Slavery_ Secession_ and Civil War

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					Slavery, Secession, and
Civil War


        Unit 5
Tensions Over Slavery
 Slavery is a system in which African
  Americans were bought, sold, and owned like
  property.
 Planters in the South depended on slaves to
  provide labor for their huge plantations.
 The South wanted to expand slavery into new
  territories, while the North wanted the
  expansion of slavery halted- if not ended.
 This struggle led to constant battles for power
  in the national government.
State’s Rights
 Southerners demanded states’ rights,
  believing that the federal government should
  restrict itself to powers specifically stated in
  the Constitution.
 This was in large part to the distrust of
  northern politicians whom they believed were
  out to end slavery.
South Carolina Nullification Crisis
 The conflict between states’ rights and federal
    authority reached a boiling point in the early 1830s
    during Andrew Jackson’s presidency.
   South Carolina protest high tariffs on British goods.
   John C. Calhoun argued in favor of the Doctrine of
    Nullification, which says that a state could refuse to
    enforce a law it saw as unconstitutional.
   South Carolina threatened to secede if the tariffs
    were not repealed.
   A solution was proposed by Henry Clay, but the
    event increased sectionalism between North & South.
Slaves and Free Blacks
 Most African Americans in the antebellum
  South were slaves during the 1800s.
 If they were fortunate, slaves had masters
  who valued them at least as expensive
  property if not as human beings.
 They were forced to work long hours,
  whipped if master thought it necessary, and
  lived in shacks providing only the bare
  necessities.
 Slave marriages were not legally recognized.
Slaves and Free Blacks
 The Atlantic Slave trade ended in 1808, but
  slaves were still bought and sold within the
  United States.
 This business became so profitable that it
  became known as the Second Middle
  Passage – breaking up family units
 Slave owners justified slavery by appealing to
  paternalism – the idea that they were actually
  caring for and nurturing their slaves.
Slaves and Free Blacks
 Some free blacks lived in the upper South.
 These African Americans were free because the had
  purchased their own freedom, their masters had
  freed them for some reason, or because they were
  born to free parents.
 Most worked as artisans, farmers, or simple laborers,
  but a few owned businesses and some even owned
  black slaves themselves.
 Free blacks often wore badges so whites would
  recognize that they were not slaves.
 Many were mulattos – people of color who had both
  black and white ancestry.
The Abolitionist Movement
 Abolitionist advocated the complete
  end to slavery.
 Key white figures in the movement
  were William Lloyd Garrison and the
  Grimke Sisters.
 Garrison founded the anti-slavery
  newspaper called the Liberator and
  established the American Anti-Slavery
  Society.
 Sarah and Angelina Grimke were
  members of a prominent slave-owning
  family who won national acclaim for
  their passionate anti-slavery speeches
The Abolitionist Movement
 Frederick Douglas was an
  important African American
  Abolitionist.
 After escaping slavery in
  Maryland, Douglas educated
  himself and became the most
  prominent African American
  speaker
 He even helped John Brown
  plan the Harper’s Ferry Raid
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
 Nat Turner was a slave and
  believed that he had a divine
  mission to deliver his people from
  slavery (he was also a preacher)
 160 people, both black and white,
  were killed
 Southern abolitionists societies
  came to and end and slave codes
  were made tighter and strictly
  enforced.
 Turner and 19 others were hanged
  for their role and slaves were no
  longer allowed to be preachers.
Slavery and New Territories
 As the US acquired new territories in the
  West, the debate over slavery grew more
  intense.
 Whether or not these territories should allow
  slavery was the object of much heated
  debate.
 No political issue caused more division in the
  US as it expanded west than the institution of
  slavery.
The Missouri Compromise
 Slave states and free states were equally
  represented in the Senate when Missouri
  applied for statehood.
 Missouri would be admitted as a slave state
  and Maine as a free state; the southern
  boundary of Missouri - 36°30’ N – would be a
  dividing line for any new states admitted to
  the Union.
 North of this line would be free, south would
  be slave.
The Missouri Compromise
Wilmot Proviso
 The US went to war with Mexico in 1846 and
  the issue of slavery was a major problem in
  the territory gained from them
 David Wilmot proposed banning slavery from
  any land gained from Mexico; Northerners
  embraced it; Southerners denounced it.
 The debate exposed the serious sectional
  divisions over slavery that existed in the
  country.
Compromise of 1850
 Compromise admitted California as a free
  state and declared the unorganized western
  territories free as well.
 Utah and New Mexico were allowed to decide
  the issue by popular sovereignty (will of the
  people)
 Fugitive Slave Law required northern states
  to forcibly return escaped slaves to their
  owners in the South
Kansas-Nebraska Act
 This act allowed the previously free and
  unorganized territories of Kansas and
  Nebraska to choose whether or not to permit
  slavery by popular sovereignty.
 Pro-slavery and abolitionist rushed into
  Kansas to set up rival governments
 The territory became known as Bleeding
  Kansas as both sides fought armed clashes
Kansas Nebraska Act

                      Red = Free
                      Grey = Slave
                      Green = Unorganized
                      Territory
Caning of Charles Sumner
 Charles Sumner was a Senator who
  delivered a two day speech against the
  Kansas Nebraska Act.
 A Congressman from South Carolina, Preston
  Brooks, approached Sumner on the Senate
  floor and beats Sumner with a cane, almost
  killing him; causing him to be absent from the
  Senate for three years to recover.
 Sumner-Brooks incident was a brutal
  example of how inflamed passions had
  become over slavery.
Caning of Charles Sumner
Dred Scott Decision
 Dred Scott, a slave, had been taken by his owner to a
    free territory for four years and then returned to
    Missouri.
   Scott sued (with abolitionist help) for his freedom.
   Supreme Court ruled that he had no right to sue
    because he was not a citizen, but a slave.
   Declared the Missouri Compromise to be
    unconstitutional because it deprived slave owners of
    due process – violating the 5th Amendment
   It suggested that slaveholders could keep their slaves
    in any state.
John Brown’s Raid
 1859, John Brown and a group of radical
    abolitionist attacked the federal arsenal at
    Harper’s Ferry.
   They hoped to seize weapons to start an
    armed uprising of slaves.
   Plan failed; US troops under Colonel
    Robert E. Lee surrounded the arsenal and
    forced Brown to surrender.
   Brown was charged with treason and
    hanged.
   This showed Southerners they would have
    to shed blood to protect their way of life.
Lincoln and the Election of 1860
 1854, a coalition of northern Democrats,
  Whigs and Free Soilers (party that opposed
  slavery in the new territories) came together
  and formed the Republican Party.
 It did not call for the immediate end to
  slavery, but opposed its expansion into new
  territories.
 Abraham Lincoln emerged as its most
  formidable figures
Lincoln and the Election of 1860
 The Presidential election of 1860 brought the
  country to the boiling point regarding slavery.
 The Democratic party split along sectional
  lines – Northern Democrats nominated
  Stephen Douglas, Southern Democrats
  nominated John Breckinridge.
 The Republicans nominated Lincoln.
 Southerners felt Lincoln would prohibit
  slavery in the west and dismantle it in the
  South.
Lincoln and the Election of 1860
 When Lincoln won the election, South
  Carolina responded by seceding from the
  Union on Dec. 20, 1860
 Within two months, Mississippi, Alabama,
  Georgia, Florida, and Texas had all followed.
 February 1861, Confederate States of
  America was formed with Jefferson Davis as
  president.; Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia
  as Vice-President.
Fort Sumter
 Lincoln knew he did not have enough support
  to launch a military action against the South.
 Union soldiers at Fort Sumter, SC were
  running low on supplies and Lincoln informed
  the S.C. Governor that he was sending
  supplies (food not weapons)
 S.C. fired on Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 –
  This gave Lincoln the support he needed and
  he issued a call for 75,000 soldiers.
 The Civil War had begun.
Abraham Lincoln
 President of the United
  States during the Civil
  War
 First Republican
  President in History
Ulysses S. Grant
 Initially, General in charge
  of the Western battles
 Became Commander of
  entire Union Army in 1864
 He defeated the South and
  accepted Lee’s surrender at
  Appomattox Courthouse.
 Became the 18th President
  of the U.S.
William T. Sherman
 Took command of Western
  forces after Grant
 Captured Atlanta in 1864
  and helped Lincoln to get
  re-elected
 Most remembered for his
  “march to the Sea” in which
  he burned and destroyed
  southern cities and railways
  in an effort to disrupt the
  Confederate war effort.
Jefferson Davis
 First and only president of
  the Confederate States of
  America
Robert E. Lee
 Commander of the
  Confederate’s Army of
  Northern Virginia
 Despite winning several
  impressive victories during the
  course of the war, he did not
  have enough resources or men
  to sustain the war effort
 He surrendered to General
  Grant at Appomattox
  Courthouse in 1865
Stonewall Jackson
 Confederate General and right-
  hand-man to R.E. Lee
 Brilliant military commander; noted
  for his use of geography.
 Battle of Chancellorsville, he
  marched his troops 12 miles
  undetected to attack Union forces.
 Shot by his own men at Battle of
  Chancellorsville; died of pneumonia
  several days later.
First Battle of Bull Run
 Also known as Manasses; it was the first
  confrontation between two armies and a
  humiliating defeat for the Union forces
 Confederates could have invaded the Capital
  of Washington D.C. if they had been more
  organized.
 This battle made it evident that the war would
  be longer that expected
 This led Lincoln to adopt the Anaconda Plan
Anaconda Plan
 Proposed by General Winfield Scott
 Involved surrounding the Confederacy and
  cutting off all supplies.
 It restricted Southern trade and
  communications by seizing control of the
  Mississippi River cutting the Confederacy in
  half.
 Instituted a coastal blockade (Southerners
  used blockade runners to get through)
Lincoln’s Political Struggles
 Concerned that Maryland would join the
  Confederacy, he declared martial law to
  prevent D.C. from being surrounded by the
  Confederacy.
 He suspended Habeas corpus (the right that
  a person cannot be imprisoned without being
  brought before a judge) and jailed supporters
  of the Confederacy.
 Lincoln instituted the military draft and people
  became angry because wealthy people could
  pay $300 to get out of it.
Lincoln’s Political Struggles
 Lincoln’s most notable opponents were called
  the Copperheads – after the snake.
 They were Union democrats that criticized
  Lincoln and the war.
 They believed that freed slaves would
  migrate north and take jobs away from
  whites.
 Radical copperheads encouraged Union
  soldiers to desert (abandon) the army and
  called on citizens to resist the draft
Emancipation Proclamation
 January, 1863 after a much needed Union
  victory at Antietam, Maryland, President
  Lincoln issued the Emancipation
  Proclamation.
 This freed slaves in Confederate states, while
  maintaining slavery in the border states.
 This gave the war a moral focus beyond
  saving the Union.
 It also encouraged African Americans to enlist
  in the Union Military.
Election of 1864 and Lincoln’s Second
Inaugural Address
 Lincoln was in danger of losing the 1864
  election because of Northern discontent with
  the war.
 The Capture of Atlanta was evidence that the
  end of the war was near, so Lincoln won re-
  election
 In his second inaugural address, Lincoln
  expressed his sorrow that so many had died
  on both sides and he communicated his
  vision for rebuilding the South rather than
  punishing it.
Key Battles
of the
Civil War


     Eastern Theater
The Eastern Theater
 On land, the war was fought on two primary
  fronts or theaters: eastern and western.
 1862, Robert E. Lee assumed command of
  the Northern Army of Virginia.
 One of his first major victories was the
  Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
 This battle ended hopes of the Union of
  capturing Richmond (Confederate Capital)
  and emboldened Lee to attempt to invade the
  north.
Antietam (September 17, 1862)
 Lee and his Generals tried to maintain secrecy as
    they planned the invasion of the North.
   A copy of Lee’s orders were found wrapped around
    some cigars at an abandoned Confederate camp.
   General McClellan prepared the union forces at
    Antietam Creek, Maryland
   This was the bloodiest day of the war, halting the
    Confederate advance.
   McClellan allowed Lee’s Army to escape.
Chancellorsville (May 1-5, 1863)
 This battle is known as “Lee’s Perfect Battle”
    because of the great planning and good fortune.
   Thanks to the efforts of Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson,
    Lee’s army defeated more than 70,000 Union troops
    with only 40,000 Confederate troops.
   Jackson was accidently shot by his own troops; his
    left arm had to be amputated, but he contracted
    pneumonia and died.
   Lee said, “ Jackson has lost his left arm but I have
    lost my right”
   Lee would be without his most talented general at
    Gettysburg.
Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863)
 Fought outside Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, this battle
    was a key turning point in the war.
   Without Jackson, Lee’s forces proved to be less
    aggressive and failed to win the high ground early in
    the battle.
   General George Meade defeated Lee’s army and
    ended any hope of the South invading the North.
   With 51,000 soldiers dead, Gettysburg was the
    bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War.
   Four months later, Lincoln gives his “Gettysburg
    Address” at a ceremony dedicated a cemetery on the
    sight.
Key Battles
of the
Civil War


     Western Theater
Vicksburg (May 15-July 4, 1863)
 Vicksburg, Mississippi was the last obstacle
  to total union control of the Mississippi River.
 General Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to the
  city.
 Siege – army surrounds the enemy, cuts off
  their supplies, and starves them into
  surrendering.)
 By the time they surrendered two months
  later, residents were eating horses, mules,
  dogs, and even rats.
Atlanta Campaign (May 1864)
 Grant puts William T. Sherman in charge of the
    western forces.
   Sherman begins an invasion of Georgia and he
    wanted to reach Atlanta because of its importance as
    a railroad hub.
   Confederate General Johnston attacked in several
    small encounters with a stand at Kennesaw
    Mountain.
   Sherman flanked (moved around) Johnston and
    crossed the Chattahoochee River and took Atlanta
    the next day.
   This victory convinced the North victory was at hand
    and they re-elected Lincoln to a second term.
March to the Sea
(May-December 1864)
 After taking Atlanta, Sherman ordered the city
  burned and began his March to the Sea.
 On his way, the army burned buildings,
  destroyed rail lines, set fire to factories and
  demolished bridges in an attempt to cripple
  the South’s ability to keep fighting.
 Savannah surrendered without a fight and
  Sherman gave the city to Lincoln as a
  Christmas gift.
Union Victory
 Grant began a series of head-to-head confrontations
  with Lee designed to crush the Confederate army.
 In two months, the Union army lost 65,000 men, but
  because of the overwhelming numbers meant the
  Confederates were on the retreat.
 April 9, 1865, Lee’s surrendered his army to Grant at
  Appomattox Courthouse ending the war.
 General Johnston surrendered his army to Sherman
  at a North Carolina farmhouse known as Bennett
  Place.
Reasons for the Union Victory
 North had a much larger population and had more
  men and the Union had more labor to produce war
  supplies and keep the economy running.
 The North had more railroads to move supplies
  efficiently and quicker
 North had more industry to produce weapons,
  ammunition, clothes, blankets, and other supplies
 The South’s passion to defend their homeland was
  not enough to overcome these advantages to win.

				
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