Glazing a timber sash window
Australian Standards AS 2047-1999 : Windows in buildings - Selection and
installation” Specifies recommended methods of construction, glazing,
installation, protection and maintenance for windows, sliding doors,
adjustable glass louvres, shopfronts, and window walls with framing
elements of one piece, but not curtain walls using stacked or spliced
framing systems, manufactured from any materials and installed
vertically in external walls of all classes of buildings.1”
Before performing any glazing exercise make sure you have the
Safety glasses - Australian Standard
Boots – steel capped
Gauntlets - wrist protection
Preparing the sash:
Replacing broken panes:
Step 1. Clean up any broken glass that may be scattered around the
broken window and floor area.
You will generally find a little glass left embedded in the window putty.
This will have to be removed. Use a glass cutter to score lines in the
remaining material if practical. And use a pair of grozing pliers to break
each piece out. Make an angled cut to start the removal
cuts and pull
Use a hacking knife to remove the remaining putt and glass shard that
remain in the rebate.
A hacking knife is used to remove
waste material from a glazed rebate
Clean out the rebate ready to accept the new glass.
Step 1 Seal the rebate: You may need to find out from the client the type
of finish they intend to use in the windows once installed.
If the windows are to be clear coated, use a clear sealer to prime
If they are to have an oil finish use linseed oil to prime the rebates
If the windows are to be painted use an oil based or acrylic primer
to seal the rebate
Use a paint brush to carefully
apply the primer
Step 2. Australian Standards require the window glass to be bedded in to
the frame with a back putty or silicone sealant. The back putty or silicone
seal should be no more that 2mm thick
Linseed oil glazing putty is made from a
mixture of linseed oil and whiting. It is sold by
weight. 20 kg 10 kg, down to 500 gram
packaging. Powder pigments are used to
colour the putty for clear coated timbers.Warm
the putty by kneading in the hand before
rolling a small amount in to the full length of
Take care to not over do the silicone. An unbroken bead of silicone will
form the best seal the bead need only be 2 - 3mm in diameter. Too much
silicone will be hard to clean off the glass
Step3 Press the glass firmly into the bedding putty. Use your thumbs to
press the glass only around the edges. Squeeze out the excess putty and
form a good seal. The bedding putty seal the glass in to the rebate. If
you’re using a silicone bead take care not to squeeze out too much
silicone onto the glass
Step 4. Use sprig gun to fire the points into the rebate to hold the glass in
Step 5. Warm some putty in your hands. Press some putty into the rebate
of the glass and the frame. This can be a tedious job until you get used to
it. The secret is in having the right consistency putty and making sure it is
warmed up sufficiently. The commercially available putties are well
mixed when you buy them. Keep the layer of oiled paper over the top of
the putty in the tin to keep it moist until used.
If the putty has “gone off”, a little linseed oil kneaded in can recondition
If the putty is too oily and sticks to your hands like dough, add a little
extra whiting to absorb some of the oil.
Step 6. Face off the putty with a putty knife
There are a lot of different types of putty knives. The one on the right is
the common one use in Australia for facing off timber windows.
Facing off is the difficult process of bevelling the putty on the face of
The tricks are:
Make sure the putty knife blade is hand warm.
Moistening the blade with water or saliva will give good finish.
Don’t let the putty go cold before “facing off”
Keep as much putty knife blade in contact with the putty as possible
when “facing off”
Step 7. Clean off the excess putty with a putty knife. Use a roll of putty to
help lift the excess putty from the glass without disturbing the soft. Oil
marks and oily finger marks can be removed from the glass with whiting
and a paint brush.
Putty should be just
proud of rebate