ITEDU 690 10.1 Template for Spring 2010, complete with data furnished by each author listed in Column B.
Vocational Act of 1963
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Vocational Act of Day
Technological Jerlecki 1. The focus of the article centers on an act that
Literacy prepares students directly for a vocational
career. In direct contrast to a program centered
around literacy being the main goal.
2. Focus on studying exsisting technology
instead of how to understand its function and
hisgest and best use.
3. Centers not on being able to improve and or
modify but how to use for a practical application.
4. Looks to the employer to provide additional
training at work site and over time.
5. When discussing educational skills they mean
occupational skills not scientific or mathamatical
skills for use in problem solving.
STEM Omondi 1. Vocational training teaches a specific skill.
STEM teaches a variety of content knowledge in
it various subjects.
2. Skills learned in a vocation will help its
students be marketable with a limited number of
3. Employer may provide additional training
whereas STEM focuses on educating the student
before being hired for a job.
4. Vocational Act of 1963 helped adults prepare
for jobs centered around different wars.
5. 10% of the Acts money was set aside for to
reseach the effectiveness to vocational training.
Voc. Ed. Act of Parsons 1. There were several acts prior to the 1917 act
1917 that supported vocational education. For
example, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 Coop.
Education Services provided demonstration and
2. 1917 began the Federal support for public
schools not the start of vocational education.
3. The 1917 act focused on training for future
jobs, but also attempted to address the high
number of high school dropouts.
4. Vocational ed and academic ed have never
been held with the same importance. Societally,
academia has always been held higher.
5. There were several years between the
conclusion of WW2 and the 1963 Voc Act.
Vocational education war efforts were not
continued into the 1960's.
Engineering Sommer 1. I agree that the industry advanced demand for
Education higher skilled workers.
3. Methodology is the same. Reviewing
resources dealing with vocational acts.
4. Both have outside influence of War listed as a
source of educational drive.
5. Funding is covered, albeit, some of these are
different than what I've listed, and this is probably
because of the different Acts that are looked, as I
focused more on NSF and Carl Perkins.
2. Like to check on the 1914 Commission on
National Aid to Vocational Education funding that
is supposedly the origin of vocational education
Manual Arts Thornton 1) Reading about issues in history and its impact
on education comes off as thinking that the
issues were negative for education. The
literature that follows tells a different story.
2) War has its negatives in education as well.
Americans who lost their lives may never have
had the chance to further educate themselves
therefore leaving less educated Americans. Or
those who went to college only to be drafted after
graduating and losing their life.
3) What were the programs that were added to
the Act of 1963? They aren't mentioned.
4) How was the No Child Left Behind Act related
to the Act of 1963? There is no elaboration here.
5) There many areas of the report that seem to
be missing citations. It's hard to follow where
many of the "facts" are coming from.
ed by each author listed in Column B.
Technological Literacy STEM
1. The Smith-Hughes Act was established in 1. Industry has played vital role in the need for
2.National Defense Education Act dumped a 2.Placing qualified teachers in specfic content
large amount of funding into education. areas produces higher achievment rates.
3.Industrial Arts began the movement to 3.Students achieving achieving degrees have
Technology Education. risen since 1960's.
4.Technology education is a mixed of several 4.Federa lprograms provide funding for
different displines such as Math and Science. education.
5.Industrial Art and Technology education both 5. Students need these courses in order to have
have a concentration on producing higher the skills needed in society today.
contributors to society.
1. Focus on scince, technology, engineering,
2. Develop problem solvers - focus on the ability
3. k-12 curriculum.
4. Educators need more time learning the key
mathamatical and scientific disciplins.
5. Problems in getting people into the field to
become instructors / teachers.
1. Technology Literacy focuses on aspects of
2. Technology can is found in disciplines such
as Language Arts, Visual Arts, and Social
3. Has its own set of standards and
4. Technology Literacy focuses on the process
of learning (the idea of becoming literate).
5. Does not necessarily focus on building skills
needed for a job within the technology field.
(STEM aims to strengthen subject areas and
those who study them to prepare them for the a
career in science, technology, engineering, and
1. President Clinton's push to fund public 1. For teachers who do not have proper training-
schools with Internet access, networked money should go to research with found results
computers and student training in software being applied to college and university
applications WAS a must for our continued curriculums for future teachers.
economic growth. 2. Present salaries and societal treatment of
2. I disagree with Foster, 1994, when he looked teachers causes qualified teaching staff to go to
forward to the changes to move away from the private sector for pride and monetary gains.
Industrial Arts. The engineering field was once 3. During the late '80's and early '90's, many
saturated. With no jobs to be had, employment engineers were unemployed. As a result, less
projections refocused to other fields and now we student pursued the field based upon
are understaffed in engineers. Is Foster employment forecasts.
embracing or looking to move away? Not clear. 4. Subject areas must be provided before they
3. I disagree with Waetjen 1993, that technology can be assessed via national testing.
literacy is the "ability to code and decode a 5. STEM education's goal is to infuse technology
message." What really are the symbols? They into existing academic areas. Teaching the
are not necessarily words - but could be regular teacher HOW to infuse, question, and
individual issues or trends in society. How does problem-solve should be the focus.
one interpret his belief?
4. I disagree with Waetzen and Petrina that
efforts to establish a field of Tech Literacy is
merely a fabrication of a group with a political
agenda & desire to control thoughts and minds.
Tech Literacy should be based upon societal
5. I disagree with Hershback, 1995. Scientific
principles are founded and associated with
science. Application of these principles is
1. Associations play a major role in educational 1. Reasons for STEM and Engineering
movements. Education are the same as both are preparing
2. Funding is covered and shown to provide for students for the workplace.
the changes needed for the educational 2. Disagree with statement about STEM not
movement. being seen as important in the eyes of the
3. Documents the space race as an impetus for government. Funding is available and has
educational movement, although this race was increased significantly over the past hundred
already in place due to the changes to the work years to meet needs better represented as
force attributed to the industrial needs and student to work and not necessarily completely
military needs as shown in my paper. academic.
3. Organizations are documented as reaching
out to women and minorities.
1) The title uses the word "logical" for the 1) Second paragraph of the Introduction say's
progression of technological literacy but now "many" but who are we talking about? Also, what
where in the report does it define "logical". number are we talking about?
Logical to whom? Me? Matt Jerlecki? Someone 2) Not sure how there is a growing need for
else? workers in the STEM fields. This is all a matter of
2) In last paragraph of the Introduction it opinion since there is no citation here.
mentions "relative timeline" for the progression of 3) The STEM in the US section of the paper talks
technology education. This differs from the title in about the US lacking in science and math. This
terms of the term "logical" as discussed in was also written as if STEM all together was
disagreement 1 above. lacking. Remember, technology and engineering
3) Interesting to note that manual arts are not are included in STEM. Are we lacking in these
discussed in this paper. That a bit concerning as areas too because it wasn't talked about.
we look at the progression of technological 4) One could also argue that a technology
literacy. Manual arts was still dominate in the educator also has a responsibility to promote
20th century. Why was it not discussed? STEM fields and not just the US government.
4) In the 4th paragraph of How did we get here? Why not any teacher in the educational system?
the word "shops" is used but makes no sense to 5) Some areas of the report seem to be missing
the reader. Maybe you intended something citations. This would help to see whether some
different? I was thrown off in my understanding of the statements are backed up by reputable
of the paragraph. sources and not just your opinion.
5) Point #2 for historical record of the study
states that it's been going on for longer than the
last 100 years. There is no quick reference to
this anywhere and therefore may not be true.
Voc. Ed. Act of 1917 Engineering Education
1.The Smith-Hughes Act was established in 1.Schools faced the need to prepare students for
1917 the workforce.
2. It provided funding to vocational education. 2.Students graduating with degrees did not carry
3. The Smith-Hughes state how funding would the skills needed in the workforce.
be spent in relation to teacher training and 3.Educationa funding increased to help solve
salary. these problems.
3.WWI advanced the need of highly skilled 4.The 1963 Act appointed funds for vocational
4.National Aid to Vocational Act of 1914 5.Funding was taken over by Carl D. Perkins in
supported vocational education. 1984.
5.United States was behind as a country in
producing skilled workers.
1. Recived federal funding that helped puch this 1. Focus on educating engineers.
movement forward and gain acceptance in 2. Stayed away from direct vocational training.
schools. 3. Projects are used to demonstrate / learn.
2. Was pushed by Presidentail involvement to 4. Was pushed hard in the 60's because of the
war/percieved threat (Wilson) Cold War/Space Race.
3. Industry achnowledged need for better trianed 5. Project Lead the Way is used in both as an
- smarter - workforce. example of model curriculum.
4. Looked to foster advances in industry not just
5. Was big plus to females in the fields of
engineering and previously male dominated
1. Prepare students for jobs. 1. A focus on developing engineering skills is
also one of the focuses of STEM.
2. Appointed a State board to oversee where
money can be spent. 2. The Project Method helped to develop skills
used for a specific job.
3. This is an Act that was federally approved.
3. A focus on higher education for developing
4. Vocational Education Act of 1917 was the skills was started at MIT.
idea of business leaders and legislators.
4. Federal funds helped back universities
5. Is backed by Presidential influence. programs.
5. One of the main contributers is NSF which
also helps to support STEM.
1. The Voc. Ed. Act of 1963 did have a great
impact on vocational ed. As did the Voc. Ed. Act
2. ABET's standards which included "effective
group communication and work in
multidisciplinary team" are important. History has
shown that eventhough good ideas are
presented, if strong communication skills are not
used, neither will the "good idea".
3. The philosophy that current engineering ed
teachers need to know information in many
areas versus the old belief that the engineer
would be a craftsman in one area holds true
today, as well as in the past. The Industrial Age
did not come about by those that only were
skilled in one area.
5. Ensuring offerings to women and minorities
required specific attention in the VEA of 1917
and still requires specific attention today with the
Engineering Ed. movement.
4. Historically, organizations that enabled the
creation of standards assisted voc. ed. in the
early 1900's, and are still proving their
importance through programs such as STEM.
5. Ensurig offerings to women and minorities
required specific attention in the VEA of 1917
and still requies that same attention today in the
engineering education movement.
1. Funding is covered.
2. Focused on vocational education and
increasing how well a student is prepared for the
3. Project method is not directly mentioned but it
does mention how the funding act required that a
supervised practice in area of study for at least
six months, which leads one to believe that
projects were encouraged to be a part of any
4. Funding for minority education.
5. War is documented as an outside force that is
encouraging the change of educational systems.
1) No mention of the manual arts anywhere in 1) Lois Coffey Mossman is discussed as being a
the report. This would have gone well with the pioneer in engineering education. She's
Historical Background section. mentioned in the same paragraph with manual
2) Find it hard to believe some of the pioneers of training but no mention anywhere in the article of
Industrial arts are not mentioned like Froebel, other pioneers that may or has contributed to
Dewey, etc. engineering.
3) Why was college training not expected or 2) It's ones opinion to state that two of the middle
desirable? school Project Lead the Way units are
4) In my understanding it appears vocational expensive. There is no citation here.
programs are disappearing and not expanding as 3) Which units in PLTW are similar to the project
described in the Introduction . method during the early years of engineering?
5) Woodrow Wilson may have been an advocate 4) In the conclusion there is use of first-person
but why? A little more can be fleshed out on this. narrative "I".
5) There could've been more on the relationship
between engineering and technology education.
PLTW is great but what about, for example,
1. Industrial education developed from hands-on
2.Manual Arts plays a vital role in society.
3.Vocational education was aimed in assisting
4.Specific content areas aided in sspecializing
5.Manual Arts developed into Industrial Arts.
1. "applying theoretical knowledge" to
applications would meet the goal of literacy -
applying knowledge to old and new technology.
2. Focusing on inovation and function - how can
we use it or improve it.
3. Hands on, or project based learning applying
Math & Science.
4. Looking towards the aquisition of knowledge
and the abiolity to demonstrate that.
5. Looks to seperate from Industrial technology
and its focus on job specific training
1. Manual arts focuses on task based
assignments. STEM projects for students help
to get them thinking by providing group projects.
2. Manual Art training helps to prepare students
for related jobs.
3. Manual Arts was based off of a need to train
individuals to be more knowledgeable in
4. Develops both young and older children.
5. Teachers play a pivotal role in providing the
skills necessary for manual arts jobs.
1. I agree with Foster, 1999, when he sited
Dewey's opinion that distinguished namual arts
from namual training contingent was contingent
upon educational aim. The application of
scientific findings to successful farming is
different from merely digging a hole or moving a
2. I agree with Dewey's opinion that both manual
arts training and manual training possesses
great value to society. Each has a necessary
3. I agree with Aristotles's philosophy that there
are three parts to technical learning - theory,
technique, and practical wisdom. We should not
try to alleviate any of these in our educational
4. I agree that through all of the "shifts" and re
naming of our training, societal needs has and is
the common denominator.
5. I strongly agree with Froebel's beliefs that the
hand developes the mind and participation
encourages greater knowledge.
1. Emphasis is on providing skilled workers for
2. There's mention of the project method.
3. The splitting of the manual arts into three
distinct terms would be related as engineering
education is part of one these distinctions.
4. Disagree on his conclusion that technology
and industrial arts inform curriculum, as it is
usually industries, military, and local associations
that inform teachers/educators on what the
curriculum should be.
Simplified example where Andrews is submitting work in a three-person class. Use Alt-Enter for line spaces within a cell.
Alexander Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy Alexander
Unified Arts Andrews 1. PA was concerned with philosophical issues, but
UA with technological production.
2. The subjects selected for UA and PA were
3. UA involved multiple teachers in a single activity
and PA used a single master.
4. Socratic reasoning was essential in PA, whereas
product design and manipulative skill were
emphasized in UA.
5. PA established a new system of education, and UA
was an integration of existing elements.
-Enter for line spaces within a cell.
1. Problem solving is best solved by
integrating several disciplines.
2. Teachers collaborate.
3. Common course goals are identified.
4. Hands-on learning is emphasized.
5. The study of technology entails the study
of other fields.