking paralysis. Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis.
Many causes of this are varied, and could also be unknown.




Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of paralysis will depend upon what caused the paralysis, as well as
what parts of the body are affected. Loss of movement and feeling can be sudden and immediate,
such as with trauma or stroke, or it can begin with muscle weakness and gradually progress,
particularly when it is caused by certain diseases or illnesses.




Treatment


Be treated through a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Rehabilitation includes:
· Physical therapy. The physical therapist focuses on mobility. Physical therapy helps develop
strategies to strength and control that remain in the affected muscles, and helps maintain range of
motion in the affected adaptive equipment such as braces, canes, · Occupational therapy. The
occupational therapist focuses on daily activities such as eating and bathing.




Prevention


Prevention of paralysis depends on prevention of the underlying causes.
        Risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling
        Accidents and falls. Good prenatal care can help prevent premature birth, which is a
         common cause of cerebral palsy. Or paralysis that occurs only in the arms and legs may
         indicate demyelinating disease.
        Fluctuating symptoms in Different parts of the body may be caused by multiple Sclerosis.

                                                           42
         Sudden paralysis is most often caused by injury or stroke.
         Spreading paralysis may indicate degenerative disease,




          html#4a.co.u      Integumentary system


          (2) Acne


Definition


Acne is a skin condition that occurs due to the overproduction of oil by the oil glands of the skin. The oil that normally lubricates
the skin is trapped in blocked oil ducts and results in what we know as pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the surface of
skin. Sometimes it also includes deeper skin lesions that are called cysts.




Causes
A bacterium, known as Propionibacterium acnes, is a normal inhabitant of the skin. It uses
sebum as a nutrient for growth, therefore increases in follicles during puberty. People with acne
have more Propionibacterium acne in their follicles than people without acne. The presence of
bacteria attracts white blood cells to the follicle. These white blood cells produce an enzyme that
damages the wall of the follicle, allowing the contents of the follicle to enter the. This process
causes an inflammatory, which leads to acne disease




Symptoms
                                                                 43
    Acne is characterized by the presence of one or more of the following:

     Papules. These are small raised bumps that signal inflammation or infection in the hair
      follicles. Papules may be red and tender.

     Pustules. Similar to papules, pustules are red, tender bumps with white pus at their tips.

     Nodules. These are large, solid, painful lumps beneath the surface of the skin. They're formed
      by the build up of secretions deep within hair follicles.

     Cysts. These are painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the surface of the skin. These boil-like
      infections can cause scars.




    Treatment

    . The most common oral medications used to treat acne are tetracycline, minocycline,
    doxycycline and erythromycin.




    Prevention
    Avoiding fat-laden junk foods like cheeseburgers is definitely a step in the right direction for
    other health-related reasons. However, it will do little by ways of acne prevention. Skin hygiene
    is important, and one can prevent acne to a certain extent by increased and regular cleansing.
    However, one tends to go overboard and resort to using extreme measures like a face wash of
    strong toothpaste and other harsh compounds. This will only aggravate the problem by
    encouraging increased compensatory oil production in the skin.




                                                    44
    (2) Athlete's foot disease



    Athlete's foot is a rash on the skin of the foot. It is the most common fungal skin infection. There
    are three main types of athlete's foot. Each type affects different parts of the foot and may look
    different



      Cause

    Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the skin of the foot. Most athlete's foot is
    caused by one of two types of fungus.

   Trichophyton mentagrophytes often causes toe web or vesicular (blister like) infections. The
    infection appears suddenly, is severe, and is easily treated.
   Trichophyton rubrum often causes moccasin-type infections. This condition lasts for a long time
    (chronic) and is difficult to treat.

    You get athlete’s foot when you come in contact with the fungus and it begins to grow on your
    skin.




    Symptoms

    . Common symptoms include:

   Peeling, cracking, and scaling of the feet.
   Redness, blisters, or softening and breaking down (maceration) of the skin.
   Itching, burning, or both.



                                                      45
   Often begins with skin that seems soft and moist and pale white. May cause itching, burning, and
    a slight odour.
   May get worse. The skin between the toes becomes scaly, peels, and cracks. If the infection
    becomes severe, a bacterial infection is usually present, which causes further skin breakdown
    and a foul odour.

    Treatment

    How you treat athlete’s foot depends on its type and severity. Most cases of athlete's foot can be
    treated at home using an antifungal medicine to kill the fungus or slow its growth.

   Non prescription antifungal usually is used first. These include terbinafine (Lamisil AT),
    miconazole (Micatin), clotrimazole (Lotrimin AF), and tolnaftate (Tinactin). Nonprescription
    antifungals are applied to the skin (topical medicines).
   Prescription antifungals may be tried if nonprescription medicines are not successful or if you
    have a severe infection. Some of these medicines are topical antifungal which are put directly on
    the skin.




    Prevention

    You can prevent athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) by:

   Keeping your feet clean and dry.
o   Dry between your toes after swimming or bathing.
o   Wear leather shoes or sandals that allow your feet to breathe.
o   When indoors, wear socks without shoes.
o   Wear cotton socks to absorb sweat. Change your socks twice a day. (White socks do not prevent
    athlete's foot, as some people believe.)
o   Use talcum or antifungal powder on your feet.
o   Allow your shoes to air for at least 24 hours before you wear them again.
   Wearing shower sandals in public pools and showers.



                                                       46
    5, Dermatitis disease


    The simple definition of dermatitis is inflammation of the skin.


     Causes


          Contact dermatitis results from direct contact with one of many irritants or allergens.
           Common irritants include laundry soap, skin soaps or detergents, and cleaning products.
           Possible allergens include rubber; metals, such as nickel; jewellery; perfume; cosmetics;
           weeds, such as poison ivy; and neomycin, a common ingredient in topical antibiotic
           cream
          Neurodermatitis typically develops when something has created an itchy sensation in a
           specific area of your skin. This irritation may lead you to rub or scratch your skin
           repeatedly in that area.




           Symptoms

    The main symptoms of dermatitis are;

    The itching can be severe and persistent, especially at night. Scratching the affected area of skin
    usually causes a rash. The rash is red and patchy and may be long-lasting (chronic) or come and
    go (recurring). The rash may:

   Develop fluid-filled sores that can ooze fluid or crust over. This can happen when the skin is
    rubbed or scratched or if a skin infection is present. This is known as an acute (sudden or of short
    duration), oozing rash.
   Be scaly and dry, red, and itchy. This is known as a sub acute (longer-duration) rash.
   Become tough and thick from constant scratching .


                                                    47
    Treatment


   Avoiding dry skin.
   Avoiding irritants that cause a rash or make a rash worse.
   Avoiding possible allergens that cause a rash or make a rash worse.
   Controlling itching and scratching.




    Prevention

    These steps may help prevent a rash or reduce its severity:

   If possible, breast-feed your baby for at least 6 months to boost his or her immune system. Talk
    to your doctor about your diet if you are breast-feeding.
   When you are ready to give your child solid foods, talk with your doctor about whether your
    child should avoid foods that frequently cause food allergies, such as eggs, peanuts, milk, soy,
    and wheat.




    Muscular system
    1, muscle cramp disease

    What is muscle cramp?

    A muscle cramp is a painful spasm of your muscle. It's caused by a prolonged tightening of that
    muscle, leading to it being shortened. The spasm can last from a few seconds to 15 minutes.




                                                    48
Causes

There are many causes of muscle cramps. You can get them if you have worked out too hard,
especially if you don’t stretch first. They also can result if you’ve used a specific muscle group
or muscle, much more often than you normally do. For instance you could get cramps in your
arms or fingers after extensive raking of a yard. Kids may occasionally get cramps in the fingers
from too much writing at school, especially if their pencil grip is too tight.

Another common cause of muscle cramps is dehydration. If you fail to drink enough water,
especially when you’re being physically active, and particularly if the weather is warm or hot,
you may suffer from cramps immediately after or even during activity. Sometimes people have
cramps that occur at night instead.




Symptoms
The symptoms of a muscle cramp include:

        Sudden sensation of uncontrollable and painful spasms in the muscle
        Muscle twitching.
        Gently stretch the effected muscle or muscle group.
        Keep the effected areas moving with light activity and gentle massage?
        Continue to apply heat and massage to help promote blood flow.




         Treatment

Treatment includes the following:

        Warm-Up
        Stretching.
        Hydration

                                                  49
        Nutrition




         Prevention
         One of the most useful things you can do to help prevent muscle cramps is to work on
         improving your overall general health and fitness. Improving your cardiovascular fitness
         will improve the delivery of blood to your muscles, which will ensure that they have
         adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients to function properly.
        Another key activity that will help to prevent cramps is stretching. Keeping your muscles
         loose and flexible will help to stop them from tightening up and cramping. Be sure to
         stretch the muscles groups that are most prone to cramping both before and after exercise
         or strenuous physical activity.
        Stretching is one of the most under-utilized techniques for improving athletic
         performance and getting rid of those annoying sports injuries. Don't make the mistake of
         thinking that something as simple as stretching won't be effective.




2, Polymyositis

What is Polymyositis?

Polymyositis is one of a group of muscle diseases known as the inflammatory myopathies, which
are characterized by chronic muscle inflammation accompanied by muscle weakness.




Causes

The cause of polymyositis is not known, but there are indications that heredity plays a role in the
disease.



                                                 50
Symptoms

The following are some symptoms of polymyositis. These symptoms might come and go:

        Muscle weakness
        Difficulty getting up from chairs, climbing stairs, or lifting objects
        Difficulty swallowing
        Muscle ache
        Fatigue
        Shortness of breath due to heart and lung involvement


Treatment

Polymyositis is an autoimmune disease and therefore therapy is directed at altering a patient’s immune system. All of
these therapies therefore have some significant risk of side effects and Polymyositis treatment needs to be
undertaken only with physicians accustomed to using these medications and to monitoring their side effects.
Corticosteroids are often used as a first line therapy to treat polymyositis because they decrease the muscle
inflammation.


Prevention

There is no known way to prevent myositis, except to avoid exposure to those environmental agents that may be
associated with some cases.




3, cardiovascular disease


What is cardiovascular disease?


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an abnormal function of the heart or blood vessels. It can cause an increase in risk
for heart attack, heart failure, sudden death, stroke and cardiac rhythm problems, thus resulting in decreased quality
of life and decreased life expectancy.

                                                          51
Causes


The causes of cardiovascular disease range from structural defects, to infection, inflammation, environment and
genetics.




Symptoms


        Chest pain or chest discomfort
        Pain in one or both arms, the left shoulder, neck, jaw, or back
        Shortness of breath
        Dizziness
        Faster heartbeats
        Abnormal heartbeats
        Feeling very tired.


Treatment

  Many of the treatment modalities for cardiovascular disease are similar irrespective of
  whether diabetes is present or not. However specific issues related to diabetes include the
  difficulty of diagnosing silent cardiovascular disease, the need for the aggressive
  management of all risk factors, and the use of insulin therapy to achieve blood glucose
  control when a heart attack occurs.




Prevention

Fortunately, there are many things you can do reduce your chances of getting heart disease. You should


        Know your Blood pressure and keep it under control
        Exercise regularly
        Don't smoke

                                                         52
            Get tested for diabetes and if you have it, keep it under control
            Know your cholesterol and triglyceride levels and keep them under control
            Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables
     Maintain a healthy weight.

    4, Myositis disease

    What is myositis?

    Myositis is a rare disease in which the muscle fibers and skin are inflamed and damaged, resulting in muscle
    weakness. There are several types of myositis that affect different parts of the body.




    Causes

    Myositis is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body normally fights infections and
    disease by producing antibodies and white blood cells called lymphocytes in a process called the
    immune response. In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is overactive, and the
    immune system         attacks and destroys the body's own normal healthy tissues. There is no known
    cause to the autoimmune response that results in myositis.




    Symptoms
    Early indications of inflammation of the muscles may include difficulty in rising from a chair,
    climbing steps or lifting the arms; falling; becoming exceedingly fatigued after prolonged
    standing or walking; loss of strength throughout the body; and sometimes difficulty in
    swallowing and labored breathing.

    Treatment

            4. Rest. Getting enough rest is an important component of managing myositis. Take
                 frequent breaks during the day and limit your activity.

                                                              53
        5. Nutrition. What you eat can affect your overall health. At the Myositis Center, a
             trained nutritionist is on hand to help design a diet that’s right for you and your
             lifestyle. Learn more about our Nutritionist. (link to Nutrition)
        6. Reduction of Stress. It is imperative that myositis patients find outlets for the daily
             stress that most of us have in our lives. To that end, your doctor may suggest exercise
             as a form of relaxation, like yoga, or biofeedback exercises.




Prevention

. To help prevent these illnesses:


        Get a flu shot each year.
        Thoroughly cook pork and other meats.
        Never inject illegal drugs under your skin or into your muscles. With prescription drugs that are injected, the
         injection site should be as clean as possible.
        Keep your skin clean.
        Take the lowest number and lowest doses of medications that are necessary. Routine blood tests may be
         helpful as well.




5, Paralysis disease


What is Paralysis?


Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. Paralysis can cause loss of feeling
or loss of mobility in the affected area.


Causes

Paralysis is most often caused by damage to the nervous system or brain, especially the spinal cord. Major causes
are stroke, trauma, poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and


                                                           54
Guillain-Barré syndrome. Temporary paralysis occurs during REM sleep, and deregulation of this system can lead to
episodes of waking paralysis. Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis.
Many causes of this are varied, and could also be unknown.




Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of paralysis will depend upon what caused the paralysis, as well as
what parts of the body are affected. Loss of movement and feeling can be sudden and immediate,
such as with trauma or stroke, or it can begin with muscle weakness and gradually progress,
particularly when it is caused by certain diseases or illnesses.




Treatment


Be treated through a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Rehabilitation includes:
· Physical therapy. The physical therapist focuses on mobility. Physical therapy helps develop
strategies to strength and control that remain in the affected muscles, and helps maintain range of
motion in the affected adaptive equipment such as braces, canes, · Occupational therapy. The
occupational therapist focuses on daily activities such as eating and bathing.




Prevention


Prevention of paralysis depends on prevention of the underlying causes.
        Risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling
        Accidents and falls. Good prenatal care can help prevent premature birth, which is a
         common cause of cerebral palsy. Or paralysis that occurs only in the arms and legs may
         indicate demyelinating disease.
        Fluctuating symptoms in Different parts of the body may be caused by multiple Sclerosis.
        Sudden paralysis is most often caused by injury or stroke.
        Spreading paralysis may indicate degenerative disease,



                                                          55
              html#4a.co.uk/ /Kidney_sk/ /            Integumentary system


              (3) Acne


    Definition


    Acne is a skin condition that occurs due to the overproduction of oil by the oil glands of the skin. The oil that normally lubricates
    the skin is trapped in blocked oil ducts and results in what we know as pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the surface of
    skin. Sometimes it also includes deeper skin lesions that are called cysts.




    Causes
    A bacterium, known as Propionibacterium acnes, is a normal inhabitant of the skin. It uses
    sebum as a nutrient for growth, therefore increases in follicles during puberty. People with acne
    have more Propionibacterium acne in their follicles than people without acne. The presence of
    bacteria attracts white blood cells to the follicle. These white blood cells produce an enzyme that
    damages the wall of the follicle, allowing the contents of the follicle to enter the. This process
    causes an inflammatory, which leads to acne disease




    Symptoms
    Acne is characterized by the presence of one or more of the following:

      Papules. These are small raised bumps that signal inflammation or infection in the hair
       follicles. Papules may be red and tender.
                                                                     56
     Pustules. Similar to papules, pustules are red, tender bumps with white pus at their tips.

     Nodules. These are large, solid, painful lumps beneath the surface of the skin. They're formed
      by the build up of secretions deep within hair follicles.

     Cysts. These are painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the surface of the skin. These boil-like
      infections can cause scars.




    Treatment

    . The most common oral medications used to treat acne are tetracycline, minocycline,
    doxycycline and erythromycin.




    Prevention
    Avoiding fat-laden junk foods like cheeseburgers is definitely a step in the right direction for
    other health-related reasons. However, it will do little by ways of acne prevention. Skin hygiene
    is important, and one can prevent acne to a certain extent by increased and regular cleansing.
    However, one tends to go overboard and resort to using extreme measures like a face wash of
    strong toothpaste and other harsh compounds. This will only aggravate the problem by
    encouraging increased compensatory oil production in the skin.




    (2) Athlete's foot disease

                                                    57
    Athlete's foot is a rash on the skin of the foot. It is the most common fungal skin infection. There
    are three main types of athlete's foot. Each type affects different parts of the foot and may look
    different



      Cause

    Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the skin of the foot. Most athlete's foot is
    caused by one of two types of fungus.

   Trichophyton mentagrophytes often causes toe web or vesicular (blister like) infections. The
    infection appears suddenly, is severe, and is easily treated.
   Trichophyton rubrum often causes moccasin-type infections. This condition lasts for a long time
    (chronic) and is difficult to treat.

    You get athlete’s foot when you come in contact with the fungus and it begins to grow on your
    skin.




    Symptoms

    . Common symptoms include:

   Peeling, cracking, and scaling of the feet.
   Redness, blisters, or softening and breaking down (maceration) of the skin.
   Itching, burning, or both.
   Often begins with skin that seems soft and moist and pale white. May cause itching, burning, and
    a slight odour.
   May get worse. The skin between the toes becomes scaly, peels, and cracks. If the infection
    becomes severe, a bacterial infection is usually present, which causes further skin breakdown
    and a foul odour.

                                                      58
    Treatment

    How you treat athlete’s foot depends on its type and severity. Most cases of athlete's foot can be
    treated at home using an antifungal medicine to kill the fungus or slow its growth.

   Non prescription antifungal usually is used first. These include terbinafine (Lamisil AT),
    miconazole (Micatin), clotrimazole (Lotrimin AF), and tolnaftate (Tinactin). Nonprescription
    antifungals are applied to the skin (topical medicines).
   Prescription antifungals may be tried if nonprescription medicines are not successful or if you
    have a severe infection. Some of these medicines are topical antifungal which are put directly on
    the skin.




    Prevention

    You can prevent athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) by:

   Keeping your feet clean and dry.
o   Dry between your toes after swimming or bathing.
o   Wear leather shoes or sandals that allow your feet to breathe.
o   When indoors, wear socks without shoes.
o   Wear cotton socks to absorb sweat. Change your socks twice a day. (White socks do not prevent
    athlete's foot, as some people believe.)
o   Use talcum or antifungal powder on your feet.
o   Allow your shoes to air for at least 24 hours before you wear them again.
   Wearing shower sandals in public pools and showers.




    5, Dermatitis disease



                                                       59
    The simple definition of dermatitis is inflammation of the skin.

     Causes


          Contact dermatitis results from direct contact with one of many irritants or allergens.
           Common irritants include laundry soap, skin soaps or detergents, and cleaning products.
           Possible allergens include rubber; metals, such as nickel; jewellery; perfume; cosmetics;
           weeds, such as poison ivy; and neomycin, a common ingredient in topical antibiotic
           cream
          Neurodermatitis typically develops when something has created an itchy sensation in a
           specific area of your skin. This irritation may lead you to rub or scratch your skin
           repeatedly in that area.




           Symptoms

    The main symptoms of dermatitis are;

    The itching can be severe and persistent, especially at night. Scratching the affected area of skin
    usually causes a rash. The rash is red and patchy and may be long-lasting (chronic) or come and
    go (recurring). The rash may:

   Develop fluid-filled sores that can ooze fluid or crust over. This can happen when the skin is
    rubbed or scratched or if a skin infection is present. This is known as an acute (sudden or of short
    duration), oozing rash.
   Be scaly and dry, red, and itchy. This is known as a sub acute (longer-duration) rash.
   Become tough and thick from constant scratching .




    Treatment


   Avoiding dry skin.

                                                    60
   Avoiding irritants that cause a rash or make a rash worse.
   Avoiding possible allergens that cause a rash or make a rash worse.
   Controlling itching and scratching.




    Prevention

    These steps may help prevent a rash or reduce its severity:

   If possible, breast-feed your baby for at least 6 months to boost his or her immune system. Talk
    to your doctor about your diet if you are breast-feeding.
   When you are ready to give your child solid foods, talk with your doctor about whether your
    child should avoid foods that frequently cause food allergies, such as eggs, peanuts, milk, soy,
    and wheat.




    Muscular system
    1, muscle cramp disease

    What is muscle cramp?

    A muscle cramp is a painful spasm of your muscle. It's caused by a prolonged tightening of that
    muscle, leading to it being shortened. The spasm can last from a few seconds to 15 minutes.




    Causes

    There are many causes of muscle cramps. You can get them if you have worked out too hard,
    especially if you don’t stretch first. They also can result if you’ve used a specific muscle group
    or muscle, much more often than you normally do. For instance you could get cramps in your


                                                     61
arms or fingers after extensive raking of a yard. Kids may occasionally get cramps in the fingers
from too much writing at school, especially if their pencil grip is too tight.

Another common cause of muscle cramps is dehydration. If you fail to drink enough water,
especially when you’re being physically active, and particularly if the weather is warm or hot,
you may suffer from cramps immediately after or even during activity. Sometimes people have
cramps that occur at night instead.




Symptoms
The symptoms of a muscle cramp include:

      Sudden sensation of uncontrollable and painful spasms in the muscle
      Muscle twitching.
      Gently stretch the effected muscle or muscle group.
      Keep the effected areas moving with light activity and gentle massage?
      Continue to apply heat and massage to help promote blood flow.




       Treatment

Treatment includes the following:

      Warm-Up
      Stretching.
      Hydration
      Nutrition




       Prevention


                                                  62
         One of the most useful things you can do to help prevent muscle cramps is to work on
         improving your overall general health and fitness. Improving your cardiovascular fitness
         will improve the delivery of blood to your muscles, which will ensure that they have
         adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients to function properly.
        Another key activity that will help to prevent cramps is stretching. Keeping your muscles
         loose and flexible will help to stop them from tightening up and cramping. Be sure to
         stretch the muscles groups that are most prone to cramping both before and after exercise
         or strenuous physical activity.
        Stretching is one of the most under-utilized techniques for improving athletic
         performance and getting rid of those annoying sports injuries. Don't make the mistake of
         thinking that something as simple as stretching won't be effective.




2, Polymyositis

What is Polymyositis?

Polymyositis is one of a group of muscle diseases known as the inflammatory myopathies, which
are characterized by chronic muscle inflammation accompanied by muscle weakness.




Causes

The cause of polymyositis is not known, but there are indications that heredity plays a role in the
disease.



Symptoms

The following are some symptoms of polymyositis. These symptoms might come and go:



                                                 63
        Muscle weakness
        Difficulty getting up from chairs, climbing stairs, or lifting objects
        Difficulty swallowing
        Muscle ache
        Fatigue
        Shortness of breath due to heart and lung involvement


Treatment

Polymyositis is an autoimmune disease and therefore therapy is directed at altering a patient’s immune system. All of
these therapies therefore have some significant risk of side effects and Polymyositis treatment needs to be
undertaken only with physicians accustomed to using these medications and to monitoring their side effects.
Corticosteroids are often used as a first line therapy to treat polymyositis because they decrease the muscle
inflammation.


Prevention

There is no known way to prevent myositis, except to avoid exposure to those environmental agents that may be
associated with some cases.




3, cardiovascular disease


What is cardiovascular disease?


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an abnormal function of the heart or blood vessels. It can cause an increase in risk
for heart attack, heart failure, sudden death, stroke and cardiac rhythm problems, thus resulting in decreased quality
of life and decreased life expectancy.


Causes




                                                          64
The causes of cardiovascular disease range from structural defects, to infection, inflammation, environment and
genetics.




Symptoms


       Chest pain or chest discomfort
       Pain in one or both arms, the left shoulder, neck, jaw, or back
       Shortness of breath
       Dizziness
       Faster heartbeats
       Abnormal heartbeats
       Feeling very tired.


Treatment

  Many of the treatment modalities for cardiovascular disease are similar irrespective of
  whether diabetes is present or not. However specific issues related to diabetes include the
  difficulty of diagnosing silent cardiovascular disease, the need for the aggressive
  management of all risk factors, and the use of insulin therapy to achieve blood glucose
  control when a heart attack occurs.




Prevention

Fortunately, there are many things you can do reduce your chances of getting heart disease. You should


       Know your Blood pressure and keep it under control
       Exercise regularly
       Don't smoke
       Get tested for diabetes and if you have it, keep it under control

                                                         65
            Know your cholesterol and triglyceride levels and keep them under control
            Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables
     Maintain a healthy weight.

    4, Myositis disease

    What is myositis?

    Myositis is a rare disease in which the muscle fibers and skin are inflamed and damaged, resulting in muscle
    weakness. There are several types of myositis that affect different parts of the body.




    Causes

    Myositis is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body normally fights infections and
    disease by producing antibodies and white blood cells called lymphocytes in a process called the
    immune response. In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is overactive, and the
    immune system         attacks and destroys the body's own normal healthy tissues. There is no known
    cause to the autoimmune response that results in myositis.




    Symptoms
    Early indications of inflammation of the muscles may include difficulty in rising from a chair,
    climbing steps or lifting the arms; falling; becoming exceedingly fatigued after prolonged
    standing or walking; loss of strength throughout the body; and sometimes difficulty in
    swallowing and labored breathing.

    Treatment

            7. Rest. Getting enough rest is an important component of managing myositis. Take
                 frequent breaks during the day and limit your activity.


                                                              66
        8. Nutrition. What you eat can affect your overall health. At the Myositis Center, a
             trained nutritionist is on hand to help design a diet that’s right for you and your
             lifestyle. Learn more about our Nutritionist. (link to Nutrition)
        9. Reduction of Stress. It is imperative that myositis patients find outlets for the daily
             stress that most of us have in our lives. To that end, your doctor may suggest exercise
             as a form of relaxation, like yoga, or biofeedback exercises.




Prevention

. To help prevent these illnesses:


        Get a flu shot each year.
        Thoroughly cook pork and other meats.
        Never inject illegal drugs under your skin or into your muscles. With prescription drugs that are injected, the
         injection site should be as clean as possible.
        Keep your skin clean.
        Take the lowest number and lowest doses of medications that are necessary. Routine blood tests may be
         helpful as well.




5, Paralysis disease


What is Paralysis?


Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. Paralysis can cause loss of feeling
or loss of mobility in the affected area.


Causes

Paralysis is most often caused by damage to the nervous system or brain, especially the spinal cord. Major causes
are stroke, trauma, poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and


                                                           67
Guillain-Barré syndrome. Temporary paralysis occurs during REM sleep, and deregulation of this system can lead to
episodes of waking paralysis. Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis.
Many causes of this are varied, and could also be unknown.




Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of paralysis will depend upon what caused the paralysis, as well as
what parts of the body are affected. Loss of movement and feeling can be sudden and immediate,
such as with trauma or stroke, or it can begin with muscle weakness and gradually progress,
particularly when it is caused by certain diseases or illnesses.




Treatment


Be treated through a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Rehabilitation includes:
· Physical therapy. The physical therapist focuses on mobility. Physical therapy helps develop
strategies to strength and control that remain in the affected muscles, and helps maintain range of
motion in the affected adaptive equipment such as braces, canes, · Occupational therapy. The
occupational therapist focuses on daily activities such as eating and bathing.




Prevention


Prevention of paralysis depends on prevention of the underlying causes.
        Risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling
        Accidents and falls. Good prenatal care can help prevent premature birth, which is a
         common cause of cerebral palsy. Or paralysis that occurs only in the arms and legs may
         indicate demyelinating disease.
        Fluctuating symptoms in Different parts of the body may be caused by multiple Sclerosis.
        Sudden paralysis is most often caused by injury or stroke.
        Spreading paralysis may indicate degenerative disease,



                                                          68
html#4a.co.uk/ /Kidney_sKidney_




                           Introduction

Every individual wishes to keep healthy and diseases-free. This requires several things, some at
personal level and some at community level. At personal level one has to keep his body clean
and hygienic by washing, bathing, brushing teeth, utensels clean and so forth. At the community
level, our surrounding and environment should be kept clean with no accumulation of garbage or
insects and pests do not thrive.



With the passage of time, many new diseases are originating and it is very wise to know its
cause and its preventions as well. The term disease is a condition in which the normal
functioning of the body is disturbed in any way.



Fairly mankind looks at the diseases as an act of God or Spirits, and employed magical methods
and sorcery for the treatment of the diseases. Today science investigates at every diseases to be
agent which has a definite cause and it should be possible to prevent it cure it.



This assignment is mainly on the diseases on the specific organ system, its definition, causes,
symptoms and its prevention. It incorporates all the information related to the particular disease
and this assignment will definitely make differences in our day to day life.




                                                69
  Respiratory systems


1) Tuberculosis ( TB)

An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is transmitted
through inhalation and is characterized by cough, fever, shortness o f breath, weight loss, and the
appearance of

Inflammatory substances and tubercles in the lungs




        Causes:
            TB is caused by bacillus bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis (first
                discovered by Robert Koch in 1882).
            Attack any parts of body (including the brain, skin, bone marrow, lymph nodes,
              intestine, spinal cord and eyes), but most commonly affected organs are lungs
              called pulmonary tuberculosis.

Symptoms:

            Pulmonary TB is characterized by fever, coughing, chest pain and blood sputum.
            If cough persists beyond three weeks the sputum of the patients should be
              examined.
        Prevention:
            Isolation of TB patients.
            Immunization by doctors and nurses.
            Health education e.g. avoiding indiscriminate spitting or spitting only in spittoons
              containing germicides.
            BCG (Bacilus-Calmette- Guarin) Vaccination therapy.


2) Diphtheria

    Diphtheria is a potentially fatal, contagious disease that usually involves the nose, throat, and air passages, but
    may also infect the skin. Its most striking feature is the formation of a grayish membrane covering the tonsils and
    up per part of the throat

                                                          70
   Causes:
       It is caused by a gram positive bacillus bacterium, corynebacterium diphtheria
       It generally affects the children up to the age of 5 years.

   Symptoms:
       Diphtheria is characterized by inflammation of mucus membrane of nose, throat and
        tonsils leading to appearance of grey spots and blood-tinged nasal discharge.
       In severe cases, the respiratory tract is blocked causing difficult in breathing and even
        death are due to choking.

   Prevention:
       DPTC Diphtheria, Pertusis and treatment vaccine within six months of birth.
       Infected babies should be isolated and their articles and clothes should be disinfected
       Penicillin and erythromycin antibiotics are recommended.




3) Asthma

Asthma is a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory disease of the airways in the human body. The
inflammation causes the airways to narrow from time to time. This narrowing can produce
wheezing and breathlessness. In extreme cases, the asthma patient may need to gasp to get
enough air to breathe. Occasionally, a severe asthma attack can be fatal..




Causes:

    Most common allergen of asthma is house dust, pollen grains of lower plants and drugs
     like aspirin, pollutants like SO2, CO2, smoke, etc.

Symptoms:

    It is characterized by narrowing of bronchi, bronhciospasm and difficulty in breathing. It
     is a systemic allergic reaction affecting all the body tissues and may be due to some
     poisons like bee-sting or some drugs like penicillin or some food taken orally.

                                               71
Preventions or Treatment:

           The treatment of allergy by desensitization is called immunotherapy. The total
            duration of the course is nearly three years
           As allergy is mainly caused by histamine, so antihistamine pill gives relief by
            nullifying the histamine.
           Steroids, especially glucocorticoids are also recommended against allergies but
            there have no side effects.




4) Influenza

Influenza is a highly infectious disease that affects the respiratory (breathing) tract. It is also
known as the flu or grippe. The disease is caused by a virus. When inhaled, the virus attacks cells
in the upper part of the respiratory system and causes symptoms such as fatigue, fever and
chills, a hacking cough, and body aches. Influenza can also lead to other, mo re serious
infections




     Causes:
    It is caused by RNA-containing myxoivrus influenza. It is a pandemic disease.

Symptoms:

    It is characterized by bronchitis, sneezing bronchoprenmonia, leucopenia, coughing, etc.

Prevention:

            Isolation of infected persons.
            Use of antibiotics




                                                72
                            Circulatory System


1) Hypertension



Hypertension is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as it
flows through them. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body's tissues.




Causes: Main causes of are:

              Arteriosclerosis, obesity and overweightness, physical, mental or emotional stress
               like fear, worry, anxiety, etc.
              Increased secretion of rennin or epinephrine or aldosterone.
              High intake of alcohol or caffeine
              Intake of certain drugs, smoking, etc.
              It may be primary or essential.

(When causes is unknown and accounts for 90% of all cases) Or secondary (when causes is
known and accounts for 10% of all cases)

Symptoms:

             A condition of persistent high blood pressure is called hypertension e.g. a condition
              of persistent 150/90 mmhg.
             Mean arterial systolic pressure greater than 110 mmhg under rest is called
              hypertension.
             In malignant hypertensive condition, the mean arterial pressure may be as high as
              130 mmhg and systolic arterial pressure as 250 mmhg


Preventions:


                                                          73
              Diet related measures like reducing alcohol consumptions, moderate sodium
                 intake, correcting obesity, etc.
              Encourage regular exercise programmes
              Stop Smoking
              Testing blood pressure level of cholesterol and triglycerides.
              A number of anti-hypertensive drugs are known e.g.
             4. Diuretics like thiazides, bendrotluazide, spironoluctone etc.These diuretics reduce
                the reabsorptionof salt and water by the renal tubules of the kidney.
             5. B-Blockers, like Pindolol, oxprenolol, windoxide, etc. which act as vasodilators
                and increase he blood flow in the blood vessels.
             6. Angiotensin converting enzymes(ACT) inhibitors which inhibit the conversion of
                angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II




   2) Arteriosclerosis



   A chronic disease in which thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls result in impaired
   blood circulation. It develops with aging, and in hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and other conditions.




Causes:

    It is most common type of caretiovascular diseases caused by deposition of calcium salts
     of cholesterol in the walls blood vessels or increase fibrous tissue in their walls.

Symptoms:

    Arteries become hard, narrow and less elastic so they blood supply to visceral organs is
     decreased which leads to hypertension which sometimes cause haemorrhage of blood
     vessels of the brain.
    Visceral organs causing cerebral haemorrhage or visceral haemorrhage.

Preventions:

     Oat bran increases the conversion of liver cholesterol into bile acids and their ingestion
      with faeces.
     Mevinolin decreases the rate of cholesterol synthesis in the liver.



                                                          74
   3) Atheroma:
   An atheroma, also referred to as a plague, develops due to a process called atherosclerosis. An
   atheroma is an accumulation of inflammatory cells (like macrophages), and other lipids in the
   inner wall of arteries.



Causes:

    Risks factors of atheroma are divided into two categories:
    Fixed sedentary age, male sex and family history and modifiable (e.g. smoking,
     hypertension, obesity, sedentary life style, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, etc.)

Symptoms:

    It is characterized by the formation of fibro lipid plague called angina in the arterial
     intima.
    Coronary arteries.
    Atheroma generally leads to stable angina which is characterized by severe and persistent
     chest pain which spreads to left arm and shoulder but may extend towards the neck.
     Usually, the pain lasts for only a few minutes but in some cases, the patient suffers from
     severe chest pain, breathless, restlessness, nausea and vomiting.




Preventions:

      Avoid smoking and hypercholesterolemia.
      Take regular exercises.
      Maintain ideal body weight.
      Fat mixed diet with fruits and vegetables as well as meat and diary products.




                                                 75
                                            Skeletal system


 1) Leukemia


Leukemia is a form of cancer in which the body produces too many white blood cells. Many forms of leukemia have

been identified. They are divided into two general types: acute and chronic. An acute condition comes on fairly

quickly. A chronic disorder develops more slowly over time.




Causes:

        Smoking and tobacco use.
        Being exposed to large amounts of radiation.
        Exposure to certain chemicals in the work place.
        Past chemotherapy or radiation for another cancer.

Symptoms:

        Fevers and night sweats.
        Frequent or unusual infections.
        Weakness and fatigue.
        Headaches
        Joint pain
        Bond pain
        Swelling in the belly or pain on the left side of the belly or in the left shoulder from a
         swollen spleen.

                                                         76
    Swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, neck or groin.
    Decreased appetite.

Preventions:

    Avoid high doses of radiation.
    Exposure to the chemical benzene and smoking should be abstained.
    Other tobacco use or certain types of chemotherapy use to treat other types of cancer.




                                         Conclusion


I firmly believe that, learning through doing is far better than learning through reading. By
undertaking such as enriching endeavor and to some extent, it really reshaped my understanding
of the world around. After completion of this assignment, when I retrospect on my coverage and
knowledge in this issue, it is much more advanced and now I am well accustomed with this peril
which takes away tolls of population of world.



In fact, the topic itself was much related to our day to day lives and I acquired paramount values
which will be indispensible for the healthy life. All the assignment allotted by concerned tutor is
all related to our profession and such topic really tamed our mundane mind and it makes the
mind clearer and more visible too.



At length, I placed my sincere thank to one and all, my concerned tutor who have given valuable
topic which was solely related to one day to day lives activities. The experience that I derived


                                                77
from the assignment is most educative and useful to me and for the future generation in
particular.




Name of the book: English Fiction of the Victorian Period.

Author: Michael Wheeler.

Publisher: Long men Group Limited.

Date of Publication: 1985.



Summary

The Longman literature in English Series provides students of literature with a critical introduction to the
major genres in their historical context. As well as studies on all periods of English and American
Literature, the series includes books on criticism and literary theory, the intellectual and cultural contest,
and other literature in English. Each of the forty six volumes contains an extensive reference section.
When complete, the series will offer a practical and comprehensive guide to literature written in English
from Anglo- Saxon times to presents.

The unprecedented richness of its friction is one of the glories of the Victorian Age, and Michael
Wheeler’s critical introduction does justice both to its wealth and to its diversity. Both characteristics are
well displayed in the writers to whom he devotes separate section. Although written primarily for students
of English Literature, Dr. Wheeler’s lively and informed book will also interest the countless other
readers who still enjoy Victorian Fiction for its own Sake.

By reading such an enriching book I really gained lots of insights on literature and literature during the
Victorian Period. I firmly believe that this book is very much essential to those who want to learn more



                                                      78
about literature and those who take their subject as language. Reading such a rich book I acquired
indispensible information on literature of Victorian Period which will be very much useful to my career.




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