1 Director’s Report Social Sciences Institute (SSI), located at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), is the field research wing of Social Sciences Division of Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC). PARC is the country’s lead federal agricultural research organization which is responsible to steer the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) through strengthening and coordinating its various components. Being the prime institution of agricultural research, the main focus of the council is to undertake and promote research in those areas which do not fall under the priority research programmes of other components of the NARS. PARC perform such role through its research establishments located in different agro- ecological zones of Pakistan. NARC constitutes one of the largest research establishments located at Islamabad. SSI was established in July 1990 as an important component of NARC Master Research Plan with a specific mandate to ensure the active participation of multi-disciplinary teams of scientists from social, biological, natural resources and farm machinery disciplines to conduct priority research for the NARS. SSI operates through several research programs involving sister research institutions, development agencies, NGOs and other stakeholders. In the past, the achievements of SSI have regularly been incorporated in the annual reports of PARC and NARC. As we are reporting our annual (2003-2004) activities for the first time it will be in order to explain briefly the mandate of SSI and its three components. The mandate of the SSI is as under: Mandate undertake research on different priority problems of national and regional importance in the disciplines of agricultural social sciences; provide research back-up to the biological scientists working on different crops and livestock; develop and strengthen linkages with research and extension for technology transfer; extend consultancy/advisory services to the biological scientists; and human resource development through trainings, workshops, seminars and conferences. 2 The institute is targeting its mandate through its following three components: Socioeconomics Programme Biometric s Programme Gender and Development Programme Each programme has its own agenda which ultimately contribute to achieve the set targets of SSI. Since the establishment of the institute, the scientists of the respective programmes have remained involved in multi- disciplinary and collaborative research activities, under the given mission of each unit. Socioeconomics Programme Initially, this programme was established in 1984 as an independent programme with the name of Agricultural Economics Research Unit (AERU) which was ultimately merged into SSI as Socioeconomics Programme. The prime objective of the programme is to study farm level issues and provide feedback on technology verification and adoption. Biometrics Programme This programme was also initiated in May, 1984 with the name of Computer and Statistics Section (CSS) and ultimately merged in SSI as Biometrics Programme. The prime objective of the programme is to enhance the quality and credibility of biological research conducted at NARC. Gender & Development Programme Gender & Development Programme is the youngest programme of SSI. Gender and Development (GAD) approach has emerged as a result of the shortcomings of Women in Development (WID) approach, concentrating on the unequal relations between men and women. WID was focused on using development resources for improving women's conditions and making their contributions visible. However, it did not address the basic structure of inequality in the relationship between women and men, as it had a tendency to focus solely on women. The term gender arose as an analytical tool from an increasing awareness of inequalities due to institutional structures. In most of the societies gender relations are unbalanced and women often make their 3 contributions with unequal access to control over and benefits from natural resources and resource use. It is an essential condition for people-centered sustainable agricultural and rural development to transform partnership of women and men based on equality. To ensure sustainable development it is imperative to promote gender equality in the access to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food; access to, control over and management of natural resources and agricultural support services. The main objectives of Gender and Development Programme are to focus its efforts to mainstream gender in agricultural research; arrange training workshops/symposiums/conferences in order to sensitize biological and social scientists for integrating gender analysis in their research studies; conduct research studies in collaboration with biological scientists by integrating gender analysis in agricultural research; and to conduct baseline surveys to establish data base on gender roles in agricultural activities. Research Activities in Brief The emerging regime of World Trade Organization (WTO) has imposed the challenge to produce quality and cost effective products to compete in the international markets. It is assumed that the WTO will create an environment for free trade which will bring more efficiency in the use of resources. Required adjustments have to be made in agricultural production systems. The scientists working in the National Research System of Pakistan are striving hard to make agricultural production systems more efficient and more productive. The agricultural social scientists link biological and other agricultural sciences into a real-life farming system. Social scientists provide help to analyze emerging challenges to the agricultural sector and identify constraints to technology adoption. The right decisions are required to introduce reforms in the research, extension, education and policy planning settings to effectively meet the globalization challenges. The empirical evidence provided by the social scientists working in different ecologies of the country is critical to devise right strategies under highly competitive global environment. Considering all these factors 16 research studies covering wide range of subjects were conducted by the scientists of SSI during the report period. Impact study of globalization on cotton-wheat system of Pakistan highlighted the incentives and resource use efficiency of the system. It is also providing a complete picture of policy implications in the scenario of true globalization. The effective rate of protection (ERP) and domestic resource cost (DRC) indicators were used to measure the economic 4 benefits. The prime objective however was futuristic i.e. to examine how this incentive and efficiency status would change with Pakistan’s inevitable transition to a liberal economy. Keeping in view the established facts about low citrus productivity and expected increase in demand for citrus, it was felt necessary to carry out study on factors affecting citrus productivity in Pakistan’s Punjab. Matured sole orchards were more productive than intercropped. Citrus orchards have economic life up to 30 years. There are underlying socio-economic, technical and institutional constraints associated. In socio-economic factors, labour use and orchard farming experienced were negatively and significantly affecting productivity. On technical side, the contribution of FYM, fertilizer and plant protection was positive and significant. These inputs were also found underutilized. The ploughing and hoeing were positively contributing but statistically non-significant and found over- utilized. The tubewell irrigation was negatively and significantly contributing and it was over-used. The role of plant population was negative but non- significant. In globalization scenario, despite having comparative advantage, citrus growers were unprotected. The pre- and post-harvest losses collectively amount to 16 percent of the output. For increasing productivity along with competitiveness of our citrus fruit in international markets, strong research and extension efforts are required. For research, breeding for seedless, insect/disease resistant, salinity tolerant, and small canopy sized varieties should be developed. Adoption and impact study of RCT’s was conducted in the rice-wheat cropping system of Pakistan’s Punjab. This study explained the present status of no-till drill use and its spill over effects on the farm and at the household levels. Preliminarily results shows that almost every farmer have awareness about this new wheat planting method. As compared to the common wheat planting method of the area (wadwatter), performance of zero tillage is relatively better. While, pace of adoption is not so encouraging due to some operational and filed related problems. At present, farmers have no proper forum for getting answers of their problems. Overall, majority of the drill users were partial adopters. It was also reported that due to continuous use of no-till drill wheat yield decreased in the subsequent years. The adoption rate could be increased by involving agri-extension department. Diffusion study was carried out as part of a larger study entitled “Adoption and Impacts of Resource Conserving Technologies in the irrigated Indo- Gangetic Plains”. Mainly it was conducted to measure the extent to which the technology has spread, as well as the rate at which it continue to 5 diffuse among the partners (Manufacturers, Farmers). This study was planned and conducted in Pakistan’s Punjab. According to the estimates given by the manufacturers, about 2080 drill have been produced up to the year 2003 and out of these drill, 93 percent have been sold in the different rice producing areas o Punjab. About 90 percent drills were produced at Daska/Sialkot, While the second larger drill producing District was Hafizabad. Commercial manufacturing of zero-till drills began in 1995 with the manufacture of two drills and in the year 1996, only 10 additional drills were produced. Manufacturing and sales peaked in 2002 at levels exceeding 500 drills. Nearly 90 percent of these drills were sold to farmers in the Punjab, with the remaining 10% sold to farmers from other Provinces. Average retail selling prices have increased relatively little through time. Second, the range of prices between the most expensive drill available in the market and the least expensive drill has widened significantly. Manufacturers indicated that the difference between more expensive and less expensive drills can be attributed mainly to differences in materials and design. Integrated efforts of engineers, scientists, manufacturers, OFWM and agri-extenson department are highly required to successfully promote the technology. Traditionally pulses were cultivated in the rice producing districts of Punjab, but with the availability of canal and tube well water, farmers have changed their preferences and started to grow high value crops like rice, wheat, vegetables, melons and oilseed crops. The sequential cropping of Rice and wheat crops has resulted in low inherent soil fertility along with inside spaced deficiencies of macro and micronutrients. The problem of soil fertility and its severity increased very rapidly. To overcome this important problem scientists have developed some short duration and high yielding spring pulses varieties. The present study revealed that as a third crop, spring pulses are profitable as compared to the prevailing rotations, but in those areas where melons and vegetables were grown in the spring season, pulses based rotation is not economical. While technically, spring pulses are only feasible before Super Basmati because its planting starts in the last week of June and goes up to the last week of July. The third parameter “appropriate soil type and availability of irrigation water in the spring season”: was also found favorable for pulses cultivation in almost all rice producing districts. This study was initiated to generate vital information of demand for milk estimation was initiated to devise an effective livestock policy. it is imperative to know the demand for the most valuable livestock product, milk, and quantification of the factors that affect this demand. The demand 6 for milk was estimated using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique. After testing various models the double log model was found to be the best representative one .The milk demand model showed that the elasticities of the milk price, price of tea an income were 1.646, 0.391 and 1.894 respectively. The highly elastic variables indicate that if the price of milk rises by 1 percent or the income of the consumers falls by one percent, there shall be a contraction of demand for milk by 1.65 percent and 1.894 percent respectively. The real prices of milk stagnated over the period under study, while the nominal prices soared. The per capita milk availability grew at an average annual rate of 2.8 percent which is quite encouraging. Milk prices are being managed through adulteration. Lower cost milk production technologies including high yielding animals need to be researched into for encouraging increased production . Farmers need to be provided with the latest technical packages for economical milk production. A comparative study of water distribution systems and productivity issues was specifically planned to analyze the water use efficiencies under different water use arrangements and allocation of scarce water and land resources to alternative enterprises. Beneficiaries need to be fully involved at all stages. Special efforts should be made for command area development and mini dams should be constructed not as single ownership but as community dams. Strong coordination and integration among different departments would enhance the benefits from the precious water sources. High-level support should be provided for establishing sustainable WUAs for equitable distribution at small or community dams. The timing of command area development at mini dams must be coordinated with dam construction. Project monitoring to increase water use efficiency after the mini dam construction should be ensured by the funding agency. Mini- dams also offer good potential for irrigation and aquaculture development at relatively low cost, and avoid many of the social and technical problems of small dams. The study growth, price instability and flexibility of major crops in Pakistan revealed the increasing price trend for four crops (i.e. wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton) studied. Price increased annually from 7.23 percent for sugarcane to the highest 8.14 percent for wheat. Price fluctuated more than area, yield and production. Because, farmers are not able to influence over the price. Ceteris paribus if the area instability will fall, there will be reduction in the production instability. There will be liberty in the market, modern factor inputs will be available. Easy and timely availability of modern factor inputs and sustained supply will reduce area instability 7 largely. Support price policies of Government affect the area and production of selected crops. Government should procure the surplus of these crops and store it. Moreover, Government should take steps to promote the export of cash crops especially for cotton and rice. Production instability can be reduced by the adoption of technological advancement and new farming techniques. The policy measures taken may not only for a single crop in the crop sub-sector. The effect of any policy should be considered on the other crops too. The report entitled, “assessment of crop livestock production technologies” highlighted the importance short-term assessment of technological development process. Because, this activity provides, a logical basis for updating, enhancing and redesigning the project activities. On- farm testing of specific technology components should therefore be continued on a wider scale to ensure broad dissemination and transfer of proven technologies. However, proper selection and active involvement of farmers at all stages is a prerequisite to transfer the skills and knowledge to the target group. Close collaboration and integration among research and development components should therefore be developed so that the development components could take-over the accepted and proven technologies for wider dissemination and adoption. The study of livestock marketing system provides an overview of the prevailing marketing conditions and suggesting an effective action plane for its improvement. Results revealed that markets are suffered from shortage of basic facilities like watering, shelter, feed and fodder. Other arrangements like loading/unloading, communication, services of veterinary doctor, weighing, market boundaries are absent. In NWFP, Balochistan and AJK, the milk-marketing network is highly limited mainly because of relatively less population of large ruminants in these provinces. The slaughterhouses are deprived of many basic facilities like adequate space, light, shade, water, meat chilling, processing/disposal of byproducts etc. Overall, the wool marketing system in Pakistan is very poor. The wool processing industries are mainly confined in the areas where there is little wool production. There is a strong need to adopt a comprehensive policy to regularize the marketing system of livestock and livestock products in Pakistan down to the district level. 8 Besides conducting research studies the scientists of the institute have published their work in national as well as international journals. The findings of the studies have also been shared with other stake holders through seminars. Trainings have also been organized for national and international clients. It would have not been possible to achieve the set targets with out the cooperation of the collaborating institutions such as On-farm Water Management, Rice-Wheat program, Kala Sha Kaku, Barani Village Development Project (BVDP/ABAD), and National IPM-Program. The human and financial resources provided by these institutions are highly appreciated. We are grateful to the dynamic leadership of PARC/NARC for providing guidance and facilitating the institute to become a productive component of NARS. The efforts of the scientists and supporting staff of the Institute are highly commendable for successfully pursuing their work plans. Ch. Muhammad Sharif, PSO/Director 9 SOCIOECONOMICS PROGRAMME, SSI, NARC Reports 1. FAO……………………………..1 2. BVDP ………………………….. 2 3. CIMMYT…………………………2 4. Rice - Wheat …………………..1 5. Current Budget……………. .. ..4 _____________________________________ Sub-Total: 10 GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME SSI, NARC 1. Current Budget……………. . 1 2. BVDP ………………………… 2 _______________________________ Sub-Total: 3 BIOMETRICS PROGRAMME SSI, NARC Reports 1. Current Budget…………….. . 2 Grand Total: 15 10 SOCIOECONOMICS PROGRAMME SSI, NARC 11 ACTION PLAN FOR LIVESTOCK MARKETING SYSTEMS IN PAKISTAN M. Sharif, Waqar Malik, N.I. Hashmi and Umar Farooq Pakistan is the homeland of highest milk yielding buffalo and cattle breeds and the livestock sector is significantly contributing in the agricultural GDP of Pakistan. On the other hand, government approach towards this sector is of laisez faire type. Despite that this sector has shown a respectable growth rate. However, in view of future challenges from the foreign exchange earnings, population pressure, changes in urban-rural population composition, etc. it is very likely that the supply-demand gap shall get widened with the passage of time. It is therefore, necessary to give due attention to the overall development of this sector. The present exercises mainly deals with the marketing component of livestock and livestock products in Pakistan. In the previous chapter, the detailed action plan has exclusively pointed out the agencies made responsible for carrying out various activities. Following the Terms of Reference (TOR) of the study, holding technical discussions and the literature was gathered from various institutions such as Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Agriculture Universities and Research Institutes, Planning and Development department and NGOs in Pakistan. The farmers and marketing intermediaries were also consulted in order to get first hand information for validating and updating the information. On the production side, the average milk yield of buffaloes and cattle is very low. The underlying reasons include the application of poor animal husbandry practices, exclusive dependence of crop residues in feeding and poor record maintenance of animal pedigree etc. The root cause is the low prices received by the farmers for the animals produced leave small room for them to make improvements in management practices. On the marketing side, the livestock markets are suffered from shortage of basic facilities like watering, shelter, feed and fodder. A number of other arrangements like loading/unloading, communication, services of veterinary doctor, weighing, market boundaries etc. are absent despite 3-5 percent commission is charged as market fee in Punjab whereas in other provinces various 12 practices are followed. The contract money of these markets is not invested back for provision of such facilities. Moreover, there is no livestock market authority for regulating livestock marketing in the province. Beoparies and commission agents are main intermediaries of livestock markets. The market intermediaries are comparatively well informed about market situations than the farmers. Although the services of broker or “dallal” are available, but most of the times they extend more favor to buyers than farmers. Some farmers complained about forming cartels by market intermediaries by not offering prices beyond some limits. In this way, both beoparies and commission agents exploit them. The transport means used are not suitable, therefore, causing physical distress, bruising and other internal/external injuries to the animals. Milk collection and marketing system is limited to the peri-urban and rural areas well connected to respective urban centers through roads and transport means. Villages falling at remote locations are deprived of availing this opportunity. In NWFP, Balochistan and AJK, the milk-marketing network is highly limited mainly because of relatively less population of large ruminants in these provinces. Therefore, the prices of liquid milk are very high and the population of these provinces is consuming very high priced UHT milk. Presently, the large ruminants are sold to livestock traders in NWFP and Balochistan from Punjab and Sindh provinces. These provinces could be easily linked with the milk marketing system by the same way provided that the pasteurization plants and milk transport system in chilled form is developed. It is therefore recommended that government of Pakistan should take necessary measures to establish a competitive milk marketing system in the provinces other than Punjab and Sindh. The example of Halla and Nestle milk marketing is are success stories, which can be replicated in other areas of Pakistan. The successful implementation will also help bringing a large resource poor livestock farming community under the milk-marketing network and the dominance of milkmen will also decreases. Moreover, more number of consumers shall also be benefited from the high quality competitive priced milk. The slaughterhouses are deprived of many basic facilities like adequate space, light, shade, water, meat chilling, processing/disposal of byproducts etc. This result in not only in un- hygienic meat production but also deteriorating the quality of other 13 livestock products like hides and skins, blood, cases and eatable offal etc. Meat is transport and displayed as uncovered thus exposed to dust, houseflies and other contaminations. The hygienic conditions of most of the meat shops are also very poor. Thus all meat production and marketing chain is unhygienic. Because of fixing the price of meat by the tehsil municipal administration, the slaughtering of weak, diseased and old animals is very common. Moreover, the prices received by the farmers are also very low. A great scope for the export of livestock and livestock products exists in the markets of European Union, Gulf, Middle East, Central Asian countries, Malaysia and Afghanistan. The Muslim states of Middle East, Central Asia and countries like Malaysia and Afghanistan are relatively more promising markets because of religious and other geo-political bondages. In other words, frozen “Halal” meat could be easily exported to such states. Moreover, a big seasonal demand for live animal at the time of Haj is another opportunity. Expansion of meat exports to these countries will help alleviating poverty in Pakistan as majority of the livestock producers are resource poor farmers and landless households keeping subsistence sized herds. It shall also promote businesses falling under backward-forward linkages. Because of considering hides/skins as byproduct, no professional training of the butchers, shortage of space and other facilities at slaughterhouses, the quality of hides and skins produced are of poor quality in general. The collection system in interiors of Punjab is also slow and poor. On the other hand, because of absence of tanneries in NWFP and Balochistan provinces, there is undue delay between production and processing times. All this collectively seriously affects the quality of leather produced. The butchers are relatively less informed about prices than collectors and commission agents. This is causing great national loss which could be easily repaired by taking measures like training the butchers and flayers as well as establishing new tanneries with modern processing plants in NWFP, Balochistan and AJK on priority basis. Overall, the wool marketing system in Pakistan is very poor. The wool processing industries are mainly confined in the areas where there is little wool production. On the other hand, wrong harvesting techniques are used to clip the wool. Later on, it marketing system is 14 contaminated with a number of malpractices like purchasing from farmers on per head basis and selling on per Kg basis, mixing of wool of different colors, adulterating wool with oil, dirt and greeze in order to increase weight etc. are common practices followed. Researchable Issues in the Livestock Sector of Pakistan During the execution of this study, it is strongly felt that the relevant information on various production and marketing aspects of livestock is highly scanty. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be conducted on various issues. Some of the studies are highlighted below: 1. Characterization of livestock producers in all provinces of Pakistan. 2. Evaluating the resource base of meat purpose small livestock holders and marketing constraints faced. 3. Quantifying the contribution of various inputs in the production of livestock in Pakistan. 4. Factors determining value of live animal in the livestock markets of Pakistan. 5. Economically viable size of livestock herd for meat and milk production purposes. 6. Estimating the extent of exploitation from various intermediaries in the marketing of livestock and livestock products. 7. Institutional constraints in the production of livestock with special reference to small farmers. 8. Institutional constraints in the marketing of livestock and their products in Pakistan. 9. Estimating the extent of potentials in export of livestock and livestock products to various regions of the world. In summary, it would not be an exaggeration that overall development of the livestock sector of Pakistan can help sustaining the contribution of agriculture sector in the GDP of Pakistan along with alleviating rural poverty. Besides these direct these benefits, a number of other indirect benefits like alleviation of protein and calcium deficiency, employment in the marketing chains of livestock and livestock products, and increased supply of farm yard manure for sustaining crop productivity and soil fertility, cannot be ignored. 15 CHARACTERIZATION OF RURAL LIVELIHOODS AND LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES IN THE BARANI AREA Hassnain Shah, Ahmed Mazid, M. Sharif and Abdul Majid The main objective of this exercise was to conduct further analysis on the baseline survey data to develop household livelihood typologies for identifying targeted interventions. To suggest policy options for poverty alleviation through sustainable livelihood strategies. This study employed Principle Component Analysis to analyze the livelihood strategies of rural households using the data set of 150 families from the three IRS sites of BVDP. Welfare index was computed using household level information on natural, physical, financial and human resources possessed. Using this welfare index, the households were classified into four welfare quartiles. Three welfare groups were identified: (1) lowest welfare quartile having mixed crop livestock farming with more dependence on crop production; (2) medium welfare quartile having 50-50 dependence on agriculture and off farm employment; and (3) the high welfare quartile having major dependence on off-farm employment and least dependence on agriculture. It is suggest that the livelihood of least welfare quartile could be improved by developing the crop and livestock productivity through introducing drought tolerant food and fodder crop varieties, and making improvements in the livestock breeds and livestock management practices. Adoption of improved soil and water conservation practices for sustainable use of available resources is another option. On the infrastructure side, local institutions, rural networks and non- farm enterprises should be developed in order to strengthen backward forward linkages. Strong coordination between research, development and other institutions is also required to make developmental efforts on sustainable basis. Various micro-enterprises such as sheep/goat fattening, poultry farming, cottage industries may be promoted. Solving irrigation problem by financing dug wells, establishing mini-dams and other similar measures are also necessary for improving the living standard of lowest welfare quartile. 16 ASSESSMENT OF CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AT IRS SITES OF BVDP Hassnain Shah, Umar Farooq , Nisar Ali Shah and Abdul Majid The main objective of this exercise was to obtain feedback from the contact farmers about various interventions introduced by different institutions in order to increase the overall agricultural productivity of the area. The information gathered is vital for the research and development institutions in order to modify their research and development plans and strategies. Kharif technologies: Kharif Fodder: Sorghum: 1-3 varieties tested, timely sown, farmers participated with researchers at sowing but not at harvesting time, varietal and fertilizer information not shared, 25-80% fodder and 50-100% dry fodder yield improvement, more palatable fodder, remain green after tassels harvested, co-farmers interest high, trial repetition for seed. Millet: 1-2 varieties tested, mostly sown in time, farmers participated with researchers at sowing but not at harvesting time, varietal and fertilizer information not shared, 50-100% green and 100% dry fodder yield improvement at Kaslian only, double grain yield, more palatable fodder, remain green after tassel harvested, co-farmers interest high, trial repetition for seed production purposes. Maize: 1-2 varieties tested in irrigated environment, mostly sown in time, farmers participated with researchers at sowing but not at harvesting time, varietal and fertilizer information shared, 35-100% higher grain yield, but low green and dry fodder yields, stalks remain green after cobs harvest, co- farmers interest high, no trial repetition desired. Cowpea: Only one variety tested in the rainfed environment at only one farm, farmer participated with researchers at sowing but not at harvesting time, varietal and fertilizer information not shared, farmer could not compare the performance with existing varieties as this was purely new intervention for him, co-farmers’ interest very high, trial repetition desired for seed production purposes. 17 Pulses/Oilseeds: Groundnut: Only one variety tested under rainfed environment, all farmers were new, farmers were satisfied at plot sizes, farmers’ achieved partial knowledge about variety name, and good knowledge about seed rate and fertilizer doses, 50-100% increment in yield was witnessed along with other good attributes. It is expected that variety tested would rapidly adopted provided market acceptance of bold sized grains is quite high. Mash + Fertilizer: Only 2 varieties were tested under rainfed environment, trial was timely sown, farmer wanted bigger plot size, farmer achieved full knowledge about variety and seed rate but no knowledge about fertilizer doses experimented, 60% higher yield, seed multiplication and diffusion already started, good prospects for rapid adoption. Mungbean: 1- 3 mungbean varieties tested under rainfed conditions, majority of the farmers participated with researchers at sowing time, no varietal and fertilizer application while partial seed rate knowledge was shared, all farmers harvested the crop as grain, no inclination to spread seed at Kaslian while mixed response at Hafizabad, medium interest was shown by farming community perhaps they are not convinced with the intervention. Green Manuring: Jantar, Guar, Cowpea and Arhar: Four green manuring crops namely Guar, Jantar, Cowpea, and Arhar were tested, farmers satisfied over the plot size area, partial knowledge about seed rate but little knowledge about fertilizer acquired, Jantar and Guar were better for green manuring, great variation in wheat yield per hectare, availability of rotavator is major problem leading to low interest of the fellow farmers, no trial repetition desired. No chances of adoption. Soil and Water Conservation Structures: Soil and Water Conservation Structures: Twenty four structures reviewed, catchment area varied 70 – 400 kanals, cost varied Rs. 1000 – 2500, the erosion problem fully solved, farmer is willing to pay the subsidized structure cost, lot of potential area for constructing such structures, the benefits also achieved in terms of better yields, extent of resources saved greatly varied. Rangeland Development: Acatia Modesca, Acatia Nilotica, Zyzyphus, Atriplex, Ipple Ipple: 5 species for fodder and timber purposes tried, initial survival rate varied (50-85%), no re-plantation during 1st and 3rd years, current survival rate also varied (5 18 – 100%), Acatia Modesca is relatively more successful, huge potential area available at Kaslian but little at Hafizabad, farmers’ interest high at Kaslian and medium at Hafizabad. Urea Mineral Molasses Mixture (UMMS): Experiment for UMMM was conducted at Hafizabad. Only one farmer was contacted whose four goat male kids of 2-5 months age were fed on UMMM for one month and four other as control. One farmer reported that his goat kids did not eat this ration so it was finally carried out with three farmers. Farmer reported that approximately 250 gms were fed to each kid twice a day in morning and evening. In the beginning very difficult to make kids to eat at UMMM and farmer have to use wheat grain/flour with it. farmer was not aware about the exact weight increase hence approximate increase was 2 kg. No clear difference in weight gain was observed by the farmer. The farmer was unaware about the ingredients and prices of mixture. Regarding the breed improvement farmers perception were that the new breed gave very good out look and could fetch higher prices mainly at Eid-ul-Azha festival. While the weight gain and prices were similar with the local one. Efficiency of various irrigation methods: Two experiments on efficiency of irrigation methods (border, basin, and flood) for fruit plants were conducted at Hafizabad with two farmers. Plantation was done February 2003 at one farm at 6 kanal area where 68 plants were planted. With the second farmer 102 plants were planted at 8 kanal during Sep-Oct 2003. Citrus (red blood) was planted. The initial survival rate was nearly 83-88%. Plants and fertilizer was provided by researchers and plantation was also done by them. All other cultural practices and irrigation was the responsibility of farmers. Regarding the ease in irrigation and other cultural practices including intercropping flood irrigation method was considered best and practicable by the farmers. Border irrigation method was also practicable for intercropping. However, farmers were convinced that less water and time was required to irrigate with basin then border and then flood irrigation methods. Farmers reported that the plants at flood irrigation part were more healthy as compared to other two places. 19 Fruit plantation in Gullied Areas: Different fruit plants were planted at about 60 kanal gullied area at Damal. According to farmer information Grapfruit, sweet lime, china lemon, blood red, falsa, peach, locat and olive (app. 70 plants of each) were planted. Olive was planted in September 2003 while all other was planted in 2002. The current survival rate of grapfruit, sweet lime, china lemon, blood red, falsa, peach, locat was 100, 100, 88, 82, 100, 100 and 4 percent respectively. Although all citrus species are successful in the area yet farmer consider that blood red is best suited to the area with respect to market and return and mix fruit plantation gave less returns. Summer fruits are mostly destroyed by the birds as compared to winter fruits. Farmer reported that wild olive is present in the area so there are chances that it would also be successful in the area. There is no fruit plantation in the gullied areas and it is the first experiment. All the cost of inputs and water pump including irrigation system is provided by SAWCRI. Farmer is satisfied with land development with fruit plantation but still consider that bulldozers should be provided for land leveling and prefer to develop land first with bulldozer leveling. Rabi technologies: Rabi Fodder: Berseem/Lucern: Only one variety tested at all IRS sites under irrigated environment, no varietal but little fertilizer and seed rate information shared with the farmer, fodder yield 50% higher than the existing varieties, own and fellow farmers’ interest very high, could not produce own seed, trial repetition desired for seed production purposes. Oat: One variety tested under irrigated and rainfed environments, farmers desired bigger plot size, farmers participated at sowing time, no varietal information but partial seed rate and fertilizer information shared, no significant yield edge over the existing varieties but better fodder quality, two farmers at Hafizabad tried to produce own seed, own and fellow farmers’ interest very high, trial repetition desired for seed production purposes. Wheat: One variety was tested at Kaslian and the trial was failed due to non-germination. 20 Food Grains: Wheat: 2-6 wheat varieties tested under irrigated and rainfed environments, varietal and seed rate information partially shared, fertilizer application information not shared, 25% percent higher yields observed, some seed kept for next year plantation, Own and fellow farmers’ interest ranging from low to medium, mixed response on the desire for trial repetition. Wheat+Fertilizer/Gypsum: 1-3 wheat varieties were tested mainly under rainfed conditions, plot sizes varies a lot, farmers present at sowing time but varietal and seed rate information occasionally shared, fertilizer application information not shared, grain yield increment varied 0-27%, medium to low level of personal and fellow farmers’ interest, some of the seed was kept for next year plantation, trial repetition not desired except one site. Barley: One salt tolerant barley variety was tested. Farmers wished to increase plot size, farmers present at sowing time but varietal, seed rate and fertilizer information was least shared, low yield due to lodging, own and fellow farmers’ interest as medium and low respectively, trial repetition desired. Pulses/Oilseeds: Lentil: 1-2 lentil varieties were tested under rainfed conditions, farmers participated at sowing time, varietal, seed rate and fertilizer doses were not shared with the farmer, grain yields were not compared, medium own and fellow farmers’ interest, farmers at Hafizabad made their own seed, trial repetition not desired. 21 DIFFUSION OF NO-TILL DRIL IN PAKISTAN’S PUNJAB Muhammad Zubair Anwar, Dr. Umar Farooq, Ch. Muhammad Sharif, Nadeem Akmal Executive Summary Rice-Wheat is one of the important cropping systems in Pakistan’s Punjab. This system significantly contributes towards domestic food consumption and foreign exchange earnings. Unfortunately this system is confronting many problems but the most yield limiting factor is the late planting of wheat. To tackle the issue of late planting of wheat, zero tillage drill was introduced in the Rice-Wheat areas of Punjab. Initially demand and manufacturers of the drill were limited but with the aggressive extension policy of OFWM and PARC, use of zero-till drill was expanded very rapidly. Moreover international organizations have also been promoting resource conserving technologies. To measure the extent to which the technology has spread, as well as the rate at which it continue to diffuse among the partners (Manufacturers, Farmers), this study was planned and conducted Pakistan’s Punjab. Information on the diffusion of zero tillage drills in Punjab province, Pakistan was collected through a comprehensive survey of local agricultural machinery manufacturers. A list of 31 manufacturers was obtained from the On Farm Water Management (OFWM) Department Government Of Punjab. Presently No-Till Drills are manufactured at Daska, Hafizbad, Gujranwal, Lahore, Mandi Bahudin, Mianchanoo , Havli Lakha and Okara. Manufacturing of No-Till Drill is concentrated on 6 districts namely Sialkot, Hafizabad, Gujranwala, Lahore, Okara and Mianchanno. Among all these Districts, about 90 percent drills were produced at Daska/Sialkot, While the second larger drill producing District was Hafizabad. In the remaining districts drill manufacturing acativity is very limited. According to the estimates given by the manufacturers, about 2080 drill have been produced up to the year 2003 and out of these drill, 22 93 percent have been sold in the different rice producing areas o Punjab. The initial source of information through which local machinery manufacturers in Punjab first learned about zero-tillage? The machinery manufacturers who participated in the survey reported having first heard about zero-tillage from four different information sources: (1) OFWM, (2) the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), (3) other manufacturers, and (4) farmers. The machinery manufacturers who participated in the survey, reported having first learned about the drill design from two main sources: (1) PARC engineers, and (2) other manufacturers. After adapting the imported New Zealand zero-till drill to make it suitable for local conditions, PARC researchers and the private manufacturers with whom they were working initially promoted the technology on a limited scale. In the mid 1990s, the technology was taken up by OFWM, which thereafter played a major role in its promotion. OFWM first began organizing farmer training courses on zero-tillage in 1997. In the first year, about 856 farmers were trained in the use of ZT methods. Based on the positive response, the farmer training program was expanded in subsequent years. Overall more than 30,000 farmers have been trained approximately in the respective Districts. A second strategy used by OFWM to promote zero tillage in Pakistan involved the use of demonstration plots. The OFWM demonstration plots program was launched in 1997, when 78 plots were established in various locations throughout the rice-wheat zone. The number of demonstration plots increased steadily thereafter until 2001. In the dissemination process farmers field days were also organized at the critical stages of the wheat crop i.e. planting, germination and harvesting. The purpose of the field days was to interact with farming community. Mainly these field days were organized at the fields of progressive farmers. In total, about 283 field days were organized. 23 A fourth strategy used by OFWM to promote zero tillage in Pakistan involved the use of distribution of printed material to farmers. In the fact sheets mainly use of drill and practical issues were addressed. Up to 2003, nearly 5,000 fact sheets and 15,000 production guides were distributed to farmers. Commercial manufacturing of zero-till drills began in 1995 with the manufacture of two drills and in the year 1996, only 10 additional drills were produced. Manufacturing and sales peaked in 2002 at levels exceeding 500 drills. Nearly 90 percent of these drills were sold to farmers in the Punjab, with the remaining 10% sold to farmers from other Provinces. Average retail selling prices have increased relatively little through time. Second, the range of prices between the most expensive drill available in the market and the least expensive drill has widened significantly. Manufacturers indicated that the difference between more expensive and less expensive drills can be attributed mainly to differences in materials and design. Slightly more than one-half of all manufacturers (55%) expressed their intentions to make further adjustments to existing designs in order to improve the quality and performance of their drills, while a large minority (45%) said that further modifications are unnecessary because the drills that are currently being produced perform well in farmers’ fields. Of the 55% of manufacturers who expressed their intentions to modify the current design, most indicated that improvements can be made in the design and/or number of tines, as well as in the design of the straw chopper. A few manufacturers also expressed the desire to improve the metering system. Majority of the manufacturers about 90 percent had reported comparatively less demand of the drill as compared to the previous years. The major reasons quoted behind the less demand of the drill were i) less yield in the subsequent years, insect problem in rice crop and non involvement of Agri-extension department in the promotional activities. 24 In general, manufacturers are not optimistic that the demand for ZT drills will continue to grow in future at nearly the same rate as it grew in the recent past. Many have suspended their manufacturing activities in the face of decreasing demand and appear to have adopted a “wait and see” attitude. Should demand pick up again, it will be fairly easy for them to resume production activities, so their current behavior represents a rational response to an uncertain market environment. 25 ONGOING STUDY ADOPTION AND IMPACT OF RCT’S IN PAKISTAN Ch. Muhammad Sharif, Umar Farooq, Muhammad Zubair Anwar and Nadeem Akmal Summary of Field Observations: Majority of respondents were aware of no-till technology in the study area. Majority of no-till drill adopters were partial adopters Use and adoption of no-till drill is still in patches. Early users of no-till drill were reducing their wheat area. Operational problems of the drill were reported by a few farmers. Rent of the drill was varied. It ranged between Rs 300 to 500 per acre. Non-availability of drill on rental basis was reported by a significant proportion the farmers Wheat yield is decreasing due to continuous use of no-till drill was also reported by the farmers. In some places farmers reported more no of ploughs for rice in case of precursor No-Till wheat. Usually farmers were found less convenienced with no-till drill method. Main reason behind this fear was less yield due to compactness of soil. Some farmers pointed out that they have divided their fields in small sizes to save irrigation and time, while no-till required more quantity of water and time. The farmers who have low lying fields (Chamb) claims that due to crakes in the soil more irrigation water required with no-till method as compared to the conventional method. Increased pest problem in the subsequent rice field was not reported by the farmers Lack of awareness about the appropriate moisture level caused less yield and disadoption. 26 AN EXPLORATORY SURVEY REGARDING THE PULSES CULTIVATION IN THE RICE-WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM OF PUNJAB Muhammad Zubair Anwar ,Muhammad Riaz Malik, Syed Nisar Ali Shah Executive Summary Traditionally pulses were cultivated in the rice producing districts of Punjab, but with the availability of canal and tube well water, farmers have changed their preferences and started to grow high value crops like rice, wheat , vegetables, melons and oilseed crops. Presently, most frequently practiced crop rotations of the area were “Rice-Fallow-Wheat”, “Wheat-Sorghum-Rice”, “Wheat- Melons- Rice”, “Wheat-Tenda-Rice” Potato- Vegetables-Rice” and “Berseem-Fallow-Rice” etc. The existing cropping patterns clearly indicate the discontinuation of pulses cultivation in the area. The rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) is highly exhaustive in nature and its continuous practice has resulted in low inherent soil fertility along with inside spaced deficiencies of macro and micronutrients. The problem of soil fertility and its severity increased very rapidly which needs immediate attention of the scientists and other stakeholders. Pulses are referred as “gold from the field” as they are the cheapest source of high quality protein that can help in sustaining the soil health and also in combating mal nutrition. These two important characteristics of pulses have compelled biological and social scientists to explore the possibilities of cultivation of spring pulses in the rice- wheat rotation Considering the importance of pulses cultivation in the rice-wheat system, present study was initiated in the four major rice growing districts namely Gujranwala, Silkot, Hafizabad and Sheikhupura. Keeping in view the time and resources, a sample of 150 farmers was decided to complete the study. Profitability, turn- around time and soil type parameters were mainly used to assess the possibility of spring pulses cultivation in the area. 27 Marketing is considered an important factor in the development activities, therefore, farmers access to market was explored in the survey. The market information shows that sample farmer has on an average 8.7 Kilometers distance from the local grain market and about 7.5 Kilometers from the input market. It means that almost every farmers have an easy access to the grain market for selling his produce. Majority of the respondents (72 %) were more than 40 years of age and they were holding on an average 26 years of farming experience. Family size was quiet higher about 9.6 persons per family. Education level of respective community is important to see the chances of acceptability and planning for the promotional strategy. In this context sample farmer’s education level was identified. Majority of the farmers i.e. 37.2 percent found illiterate, rest 31.6, 23.2 and 8 percent were having 1-5, 6-10 and more than 11 years of schooling. Majority of the farmers 54.5 percent pointed out that they don’t know about the activities of extension department and have no contacts with them, while a quiet reasonable number of farmers 45.5 percent viewed positively about agric. extension department. For the promotion of spring pulses, extension contacts need to be further enhanced to create awareness and dissemination of knowledge of pulses production among the farming communities. As historically farmers were growing pulses in the area but since mid eighties pulses cultivation decreased very quickly. In the present study, it was tried to investigate the existing status of pulses growers. At present, a few farmers (11.1 %) were found as pulses growers, while remaining 75.2 and 13.7 percent respondents were disadopters and non-adopters. On average farmers have 24.2, 16.3 and 32.2 acres of canal irrigated, tube well and both canal and tube well irrigated lands respectively. Irrigation source wise land distribution shows that almost every farmer has irrigated land and they can easily allocate some irrigated fields for spring pulses. 28 Majority of the farmers (56.9 %) holds light mera loam soils and that is most suitable for pulses cultivation, while rest 26.6, 14.7 and 1.8 percent of farmers were having loam, clay and sandy soils respectively. A large majority of the respondents (77 % ) reported that they have well drained soils, whereas 23 percent respondents were of the view that their soils are poorly drained. Majority of the farmers complained about the weak marketing infrastructure of pulses and less prices of the produce as the major marketing constraints. Joint efforts of market intermediaries and concerned departments can make real break through in spreading pulses cultivation in the area. The turn around time is an important parameter to see the possibility of spring pulses cultivation. Therefore, to identify the gap for growing spring pulses, information on the agronomic activities of wheat, rice and some other crops were collected. Data shows that usually farmers start wheat harvesting from second week of April and complete in the last week of April. Among the rice varieties super basmati and basmati-86 was predominantly grown in the area. Land preparation for Basmati -86 was quiet one month earlier as compared to the Super Basmati. So, majority of the farmers were of the view that the short duration spring pulses can be grown after timely harvesting of wheat and Planting of Super Basmati only. The second option was to use the vacated fields of potato and peas for spring pulses. But for this new venture, farmers have to sacrifice cultivation of spring crops like water melons and vegetable. Thirdly farmers can grow pulses by doing trade off between different crops and they should be encouraged to depute some area for pulses cultivation. If one farmer is planting 8 acres of wheat and then again planted 8 acres of rice he should be restricted to keep 2 or 3 acres for pulses and rest 5 or 6 acres are to be brought under rice crop. Profitability analysis of all commonly practiced rotations was conducted. Data revealed that “Wheat- Melon-Rice” was the most profitable rotation. The estimated net benefit of this rotation was about Rs. 31,053 per acre. The second profitable rotation was “Wheat-Tenda-Rice”, it yielded Rs. 26,200 as net profit to farmers. While the most common rotation was “Wheat-Sorghum- Rice” and this system provides Rs. 20,365 as net benefit. Whereas, per acre 29 profitability of “wheat-mung- rice” sequence provides Rs. 23,312 as net profit to the farmers Finally, it can be concluded that economically spring pulses are profitable as compared to the commonly practiced rotation, but in those areas where melons and vegetables were grown in the spring season, pulses based rotation is not economical. While technically it looks only feasible before Super Basmati rice because Super Basmati is planted in the last week of June or early July in the area. The third parameter “appropriate soil type and availability of irrigation water in the spring season”: was also found favorable for pulses cultivation in almost all rice producing districts. 30 IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF COTTON - WHEAT SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN Waqar Akhtar, Ch. Muhammad Sharif and Umar Farooq EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The study evaluates the effective incentives and resource use efficiency in cotton-wheat production during the selected period in Pakistan; it may provide a complete picture of policy implications in the scenario of true globalization. This study examined this issue through effective incentives and resource use efficiency in cotton-wheat cultivation through level of protection using indicators namely effective rate of protection (ERP) and domestic resource cost (DRC). The prime objective however was futuristic i.e. to examine how this incentive and efficiency status would change with Pakistan’s inevitable transition to a liberal economy. Main findings of the study are as under. Salient Findings: The results showed that cotton production in Sindh largely dis- protected or “implicitly taxed” through trade, pricing and exchange rate policies as compared to Punjab. It is evident from the results that factors of production of cotton in Sindh can be paid up to 29 percent more than under free trade and still remain competitive with imports. It is also evident from the estimates that the factor of production of cotton in Punjab can be paid up to 25 percent under free trade and still remain competitive with imports. There is thus an incentive for factors to be pulled in to the production of cotton in Sindh and Punjab. The policy implications of these results are clear: with the globalization of agriculture when domestic prices catch up with international prices the effective incentives for cotton producers likely to increase significantly in Sindh followed by Punjab. The results of effective incentives for wheat producers showed that producers of wheat in Sindh and Punjab also dis-protected through trade pricing and exchange rate policies. 31 It is evident form the results that the factors of production of wheat in Punjab and Sindh can be paid up to 47 and 42 percent more than under free trade and still remains competitive with international trade. The results suggest that incentives should be given to augment wheat production in Punjab and Sindh, because it is evident from the results that there is an incentive for factors to be pulled in to production of wheat. The results of economic efficiency indicate that Punjab and Sindh maintained a good economic efficiency in the use of resources in cotton production. As Punjab showed higher level of economic efficiency (lower RCR ratio) as compared to Sindh. Economic efficiency indicators indicate that in wheat production Punjab has slightly higher level of economic efficiency than Sindh, The results suggest that there is a need for productivity enhancement, which reduce unit cost of wheat production and make the crop economically viable in Punjab and Sindh. Overall, the results indicate that cotton and wheat growers in Pakistan moderately disprotected and have comparative advantage. In order to reap the benefit from globalization of agriculture under WTO regime Pakistan should give greater emphasis on production strategy for cotton and wheat through incentive to sustain resource use efficiency. 32 ECONOMICS OF OFF- SEASON VEGETABLES IN FAISALABAD REGION. Nadeem Akmal, Dr. Umar Farooq, Nisar Ali Shah and Ch. Muhammad Sharif EXECUTIVE SUMMARY When there is shortage of Vegetables or for the sake of taste we look forward for new ways of providing vegetables to consumers. To provide year- round supply of certain, it is important to find different growing methods, such as off-season vegetable growing. Their availability is highly welcomed when the supply is hardly enough to meet market requirements. On the other hand these vegetables are also known as high value crops. Vegetable crops have always been held in high esteem due to their special attributes: high cash value, more productivity, high quality food, better employment opportunities Vegetables growing help in increasing the income of the farmers substantially. This study was undertaken in Faisalabad region to describe off-season vegetables production practices, identify constraints in vegetable production, and to estimate cost and revenue of the selected off- season vegetables. Nineteen farmers involved in off-season vegetable production were interviewed. Majority of the sampled farmers were growing Tomato, Cucumber and Sweet Pepper. The surveys revealed that majority of the farmers 64 percent were intermediate and graduate while 21 percent were postgraduates. Out of the total 15 percent were matric. There was no farmer having education less than matric. The survey revealed that overall average owned area was 76.44 acres area rented in was 33 acres, on overall basis the total operational area per farm was 101.17 acres. The rented out area was 8.28 acres. .The area under wheat, off-season vegetables,rabi season vegetables,potato,Zaid rabi maize was 21.06,13.67,3.24,36.94 and 12.6 acres respectively. Farmers were also growing sugarcane, sunflower rabi fodder and fruits. In kharif season the area under cotton, Rice,kharif vegetables, muskmelon was 10.28,45.78,3.92 and1.39 acres respectively. Some 33 of the farmers were also growing fruits and green manuring crops to increase soil fertility for off-season vegetables. The survey results showed that more than 50 percent of the farmers had the facility of both canal and tube well water facility. Nearly 37 percent farmers had the tube well only source of irrigation and remaining 5 percent were irrigating the farm only with canal water. Majority of the farmers had clay loam soil type followed by loam. Easy access to the concerned destinations of farm business increases the efficiency of the business. Average distance from farm to metalled road, local market, fertilizer shop, pesticide shop and extension office was1.24, 11.21,9.49,9.76 and 10.22 kilometers respectively. The off-season vegetable growers were using improved implements. Many farmers had more than one improved implements according to their land holdings. The area under off-season vegetables for tomato, cucumber and sweet pepper was 5.49,4.17 and 2.16 acres respectively. It was observed that all the farmers were not growing all three types of off- season vegetables. Land preparation cost of selected off-season vegetables on per acre basis was highest in case of Cucumber (Rs. 1732) followed by Tomato and Sweet Pepper, Rs1693 and 1583 respectively. Ridge making cost on per acre basis was highest in case of Tomato (Rs. 509) and lowest in case of cucumber (Rs. 373). The ridge making cost of Sweet Pepper was Rs 437. The nursery raising cost for one acre of Tomato and Sweet Pepper was Rs. 1035 and Rs. 1187 respectively. The average cost of seed on per acre basis for Tomato, Cucumber and Sweet Pepper was Rs.13807, Rs.23853 and Rs.13947 respectively. FYM cost on per acre basis was highest in case of Tomato (Rs.2889), and less in case of Sweet Pepper (Rs.2315) .The FYM cost for Cucumber was Rs. 2459. It was also observed that 80 percent sample farmers were applying FYM. The use of chemical fertilizers among the farmers producing off– season vegetables was high. Cost on per acre basis was highest in case of Tomato Rs.11767 followed by Cucumber and Sweet Pepper. 34 The canal water charges in the form of Abiana were Rs.100 on per acre basis. The cost of tube well water was calculated at Rs.2940, Rs.2772 and Rs.2100 for Tomato, Cucumber and Sweet Pepper respectively. . Plant protection cost on per acre basis was highest in case of Cucumber (Rs.6864), followed by Tomato Rs.6711 For Tomato and Cucumber both types of tunnels are made but for the Sweet Pepper farmers mostly develop low types of tunnels. The average structure cost for both types of tunnel for the Tomato and Cucumber was calculated Rs. 41323and Rs.41997 on per year per acre basis. The tunnel cost for Sweet Pepper was Rs. 28700 on per year per acre basis. The tunnel cost of Sweet Pepper was less because almost all the farmers were growing vegetables in low tunnels. For the Tomato and Cucumber wooden crates are mostly used for packing. The packing cost of tomato was rupees 42509 followed by cucumber rupees 31142 and sweet pepper rupees 5353 per acre. . The highest picking and packaging (labor) cost was calculated incase Cucumber (Rs.10850) followed by Tomato and Sweet Pepper. The transportation cost of the out was calculated and it was highest in case of tomato followed by cucumber and sweet pepper. The transportation cost was to the tune of Rs. 33535 per acre for tomato, Rs. 24017 per acre for cucumber and Rs. 10277 per acre in case of sweet pepper. There was much difference of yield among the farmers whether it was due to management practices or any other factor. Average yield of selected off-season vegetables (viz. Tomato, Cucumber, and for Sweet Pepper) was calculated as 31488 kg, 24017kg, 8921 kg per acre, respectively. Gross income of the selected vegetables viz. Tomato, Cucumber, and for Sweet Pepper was calculated as Rs.247180, Rs.251284, Rs. 150497per acre respectively. Net income including land rent was higher for cucumber (Rs.74416) while the lower (Rs.47428) per acre in case of Sweet Pepper estimated Insects, pest, diseases, high seed cost, low price of the produce, transportation costs and availability and credit availability on more interest rate were the constraints reported by the farmers. 35 ESTIMATION OF DEMAND FOR MILK IN PAKISTAN Muhammad Azam Niazi and Umar Farooq EXECUTIVE SUMMARY During the period 6000-8000 BC, man learned to domesticate species of animals for milk production and preservation of the produce followed later. Dairy production was more of an art than science and remained so until recently when this art finally gave way to science. Dairy science is one of the advanced sciences today. Pakistan can be classified as a nation of milk drinkers by nature. Pakistan is the fourth largest producer of milk in the world and when it comes to per capita production the position improves to third place in the world. With about 28 million tones of milk produced every year it is worth mentioning that five percent of the milk goes as wastage. The market value of total livestock and dairy production was Rs. 362 billion (2001) of which the share of milk was 58 percent. It is said that livestock are raised primarily for milk while beef and hide are only the by products. To devise an effective livestock policy it is imperative to know the demand for the most valuable livestock product, milk, and quantification of the factors that affect this demand. This study was initiated to generate this vital information. The present study was designed to achieve the following objectives: 1) Estimate the demand for milk in Pakistan 2) Study the trends in Pakistan’s milk Production 1982-2001. 3) Study trends in milk prices during 1982-2001. 4) Suggest policy measures. The demand for milk was estimated using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique . After testing various models the double log model was finally selected . The milk demand model showed that the milk demand elasticities for the milk price, price of tea an income were 1.646, 0.391 and 1.894 respectively .These elasticity values showed that the main contributors 36 towards determination of demand for milk .The real prices of milk stagnated over the period under study , while the nominal prices soared. The per capita milk availability grew at an average annual rate of 2.8 percent which is quite encouraging. The per capita consumption of milk ranks Pakistan as the world’s third highest milk consuming country. The per capita consumption has been consistently rising since 1982 , but during the last five years stagnation in growth was witnessed. The real prices during the last twenty years remained almost the same ( +/- 30 paisas per liter)while the nominal prices rose consistently. To increase the demand for milk for improving per capita consumption the price of milk and the income that showed the highest elasticity values, need to be altered without interfering with the market forces. The price can possibly be lowered by reducing the cost of production ceteris paribus. The limited possibility to increase the fodder production due to competition with the food crops asks for increased availability of low cost ,high value animal feed. Milk prices are being managed through adulteration. Lower cost milk production technologies including high yielding animals need to be researched into for encouraging increased production . Farmers need to be provided with the latest technical packages for economical milk production. More efficient fodder varieties and production packages should reach the farmers. As five percent of the total milk production is wasted , it is suggested that the use of refrigerated trucks should be encouraged while the possibility of introduction of very small scale pasteurization plants in the rural areas need to be explored. 37 EXPORT OF CITRUS: CONSTRAINTS AND POTENTIAL Ch. Muhammad Sharif , Nadeem Akmal and Umar Farooq Citrus is the largest produced and exported fruit in Pakistan. The Punjab province contributes about 95% in total area and production. Kinnow is the largest exported fruit in citrus family. Internationally, Pakistan produces about 8 percent of the world’s Citrus production, while her share in international citrus trade is only 0.5 percent. Far East, Middle East, Europe and Central Asia’s States of former USSR are major markets of our citrus fruit. The government of Pakistan not only keen to expand the export of conventional agricultural commodities, but also diversify their spectrum. The upcoming WTO related concerns have also posed numerous challenges as well as opportunities to our agriculture sector. Pakistan has to prepare herself to meet challenges and avail the opportunities in all sub-sectors of agriculture in the globalization scenario. Increased production of international quality fruit is the key for promoting the export of horticultural crops. However, our producers are constrained by lack of incentives received from exporters or contractors to improve the quality of their produce. There is also lack of high-tech guidance from extension department. From fresh Kinnow processors’ perspective, most of the plants are locally manufactured and only meant for processing mandarin. The suppliers/ contractors do not undertake proper grading before supplying their produce to the factories. Thus after grading a significant quantity was again to be channelized back into domestic market, which adds costs and delays processing. Most of the citrus exporters in the area were previously engaged in domestic fruit marketing. Their volume of business is so small that they resort to competition among themselves and most of them are operating in the near distance or neighboring countries’ markets. Many inputs like good quality wax and other packing materials are also not easily available locally. 38 Government policies towards promotion of citrus export are inconsistent and irregular. From institutional perspective, there is lack of marketing intelligence, weak monitoring of product quality, and undue delays in custom clearance and money transfer etc. Linkages between horticultural research, extension and citrus exporters are also weak.It has been observed that WTO requirements are generally not constraint rather these can become opportunities provided all the necessary institutional infrastructure is established. If Pakistani products earn good name in the international market, then such barriers shall not affect our exports. Initially, the preparatory costs of compliance with Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures will be very high, but once such agencies established, the future benefits would be much higher. 39 FACTORS AFFECTING LOW WHEAT YIELD IN CENTRAL PUNJAB, 2002-03 Muhammad Sharif, Hassnain Shah, Nisar Ali Shah and Nadeem Akmal EXECUTIVE SUMMARY During the current Rabi season (2002-03) our country has experienced a decreased wheat production especially in the irrigated areas. Management of Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) considered it imperative to carry out an in-depth empirical study to figure out the real factors that contributed towards low wheat production during 2002-03. The results of the study were anticipated to provide basis for devising strategy to sustain future wheat production. The Social Sciences Institute (SSI) of NARC launched a comprehensive study to assess the wheat performance in two districts of the Punjab, namely Sargodha and T.T. Singh covering the mixed cropping zone of the province. A random sample of 42 respondents from irrigated T.T.Singh, and 40 from irrigated Sorgodha districts of Punjab province was drawn to conduct national wheat survey. Majority of the sample farmers (91 %) were owner operators and the remaining were owner cum tenant. About 85 percent of the farmers had installed their own Tube wells. Land rent was nearly 5000 per acre. On an average six cultivations were done for wheat sowing while cost per acre for each ploughing was estimated rupees 151. Area allocation to wheat during current year was increased in the mixed zones of Punjab. In mixed cropping systems of Punjab increase in wheat acreage was about 4.29 percent. Major reasons for change in wheat areas reported by sample farmers ranked substitution of sugarcane for wheat, more production last year, better water supply both from canal and supplementary irrigation from tube wells and substitution of fodder for wheat. Inqlab 91 was the dominant variety in Sargodha and Wattan in T.T. Singh. Uqaab 2000 and Bhakkar 2002 replaced the Pasban and Pak 81 varieties. Inqlab 91 was the major variety grown on 61 percent area followed by Wattan which was planted on 29 percent area during 2002-03. It was found that fellow farmers and seed dealers were the main source to get the seed of new variety as 40 percent farmers reported 40 seed dealer and the same percentage of farmers reported fellow farmers as the main source of seed replacement. It is clear from the survey results that farmers were using almost the recommended seed rate and very little difference of one kg in seed rate was found from the previous year as the seed rate during 2001-02 was 51 kg per acre while it increased to 52 kg per acre. The area under line sowing decreased from 34 percent to 29 percent. However, the decrease in area under line sowing was statistically non significant. Per acre use of phosphatic nutrients increased from 26.72 to 29.24 kg nutrients and nitrogen fertilizer increased from 47.70 to 51.91 kg nutrients per acre in the mixed zone of the Punjab. 41 Overall on 54 percent area weed infestation was controlled through weedicide and about 1% more weed infested wheat acreage was covered through chemical weed control measures during 2002-03 in the mixed zone of the Punjab. On an over all basis the number of irrigation applied in the mix cropping zone of the Punjab were little less (4.2 irrigations) than the previous year (4.4 irrigations). Farmers also reported the canal closure at the time of last irrigation and also some farmers did not applied the last irrigation due to some rain at the last stage. The overall decrease in area was 11.34 percent in mixed zone of the Punjab. in the mixed zone of the Punjab the minimum yield decreased from 34.32 maunds to 30.03 maunds while the maximum yield limit decreased from 41.20 to 39.15 maunds per acre. The rainfall situation during rabi 2002-03 was relatively much better than the previous drought years as 94 percent farmers reported that the contribution of rainfall towards the irrigation requirement was satisfactory while the remaining 6 percent farmers reported that it was partly satisfactory. it was found that purchase centers and the village beoparies were the main agencies involved in wheat marketing as 30 percent of the wheat produced was sold at purchase centers and 16 percent to village beoparies while only 3, 2 and 2 percent of the total production was sold to village consumer, arthies and flour mills respectively. The price received from the purchase center were the same as support price while little higher prices (Rs. 304 per md)) than the support prices were reported from flour mills in district Sargodha. The price paid by the village consumer and arthi were rupees 292 per 40 kg. The price paid by the village beopari were Rs. 292 in T.T. Singh and Rs. 270 per 40 kg in Sargodha. Overall the price received to the farmers from village beopari was less than all other agencies. The expected yield before harvesting for the year 2002-03 was much higher than the actual wheat yield. Farmers were expecting more than 50 maunds per acre in the mixed cropping zone of the Punjab. According to farmers’ perceptions aphid was the main cause of decrease in wheat yield in T. T. Singh as 44 percent farmers reported it as the major reason for decrease in production. Lodging was the main cause reported by 41 percent farmers in Sargodha as given in Table 22. One of the other main reason reported by the farmers was a misconception of the farmers due to some rains at maturity stage (at last irrigation time) due to which farmers did not applied the last 42 irrigation and there was some moisture stress at the grain formation stage. Along with it the sudden rise in temperature at grain formation stage also affected the production negatively. Unfavorable climatic conditions such as fog and mist also affected the production of wheat. Farmers are using the tube well water injudiciously and due to continuous use of poor quality tube well water it has also affected the production overtime. 43 BIOMETRICS PROGRAMME SSI, NARC 44 FORECASTING MODELS FOR SUGARCANE IN PAKISTAN M. Asif Masood Ghumman and Malik Anver Javed Executive Summary The present study was based on time series data for the period from 1975-76 to 2001-2002. The data were collected from various secondary sources to formulate sugarcane area and yield models for three provinces and Pakistan. The regression (Ordinary Least Squares) technique was employed for sugarcane area and yield forecast models. The linear regression model is an econometric model. An econometric model is a system of one or more equations that describe the relationship among several economic and time series variables. Two separate models were developed for forecasting of sugarcane area and yield, while production was estimated simply by multiplying area with yield forecasts. Four equations were estimated for sugarcane area for Pakistan and three provinces and one for sugarcane yield for Pakistan. For the selection of model variables each independent variable was plotted against dependent variable and their behavior was studied. The variables, which had linear relationship, were kept while the others were dropped. The multicollinearity problem in the explanatory variables was studied with the help of correlation matrix. After the statistical exercises and careful consideration of logical relationship of the variables a set of variables was selected. The explanatory variables included in the sugarcane area models were area under sugarcane lagged by one year and sugarcane procurement price. The variables used in the yield model were sugarcane yield as dependent variables whereas fertilizer consumption per kgs/ha and water availability at farm gate during the crop growth period. Two criteria were used to evaluate the forecast performance of each of the above mentioned models. The first criterion used could measure actual forecast error but for the previous years for which data are available. The second criterion provided measurements of the model fit to the data available at a particular period of time. 45 Forecasted area for 2002-03 was only 1.81 and 4.90 percent higher than the official estimates of Punjab and NWFP respectively. In 2003-04, forecast was 4.80 and 2.90 percent higher for the Punjab and NWFP respectively whereas it was 1.16 and 0.40 percent lower for Sindh in 2002-03 and 2003-04 respectively. The National sugarcane area forecast for 2002-03 was 5.09 percent higher than the official estimates. The forecasted sugarcane area of Pakistan for 2002-03 and 2003-04 were 5.09 and 4.15 percent higher than the official estimates. The results revealed that the percent change for sugarcane area models for National as well as Provincial was found within 5 percent range. The performance of sugarcane yield forecast model is given in table 6. When compared with official estimates of 45.40 tons per hectare yield in 2000-01; forecasted yield was only 1.23 percent higher than the official estimate and 3.47 percent lower than the official estimate of 2001-02 whereas 2.76 percent lower than official target of 2002- 03. Production of sugarcane was also forecasted by multiplying forecasted area with the forecasted yield of respective years. The performance was tested by comparing the forecasted production with the official estimates of the corresponding years. Comparing with the official estimate for the year 2001-02, the forecasted estimate was only 0.02 percent higher, while comparing the results of 2002-03, it was noticed that forecasted production was 5.11 percent higher than the official estimate. The results reflect that the performance of area and yield forecast model was acceptable as the margin of difference from the actual and forecasts over the model development period were not too much. Sugarcane area and yield forecast models are very efficient and can be used to predict future area and yield estimates with reasonable level of accuracy a couple of months before sowing and harvesting of sugarcane crop. By that time, secondary source data on all the used explanatory variables become available. 46 GROWTH, PRICE INSTABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY OF MAJOR CROPS IN PAKISTAN Malik Anver Javed* and Ch. Muhammad Sharif * EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Many attempts have been made but little work done to study the instabilities in prices to identify riskiness of selected crops in relation to other crops. In this study the changes in prices of selected crops have been analysed along with the growth of area, production and yield. In this paper the degree of instabilities in prices has been measured and tried to identify the risky crops to help the farmers to allocate their limited resources in more profitable crops, which are less risky. The analysis of price flexibility will help the farmers to understand the extent of seasonality in prices. The crops which have been selected for this study are wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton. In the analysis of the study procurement prices of selected crops have been used. The period selected for study is from 1980-81 to 2001-02 (22 years), as the recent data available. The data used in the study has been collected from the secondary sources. Average annual compound growth rates have been computed to see the increase or decrease in the prices, area, production and yield of selected crops. The inter year fluctuation in prices was estimated by using annual fluctuation estimation method. The price flexibility method was used to see the effect of production of a crop on its price while cross price flexibility was estimated to study the substitution effect of the production of a crop on the other crop. All the growth rates of selected crops (Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Cotton) have shown increasing trends. T-ratio of all the growth rates is highly significant at one percent level. Price instability was the highest than that of area, production and yield in case of all the crops. In case of price, instability was the 47 highest for sugarcane, in area for cotton, and in yield and production again for sugarcane. The price flexibility analysis revealed that the relation of price and production of wheat, rice and sugarcane is negative while of cotton, it is positive. These co-efficients show that the increase in the production of wheat has deep influence on the price of rice. Cotton is the only crop in which the supply effect on its price is positive. The policy measures taken may not be only for a single crop in the crop sub sector. 48 GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME SSI, NARC 49 ROLE OF MICRO-CREDIT IN GENDER EMPOWERMENT Nadeem Akmal, Sajida Taj, Hassnain Shah , Umar Farooq and Abdul Majid The major objective of this exercise was to examine the effect of micro-credit in gender empowerment and identifying appropriate strategies to increase the gender specific role in income generation for poverty alleviation. The micro-credit was obtained for buying animals to increase herd size, financing agricultural inputs and expanding non-farm business. The credit limit was Rs. 10,000 for livestock, Rs. 30,000 for business purposes while for financing agricultural inputs, the limit was Rs. 5000 only. The sample was composed of 67 livestock farmers (25 males & 42 females), 43 crop farming (32 males & 11 females), and 46 non- farm business (28 males & 18 females). Agriculture was the main source of income in the households taking credit for livestock farming and financing agricultural inputs. Non- farm business, agricultural business, and agricultural labor were the major sources of household income in families taking credit for business purposes. Credit for Livestock Farming: Overall, an increase of 1.3 animal units per credit taking household was taken place. The percent change in the herd size in terms of animal units and animal heads was observed among female beneficiaries when compared with their counterpart. The number of buffaloes added to the herd was higher on female credit beneficiary farms as compared to male credit beneficiary. The underlying reason may be that females want to expand their household income by increasing the sale of milk. Majority of the both male (60%) and female (69%) respondents purchased milk animals with credit money. The livestock management hours were increased on both male and female beneficiaries’ farms. However, the relative increase in hours was more on the female beneficiaries’ farms as compared with their counterpart. The underlying reason is that the number of livestock increase was also high on female beneficiaries’ farms compared to the male beneficiaries’ livestock farms. The gross benefits per animal were to the tune of Rs. 21774 for buffalo, Rs. 5014 for cow, Rs. 7000 for Young Stock and Rs. 2745 50 for goats. However the returns after deducting only cash costs were Rs. 12233, Rs. 6691, Rs. 4660 and Rs. 2430 for buffalo, cow, young stock and goats respectively. Among food items, the consumption of wheat, meat, milk, eggs, ghee, vegetables, fruits, sugar, spices and confectionary products were found increased in nearly 25 percent of credit takers for livestock farming. Among non-food items, the expenditures on clothes, ceremonies/marriages, household durables, medical care, children education and utility bills were also increased in 13 – 22 percent households. Credit for Financing Agricultural Inputs: Since the credit was crop specific, therefore, largest increase in crop area was recorded for peas (44%), followed by maize (25%) and groundnuts (19%). The cash purchasing of inputs such as fertilizer was increased from 80% to 100%. Instead using own seed, majority of the credit takers started using seed purchased from input dealers. An improvement in the per hectare yield of 22% in wheat, 15% in groundnut, 24% in peas, 23% in potato was observed. No significant change in the consumption of food and non-food items was observed. Credit for Enterprise Development: The males obtained this credit for expanding the present business while majority of females took credit to start new business. Relatively higher proportion of respondents was belonging to business and business-cum-farming class. The types of new businesses started by male respondents were retail/grocery shop, poultry farm. The female respondents have started new businesses in the form of retail/grocery shop, poultry farm and vocational schools. Concluding Remarks The credit has certainly brought changes in the type of enterprise for which the credit was obtained. For instance, increase in the herd size of livestock farming households, increase in the area under crop for which credit was obtained, more use of certified seed, shifting from buying inputs on credit to cash payment basis, and some new avenues in the off-farm business were also observed. On the other hand, some changes in the consumption patterns of food and non-food items can also be observed particularly those obtaining credit for livestock farming and inputs financing purposes. 51 It can be concluded that the micro-credit scheme can bring catalytic changes in the poor sections of the rural areas. Much more could be achieved provided some technical guidance is also attached with it. 52 ROLE OF DUGWELLS IN GENDER PROSPERITY IN RAINFED AREAS Sajida Taj, Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah, Nisar Ali Shah and Abdul Majid Use of underground water from dugwells lessens the dependence on rains and increases control of irrigation. Introduction of dugwells can bring major changes in the farming system of rainfed areas. The present study analyses the role of dugwells in gender prosperity in the rainfed areas of pothwar, Punjab. The major objective was to quantify the impact of dugwells on the cropping patterns of the sample farms, income generation activities of male and female members of the household, and change in the workload of the family females. Due to shift from rainfed to dugwell-irrigation, many changes were recorded; Cropping intensity on rainfed patches fell down from 97% to 82%. On dugwell irrigated patches, cropping intensity was increased from 97% to 138%. High value crops like vegetables were also incorporated in the cropping pattern although its proportion is very small. Per hectare net returns from crops like wheat, maize, fodders etc. were also increased significantly. Wheat and maize are still the major crops planted on dugwell irrigated lands. Besides this the value of land shifted from rainfed to dugwell- irrigated was also doubled. The following changes in the gender specific farm activities were noticed: The contribution of female labor in maize, fodder and vegetable crops was increased. Female working hours in crop production activities were increased by one hour/day. Therefore, female labour employment opportunities could be easily perceived. At village level, women also selling vegetables to earn income, which also enhances their economic empowerment. 53 The increased availability of the fodder at short distance also decreased female time for fodder transport. This also saved male time for livestock grazing which has shifted to crop farming activities. It is suggested that more and more credit may be advanced to increase irrigation water availability for enhancing rural household income and making rural females more empowered and productive. The farmers of the arid area in general and women in particular have little/no experience of growing high value crops therefore, their training in growing high value crops recommended. RESEARCH ARTICLES PUBLISHED S.No. Author Title Journal 1. Ch.M. Sharif , Gender Dimensions in Proceeding of FAO Umar Farooq Asian Rice Livelihood Workshop,Regional and Waqar Systems in Changing Office Thailand, Malik Milieu of Technologies March 2004. and Economy” 2. Asif Masood Forecasting Model of , J. of Statistics, Ghumman and Wheat Crop for Pakistan Govt.College Malik Anwar University LHR,June, Jawed 2004 3. Malik Anwar Variability in Field Pak. J. of Agricultural Jawed and Experiments in Maize Sciences of UAF Asif Masood Crop in Pakistan Volume (3-4) 2003 Ghumman ISSN 0552-9034 4. Asif Masood Pak. J. Botany., Incidence of Bacterial Ghumman(Co- 35(5): 993-997, 2003 Blight of Rice in Pakistan author) during 2002 5. Asif Masood Forecasting Model of J. of Statistics, Ghumman Wheat Crop for Pakistan Govt.College University LHR.Vol.21,Feb.2004 6. Dr. Umar “Gender Dimensions in Proceeding of FAO Farooq Asian Rice Livelihood Workshop,Regional Systems in Changing Office Thailand, 54 Milieu of Technologies March 2004 and Economy” 7. A.M. Haqqani Present Scenario, J. Science, and M.Riaz Constraints and Technology & Malik Improvement Strategies Development. 23(1). for Mungbean Production in Pakistan. 8. Sajida Taj Assessment of rural and Pakistan journal of urban women’s life and social participation in the sciences, Vol. 2, No. decision making in family 1, 2004 matters. POPULAR ARTICLES S.No. Author Title Published in 1. Hassnain Small Dams: water distribution and The News Shah productivity issues 2. Hassnain Participatory research for The News Shah agricultural development 3. Hassnain Poverty reduction in rainfed The News Shah (Co- agriculture Author) 4. Nisar Ali Wild Olive in Highlands of The News Shah Balochistan 5. Nisar Ali Potential of Tobacco Production in The News Shah Balochistan 6. Nisar Ali Raisins Production in Balochistan The News Shah 7. Asif Masood PARC Develops Wheat Production The News Ghumman, Forecast Model Malik Anwer Jawed 8. Asif Masood Policy-Making Supported by Wheat CGPRT Ghumman, Forecasting Model in Pakistan Flash Malik Anwer Jawed 9. M.Zubair The News Cost Effective and Resource Anwar Conserving Wheat Production 55 Technologies 10. M.Zubair New Rice Production Technologies The News Anwar 11. Nadeem Vegetables Production in AJ&K The News Akmal FORTNIGHTLY SEMINARS The scientists of SSI delivered 20 seminars to present the findings of their empirical research. The main purpose of such seminars is to share the research findings with the diverse group of scientists. The seminars were organized on the following titles: 1. Income Inequalities and Determinants of Poverty in the Rainfed Pothwar 2. Impact of Government Expenditure on Agriculture and Performance of Agricultural Sector in Pakistan 3. Comparison of Different Methods of Evaluating Genotypes in National Uniformity Wheat Yield Trials in Pakistan (2000-01) 4. Gender Dimensions and Role of Women in Agriculture 5. A Comparative Study of Water Distribution Systems and Productivity Issues on Private and Public Dams in Pothwar 6. Economics of Land Levelling Under Rainfed Condition of Pothwar 7. Gender Role in Livestock Management in Sindh 8. Perception of Gender Dynamism in Rainfed Agriculture 9. Growth, Price Instability and Flexibility of Major Crops in Pakistan 10. Impact of Globalization on Rice-Wheat Farming System of Pakistan 11. Factors Affecting Citrus Production in Pakistan’s Punjab 12. Export of Citrus: Potential and Constraints 13. Diffusion of No-Till Drill at Manufacturers’ level in the Punjab Pakistan 56 14. Role of Women in Dry Fruit Business in Northern Areas of Pakistan 15. On-going Assessment and Crops and Livestock Production Technologies at Integrated Research Sites of Barani Village Development Project 2002-03 16. Economic Incentives and Comparative Advantages in Rice Wheat Crop Production in Pakistani Punjab 17. Wheat Forecasting Model for Pakistan 18. Combating Micronutrient Deficiency in Pakistan by Increased Vegetable Use 19. Livestock Marketing System in Pakistan 20. Estimation of Demand for Milk in Pakistan TRAINING PROGRAMS OFFERED Statistical Methods for Data Analysis in Agricultural Research The major focus of the training was to impart training on the techniques of economics analysis of experimental data, factorial experiments, multivariate analysis and correlation and regression analysis. INTERNSHIP Under internship programme four students of B.Sc (Hons) Agri. Economics from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, were provided internship training for 10 weeks. Each student was assigned a separate research study on different topics of national interest covering economics of citrus production and export , microdredit. STATISTICAL CONSULTATION AND SOFTWARE ASSISTANCE Biometrics Programme of SSI has provided statistical consultation (90) and software assistance (30) to agricultural/biological scientists from NARC, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi and Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad.
Pages to are hidden for
"Contents - Pakistan Agricultural Research Council _PARC_"Please download to view full document