Chapter 6 The Ancient Americas by pengtao

VIEWS: 145 PAGES: 20

									The    Ancient
                                       The ancient Mayan
                                       city of Chichén Itzá

1100 B.C.            400 B.C.                A.D. 300 A.D. 1000
      c. 1200 B.C.   c. A.D. 100         c. A.D. 500     c. A.D. 950
      Olmec build    Moche civiliza-     Mayan civiliza- Mayan
      an empire      tion begins         tion reaches cities
                                         its peak        abandoned
                                                                                     Chapter Overview
                                                                                     Visit for
                                                                                     a preview of Chapter 6.

                           The First Americans
                           Physical geography plays a role in how civilizations develop and
                               decline. The first people in the Americas arrived thousands of
                               years ago. Farming led to the growth of civilizations in what is
                               now Mexico, Central America, and Peru.

                           The Mayan People
                           Civilizations are strengthened by a variety of advances. The Maya built
                                a complex culture in Mesoamerica with great temples and made
                                advances in science and writing.

                                 View the Chapter 6 video in the Glencoe Video Program.

                                 Compare-Contrast Make this foldable to help you compare and contrast what
                                 you learn about the ancient Americas.

Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from                                            Reading and Writing
side to side.                                                                        As you read the sections
                                                                                     on the ancient Americas,
                                                            Fold it so the left
Step 2 Turn the paper                                        edge lies about         record important
and fold it into thirds.                                     1                       concepts and events
                                                             2 inch from the
                                                                right edge.          under the appropriate
                                                                                     tabs. Then record ideas
Step 3 Unfold and cut only the                                                       similar to both under the
top layer along both folds.                          Step 4 Label as shown.          middle tab.

                              This will make
                               three tabs.             Olmec      Both      Maya

                                        Taking Notes
                                    When you do research for a report or study for a test, it helps
                                to write down information so that you can refer to it later. By tak-
                                ing notes, you can:
                                   • phrase the information in your own words
                                   • learn to restate ideas in short, memorable phrases
                                   • stay focused on main ideas and only the most important sup-
                                     porting details.

                                        As the ice froze and the seas fell, an area of
                                     dry land was exposed between Asia and
                                     Alaska. Scientists call this land bridge Beringia
                                     (buh • RIHN • jee • uh), after Vitus Bering, a
                B                    famous European explorer. They think that
                                     people in Asia followed the animals they were                     A
                                     hunting across this land bridge into the
                                     Americas. By testing the age of bones and tools
                                     at ancient campsites, scientists estimate that
                                     the first people arrived between 15,000 and
                                     40,000 years ago.
                                                                            —from page 313

                                        These notes were recorded for the paragraph above.             C
                                        A. Asians followed animals across Beringia to the
            and tak                     B. Beringia—named after European explorer Vitus
   ad first             u
Re             ards. Yo                    Bering
note s afterw ke down
          ly to ta                      C. People came to Americas about 15,000 to 40,000
 are like         r mation
  too m  uch info       you                years ago
               otes as
   yo u take n
    Using a two-column chart can make note-taking easier. Write
main ideas in the left column. In the right column, write at least two    Read to Write
supporting details for each main idea. Read the text from this chap-        Choose an important per-
ter under the heading Mayan Culture on pages 320–321. Then take             son or place from the
notes using a two-column chart, such as the one below.                      chapter. Then do research
                                                                            using at least three
                                                                            sources and take notes
Main Idea                         Supporting Details                        using the two-column
                                                                            method. Use your notes
Life in Mayan Cities              1.                                        to write a brief paragraph
                                  2.                                        summarizing your topic.

Mayan Science                     1.
 and Writing                      2.

What Happened                     1.
 to the Maya?                     2.

                                                                   Mayan ballplayer

                                           As you read one of the sections, make
                                           a chart with important dates, names,
                                           places, and events as main ideas.
                                           Under each main idea, list at least two
                                           details from your reading.
                                    The First Americans
                               Looking Back, Looking Ahead                 Content Vocabulary
                                    While Western Europe rebuilt           glacier (GLAY • shuhr)
         History               itself after the fall of Rome, diverse
  Social Science               cultures thrived in the Americas.           Academic Vocabulary
  Standards                                                                expose (ihk • SPOHZ)
  WH7.7 Students               Focusing on the                             estimate (EHS • tuh • MAYT)
  compare and contrast
  the geographic, political,
                               • People came to the Americas during
  economic, religious, and       the Ice Age, and about 10,000 years       Reading Strategy
  social structures of the       ago, farming began in Mesoamerica.        Summarizing Information Create a
  Meso-American and
                                 (page 313)                                chart to show the characteristics of the
  Andean civilizations.
                                                                           Olmec and Moche.
                               • The first civilizations in America were
                                 based on farming and trade.                                Olmec        Moche
                                 (page 315)

                               Locating Places                             Dates
                                  (MEH • zoh • uh • MEHR • ih • kuh)
                                  (TAY • oh • TEE • wuh • KAHN)

                               Meeting People
                               Olmec (OHL • mehk)
                               Maya (MY • uh)
                               Moche (MOH • cheh)

                                                    1500 B.C.                      A.D. 1                    A.D. 500
                                                c. 1200 B.C.                       c. A.D. 100      c. A.D. 400
                                                Olmec                              Moche            Teotihuacán
                                                build an                           civilization     prospers
      Teotihuac´an                              empire                             begins

312                  CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas
         WH7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American
         and Andean civilizations.

                                                                         When the Ice Age ended about 10,000
Farming in Mesoamerica                                                years ago, the glaciers melted and released
             People came to the Americas during the                   water back into the seas. The land bridge to
Ice Age, and about 10,000 years ago, farming began                    America disappeared beneath the waves.
in Mesoamerica.
Reading Connection What would our lives be like if                    Hunting and Gathering         Hunters in the
people never learned to farm? Read to learn how farm-                 Americas were constantly on the move in
ing made civilization possible in Mesoamerica.                        search of food. They fished and gathered
                                                                      nuts, fruits, or roots. They also hunted mas-
    We know people came to America a                                  sive prey, such as the woolly mammoth,
long time ago, but how did they get here?                             antelope, caribou, and bison.
Today, America is not connected by land to                               It took several hunters to kill a woolly
the rest of the world, but in the past it was.                        mammoth, which could weigh as much as
Scientists have studied the earth’s geogra-                           9 tons. These big animals provided meat,
phy during the Ice Age—a period when                                  hides for clothing, and bones for tools.
temperatures dropped sharply. At that                                    As the Ice Age ended, some animals
time, much of the earth’s water froze into                            became extinct, or disappeared from the
huge sheets of ice, or glaciers (GLAY • shuhrz).                      earth. Other animals found ways to survive
    As the ice froze and
the seas fell, an area of
dry land was exposed                                 Migration to America
between        Asia       and
Alaska. Scientists call                     ARCTIC OCEAN                          Greenland
this land bridge Beringia
(buh • RIHN • jee • uh), after                                          NORTH
                                                                                             0          2,000 mi.

Vitus Bering, a famous                              Land bridge theory                       0     2,000 km
                                    ASIA                               AMERICA               Mercator projection
European explorer. They
think that people in Asia                        Sea
followed the animals                                                                             EUROPE
they were hunting across                          l ro ut e
this land bridge into the
Americas. By testing the                   PACIFIC                              ATLANTIC
                                            OCEAN                                OCEAN           AFRICA
age of bones and tools at
ancient campsites, scien-                                                                   N

tists estimate that the                                                        SOUTH W E
first people arrived be-        1. Movement How did prehistoric
                                    AUSTRALIA                                 AMERICA
                                   people get to America from Asia?
tween 15,000 and 40,000         2. Human/Environment
years ago.                         Interaction Why do you think
                                               prehistoric people spread
                                               throughout the Americas?                                                 KEY
                                           Find NGS online map resources @                                        Extent of ice sheet
                                                                         Land now under water
                                                                                                                  Possible migration

                           Stone arrowhead
                                                                          CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas                            313
the change in environment. The warm                                    the spring, helping seeds to sprout. They
weather, however, opened new opportuni-                                decreased in the summer, allowing crops to
ties to early Americans.                                               ripen for harvest. Then, in the autumn, the
                                                                       rains returned, soaking the soil for the next
The Agricultural Revolution in America                                 year’s crop.
The first Americans were hunter-gatherers,                                 The first crops grown in the Americas
but as the Ice Age ended and the climate                               included pumpkins, peppers, squash,
warmed, people in America made an amaz-                                gourds, and beans. It took longer to
ing discovery. They learned that seeds                                 develop corn, which grew as a wild grass.
could be planted and they would grow into                              Early plants produced a single, one-inch
crops that people could eat.                                           cob. By about 2000 B.C., early Americans
    Farming began in Mesoamerica (MEH •                                had learned the technique of crossing corn
zoh • uh • MEHR • ih • kuh) 9,000 to 10,000 years                      with other grasses to get bigger cobs and
ago. Meso comes from the Greek word for                                more cobs per plant. This increased the
“middle.” This region includes lands                                   food supply and allowed Mesoamerican
stretching from the Valley of Mexico to                                populations to grow. Corn, also known as
Costa Rica in Central America.                                         maize, became the most important food in
    The region’s geography was ideal for                               the Americas.
farming. Much of the area had a rich, vol-                                                   Summarize How did the
canic soil and a mild climate. Rains fell in                           agricultural revolution begin in America?

                              Ancient American Civilizations
                  Gulf of Mexico
            Teotihuac´an          Yucat´an                                An Olmec stone head
    Valley of                    Peninsula
                          La Venta
     Mexico                          Tikal
         MEXICO                                                                                             Moche pottery
                                                                                                            in the shape of
                                                                                                            a llama


                  W       E

                      S                PACIFIC
        0             300 mi.           OCEAN

        0      300 km
        Bipolar Oblique projection           EQUATOR

                  Olmec c. 500 B.C.
                  Moche c. A.D. 700
                  Maya c. A.D. 750                                  1. Region What geographical trait did
                                                       Moche           all three civilizations share?
                                     90°W              80°W         2. Location How far apart were the
                                                                       Mayan and Moche civilizations?

Michael Holford
                                               WH7.7.1 Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan,
                                               Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies.

                                     Early American Civilizations
American Museum of Natural History
                                                                                                             rainfall and crops grew well. Instead of build-
                                                                                                             ing irrigation systems, they built drainage
                                                   The first civilizations in America were                   systems to divert water to protect their crops.
                                     based on farming and trade.                                                 The Olmec lacked important raw materi-
                                     Reading Connection Have you ever traded something                       als. They traded salt and beans with inland
                                     with your friend for something you wanted? Read to find                 peoples to get jade for jewelry and obsidian,
                                     out how early American civilizations traded goods to get                or volcanic glass, to make sharp-edged
                                     what they needed.                                                       knives. They used other trade goods such as
                                                                                                             hematite, a shiny volcanic stone, to make
                                         Growing corn and other crops allowed
                                                                                                             polished mirrors and basalt to carve gigan-
                                     Mesoamericans to form more complex soci-
                                                                                                             tic stone heads.
                                     eties. Starting around 1500 B.C., the first
                                                                                                                 The Olmec used the region’s many rivers
                                     American civilizations appeared.
                                                                                                             as highways for trade, but eventually, the
                                     Who Were the Olmec? Near present-day                                    inland peoples seized control of the trade.
                                     Vera Cruz, Mexico, a people called the                                  One of these groups built the first planned
                                     Olmec (OHL • mehk) built a far-reaching trad-                           city in the Americas. It became known as
                                     ing empire. It started around 1200 B.C. and                             Teotihuacán (TAY • oh • TEE • wuh • KAHN), or
                                     lasted about 800 years.                                                 “Place of the Gods.” The city reached its
                                         The Olmec enjoyed rich farming re-                                  height around A.D. 400. It had a population
                                     sources. For example, they received abundant                            of between 120,000 to 200,000 people.

                                                                                                             This pyramid was in the Mayan city of Tikal, which
                                                                                                             was located in present-day Guatemala. What
                                                                                                             caused the downfall of the Mayan civilization?

                                           The Pyramid of the Sun is located in the
                                           Mesoamerican city of Teotihuacán. At over
                                           200 feet tall, this pyramid is the tallest in
                                           present-day Mexico.

                                                                                                                 CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas                          315
Who Were the Maya?          As Teotihuacán’s            carried water from rivers in the Andes to
power spread, a people called the Maya                  their desert homeland. Because of this irri-
(MY • uh) built a civilization in the steamy            gation, the Moche suffered no shortage of
rain forests of the Yucatán Peninsula (YOO •            food. They ate corn, squash, beans, and
kuh • TAN). They, too, traded throughout                peanuts. They also hunted llamas and
Mesoamerica. The Maya used their central                guinea pigs and fished in the Pacific Ocean.
location to reach into what is now southern             Llamas also served as pack animals and pro-
Mexico and Central America. Mayan                       vided wool for weaving.
traders in seagoing canoes paddled along                    This surplus of food freed the Moche to
the coast, perhaps reaching as far as the               do other things. Moche engineers built huge
present-day United States. You will read                pyramids, and Moche traders exchanged
about the Maya in Section 2.                            goods with people as far away as the
                                                        Amazon River valley. These goods included
The Moche     South of Mesoamerica, a civi-             pottery, cloth, and jewelry.
lization developed on the west coast of                     For all their achievements, the Moche
South America. The Moche (MOH • cheh)                   never expanded much beyond their home-
people lived in the dry coastal desert where            land. They were eventually replaced by a
Peru is today.                                          civilization called the Inca.
    The Moche civilization lasted from about                                   Describe What was
A.D. 100 to A.D. 700. They dug canals that              America’s first civilization? Where did it develop?

                                                            Study Central Need help understanding the
                                                            rise of civilization in the Americas? Visit
                                                   and click on Study Central.

                                       What Did You Learn?                4. Summarize How did the first
Reading Summary                        1. Why was Mesoamerica’s geog-
                                          raphy ideal for farming?           people come to the Americas,
Review the                                                                   and how did they live once
                                       2. How did the first Americans        they were here? CA 6RC2.0
• The first Americans were most           develop corn?
  likely hunter-gatherers who came                                        5.              How did geogra-
                                       Critical Thinking                     phy shape Moche civilization?
  from Asia across a land bridge.
                                       3. Summarizing Information                CA CS3.
  The first civilization appeared in
  Mesoamerica when people                Draw a chart like the one        6. Expository Writing Write a
  learned to farm.                       below. Add details about the        short essay comparing the civi-
                                         early peoples of Mesoamerica        lizations that developed in
                                         and South America. CA 6RC2.4        Mesoamerica and South
• A number of civilizations devel-                                           America. CA 6WS1.3
  oped in the Americas, including                  Mesoamerica
  the Olmec and Maya in Central                                           7.                Taking Notes
  America and Mexico, and the                                                  Review Section 1 and take
  Moche in South America. All were             South America                   notes. Create an outline of the
  dependent on farming.                                                        section from your notes. Use
                                                                               this outline to review the sec-
                                                                               tion. CA 6RC2.4

316             CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas
                           The Mayan People
Looking Back, Looking Ahead                       Content Vocabulary
    In Section 1, you read about the rise         sinkhole (SIHNGK • HOHL)
of the Maya. They had to use whatever             alliance (uh • LY • uhns)                           History
natural resources the land had to offer
                                                                                               Social Science
in order to survive and prosper. As a             Academic Vocabulary
result, they developed a culture suited                                                        Standards
                                                  access (AK • SEHS)                           WH7.7 Students
to where they lived.                              predict (prih • DIHKT)                       compare and contrast
                                                                                               the geographic, political,
                                                                                               economic, religious, and
Focusing on the                                   Reading Strategy                             social structures of
• The Maya created a civilization of              Organizing Information Use a web             the Meso-American and
 city-states and thrived in                       diagram like the one below to record         Andean civilizations.
 Mesoamerica’s rain forest. (page 318)            Mayan achievements.
• The Maya developed a society of city-
 states and a culture based on their
 religion. (page 320)

Locating Places                                               Achievements
Petén (peh • TEHN)

Meeting People
Jasaw Chan K’awiil I (KAH • WEEL)

                                A.D. 400                             A.D. 700                       A.D. 1000
                                    c. A.D. 500                            c. A.D. 682                c. A.D. 950
                                    Mayan civilization                     Jasaw Chan                 Mayan
                                    reaches its peak                       K’awiil I begins           cities
                                                                           to rule Tikal              abandoned

                                                                 CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas                  317
                      WH7.7.1 Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan,
                      Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies.

                                                                                     in present-day Guatemala, the Petén’s
    The Mayan People                                                                 dense forests nearly blocked out the sun.
                  The Maya created a civilization of city-                               The Maya saw what others missed.
    states and thrived in Mesoamerica’s rain forest.                                 Swamps and sinkholes gave them access
    Reading Connection What would it be like to live in                              to a year-round source of water. The
    a jungle? Read to learn how the Maya adapted to life in                          sinkholes (SIHNGK • HOHLZ)—areas where the
    the jungles of Mesoamerica.                                                      earth has collapsed—connected the Maya
                                                                                     with a huge system of underground rivers
         In A.D. 1839 an American lawyer named                                       and streams.
    John Lloyd Stevens and an English artist                                             Even with a ready water supply, only an
    named Frederick Catherwood slashed their                                         organized culture could have succeeded in
    way into the tangled Yucatán rain forest.                                        building cities and fields in the Petén. The
    There they found the vine-covered ruins of                                       effort required cooperation among many
    an ancient city.                                                                 people, which could only be accomplished
         Stevens and Catherwood learned that                                         by having an organized government.
    the people who had built the city were                                               The Maya set up city-states. In each city-
    called the Maya. The Maya are the ances-                                         state, kings such as Jasaw Chan K’awiil I
    tors of millions of Native Americans who                                         (KAH • WEEL) of the city-state of Tikal supplied
    still live in present-day Mexico, Guatemala,                                     the leadership. They led the armies and
    Honduras, El Salvador, and Belize.                                               organized great building projects. Leadership
         At first glance, it looked like the Maya                                    passed from one king to the next, and the
    had settled in one of the worst spots on                                         city-states often fought with each other.
    Earth. They picked the Petén (peh • TEHN),                                                           Identify What was the
    the Mayan word for “flat region.” Located                                        main advantage of living in a tropical rain forest?

    The City of Tikal
                                                                          The city of Tikal was one of the largest and oldest Mayan cities.
                                                                          Huge temples and monuments were spread throughout the city.
                                                                          The area which you see here was the main religious center of the
                                                                          city. What Mayan leader built Tikal?
1 Temple of the Masks
  (Temple II)
2 North Acropolis

3 Temple of the Giant
  Jaguar (Temple I)
4 Stelae
                                                                              1                        2                                               3
5 Great Plaza
6 Ball Court


    Michael Holford
                                                                                                        6.4.6. Compare and contrast life in Athens
                                                                                                         WH7.7.2 Study the roles of people in each
                                                                                                        and Sparta, with emphasis on their rules in
                                                                                                         society, including class structures, family life,
                                                                                                        the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.
                                                                                                         warfare, religious beliefs and practices, and
                                                                                                         WH7.7.4 Describe the artistic and oral
                                                                                                         traditions and architecture in the three
American Museum of Natural History

                                     JASAW CHAN K’AWIIL I
                                        Ruled A.D. 682–734
                                         When Jasaw Chan K’awiil I began his rule in A.D. 682, the
                                     Mayan city-state of Tikal was weak and struggling. Its temples and
                                     other buildings were falling into disrepair, and the people were
                                     dominated by their great rival city, Calakmul.
                                         Things began to improve in A.D. 695 when Jasaw defeated the
                                     armies of Calakmul in battle. Jasaw held a celebration a month
                                     later to honor the gods and himself. Tikal began to prosper again,
                                     and Jasaw spent the next 40 years rebuilding and strengthening
                                     his city-state.
                                         Although Jasaw had been victorious, he spent only part of his
                                     time expanding his control over the region. Instead, most of his
                                     efforts went toward helping his people and restarting building
                                     projects in Tikal.
                                         Jasaw’s efforts teach us a great deal about Mayan art,
                                     architecture, and customs. For example, he built the famous
                                     pyramid in Tikal. The huge structure was 154 feet (47 m) in
                                     height, and served as both a temple and as Jasaw’s tomb. In the
                                     room at the top of the structure, carvings depicted Jasaw’s
                                     victories and mythological scenes. Jasaw wears clothing similar to               This Mayan monument
                                                                                                                      depicts Jasaw Chan
                                     the ancient leaders of Tikal to show that he was as great as they                K’awiil I.
                                     were. Other images were carved on bones and on other buildings.
                                     They show events from Mayan mythology and history praising
                                     Tikal’s rulers.
                                         One piece of art was of great importance: the effigy, or image
                                     of the god that armies carried into battle. This god was supposed to
                                     be the special god of that city. When Jasaw defeated Calakmul, he
                                     captured the image of their city’s god. The people of Tikal thought
                                     this meant that the god of Tikal was more powerful than the
                                     others. Jasaw ordered the story of this
                                     great accomplishment to be carved on
                                     his pyramid so everyone would
                                     remember what he had done.                       The Maya emphasized religion and the
                                         Jasaw began to rebuild Tikal during          accomplishments of their rulers in their art
                                     his reign, but most of the great building        and architecture. What do people use as
                                     projects and military expansion of the           subjects for art today? Why?
                                     city occurred under the reign of his son.

        WH7.7.2 Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, warfare, religious beliefs and practices,
        and slavery. WH7.7.5 Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics, including the development of the
        calendar and the Meso-American knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations' agricultural systems.

                                                                       Mayan Culture
                                                                                    The Maya developed a society of city-
                                                                       states and a culture based on their religion.
                                                                       Reading Connection Did you ever wonder why people
                                                                       need calendars? Read to learn how the Maya developed
                                                                       calendars and math to help them farm.

Mayan Ball Game      Mayan cities had                                      The rulers of Mayan city-states said they
many ball courts. In a Mayan ball game,                                were descended from the sun. They claimed
teams of two or three players tried                                    to rule as god-kings and expected people to
to drive a hard rubber ball through a                                  build huge monuments to honor them. A
decorated stone ring. Players wore                                     good example of this is the pyramid built
helmets, gloves, and knee and hip                                      for Jasaw Chan K’awiil I at Tikal.
guards made of animal hide to protect                                  Life in Mayan Cities     As god-kings, Mayan
themselves against the hard rubber balls.                              rulers taught their subjects how to please
They were not allowed to use their hands                               the gods. One way was human sacrifice.
or feet to throw or bat the ball. They had                             When the Maya marched into battle, they
to use their hips to drive the ball through                            wanted captives more than they wanted
the stone rings.                                                       land. During times of drought, Mayan
    Scholars think that a Mayan                                        priests sacrificed captives to Chac, the god
ball game was more than a sport                                        of rain and sunlight. The Maya typically
or contest. It had a religious and                                     only sacrificed captives from the top of a
symbolic meaning—                                                      conquered society. Most captives were kept
                                                                       enslaved and put to work.
as well as deadly
                                                                           The Maya believed that the gods con-
results. Crowds
                                                                       trolled everything. As a result, religion was
rewarded the                                                           at the core of Mayan life. A huge pyramid
winners as                                                             with a temple at the top towered over every
heroes and gave them                                                   city. Priests, who claimed to know what the
gifts. However, the                                                    gods wanted, set up a strict class system in
losing team was                                                        which everyone had a place.
sacrificed to the                                                          Royal Mayan women played an impor-
gods in a                                                              tant role in their society. They often married
ceremony                                                               into royal families in other Mayan city-states.
after the game.                                                        This helped form alliances (uh • LY • uhns • uhs).
                            Mayan ballplayer

    Connecting to the Past
    1. How did a player score in a Mayan ball                                Web Activity Visit and
       game?                                                                 click on Chapter 6—Student Web Activity to
                                                                             learn more about the Americas.
    2. Why was losing especially painful for a
Alliances are political agreements between              read them, however. After the Mayan civi-
people or states to work together. In some              lization collapsed, nobody could read
city-states, such as Calakmul, women occa-              Mayan hieroglyphics. Only recently have
sionally served as all-powerful queens.                 scholars learned how to read them.

Mayan Science and Writing         Both queens           What Happened to the Maya?         The Mayan
and kings turned to Mayan priests for advice.           civilization reached its peak in the A.D. 500s.
The priests thought gods revealed their plans           Over the next 300 years, the different Mayan
through movements of the sun, moon, and                 city-states began to collapse. No one is sure
stars, so they studied the sky closely.                 why this happened. Some experts say over-
    The Maya also needed to know when to                population drained the cities of food and
plant their crops. By watching the sky, the             resources. Others blame a long drought, or
priests learned about astronomy and devel-              period without rain. Still others say that in
oped a 365-day calendar. They used it to                city after city the poor people rebelled
predict eclipses and to schedule religious              against their rich rulers. Whatever the rea-
festivals, plantings, and harvests. To chart            son, the Maya began abandoning their
the passage of time, the Maya also devel-               cities, and by the A.D. 900s, the cities lay
oped a system of mathematics.                           deserted.
    The Maya also invented a written lan-
guage. Like the Egyptians, the Maya used a                                         Explain How did the Maya
type of hieroglyphics. Symbols represented              treat enslaved people?
sounds, words, or ideas. Only nobles could

                                                                Study Central Need help understanding the
                                                                rise of civilization in America? Visit
                                                       and click on Study Central.

                                       What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary                        1. In what country were Mayan
                                          ruins first found?
                                                                              4.               How did astron-
                                                                                   omy and mathematics help
Review the                                                                         Mayan society? CA HI2.
                                       2. What was the relationship
• In the rain forests of Central
                                          between government and reli-        5. Writing a Journal Imagine
  America, the Maya developed a
                                          gion in Mayan society?                 you are an archaeologist who has
  civilization. They used natural
  resources, such as sinkholes, and    Critical Thinking                         found lost Mayan ruins. Write a
  established governments based        3. Organizing Information                 journal entry describing your dis-
  on city-states.                        Draw a diagram like the one             covery. CA 6WS1.1
                                         below describing the geogra-         6. Analyze Why do you think
• The Mayan city-states developed        phy of the region in which the          only nobles could read the
  a culture based on their religious     Maya lived. CA 6RC2.4                   Mayan language?
  beliefs. They made advances in
  mathematics and science, includ-                                            7.              Understanding
  ing a sophisticated calendar.                                                    Beliefs Write an essay
                                                                                   explaining how the Maya tried
                                                                                   to please their gods. What did
                                                                                   the Maya hope to receive in
                                                                                   return? CA HI2.

                                                           CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas                   321
                                                                           WH7.7.2 Study the roles of
                                                                           people in each society, including
                                                                           class structures, family life, warfare,
                                                                           religious beliefs and practices, and

               Life From Death
               Both the Maya and the people of Teotihuacán believed in a
          life after death. Both groups of people also decorated their
          temples and tombs with important images that they wanted
          future generations of their people to see.
               Study the images on pages 322 and 323, and answer the
          questions that follow.
                                                                                              Statue of
                                                                                              Mayan god

                                              Reader’s Dictionary
             guans (GWAHNZ): large birds that
               resemble turkeys

        The Rain God’s Heaven
      T  he people of Teotihuacán believed that peo-
      ple went to heaven after they died. The follow-
      ing song explains some of these beliefs.
         . . . . . .
        Thus they said:
        “When we die,
        truly we die not,
        because we will live, we will rise,
        we will continue living, we will awaken.
        This will make us happy.”
        Thus the dead one was directed,
        when he died:
        “Awaken, already the sky is rosy,                       This wall painting in Teotihuacán
        already sing the flame-colored guans,                   shows the heaven of the rain god
        the fire-colored swallows,                              Tlaloc.
        already the butterflies fly.”
        . . . . . . . . . .
                      —Michael D. Coe and Rex Koontz,
                   Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs
      a New King
This Mayan painting comes
from a Mayan tomb. It shows a
procession of musicians playing
various instruments and people
celebrating the choosing of the
heir to the throne.

T  his image of Mayan warriors
in a battle comes from the same
tomb that has the painting of
the procession. The man wear-
ing the jaguar suit standing
over the fallen enemy is the

The Rain God’s Heaven                              Mayan Warfare
1. What does the song tell you about the beliefs   5. What kinds of weapons do the warriors have?
   of the people of Teotihuacán.                   6. How can you tell who the winner is?
2. What does the image show you about the
   place people go to after they die?
                                                   Read to Write
                                                   7. Compare the images from Teotihuacán and
Welcoming a New King                                  the Mayan tombs. How are they different?
3. What kinds of instruments do you think the         What is the goal of the images on the Mayan
   musicians are playing?                             tombs compared to the Teotihuacán image?
                                                      Why do you think the Mayan rulers preferred
4. Why do you think someone would place this
                                                      such images? CA HR4.; HR5.
   image in a tomb?

                                                       CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas             323
                                        Standard WH7.1
Review Content Vocabulary                            Geography Skills
Match the definitions in the second column to        Study the map below and answer the follow-
the terms in the first column. Then write a sen-     ing questions.
tence for each of the words. Use information         14. Place Look at a map of modern-day
from the text to help you properly use the               Central America. What countries occupy
words.                                                   the former area of the Maya? CA CS3.
 1. glacier         a. areas of collapsed earth      15. Location About how far is Teotihuacán
 2. sinkhole        b. an agreement between              from the Olmec civilization? CA CS3.
                       people or groups              16. Movement Which civilization do you
 3. alliance        c. large sheets of ice               think would be better suited for trade?
                                                         Why? CA CS3.
Review the
Section 1 • The First Americans                                                    Early Civilizations
 4. When did the first people arrive in the
    Americas? On which continent did they
    live originally?
                                                                         100°W                                                  90°W
 5. How did farming lead to the rise and                                                 0                            300 mi.

    development of civilizations in present-               MEXICO                        0               300 km
                                                                                         Bipolar Oblique projection
    day Mexico, Central America, and Peru?                     Texcoco                                                                     Chich´en
                                                                                                 Gulf of Mexico                            Itz´a
 6. What were some of the goods traded by                                        Teotihuac´an
                                                                                                                                 Yucat´ a n
    the Olmec people?                                                                                                           Peninsula
Section 2 • The Mayan People                               N             Valley of
                                                                                                        La Venta
 7. Where did the Maya build their civiliza-                              Mexico
                                                       W       E
    tion?                                                  S

 8. How did the Maya honor their kings?                            PACIFIC OCEAN                                                       Copan
 9. What role did royal Mayan women play in

Critical Thinking
10. Analyze How did the Mayan people                                    KEY
    make use of the geography of their region?                       Olmec A.D. B.C.
                                                                     Toltec c. 500 1200
                                                                     Maya c. A.D. 750
                                                                     Aztec        1500
       CA CS3.
11. Predict How might ancient America have
    been different if the Ice Age had not ended
    when it did? CA HI2.
                                                     Read to Write
                                                     17.                         Persuasive Writing Historians
12. Explain What were some of the possible                 are not sure why the Mayan civilization
    outcomes of playing the Mayan ball game?               declined. Select one of the theories
      CA 6RC2.0                                            described on page 321 and do research to
13. Describe What was the role of Mayan                    find support for that theory. Write an
    priests in government? How did these                   essay persuading others that your theory
    priests use the stars and sky? CA 6RC2.3               is correct. CA 6WA2.5

324               CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas
18. Using Your               Create an outline      Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for
                                                    the Chapter Test, visit
    map of Mesoamerica on poster board. It
    should be big enough for the entire class to
    work together. Label each country and the
    location of each civilization using informa-   25.                           Understanding Chance
    tion from the chapter. Then use your fold-           The discovery of an ancient Mayan city in
    ables to write facts about each civilization         the Yucatán rain forest led to new informa-
    on the map. CA 6RC2.4     CA CS3.                    tion and understanding of the Maya. Use
                                                         your local library and the Internet to
Using Academic Vocabulary                                research the impact of the discovery. What
                                                         new things did the world learn about the
Match each word below with the definition                Maya? How did the chance discovery
that best fits it.                                       change the way historians view ancient
___19. expose                                            American civilizations? Write a newspaper
___20. estimate                                          article that explains the significance of this
___21. access                                            discovery. CA HI4.; HI5.
___22. predict
        a. to guess about what might happen
            in the future
        b. to uncover something or put it on
        c. to judge the approximate size or                  Use the map below to answer
            quantity of something                            the following question.
        d. the ability to make use of something
                                                         26 Which area of the map is
Linking Past and Present                                     known as Mesoamerica?
23. Making Connections The people of                                     Regions of America
    ancient American civilizations built many
    different types of monuments to honor
    their gods and their leaders. What kind of
    monuments do we use in the United States
    today? Who do we honor with these mon-
    uments? How are these monuments similar                      J
    to those of the ancient Americans? How are
    they different? Write a short essay explain-
    ing the role of monuments in our world
    today. CA 6RC2.2                                                                  L

Reviewing Skills                                                     W


24.                   Taking Notes Use your
      local library to find a book with
      information on the history of the Moche
      people. Read the information, taking notes
      as you go. Use these notes to write a                  A   J
      summary of the Moche civilization and its              B   K
      important events and people. CA 6WA2.3                 C   L
                                                             D   M

                                                     CHAPTER 6 • The Ancient Americas                   325
                Making Comparisons
         Compare the civilizations
      that you have read about by
      reviewing the information
                                                      Chapter 4
      below. Can you see how the
                                                      Chapter 5
      people of these civilizations                   Chapter 6
      helped to build the world we
      live in today?

                               Early                       Early                       Ancient
                               India                       China                      Americas
                             Ch a p te r 4               Ch a p te r 5                 Chapter 6
Where did these
                   • In the Indus River valley   • In the Huang He valley      • Central America
                                                                               • South America

                                                 • Wu Wang, ruled                   • Jasaw Chan K’awiil I
Who were some                                      c. 1045–1043 B.C .                 A.D.   682–734
important                                        • Confucius,
                                                   551–479 B.C .
people in these                                  • Qin Shihuangdi,
civilizations?     • Siddhartha Gautama,
                     c. 563–483 B.C .
                                                   ruled 221–210 B.C .
                                                 • Liu Bang, ruled
                   • Chandragupta Maurya,          202–195 B.C .
                     ruled c. 321–298 B.C .
                   • Asoka, ruled
                     c. 273–232 B.C .

                   • Many lived in farming       • Landowning aristocrats      • Hunter-gatherers
Where did           villages and towns near       lived in large houses with
                                                                               • Farming villages
                    major rivers                  gardens and courtyards
most of the                                                                    • City-states (Teotihuacán
                   • Some lived in very large    • Most people were farmers
people live?        cities                        living in simple houses
                                                                                and Tikal)
                                                  in villages or cities

                                                              Early                                                  Early                                               Ancient
                                                              India                                                  China                                              Americas
                                                           Ch a p te r 4                                           Ch a p te r 5                                         Chapter 6
What were
                                            • Hinduism: complex                                    • Confucianism: duty                                   • Belief in gods who
these people’s                                religion with many                                      directs your life                                     controlled everything
beliefs?                                      deities representing an
                                              eternal spirit
                                                                                                   • Daoism: people should                                • Practiced human
                                                                                                      try to be in harmony                                  sacrifice
                                            • Buddhism:                                               with nature
                                              enlightenment available
                                                                                                   • Legalism: people need
                                              to anyone
                                                                                                      harsh laws to be good
                                                                                                   • Worship of ancestors

                                                                                                   • A king or emperor ruled                              • Powerful kings ruled
What was their                                                                                        the country                                           city-states (Maya)
government                                                                                         • Aristocrats ran the
like?                                       • The warrior class ran the
                                              government, usually
                                              ruled by a king

                                            • Sanskrit: used characters                            • Chinese: symbols that                                • Mayan language written
What was their                                to form letters and                                     represent objects were                                in hieroglyphics
                                              words                                                   combined to represent
language and                                                                                          ideas
writing like?

                                            • Made advances in                                                                                            • Developed trade
What                                          medicine, mathematics,                                                                                        networks and methods
                                              science, and literature                                                                                       of farming and building
                                            • Developed two major
did they make?                                religions                                            • Invented paper and
                                                                                                   • Cultivated silk

                                            • ”0” is now a part of our                             • The papermaking process
How do these                                  number system                                           allows us to create books,
                                                                                                      newspapers, and other
contributions                               • Many people still                                       paper products                                      • Developed crops, such as
                                              practice Buddhism and
affect me? Can                                Hinduism                                             • Gunpowder and silk are                                 corn, beans, and squash,
                                                                                                                                                            that we still use today
you add any?                                                                                          still in use

    (tl)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (c)Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY, (bl)Ronald Sheridan/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection, (br)The British Museum, London/Bridgeman Art Library

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