Example by hedongchenchen


									ITEDU 690 10.1 Template for Spring 2010, complete with data furnished by each author listed in Column B.
                                Vocational Act of 1963
                 LINK ==>       http://jcflowers1.iweb.bsu.edu/rlo/delete/Daytemo
Vocational Act of Day

Technological    Jerlecki       1. The focus of the article centers on an act that
Literacy                        prepares students directly for a vocational
                                career. In direct contrast to a program centered
                                around literacy being the main goal.
                                2. Focus on studying exsisting technology
                                instead of how to understand its function and
                                hisgest and best use.
                                3. Centers not on being able to improve and or
                                modify but how to use for a practical application.
                                4. Looks to the employer to provide additional
                                training at work site and over time.
                                5. When discussing educational skills they mean
                                occupational skills not scientific or mathamatical
                                skills for use in problem solving.
STEM              Omondi    1. Vocational training teaches a specific skill.
                            STEM teaches a variety of content knowledge in
                            it various subjects.

                            2. Skills learned in a vocation will help its
                            students be marketable with a limited number of

                            3. Employer may provide additional training
                            whereas STEM focuses on educating the student
                            before being hired for a job.

                            4. Vocational Act of 1963 helped adults prepare
                            for jobs centered around different wars.

                            5. 10% of the Acts money was set aside for to
                            reseach the effectiveness to vocational training.

Voc. Ed. Act of   Parsons   1. There were several acts prior to the 1917 act
1917                        that supported vocational education. For
                            example, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 Coop.
                            Education Services provided demonstration and
                              2. 1917 began the Federal support for public
                            schools not the start of vocational education.
                             3. The 1917 act focused on training for future
                            jobs, but also attempted to address the high
                            number of high school dropouts.
                               4. Vocational ed and academic ed have never
                            been held with the same importance. Societally,
                            academia has always been held higher.
                             5. There were several years between the
                            conclusion of WW2 and the 1963 Voc Act.
                            Vocational education war efforts were not
                            continued into the 1960's.
Engineering   Sommer     1. I agree that the industry advanced demand for
Education                higher skilled workers.
                         3. Methodology is the same. Reviewing
                         resources dealing with vocational acts.
                         4. Both have outside influence of War listed as a
                         source of educational drive.
                         5. Funding is covered, albeit, some of these are
                         different than what I've listed, and this is probably
                         because of the different Acts that are looked, as I
                         focused more on NSF and Carl Perkins.
                         2. Like to check on the 1914 Commission on
                         National Aid to Vocational Education funding that
                         is supposedly the origin of vocational education
                         funding. Source?

Manual Arts   Thornton   1) Reading about issues in history and its impact
                         on education comes off as thinking that the
                         issues were negative for education. The
                         literature that follows tells a different story.
                         2) War has its negatives in education as well.
                         Americans who lost their lives may never have
                         had the chance to further educate themselves
                         therefore leaving less educated Americans. Or
                         those who went to college only to be drafted after
                         graduating and losing their life.
                         3) What were the programs that were added to
                         the Act of 1963? They aren't mentioned.
                         4) How was the No Child Left Behind Act related
                         to the Act of 1963? There is no elaboration here.
                         5) There many areas of the report that seem to
                         be missing citations. It's hard to follow where
                         many of the "facts" are coming from.
ed by each author listed in Column B.
             Technological Literacy                           STEM
             Jerlecki                                           Omondi
             http://mjjerlecki.iweb.bsu.edu/portfolio/Technolog http://iromondi.iweb.bsu.edu/historicalmovement
             ical_Literacy.html                                 2.htm
             1. The Smith-Hughes Act was established in       1. Industry has played vital role in the need for
             1917.                                            education.
             2.National Defense Education Act dumped a        2.Placing qualified teachers in specfic content
             large amount of funding into education.          areas produces higher achievment rates.
             3.Industrial Arts began the movement to          3.Students achieving achieving degrees have
             Technology Education.                            risen since 1960's.
             4.Technology education is a mixed of several     4.Federa lprograms provide funding for
             different displines such as Math and Science.    education.
             5.Industrial Art and Technology education both   5. Students need these courses in order to have
             have a concentration on producing higher         the skills needed in society today.
             contributors to society.

                                                              1. Focus on scince, technology, engineering,
                                                              and mathamatics.
                                                              2. Develop problem solvers - focus on the ability
                                                              to think.
                                                              3. k-12 curriculum.
                                                              4. Educators need more time learning the key
                                                              mathamatical and scientific disciplins.
                                                              5. Problems in getting people into the field to
                                                              become instructors / teachers.
1. Technology Literacy focuses on aspects of

2. Technology can is found in disciplines such
as Language Arts, Visual Arts, and Social

3. Has its own set of standards and

4. Technology Literacy focuses on the process
of learning (the idea of becoming literate).

5. Does not necessarily focus on building skills
needed for a job within the technology field.
(STEM aims to strengthen subject areas and
those who study them to prepare them for the a
career in science, technology, engineering, and

1. President Clinton's push to fund public         1. For teachers who do not have proper training-
schools with Internet access, networked            money should go to research with found results
computers and student training in software         being applied to college and university
applications WAS a must for our continued          curriculums for future teachers.
economic growth.                                   2. Present salaries and societal treatment of
2. I disagree with Foster, 1994, when he looked    teachers causes qualified teaching staff to go to
forward to the changes to move away from           the private sector for pride and monetary gains.
Industrial Arts. The engineering field was once    3. During the late '80's and early '90's, many
saturated. With no jobs to be had, employment      engineers were unemployed. As a result, less
projections refocused to other fields and now we   student pursued the field based upon
are understaffed in engineers. Is Foster           employment forecasts.
embracing or looking to move away? Not clear.      4. Subject areas must be provided before they
3. I disagree with Waetjen 1993, that technology   can be assessed via national testing.
literacy is the "ability to code and decode a      5. STEM education's goal is to infuse technology
message." What really are the symbols? They        into existing academic areas. Teaching the
are not necessarily words - but could be           regular teacher HOW to infuse, question, and
individual issues or trends in society. How does   problem-solve should be the focus.
one interpret his belief?
4. I disagree with Waetzen and Petrina that
efforts to establish a field of Tech Literacy is
merely a fabrication of a group with a political
agenda & desire to control thoughts and minds.
Tech Literacy should be based upon societal
5. I disagree with Hershback, 1995. Scientific
principles are founded and associated with
science. Application of these principles is
considered technology.
1. Associations play a major role in educational       1. Reasons for STEM and Engineering
movements.                                             Education are the same as both are preparing
2. Funding is covered and shown to provide for         students for the workplace.
the changes needed for the educational                 2. Disagree with statement about STEM not
movement.                                              being seen as important in the eyes of the
3. Documents the space race as an impetus for          government. Funding is available and has
educational movement, although this race was           increased significantly over the past hundred
already in place due to the changes to the work        years to meet needs better represented as
force attributed to the industrial needs and           student to work and not necessarily completely
military needs as shown in my paper.                   academic.
                                                       3. Organizations are documented as reaching
                                                       out to women and minorities.

1) The title uses the word "logical" for the           1) Second paragraph of the Introduction say's
progression of technological literacy but now          "many" but who are we talking about? Also, what
where in the report does it define "logical".          number are we talking about?
Logical to whom? Me? Matt Jerlecki? Someone            2) Not sure how there is a growing need for
else?                                                  workers in the STEM fields. This is all a matter of
2) In last paragraph of the Introduction it            opinion since there is no citation here.
mentions "relative timeline" for the progression of    3) The STEM in the US section of the paper talks
technology education. This differs from the title in   about the US lacking in science and math. This
terms of the term "logical" as discussed in            was also written as if STEM all together was
disagreement 1 above.                                  lacking. Remember, technology and engineering
3) Interesting to note that manual arts are not        are included in STEM. Are we lacking in these
discussed in this paper. That a bit concerning as      areas too because it wasn't talked about.
we look at the progression of technological            4) One could also argue that a technology
literacy. Manual arts was still dominate in the        educator also has a responsibility to promote
20th century. Why was it not discussed?                STEM fields and not just the US government.
4) In the 4th paragraph of How did we get here?        Why not any teacher in the educational system?
the word "shops" is used but makes no sense to         5) Some areas of the report seem to be missing
the reader. Maybe you intended something               citations. This would help to see whether some
different? I was thrown off in my understanding        of the statements are backed up by reputable
of the paragraph.                                      sources and not just your opinion.
5) Point #2 for historical record of the study
states that it's been going on for longer than the
last 100 years. There is no quick reference to
this anywhere and therefore may not be true.
Voc. Ed. Act of 1917                                Engineering Education
Parsons                                             Sommer
http://sjparsons.iweb.bsu.edu/temovement.htm        http://brsommer.iweb.bsu.edu/temovement.htm

1.The Smith-Hughes Act was established in           1.Schools faced the need to prepare students for
1917                                                the workforce.
2. It provided funding to vocational education.     2.Students graduating with degrees did not carry
3. The Smith-Hughes state how funding would         the skills needed in the workforce.
be spent in relation to teacher training and        3.Educationa funding increased to help solve
salary.                                             these problems.
3.WWI advanced the need of highly skilled           4.The 1963 Act appointed funds for vocational
workers.                                            education.
4.National Aid to Vocational Act of 1914            5.Funding was taken over by Carl D. Perkins in
supported vocational education.                     1984.
5.United States was behind as a country in
producing skilled workers.

1. Recived federal funding that helped puch this    1. Focus on educating engineers.
movement forward and gain acceptance in             2. Stayed away from direct vocational training.
schools.                                            3. Projects are used to demonstrate / learn.
2. Was pushed by Presidentail involvement to        4. Was pushed hard in the 60's because of the
war/percieved threat (Wilson)                       Cold War/Space Race.
3. Industry achnowledged need for better trianed    5. Project Lead the Way is used in both as an
- smarter - workforce.                              example of model curriculum.
4. Looked to foster advances in industry not just
staff them.
5. Was big plus to females in the fields of
engineering and previously male dominated
1. Prepare students for jobs.                    1. A focus on developing engineering skills is
                                                 also one of the focuses of STEM.
2. Appointed a State board to oversee where
money can be spent.                              2. The Project Method helped to develop skills
                                                 used for a specific job.
3. This is an Act that was federally approved.
                                                 3. A focus on higher education for developing
4. Vocational Education Act of 1917 was the      skills was started at MIT.
idea of business leaders and legislators.
                                                 4. Federal funds helped back universities
5. Is backed by Presidential influence.          programs.

                                                 5. One of the main contributers is NSF which
                                                 also helps to support STEM.

                                                 1. The Voc. Ed. Act of 1963 did have a great
                                                 impact on vocational ed. As did the Voc. Ed. Act
                                                 of 1917.
                                                 2. ABET's standards which included "effective
                                                 group communication and work in
                                                 multidisciplinary team" are important. History has
                                                 shown that eventhough good ideas are
                                                 presented, if strong communication skills are not
                                                 used, neither will the "good idea".
                                                 3. The philosophy that current engineering ed
                                                 teachers need to know information in many
                                                 areas versus the old belief that the engineer
                                                 would be a craftsman in one area holds true
                                                 today, as well as in the past. The Industrial Age
                                                 did not come about by those that only were
                                                 skilled in one area.
                                                 5. Ensuring offerings to women and minorities
                                                 required specific attention in the VEA of 1917
                                                 and still requires specific attention today with the
                                                 Engineering Ed. movement.
                                                 4. Historically, organizations that enabled the
                                                 creation of standards assisted voc. ed. in the
                                                 early 1900's, and are still proving their
                                                 importance through programs such as STEM.
                                                 5. Ensurig offerings to women and minorities
                                                 required specific attention in the VEA of 1917
                                                 and still requies that same attention today in the
                                                 engineering education movement.
1. Funding is covered.
2. Focused on vocational education and
increasing how well a student is prepared for the
3. Project method is not directly mentioned but it
does mention how the funding act required that a
supervised practice in area of study for at least
six months, which leads one to believe that
projects were encouraged to be a part of any
vocational curriculum.
4. Funding for minority education.
5. War is documented as an outside force that is
encouraging the change of educational systems.

1) No mention of the manual arts anywhere in         1) Lois Coffey Mossman is discussed as being a
the report. This would have gone well with the       pioneer in engineering education. She's
Historical Background section.                       mentioned in the same paragraph with manual
2) Find it hard to believe some of the pioneers of   training but no mention anywhere in the article of
Industrial arts are not mentioned like Froebel,      other pioneers that may or has contributed to
Dewey, etc.                                          engineering.
3) Why was college training not expected or          2) It's ones opinion to state that two of the middle
desirable?                                           school Project Lead the Way units are
4) In my understanding it appears vocational         expensive. There is no citation here.
programs are disappearing and not expanding as       3) Which units in PLTW are similar to the project
described in the Introduction .                      method during the early years of engineering?
5) Woodrow Wilson may have been an advocate          4) In the conclusion there is use of first-person
but why? A little more can be fleshed out on this.   narrative "I".
                                                     5) There could've been more on the relationship
                                                     between engineering and technology education.
                                                     PLTW is great but what about, for example,
Manual Arts

1. Industrial education developed from hands-on
2.Manual Arts plays a vital role in society.
3.Vocational education was aimed in assisting
the community.
4.Specific content areas aided in sspecializing
5.Manual Arts developed into Industrial Arts.

1. "applying theoretical knowledge" to
applications would meet the goal of literacy -
applying knowledge to old and new technology.
2. Focusing on inovation and function - how can
we use it or improve it.
3. Hands on, or project based learning applying
Math & Science.
4. Looking towards the aquisition of knowledge
and the abiolity to demonstrate that.
5. Looks to seperate from Industrial technology
and its focus on job specific training
1. Manual arts focuses on task based
assignments. STEM projects for students help
to get them thinking by providing group projects.

2. Manual Art training helps to prepare students
for related jobs.

3. Manual Arts was based off of a need to train
individuals to be more knowledgeable in
technological concepts.

4. Develops both young and older children.

5. Teachers play a pivotal role in providing the
skills necessary for manual arts jobs.

1. I agree with Foster, 1999, when he sited
Dewey's opinion that distinguished namual arts
from namual training contingent was contingent
upon educational aim. The application of
scientific findings to successful farming is
different from merely digging a hole or moving a
2. I agree with Dewey's opinion that both manual
arts training and manual training possesses
great value to society. Each has a necessary
3. I agree with Aristotles's philosophy that there
are three parts to technical learning - theory,
technique, and practical wisdom. We should not
try to alleviate any of these in our educational
4. I agree that through all of the "shifts" and re
naming of our training, societal needs has and is
the common denominator.
5. I strongly agree with Froebel's beliefs that the
hand developes the mind and participation
encourages greater knowledge.
1. Emphasis is on providing skilled workers for
the workforce.
2. There's mention of the project method.
3. The splitting of the manual arts into three
distinct terms would be related as engineering
education is part of one these distinctions.
4. Disagree on his conclusion that technology
and industrial arts inform curriculum, as it is
usually industries, military, and local associations
that inform teachers/educators on what the
curriculum should be.
Simplified example where Andrews is submitting work in a three-person class. Use Alt-Enter for line spaces within a cell.

                                                                  Alexander Plato's Academy

                                                                                                Unified Arts
Plato's Academy         Alexander
Unified Arts            Andrews        1. PA was concerned with philosophical issues, but
                                       UA with technological production.
                                       2. The subjects selected for UA and PA were
                                       3. UA involved multiple teachers in a single activity
                                       and PA used a single master.
                                       4. Socratic reasoning was essential in PA, whereas
                                       product design and manipulative skill were
                                       emphasized in UA.
                                       5. PA established a new system of education, and UA
                                       was an integration of existing elements.
STEM                    Armstrong
-Enter for line spaces within a cell.

                                        Armstrong STEM

              1. Problem solving is best solved by
              integrating several disciplines.
              2. Teachers collaborate.
              3. Common course goals are identified.
              4. Hands-on learning is emphasized.
              5. The study of technology entails the study
              of other fields.

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