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A variety of criminological theories attempt to determine or analyze a paticular criminological issue in the world today. Although these criminogical theories do a better job at explaining different portions of the problem and some may leave some portions undiscovered. But as criminologist we continuously attempt to analyze, explain, or predict variables of criminoglical issues plaguing our world today. Some theories more than others provide more of an examination of differenet variables, while it has been determined that some of the theories even overlap or seem to complement each other. As I explore my chosen theory of institutional anomie theory, I will apply different aspects of agency to this theory. Human agency is apparent in almost all aspects of criminological theory and can be a solid base of understanding when it comes to deciphering these theories. We will examine this theory in conjuction with human agency in the following sequence detailing its external constraints such as: Macro, Micro, and consitutional level constratints. In addition to these constratints, human agency will be discussed utilizing a spatio temporal format following pertaining to iterative, projective, and evaluative terms. We will examine different scholary articles and provide evidence for the many interactions with human agency. At the end we will step back and draw very educated conclusions pertaining to the theory of institutional anomie theory and its interdepenedance on human agency. Human agency As discussed above, human agency is broken up into 3 external constraints and 3 different temporal vaiables that make up agency. In a baiscal definition of agency, it implies that people will make their own choices. The key to undertanding agency is to view it by temporal orientation (Embirbayer and Mische, 1998). These viewpoints include Iterative (Past), projective (Future), and Evaluative (Present) and these are refered to as the projective elements of agency. Structure Agencies structure can be simpifiled in four different external constrints on different individuals. Factos such as class status i.e.(middle class), difereent religious preferance, gender, ethnticity and different cultural customs. The political arena, environment, religious upbringing, and the family element, may also influence criminality. As we examine human agency, we can divide it into 4 simplified topics; Macro level- includes the persons culture, political environment, and Economic situtiaton. Meso level- include different orgnatizations that may influence the individual Micro level- the individuals socialization and religious experiences Constitutional level- include all the individuals biological traits, such as race, Height, weight, biology, genes, or neuro chemistry. It should be noted that these variables often will not be changeable. When discussing the temporal analysis of human agency, it is believed that humans base there decisions on 3 projective elements of agency: Itterative element- includes past patterns of thought and action Projective element- is the imaginative generation of possible future trajectories where the persons thoughts are reconfigured in relation to their own needs and desires for the future Evaulative element- Pertains to people who make practical and normative judgements among possible trajectories of actions, orthe presnelty evolving situation. The above elements are are utilized by the person to make a final decision or outcome of his or her decision making process. The person will be influenced by his macro, micro, meso, and constitutional makeup to influence decision making. At the same time the person utilizes his or her personal experience in a temporal contrast to make is decision based on Iterative, projective, or evaluative judgements. It is these judgements in which they chose to make their decisions.
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