Sensation Perception Sensation

					Sensation
            &
                Perception
Sensation vs Perception
 Sensation – detecting physical energy
  from the environment and encoding it
  as neural signals.
 Perception – the process of selecting,
  organizing and interpreting our
  senses.
 Sensation is a bottom-up process;
  Perception is a top-down process.
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/distance/sci122/Programs/p3/vase&bach.html
Video…

   “Lights, Camera, Magic!”
Thresholds
• Absolute Threshold – when a stimulus is
    detectable 50% of the time; minimum
    stimulation to detect a particular stimulus.
•   Subliminal – stimuli that are below threshold;
    can only influence you in the short term and
    superficially.
•   Just Noticeable Difference – the minimum
    difference a person can tell between two things
    50% of the time.
•   Sensory Adaptation – occurs when stimulus
    doesn‟t change, so our sensitivity diminishes.
Vision




         P. 148
Vision




         P. 149
Visual Activities

• Blind Spot:
  – Close one eye, extend index finger, and move
    hand around „til it disappears.
• Hole in hand:
  – Roll up piece of paper, and put in front of one
    eye; hold your flattened hand in front of the
    other.
Visual Fields
• Left and Right Visual
  Fields – each eye has
  both, they overlap, and
  give us 3-D Vision.




• www.eyetec.net/
  group3/M11S1.htm
    Another Movie!
“Perception: Inverted Vision”
Color Vision
• Three color theory – Cones are sensitive to three
    wavelengths of light: red, blue, green.
•   Opponent process – your brain adds yellow into the
    picture…
•   Context effects – the whites of your eyes look whiter
    when you wear blue, but look yellow whey you wear
    yellow (P. 155).
•   Color Constancy – you see a tomato as red regardless of
    the context (P. 155).
•   Wavelength = hue; Amplitude = brightness/intensity (P.
    147).
                    Hearing
► Stimulus:  sound waves
► Damaged when sound >85 decibels.
► Stereo-audition.
► Amplitude = loudness;
  frequency = pitch
► Activity – find a partner…
   Locate sound.
Hearing   P. 157
                       Touch
   Four sensations:
       Pressure, warmth, cold, and pain
   Gate Control Theory – only one sensation
    at a time: pain travels on smaller fibers,
    other sensations on larger fibers – action
    in large fibers blocks action in the small.
   Good Pain? Tells you when something is
    wrong.
                        Pain
   Some people born with reduced ability to
    feel pain – cannot detect hunger, broken
    bones, fever…
   Blocking Pain:
       Mind over matter (meditation, Lamaze)
       Acupuncture and counterstimulation
       Medication (blocks pain transmission)
       Endorphins (Endogenous Morphine)
               Other Tactile
   Kinesthesis – knowing where our body
    parts are: visually cued; knowing how to
    get where we want to be/do what we
    want.
   Vestibular Sense – monitors body
    movements and balance: based in
    semicircular canals in ear.
Smell

  Very basic; primitive sense close to brain
  Pheromones??
  Smells connected to memory, and are
   powerful.
  Smell based on chemical processes;
   sniffing circulates more air through nose.
Taste

 Sweet, sour, salty, bitter
 Flavor = smell + taste
 >200 taste buds that each respond to
 chemicals in food.
 Taste diminishes with age, smoking,
 and alcohol use.
 Movie: “Tasters and Supertasters”.
                         References
   http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/distance/sci122/Programs/p3
    /vase&bach.html
   Myers, D. (2005). Exploring Psychology (6th ed.). New
    York: Worth Publishers.
   Myers, D. (2005). Instructor‟s Resource CD-ROM: To
    Accompany David G. Myers Exploring Psychology, 6th ed.
    [Computer Software]. New York: Worth Publishers.
       CH05_illustration (D:\PowerPoints\Illustration PPTs)
       Ch5 (D:\PowerPoints\Lecture PPTs)
   www.eyetec.net/ group3/M11S1.htm
   www.wesleyan.edu/wesmaps/ course0304/psyc222s.htm

				
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