ITEDU 690 10.1 Template for Spring 2010, complete with data furnished by each author listed in Column B. Vocational Act of 1963 Day LINK ==> http://jcflowers1.iweb.bsu.edu/rlo/delete/Daytemo vement.htm Vocational Act of Day 1963 Technological Jerlecki 1. The focus of the article centers on an act that Literacy prepares students directly for a vocational career. In direct contrast to a program centered around literacy being the main goal. 2. Focus on studying exsisting technology instead of how to understand its function and hisgest and best use. 3. Centers not on being able to improve and or modify but how to use for a practical application. 4. Looks to the employer to provide additional training at work site and over time. 5. When discussing educational skills they mean occupational skills not scientific or mathamatical skills for use in problem solving. STEM Omondi 1. Vocational training teaches a specific skill. STEM teaches a variety of content knowledge in it various subjects. 2. Skills learned in a vocation will help its students be marketable with a limited number of jobs. 3. Employer may provide additional training whereas STEM focuses on educating the student before being hired for a job. 4. Vocational Act of 1963 helped adults prepare for jobs centered around different wars. 5. 10% of the Acts money was set aside for to reseach the effectiveness to vocational training. Voc. Ed. Act of Parsons 1. There were several acts prior to the 1917 act 1917 that supported vocational education. For example, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 Coop. Education Services provided demonstration and instruction. 2. 1917 began the Federal support for public schools not the start of vocational education. 3. The 1917 act focused on training for future jobs, but also attempted to address the high number of high school dropouts. 4. Vocational ed and academic ed have never been held with the same importance. Societally, academia has always been held higher. 5. There were several years between the conclusion of WW2 and the 1963 Voc Act. Vocational education war efforts were not continued into the 1960's. Engineering Sommer 1. I agree that the industry advanced demand for Education higher skilled workers. 3. Methodology is the same. Reviewing resources dealing with vocational acts. 4. Both have outside influence of War listed as a source of educational drive. 5. Funding is covered, albeit, some of these are different than what I've listed, and this is probably because of the different Acts that are looked, as I focused more on NSF and Carl Perkins. 2. Like to check on the 1914 Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education funding that is supposedly the origin of vocational education funding. Source? Manual Arts Thornton 1) Reading about issues in history and its impact on education comes off as thinking that the issues were negative for education. The literature that follows tells a different story. 2) War has its negatives in education as well. Americans who lost their lives may never have had the chance to further educate themselves therefore leaving less educated Americans. Or those who went to college only to be drafted after graduating and losing their life. 3) What were the programs that were added to the Act of 1963? They aren't mentioned. 4) How was the No Child Left Behind Act related to the Act of 1963? There is no elaboration here. 5) There many areas of the report that seem to be missing citations. It's hard to follow where many of the "facts" are coming from. ed by each author listed in Column B. Technological Literacy STEM Jerlecki Omondi http://mjjerlecki.iweb.bsu.edu/portfolio/Technolog http://iromondi.iweb.bsu.edu/historicalmovement ical_Literacy.html 2.htm 1. The Smith-Hughes Act was established in 1. Industry has played vital role in the need for 1917. education. 2.National Defense Education Act dumped a 2.Placing qualified teachers in specfic content large amount of funding into education. areas produces higher achievment rates. 3.Industrial Arts began the movement to 3.Students achieving achieving degrees have Technology Education. risen since 1960's. 4.Technology education is a mixed of several 4.Federa lprograms provide funding for different displines such as Math and Science. education. 5.Industrial Art and Technology education both 5. Students need these courses in order to have have a concentration on producing higher the skills needed in society today. contributors to society. 1. Focus on scince, technology, engineering, and mathamatics. 2. Develop problem solvers - focus on the ability to think. 3. k-12 curriculum. 4. Educators need more time learning the key mathamatical and scientific disciplins. 5. Problems in getting people into the field to become instructors / teachers. 1. Technology Literacy focuses on aspects of technology. 2. Technology can is found in disciplines such as Language Arts, Visual Arts, and Social Studies. 3. Has its own set of standards and benchmarks. 4. Technology Literacy focuses on the process of learning (the idea of becoming literate). 5. Does not necessarily focus on building skills needed for a job within the technology field. (STEM aims to strengthen subject areas and those who study them to prepare them for the a career in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). 1. President Clinton's push to fund public 1. For teachers who do not have proper training- schools with Internet access, networked money should go to research with found results computers and student training in software being applied to college and university applications WAS a must for our continued curriculums for future teachers. economic growth. 2. Present salaries and societal treatment of 2. I disagree with Foster, 1994, when he looked teachers causes qualified teaching staff to go to forward to the changes to move away from the private sector for pride and monetary gains. Industrial Arts. The engineering field was once 3. During the late '80's and early '90's, many saturated. With no jobs to be had, employment engineers were unemployed. As a result, less projections refocused to other fields and now we student pursued the field based upon are understaffed in engineers. Is Foster employment forecasts. embracing or looking to move away? Not clear. 4. Subject areas must be provided before they 3. I disagree with Waetjen 1993, that technology can be assessed via national testing. literacy is the "ability to code and decode a 5. STEM education's goal is to infuse technology message." What really are the symbols? They into existing academic areas. Teaching the are not necessarily words - but could be regular teacher HOW to infuse, question, and individual issues or trends in society. How does problem-solve should be the focus. one interpret his belief? 4. I disagree with Waetzen and Petrina that efforts to establish a field of Tech Literacy is merely a fabrication of a group with a political agenda & desire to control thoughts and minds. Tech Literacy should be based upon societal needs. 5. I disagree with Hershback, 1995. Scientific principles are founded and associated with science. Application of these principles is considered technology. 1. Associations play a major role in educational 1. Reasons for STEM and Engineering movements. Education are the same as both are preparing 2. Funding is covered and shown to provide for students for the workplace. the changes needed for the educational 2. Disagree with statement about STEM not movement. being seen as important in the eyes of the 3. Documents the space race as an impetus for government. Funding is available and has educational movement, although this race was increased significantly over the past hundred already in place due to the changes to the work years to meet needs better represented as force attributed to the industrial needs and student to work and not necessarily completely military needs as shown in my paper. academic. 3. Organizations are documented as reaching out to women and minorities. 4. 1) The title uses the word "logical" for the 1) Second paragraph of the Introduction say's progression of technological literacy but now "many" but who are we talking about? Also, what where in the report does it define "logical". number are we talking about? Logical to whom? Me? Matt Jerlecki? Someone 2) Not sure how there is a growing need for else? workers in the STEM fields. This is all a matter of 2) In last paragraph of the Introduction it opinion since there is no citation here. mentions "relative timeline" for the progression of 3) The STEM in the US section of the paper talks technology education. This differs from the title in about the US lacking in science and math. This terms of the term "logical" as discussed in was also written as if STEM all together was disagreement 1 above. lacking. Remember, technology and engineering 3) Interesting to note that manual arts are not are included in STEM. Are we lacking in these discussed in this paper. That a bit concerning as areas too because it wasn't talked about. we look at the progression of technological 4) One could also argue that a technology literacy. Manual arts was still dominate in the educator also has a responsibility to promote 20th century. Why was it not discussed? STEM fields and not just the US government. 4) In the 4th paragraph of How did we get here? Why not any teacher in the educational system? the word "shops" is used but makes no sense to 5) Some areas of the report seem to be missing the reader. Maybe you intended something citations. This would help to see whether some different? I was thrown off in my understanding of the statements are backed up by reputable of the paragraph. sources and not just your opinion. 5) Point #2 for historical record of the study states that it's been going on for longer than the last 100 years. There is no quick reference to this anywhere and therefore may not be true. Voc. Ed. Act of 1917 Engineering Education Parsons Sommer http://sjparsons.iweb.bsu.edu/temovement.htm http://brsommer.iweb.bsu.edu/temovement.htm 1.The Smith-Hughes Act was established in 1.Schools faced the need to prepare students for 1917 the workforce. 2. It provided funding to vocational education. 2.Students graduating with degrees did not carry 3. The Smith-Hughes state how funding would the skills needed in the workforce. be spent in relation to teacher training and 3.Educationa funding increased to help solve salary. these problems. 3.WWI advanced the need of highly skilled 4.The 1963 Act appointed funds for vocational workers. education. 4.National Aid to Vocational Act of 1914 5.Funding was taken over by Carl D. Perkins in supported vocational education. 1984. 5.United States was behind as a country in producing skilled workers. 1. Recived federal funding that helped puch this 1. Focus on educating engineers. movement forward and gain acceptance in 2. Stayed away from direct vocational training. schools. 3. Projects are used to demonstrate / learn. 2. Was pushed by Presidentail involvement to 4. Was pushed hard in the 60's because of the war/percieved threat (Wilson) Cold War/Space Race. 3. Industry achnowledged need for better trianed 5. Project Lead the Way is used in both as an - smarter - workforce. example of model curriculum. 4. Looked to foster advances in industry not just staff them. 5. Was big plus to females in the fields of engineering and previously male dominated professions. 1. Prepare students for jobs. 1. A focus on developing engineering skills is also one of the focuses of STEM. 2. Appointed a State board to oversee where money can be spent. 2. The Project Method helped to develop skills used for a specific job. 3. This is an Act that was federally approved. 3. A focus on higher education for developing 4. Vocational Education Act of 1917 was the skills was started at MIT. idea of business leaders and legislators. 4. Federal funds helped back universities 5. Is backed by Presidential influence. programs. 5. One of the main contributers is NSF which also helps to support STEM. 1. The Voc. Ed. Act of 1963 did have a great impact on vocational ed. As did the Voc. Ed. Act of 1917. 2. ABET's standards which included "effective group communication and work in multidisciplinary team" are important. History has shown that eventhough good ideas are presented, if strong communication skills are not used, neither will the "good idea". 3. The philosophy that current engineering ed teachers need to know information in many areas versus the old belief that the engineer would be a craftsman in one area holds true today, as well as in the past. The Industrial Age did not come about by those that only were skilled in one area. 5. Ensuring offerings to women and minorities required specific attention in the VEA of 1917 and still requires specific attention today with the Engineering Ed. movement. 4. Historically, organizations that enabled the creation of standards assisted voc. ed. in the early 1900's, and are still proving their importance through programs such as STEM. 5. Ensurig offerings to women and minorities required specific attention in the VEA of 1917 and still requies that same attention today in the engineering education movement. 1. Funding is covered. 2. Focused on vocational education and increasing how well a student is prepared for the workforce. 3. Project method is not directly mentioned but it does mention how the funding act required that a supervised practice in area of study for at least six months, which leads one to believe that projects were encouraged to be a part of any vocational curriculum. 4. Funding for minority education. 5. War is documented as an outside force that is encouraging the change of educational systems. 1) No mention of the manual arts anywhere in 1) Lois Coffey Mossman is discussed as being a the report. This would have gone well with the pioneer in engineering education. She's Historical Background section. mentioned in the same paragraph with manual 2) Find it hard to believe some of the pioneers of training but no mention anywhere in the article of Industrial arts are not mentioned like Froebel, other pioneers that may or has contributed to Dewey, etc. engineering. 3) Why was college training not expected or 2) It's ones opinion to state that two of the middle desirable? school Project Lead the Way units are 4) In my understanding it appears vocational expensive. There is no citation here. programs are disappearing and not expanding as 3) Which units in PLTW are similar to the project described in the Introduction . method during the early years of engineering? 5) Woodrow Wilson may have been an advocate 4) In the conclusion there is use of first-person but why? A little more can be fleshed out on this. narrative "I". 5) There could've been more on the relationship between engineering and technology education. PLTW is great but what about, for example, STEM? Manual Arts Thornton http://tjthornton.iweb.bsu.edu/temovement.htm 1. Industrial education developed from hands-on learning. 2.Manual Arts plays a vital role in society. 3.Vocational education was aimed in assisting the community. 4.Specific content areas aided in sspecializing skills. 5.Manual Arts developed into Industrial Arts. 1. "applying theoretical knowledge" to applications would meet the goal of literacy - applying knowledge to old and new technology. 2. Focusing on inovation and function - how can we use it or improve it. 3. Hands on, or project based learning applying Math & Science. 4. Looking towards the aquisition of knowledge and the abiolity to demonstrate that. 5. Looks to seperate from Industrial technology and its focus on job specific training 1. Manual arts focuses on task based assignments. STEM projects for students help to get them thinking by providing group projects. 2. Manual Art training helps to prepare students for related jobs. 3. Manual Arts was based off of a need to train individuals to be more knowledgeable in technological concepts. 4. Develops both young and older children. 5. Teachers play a pivotal role in providing the skills necessary for manual arts jobs. 1. I agree with Foster, 1999, when he sited Dewey's opinion that distinguished namual arts from namual training contingent was contingent upon educational aim. The application of scientific findings to successful farming is different from merely digging a hole or moving a log. 2. I agree with Dewey's opinion that both manual arts training and manual training possesses great value to society. Each has a necessary part. 3. I agree with Aristotles's philosophy that there are three parts to technical learning - theory, technique, and practical wisdom. We should not try to alleviate any of these in our educational process. 4. I agree that through all of the "shifts" and re naming of our training, societal needs has and is the common denominator. 5. I strongly agree with Froebel's beliefs that the hand developes the mind and participation encourages greater knowledge. 1. Emphasis is on providing skilled workers for the workforce. 2. There's mention of the project method. 3. The splitting of the manual arts into three distinct terms would be related as engineering education is part of one these distinctions. 4. Disagree on his conclusion that technology and industrial arts inform curriculum, as it is usually industries, military, and local associations that inform teachers/educators on what the curriculum should be. Simplified example where Andrews is submitting work in a three-person class. Use Alt-Enter for line spaces within a cell. Alexander Plato's Academy Unified Arts Andrews Plato's Academy Alexander Unified Arts Andrews 1. PA was concerned with philosophical issues, but UA with technological production. 2. The subjects selected for UA and PA were different. 3. UA involved multiple teachers in a single activity and PA used a single master. 4. Socratic reasoning was essential in PA, whereas product design and manipulative skill were emphasized in UA. 5. PA established a new system of education, and UA was an integration of existing elements. STEM Armstrong -Enter for line spaces within a cell. Armstrong STEM 1. Problem solving is best solved by integrating several disciplines. 2. Teachers collaborate. 3. Common course goals are identified. 4. Hands-on learning is emphasized. 5. The study of technology entails the study of other fields.
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