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        UN   CALIFORNII ,   SAN   D
                                      ,
     rh
     L.!..J        NITIKI'ED INTO BlOWGYas a youth in the Cajun swamp coun-
                   try of Louisiana, Fred N. White has been conversant with nature
     throughout his life, finding some of his most rewarding times in the raw and
     marvelous majesty of the outdoors.
        After holding faculty positions at universities and medical schools, includ-
     ing the UCLA School of Medicine, White joined the Scripps Institution of
     Oceanography in 1977 as director of the Physiological Research Laboratory.
     There he found people who shared his view that new insights into the work-
     ings of all living organisms could result from studying a wide range of spe-
     cies and environments.
        An example of the valuable link between comparative physiology and
     medical practice comes from White's own research. His observations of the
     blood chemistry of cold-blooded animals showed that during exposure to
     varying temperatures, their blood pH varied in a predictable manner, a pat-
     tern which also improved performance in the hypothermic mammalian
     heart. He was aware that physicians attempted to maintain a constant blood
     pH while cooling patients' blood during cardiac surgery He proposed,
     based on his studies of the mammalian heart, that allowing human blood pH
     to vary during cooling would help stabilize the heart. Most physicians now
     use this procedure to benefit hundreds of thousands of patients each year.
        White was an extremely active member of the university community, serv-
     ing on academic committees and teaching both undergraduates and gradu-
     ate students. Among his numerous honors, he considers his greatest recogni-
     tion to be the Student An1erican Medical Association's Golden Apple Award
     for teaching.
        Since retiring in July 1988 and moving to a small community in south-cen-
     tral Texas, White and his wife, Maxine, have retained links to the campus and
     San Diego by helping to raise funds for UCSD scholarships and by consult-
     ing on a new hummingbird aviary at the San Diego Zoo. Together, they plan
'"   to continue'their lifelong activities of bird study and observing nature, in an
     area "Where wildlife is abundant.
        SCRIPPS




        ANNUAL
        REPORT
                  .'




T   V
,.




                                            '.
                              ,

       i'h1.I.t~U~ItY' of~"~ornl'" San Diego; Scrlppe.fn~tltutlon
     - of OceanC?Sll'allhy Anflual Report 1988~for the year ending June
       3D, 1988). A m81Jr"ort~.of · thf work reported herein was
       supported by the National Science Foundation ana the .Depa~t
       ment of the Navy. For more Information on the Instltutlon.plea..
       wrtte: Technical Publications, Scripps Institution of Oceanogra-
       phy, A-D33B, La Jolla, CaIHornla 92093.
                                                   )

INTRODUCTION                                           5
HIGHLIGHTS                                             6
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES                                12
  Marine Biology Research Division                     12
  Marine Life Research Group                           16
  Marine Physical Laboratory                           19
  Neurobiology Unit                                    22
  Ocean Research Division                              24
  Physiological Research Laboratory                    28
  Center for Coastal Studies                           30
  Geological Research Division                         32
  California Space Institute                           35
  Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics        37
  Institute of Marine Resources                        40

SEAGOING OPERATIONS                                44
GRADUATE DEPARTMENT                                48
FACILITIES and COLLECTIONS                         51
APPENDIXES                                         57
  Appendix A:   Publications                           57
  Appendix B:   Academic Staff                         66
  Appendix   c: Awards and Honors                      69
  Appendix 0:   Current Funds                          69
  Appendix E:   Organization                           70
  Appendix F:    Financial Support                     72
  Appendix G:    University Officers and Regents       73

IN MEMORIAM                                        74
~
               T THE CLOSE of my second year as director, I find that international scien-
                tific concerns have increasingly drawn Scripps into multinational programs.
               We are now working with the Soviets on a major seismic program, anel with
several nations on a survey in the Strait of Gibraltar. Of course, the international Ocean
Drilling Program continues, as does planning for the World Ocean Circulation Study and
the Global Ocean Flux Study. I hope that the worldwide arrention focused on global cli-
mate change will generate new funding and ship time for comprehensive studies. Scripps
and rwo UC laboratories are already working together to model the environmental re-
sponse to atmospheric CO 2 increase.
   Here in La Jolla our major focus has been on research and education. We are at the stan
of a new development program, and involved with the initial reorgani zation of the institu-
tion, and with the dedication or renaming of severa l facilities.
   In today's climate of declining state and federal support, it is increasingly important to
generate fund s frOIll the private sector. To this end we have launched a development pro-
gram that has already yielded funds for fellowships and research. We have also received an
endowment for Scripps's first major international prize in marine sciences-the R      obert L.
anel Bettie P Coely Prize, a biennial $10,000 awarel to recogni ze ourstanding individual
achievements in the ocean sc iences.
   A new, more representative form of government at Scripps is under way and has engerl.-
dered some reorganization and a program to provide "hard" money for our academic re-
sea rchers, to recognize and reward their excellence.
   The Ellen Browning Scripps Memorial Pier was dedicated in the summer. Three campus
buildings have been or will soon be renamed to honor Scripps professors. The rh~'sical
Oceanography and Space Sciences building is now William A. Nierenberg Hall; the Physi-
ological Research Laboratory will be named Per F Scholander Hall ; and the tvJarine Biology
Building will be Carl L. Hubbs Hall.
   For us, fwO exciting events in 1987 were the eruption of lvlacdonald Seamount near lW
Meiuil/e during a Scripps P   acific Ocean expedition, affording us the opportunity to witness
an island's birth, and our collaborative expedition with the Soviets to the USSR 's Lake
Baikal in Siberia.
   The year was marked by man)' individual honors, which are listed in Appendix C J do,
however, want to mention the election of Russ Davis and George Somero to the Narional
Academy of Sciences, bringing the total Scripps membership in this distinguished acad-
emy to eighteen.
   As my tenure at Scripps continues, I alll increasingly impressed with the breadth and
depth of our research and the excellence of our training. My view is that Scripps can be
even more important in the future than it bas been in the past. I look forward to greater
national and international scientific cooperation as we face the challenge of understanding

0 ",   pi"".                                                 ~( ~~
                                                              Edward A. Frieman, Director
                                    GIBRALTAR
                                  EXPERIMENT




rn               HE MEDITERRAl"lEAl"l SEA
                 loses more water by evapora-
                 tion than it gains from fresh-
water input because of its latitude and con-
fined nature. Thus the sea is saltier and
denser than water in the adjacent Atlantic
                                                     The Gibraltar Experiment involved re-
                                                  search teams from Canada, France, the
                                                  Unitecl States, Spain, and Morocco. Focus-
                                                  ing on subinertial nows with periods from
                                                  a few clays to a few months, the Scripps
                                                  team studied the transport of heat and salt
Ocean. An international study, the Gibraltar      as well as water through the stra it, the ef-
Experiment, focused on the factors control-       fect of tidal action, and the distribution of
ling this phenomenon. The exchange of             water masses (each water mass has unique
water between the Mediterranean and At-           temperature and salinity characteristics) in-
lantic basins is an example of baroclinic         volved in the exchange between the Medi-
now caused by density differences. This           terranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
has long interested nuid dynamicists be-             Current meters and instruments for mea-
cause the phenomenon applies to atmo-             suring temperature, conductivity, and pres-
spheric as well as ocean ic problems.             sure were maintained on moorings along
   The Strait of Gibraltar is nearly 60 km        the sill for one year. Water surveys were
long, and 12 km wide at its narrowest sec-        also conducted from ships. Moorings were
tion (Point Cires). A principal sill with a       deployed and recovered from USNS Z),J1ch
maximum depth of 300 m is located be-             as well as the Spanish hydrographic vessel
tween Point Paloma (Spain) and Point AI-          Tojino and the lvloroccan tug Bouraz.
tares (l'l'lorocco). The channel varies in           Tidal variations in the f10w through the
depth from 900 m at the Gibraltar-Ceuta           strait were studied by the Gibraltar Experi-
section to the shoals at 350 m north of           ment scientists. During spring tides C\Jr-
Cape Spartel.                                     rents are strong enough [0 reverse the di-
Ripple pal1ern indicates current movement
through the Strait of Gibraltar as viewed from
space. Spain is in the upper right. The Rock of
Gibraltar is at the end of the peninsula forming
the lowest point of the Spanish coast in the
picture.




                                           I
HIGHLIGHTS



Buoy being launched from RN TolilO during the
Gibraltar Experiment.


                                                                                               surface tide, affecting the entire water col-
                                                                                               umn; second, the internal tide, affecting the
                                                                                               location of the interface, and therefore the
                                                                                               thickness of different layers; and thi rd, the
                                                                                               strength of the tide (i,e" whether the tide is
                                                                                               a spring or neap tide). These three effects
                                                                                               can interfere constructively to create sub-
                                                                                               stantial modulation of exchange, At spring
                                                                                               tides the currents are strongest, the excur-
                                                                                               sion of the interface is largest, and the pe-
                                                                                               riod when the lower layer becomes thick
                                                                                               begins much earlier than in the neap tides,
                                                                                               Thus during spring tides, substantially
                                                                                               more deep outflow occurs with maximum
                                                                                               tides, Because of the rugged, steep
                                                                                               bathymetry of the sill region, most of the
                                                                                               tidally driven outflow does not reenter the
                                                                                               Mediterranean on the subseql'ent flood
                                                                                               tide_
                                                                                                   Scientists know that changes in atmo-
                                                                                               spheric pressure over the Mediterranean
                                                                                               influence the exchange of water through
                                                                                               the strait. Conceptually the process is sim -
                                                                                               ple: if pressure increases over the Mediter-
                                                                                               ranean Sea, it tends to force water out
                                                                                               through the strait into the AtlantiC, and vice
                                                                                               versa, In order to further investigate and
                                                                                               quantify this mechanism, the rese3rchers
                                                                                               obtained atmospheric pressure measu re-
                                                                                               ments over the Mediterranean every six
                                                                                               hours for 64 meteorological stations bor-
                                                                                               dering the sea, The data used came from
                                                                                               the European Center for Medium Range
                                                                                               Weather Forecasting, Reading, England,
                                                                                                   The principal atmospheric pressure field
                                                                                               over the Mediterranean Sea is homoge-
                                                                                               neous (i,e" the pressure increases or de-
                                                                                               creases S  imultaneously over the entire sea),
                                                                                               Absolute pressure va lues are greater over
                                                                                               the Ligurian and north Adriatic seas;
                                                                                               smaller values are found toward the east-
rection of the mean flows so that, for          panying internal tide causes large-ampli-      ern Mediterranean; and minimum values
example, during ebb tide (tide flowing out      tude displacements of the interface, sep-      occur near Cyprus, The researchers calcu-
of the Mediterranean) there may be no in-       arating the inflowing and outflowing water      lated the time series for the forcing of at-
flow of AtlantiC surface water, Similarly, at   masses, One objective of the experiment         mospheric pressure over the entire sea,
flood tide the tidal current may overcome       was to quantify the tidal modulation of the    and the subi nertial transport through the
the mean outflowing current, In addition to     exchanges of heat, mass, and salt between      Strait of Gibraltar. The atmospheric pres-
this significant modu lation of the mean        the two basins, There are several aspects to   sure variations are clearly corre lated with
flow field by the surface tide, the accom-      this modulation: first, as noted above, the     transport through the strait.




I
                                                                           SEISMIC RESEARCH
   A simple, two-basin, two-strait model was
designed to allow different mean atmo-
spheric pressures over the eastern and
                                                                                     WITH THE
western basins. Conservation of volume
and hydrostatic pressure equations on the
two basins and momentum equations in
                                                                                SOVIET UNION
the straits are used to describe the gross
movement of water at subinertial frequen-
cies. Friction (which redu ces Aow) is in-
cluded in the model to limit the Aow
through the Strait of Gibra ltar.
   Results of this simu lation are then com-
pared with observed Aows. Although there
are some Jiscrepancies, the model seems
to reproduce the observed tranports at Gi-
braltar well , considering its simplicity. The
model indicates that as a good first-order
approximation, the system behaves like a
forced simple oscillator subject to some
friction .
   A second objective of the hydrograph ic
                                                 [OJ             CCASIONAlLY seismologists
                                                                 are called upon to detect un-
                                                                 derground nuclear weapons
                                                 tests. A nuclear weapon detonated under-
                                                                                                   with in 200 km of the nuclear weapons test
                                                                                                   site in the Republic of Kazakhstan, on the
                                                                                                   steppes of central Asia. Since then they
                                                                                                   have recorded over a thousand se ismiC
surveys was to examine the Jislributions of      grou nd produces seism ic waves very much         triggers. This data will be used to study the
tempe rature and salinity (and thereby den-      like-but nOt exactly like- an earthquake.         velocity structure, attenuation, and sou rce
sit1') as well as some geochemica l tracers      As anyone following the recent negotiation        characteristics of explosions and earth-
in the vicinity of rhe strait and in the Gu lf   of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces          quakes in the Soviet Union.
of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea. Vertical sec-      Treaty knows, a long-standing pOint of con-          Conceived and funded jOintly by the Nat-
tions of density as a function of depth can,     troversy in the debate abou t forming             ural R esources Defense Counci l (NRDC: a
under certain assumptions, be related to         treaties wi th the Soviet Union has been ver-     private American environmental organ iza-
the distribution of horizontal currents          ification. If we do agree to arms limitations     tion) and the Soviet Academy, the project
through the section .                            with the Soviets, how can we verify that          entered its second year in 1988 with a plan
   This cooperative international project        they are complying? And how do they know          to move the stations farther from the Ka-
has elucidated much of the Aow through           that we aren't cheating?                          zakh test site to study wave propagation ef-
the Strait of Gibraltar. Publications result-        The "verification caveat" has also been       fens at larger distances. At the new stations,
ing from the experiments wi ll be appear-        applied to talk of lim iting nuclear tests.       the NRDC equipment will be located to-
ing during the next several years.               Many arms control specia lists think that a       gether with the seismometers of a different
                                                 total ban or a limit on the size of nuclear       design- deployed as part of the upgrade of
              Jean Nichols                       weapons tests cou ld S   ignificantly slow        the IDA (International Deployment of Ac-
                                                 down tbe arms race. In 1963 the nuclear           celerometers) network, a long-standi ng
Suggested Reading:                               powers signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty         IGPP program funded by the National Sci-
                                                 end ing testing in the atmosphere, in space,      ence Foundation for basic research on
Candela, ]., C. D. Winant, and H. Bryden.
                                                 and in the oceans, sendi ng testing under-        earthquakes and earth structure
Meteorologically forced subinertial Aows
                                                 ground.                                              TI1e new stations wi ll cover the band-
through the Strait of Gibraltar.}ournal of
                                                     In early 1987, Scripps seismologists, un-     width from DC to 80 Hz, allowing the
Geophysical Research. In Press.
                                                 der the di rection of Dr. Jonathan Berger,        group to study high-frequency ground mo-
Farmer, D. M. and L. Anni . The Aow of At-       took a novel step in dispelling the verifica-     tions from nearby local earthquakes or ex-
lantic water through the Strait of Gibraltar.     tion caveat: in collaboration wi th scientiSts   plosions as well as the modes of osci ll ation
The Aow of Mediterranean water through           from the Institute of Physics of the Earth of     of the ea rth excited by large ea rthquakes,
the Strait of Gibraltar. Progress in Ocean-      the Soviet Academy of SCiences, they estab-       which can ring on for months after a seis-
ography. In Press.                               lished three state-of-the-art seism ic stations




                                                                                                                                            I
HIGHLIGHTS




mic event. The easternmost station will be
in Irkutsk on the shores of Lake Baikal in
Siberia, and the westernmost in Obninsk
near Moscow. The seismic data will be re-
layed by dedicated circuits to "network
central" in Obninsk, which will also be in
satellite communication with a data center
in Washington, D,C.
    In add ition, the researchers operate
three high-frequency seismic stations
within 200 km of the American nuclear test
site in Nevada, Comparison of the Nevada
and Kazakh data has already shown differ-
ences between wave propagation in the
 two provinces, Seismic waves are attenu-
ated more quickly with distance in Nevada,
a tectonic region, than in Kazakhstan , a sta-
ble continental region , Attenuation differ-
ences can alter the size or "yield" that is es-
 timated from the amplitudes of the seismic
 waves an underground test excites, Such
differences will become extremely impor-
 tant when seismologists are called upon to
 judge whether a country is complying with
 an agreed-upon size for underground nu-
clear weapons tests,

              Holly K Given

Suggested Reading:                                                                                                   IlIuslration: SIeve Cook

Berger,). et al. A new US-USSR seismologi-
ca l program, Amerimn Geophysical Union,                             Nuclear Explosion at Two Equidistant Stations
Transactions, v68, no,8, 1987,
                                                          6
Garelick, Glenn, The grounds for a test ban               4
                                                              ARTI
treaty. Discover, v8, no,6, 1987,                         2
                                                          o
                                                         -2
                                                         -4
                                                  U
                                                  ~ -6~~      ____~____~______~____~____~______~____~
                                                  U)
                                                  0:::
Example of path diHerences in seismic wave        E
                                                  u
propagalion _ The two seismograms are Irom a      'E      2
nuclear explosion at the Kazakh test site. Both               CHUSAL
stations-labeled ARTI and CHUSAl-were ap-
proximately the same distance Irom the source
(above), but in diflerenl geological environ-             o
ments. The CHUSAl record is depleted in high             -1
frequencies relative to ARTI because 01 higher
attenuation along the ray path.                          -2~~__~____~____~~~__~~____~__~~
                                                                                               8
                                                                                   Time (seconds)
Dr. Holly K. Given analyzes seismograms from a
station in the USSR.




                                         III
                                      MARINE
                                     BIOLOGY
                                    RESEARCH
                                     DIVISION



rMJ             ARlNE BIOLOGY RESEARCH
                DIVISION scientists investi-
   __ _ _ gate the molecular, biochemi-
cal, physiological, and ecological charac-
teristics of marine animals, plants, and
                                                 oration with a Texas A & M colleague, she is
                                                 trying to discover whether sea-skater popu-
                                                 lations remain separate or are intermixed
                                                 by curren ts,
                                                     Dr, Cheng is also studying how physical
bacteria,                                        and chemica'i conditions affect the growth
   The accumu lation of arsenobetaine in         and lipid rroduction of several lipogen ic
commercia l Australian lobster mu~cle            marine algae, Some algal species generate
prompted scientists in Dr. Andrew A. Ben-        lipids a~ they grow, others only when dley
son's laboratory to study arsenic metabol-       are starved for nitrogen. Some species may
ism in marine algae, Until now, no arsenical     be good candidates for mass culturing to
metabolite that might lead to arsenobelaine      produce lipids for economic purposes.
has been detected, A common diatom,                  Dr. Russell D. Vetter's group conccmrates
Chaetoceros gracilis, slowly accumulates a       on the role of reduced su lfur compounds
methylarsonium rib side, which can be de-        in the marine environment. Two graduate
graded to arsenobetaine,                         students accompanied Dr. Vetter on two
   Dr, John 1. mkanson continued his sur-        six-\veek cruises to hydrothermal vent sites,
vey of how energy stores (triglycerides and      There they studied the sulfur metabolism
other lipids) in anchovy larvae relate to        in animal and bacterial components of sul-
their survival and prediction of fishery size,    fide-consuming symbiotic invertebrates. In
Analyses of 2,000 larvae permit improved         several species the animal host carries out
statistical study of collections from CalCOFI    the first steps in su lfide oxidation and then
cruises and other cruises in coastal waters,     feeds less toxic, but still energy-ricb, su lfur
   Dr. Lanna Cheng analyzed samples of the       compounds such as thiosulfate to the bacte-
oceanic insect Halobates from the Atlantic       rial symb ionts. This oxidation protects the
Ocean, [he Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mex-       animal from the toxic effects of hydrogen
ico, Her samples were collected by col-          su lfide, Graduate student Noemi C. Steiner
leagues from several institutions, In collab-    is studying cell-division rates and growth
Dr. Russell D. VeHer injects radiolabeled hydro-
gen sulfide into isolated mitochondria to deter-
mine how some marine organisms generate en-
ergy from this toxic compound.




                                           III
RESEARCH
                                                  Graduate student David B. Wilmot dissects a
ACTIVITIES                                        gutless clam, Solemya reidi, from the Los An-
                                                  geles sewage outfall to study bacterial sym-
                                                  bionls. He then isolates the bacteria (below left)
                                                  and prepares the metabolic chamber (below
                                                  right).

 regulation of endosymbiotic bacteria in an-
 imal host cells.
     Recently Dr. Vetter's group isolated func-
 tional mitochondria from deep-sea organ-
 isms, facilitating the study of sulfur detox-
 ification by mitochondria, and also opening
 new lines of research. Scientists can now
 study temperature and pressure effects on
 complex metabolic systems without having
 to recover and maintain whole animals un-
 der pressure.
     Graduate student Teodora U. Bagarinao
 is studying how fishes and crustaceans
 adapt to high-sulfide environments like
 some estuaries and aquaculture ponds.
 Graduate student Patricia A Matrai and Dr.
 Vetter completed a study on production of
 reduced sulfur compounds such as glu-
 tathione by marine phytoplankton. Gradu-
 ate student Michele K. :.Iishiguchi continues
 this work by studying the role of intracellu-
 lar, low-molecular-weight sulfur com-
 pounds as compatible osmolytes for stabi-
 lizing macromolecular structures in marine
 algae.
     Dr. Horst Felbeck's group continued in-
 vestigating the symbioses between chemo-
autotrophic bacteria and invertebrates.
Graduate student Josephine D. Pino is
studying the metabolic interactions be-
 tween bacterial symbionts and their inver-
 tebrate hosts. Graduate student Jeffrey L.
Stein researched the nitrogen assimilation
pathwal"s in a variety of symbiotiC systems,
detecting genes for nitrogenase in several
111u,sels from hydrothermal vel1L'i and seep
sites. Gr~duate student S. Craig Cary com-
pleted his studl' on the nutritional require-
ments of a mussel with methane-oxidizing
symbionts.
    Dr. Ralph A. Le"in is studying the ta,xon-
omy of picopleuston algae, which are the
smallest autotrophs living at the ocean sur-
face. They have never been properly char-
acte ri zed. He also concentrates on the ecol·
ogy of Proch/oron, the photosynthetic
partner in a number of symbiOtiC associa-
tions with tropical didemnids (colonial
ascidians). Dr. Lewin is using ecological
 and physiological features-including aux-         Also in Dr. Somero's group, graduate Stu-      vates adenylate cyclase, which in turn acti-
 otrophy and facultative heterotrophy-to        dent Allen G. Gibbs discovered a new ex-           vates a cyclic AMP-dependent protein
classify green planktonic flagellates in the    ample of biochemica l adaptation to high           kinase that phosphorylates histone HI on a
genus Telraselmis. He is seeking taxonom -      hyd rostatiC pressure. A major ion-regula-         single site. The individual componen ts of
 ically useful correlations between some of     tion enzyme system in fish gills-the so-           this chain of linked reactions are being
 these features and the isozyme patterns        dium + potassium adenosine triphospha-             studiecl to clarify how an event on the out-
previously studied in these organisms.          tase -exhibits a sharp response to                 side surface of a cell triggers changes in
    Ecological energetic studies of deep-sea    pressure. Shallow-living fishes have high          the ce ll nucleus.
communities continue in Dr. Kenneth L.          pressure sensitivities; deep-living fishes             Dr. Benjamin E. Volcan i's group investi-
Smith's laboratory Active and passive trans-    have low sensitivities. Dr. Ivla rga ret j.        gates the mechanisms by which silicon reg-
port of organ ic matter from mesopelagic to     McFall-Ngai investigated the fine-scale mo-        ulates gene expression and DNA replication
abyssopelagic depths is being investigated .    lecular adaptation of an enzyme from bar-          in diatoms. Currently, two native plas-
The importance of vertically migrating ani-     racuda adapted to different temperatures.          mids-pCfl and pCf2-found by this group
mals in transporting organic matter             Her studies reveal fundamental changes in          in the diatom Cylindrolheca fusi/ormis are
through the water column is demonstrated        protein structure that are involved in spe-        being studied. A viSiting scientist has deter-
by free-vehicle acoustic instrumentation        cies-specific differentiation at the molecular     mined how much homology pCf[ and pCf2
coupled with time-series net sampling.          level. Graduate student Sandor E. Kaupp            share with each other and with cliatom
Graduate student WaJdo W Wakefield is           continued his studies of biochemical               ch loroplast and nuclear DNA. Dr. Nl ark M.
studying how planktotrophic development         changes during early development in ma-            Hildebrand has been determining the in-
in slope-dwelHng megafauna affects the          rine fishes. He found that in larva l marine       tracellula r location and copy number of the
seasonal transport of organiC matter            fishes the biochemical properties, like en-        twO plasm ids. Dr. Robin WOrd, Dr.
through the water column. Graduate stu-         zymatic activities and ribonucleic acid con-       Hildebrand, and a colleague used these
dent Ronald C. Kaufmann continues to in-        centrations, are similar among diverse spe-       plasm ids, as well as other fragments of di-
vestigate the sensory biology of scavenging     cies. However, during maturation, ma rkell         atom DNA, to construct potentia l diatom
amphipods and their importance in deep-         interspecific differences quickl y develop         transformation vectors, which contain the
sea communities. Other scientists are           that relate to the species' lives (for exam-       chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)
studying the tran s po ~t of organiC matter     ple, pe lagic versus sedentary existence).        gene under the control of various eucaryo-
through the wate r column in the eastern           Dr. Joan G. Stewart studies how individ-        tic promoters. Using these vectors, Dr. Ord
and central North P   acific.                   ual plant species' morphology and life his-        and a colleague are attempting to render
   Dr. George N Somero's group is study-        tories affect the composite form of interti-       diatom cells ch loramphenicol-resistant. Dr.
ing biochemica l adaptations that enable        dal vegetation. Boundaries between several         Paul P-C Lin has characteri zed two novel
marine organisms to thrive under diverse        dominant ta,,\a, and seasonal fluctuations in      cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in C
environmental conditions. Food ava ilability    short-lived species, depend on di rect inter-     fusi/ormis and regulatory domains on the
is one critical environmental factor for es-    actions between plants as well as on toler-        same polypeptide chain . The role of these
[3bl ishing the biochemical properties of       ances of physical factors. Many properties         ki nases in the Si licon-regulated cell cycle of
marine organisms. Drs. Mary Sue Lo\\;ery        of the system , including invertebrate abun-       this diatom is being investigated.
and Susan j. Roberts showed that starvation     dances, are regulated by predictable pat-             Dr. George D. F. Wilson has completecl <l
of marine fi shes lead) not only to marked      terns of sa nd movement and deposition.            major work on a large famil y of natatory
changes in the activities of metabolic en-         Scientists in Dr. Victor D. Vacquier's labo-    deep-sea isopods, the Nlunnopsidae. His
zymes, but also to shifts in the enzyme lo-     ratory study the biochemistry of sea urchin       Other research on Isopoda includes a col-
cal izat ion within mu ~c le ce lls. These      ferti lization. They focus on identifying the      laboration with Russian colleagues to revi se
changes in enzyme localizations (compart-       proteins of the sperm cell membrane that           the deep-sea genus Microprolus; a systema-
me ntaizat ion ) are mediated by intracellu-   activate flagellar moti Iity, induce the acro-     tic review of the common shallow-water
lar acidity and the concentrations of low-      some reaction, and induce the phospho-             family ]aniridae; and a detai led description
molecular-weight organiCsubstances that         rylation of histones in the sperm nucleus.         of an unusual gastrointestinal system in a
regu late enzymatiC activity These studies      Monoclonal antibodies have been pro-               tiny local isopod, Pleurocope n.sp. Dr.
have important implications for the roles       duced that bind to a sperm memb rane pro-          Wi lson, in collaboration with Dr. George
that enzyme locali zation may play in div-      tein of 210,000 molecular weight. Antibody         Sugihara, has produced a computer pro-
erse physiological contexts.                    bincling opens calcium channels and acti-          gram to estimate theoretical diversity in
                                                                                                   species-rich animal co mmunit ie~.
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES
                                                                                                Programer Judy D. IIleman and Dr. Teresa K.
                                                                                                Chereskin calibrate a drifter for use in a Califor-
                                                                                                nia Current study.



             MARINE
                 LIFE
          RESEARCH
              GROUP




rn             HE MARINE LIFE RESEARCH
               GROLIP (MLRG) continues a
               38-year search for the causes
of large-scale, long-term fluctuations in the
physics, chemistry, and biology of the Cali-
fornia Current, which often have important
economic consequences for California. De-
partures from long-term means can be in-
terpreted as symptoms of change in the lo-
cal, regional, and global ecosystem, and
may be powerful indicators for making
predictions and forming hypotheses.                 Dr. John A McGowan has been develop-            Results indicate that the patterns of pe-
   To study the physics and ecology of the      ing quantitative descriptions of pelagic        lagic system structure and stability are very
California Current, MLRG scientists and col-    community structure. Extensive theoretical      time-space dependent. But there are re-
leagues from the California Department of       bases suggest patterns in spec ies domi-        gional variations: structural patterns in the
Fish and Game and the Southwest Fisheries       nance and in spatial structure. The struc-      California Current differ strongly from pat-
Center made four cruises in California          tural features are thought to be evolution-     terns in the Central Gyre of the North Pa-
coastal waters. The subsurface water tem-       ary and are intimately linked with the          cific. In spite of large-amplitude variations
perature off the coast of southern Califor-     dynamics of community systems. The              in the California Current and sma il-ampli-
nia was anomalously warm from mid to            search for patterns in mobile, pelagic com-     tude variations in the gyre, both systems
late 1987, suggesting a weak but positive       munities is the first step in determining       appear stable. However, they do differ
correlation with a mild eastern P  acific       what regulates the system and gives it re-      strongly in diversity and dominance. In this
warming trend . These conditions promote        silience in the face of environmental           regard, the pelagic regional systems resem -
the continued recovery of the sardine pop-      change. The goal is to determine structure      ble terrestrial forests' regional patterns.
ulation, which began in the late 1970s.         and then ask th ree questions: Why is it the    This similarity may imply causation.
   Six other cruises were made to define        way it is! What sort of perturbations will          Dr. Edward Brinton focuses on the
the population biology, community struc-        change it! \Xlhat directions will the changes   growth rates and life spans of euphausiid
ture, food chains, physical disturbance         take! Once these questions are answered,        crustaceans. He describes not on ly popula-
mechanisms, and natural history of marine       detailed studies of the specific mechanisms     tion dynamics in individual species, but
organisms and the physical environment in       respons ible for buffering the system           also why some spec ies in a given body of
which pelagic plants and animals live.          against change can be designed.                 water are so much larger than other,
                                                                                               Satellite photo of the California CurrenUSouthern
                                                                                               California Bight area taken during the lime of the
                                                                                               Ensenada Fronts Cruise. Lines indicate buoy
                                                                                               tracks.




closely related species found there. Off        zooplankters use to fend off a predator        lected off Monterey Bay, California, show
Baja Californ ia and California, Eupbausia      during different steps in the attack. Such     how increased physical mixing caused by
gibboides and E. eximia grow to 30 mm, or       behavioral responses may stabilize or de-      high winds and shear brings together
t\\;jce the body length and 10 times the        stabilize population changes through time.     weakly swi mming zooplankton species that
weight of co-occurring E. recurua and E.        Dr. Ohman has also discovered that day-        normally live at different depths under
bemigibba. Population structures are being      night changes in feeding behavior in four      more benign conditions. Strongly swim-
compiled across station grids in the Califor-   species of planktonic copepods from the        ming species, however, can counteract the
nia Current for the yea rs of differing oce-    California Current explain more of the vari-   physical effects and remain within their
anic climate (including the 1982-1984 EI        ance in ingestion responses than do            preferred depth zones. This differential im-
Nino). Cohorts distinguished in month-to-       changes in food supply Dr. Ohman and           pact of physical forces on community Struc-
month, length-frequency distributions           colleagues from New Zealand have reared        ture should profoundly affect how commu-
show that some large species reach matu-        and described the developmental stages of      nities function.
rity-about t\\/o-thirds of their maximum        the three dominant species of calanoid            Dr. nlomas L Hayward studies the pro-
body size- in one vear. After this spun,        cope pods found in New Zealand waters.         cesses regulating primary production and
growth slows during a protracted period of         Dr. Loren R Haury, working with two         the distribution of plankton in the ocean.
reproduction extending to another year.         Johns Hopk ins University colleagues, is       His work confirms that the rate at which
    Dr. i'vlark D. Ohman is working on the      studying how turbulent dissipation and ver-    nutrients are supplied to the euphotic zone
population biology of copepods. He has          tical current shear affect zooplankton dis-    is a major determinant of primary produc-
elucidated the numerous avoidance, es-          tributions in the surface layers of the        tion . He is now studying the physical pro-
cape, and defense responses that individual     ocean. Biological and physical data col-       cesses that regu late the nutrient supply, and
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




he is seeking causal physical structure from     bottom, whereas most sablefish were             Southern California Bight region, sampling
the biological pattern.                          nearer the bottom. Isolated catches of one      the subsurface of the marine environment
   Dr. Angelo F. Carlucci has discovered that    or more individuals of both species were        and using satellite information to study the
high primary production in the springtime        found along the entire line, to 100 m from      California undercurrent, surface velocity,
is reflected in the fall by high microbial       the bottom. This suggests that these species    and the dynamics of mesoscale eddies.
numbers, high biomass of bacteria, and           swim some distance off the bottom. In ad-       New methods for concurrently analyzing
high amino acid metabolism in the deep           dition, individuals of the same species and     remotely sensed and ground-truth data,
waters and benthic boundary layer of the         the same gender tended to cluster together.     using powerful statistical techn iques and
Santa Monica Basin. The energy sou rce for          Drs. Dean H. Roemmich and Bruce D.           high-speed computational facilities, have
this increased microbial activity is pro-        Cornuelle are conducting a multiyear study      made it possible to perform integrated an-
vided, in part, by the sinking organic parti-    of the time variations of ocean circulation     alyses that were previously impractical.
cles produced by [lrimary production,            in the Central Pacific Ocean. They collected       Joseph L. Reid, using the distributional
grazers and other organisms of the higher        temperature and sound velocity data be-         patterns of such tracers as temperature, sa-
food web, and their fecal pellets. Particles     tween 37°S and 22°N. Results of a two-year      linity, ox',)'gen, and nutrients, has described
reaching the sediments are transformed by        pilot study show a southward shift in the       the large-scale flow patterns of the South
the benthic microbes; some of the particles      center of the southern subtropical gyre, co-    Atlantic Ocea n. Reid characterized the
and their decomposition products are re-          incident with the 1986 El Nino-Southern        western boundary currents along the coast
suspended into the benthic boundary layer.       Oscillation episode.                            of South Anlerica, along the Mid-Atlantic
   In a 20-year analysis of vertical distribu-      Dr. Teresa K. Chereskin ha~ been evaluat-    Ridge in the Angola and Cape basins, be-
tion of phytoplankton in the Central North        ing the water-following characteristics of     low the ridge depth, and in a deep, north-
Pacific, Dr. Elizabeth L. Venrick has discov-    frech, drifting, weighted drogues (called       ward flow along the eastern siele of the
ered a major floral shift. This shift occurs     L1grangian drifters) tethered to surface        Brazil Basin.
about 100 m deep, near a conspicuous             buoys. With these drifters, one can study
layer of elevated chlorophyll. In earlier        the divergence and vorticity of the upper
studies it was unclear whether the ch loro-      ocean. Dr. Chereskin's results have been
phyll maximum layer was more closely re-         used to design drifters for experiments in
lated to the shallow flora, the deep flora, or   regions of large near-surface shear, such as
the transition zone between them. Analvsis       the equator and the California Current. She
of add itional material made it possible to      is also using acoustic Doppler profiling
define key species for each assemblage.          ck1ta to estimate the horizontal wavelength
The vertical distributions of these species      of inertial waves. Her early results demon-
indicate that the increased chlorophyll          strate the existence of inertial waves that
abundance at the top of the maximum layer        share a horizontal scale with synoptiC
closely parallels the increased abundance        storms.
of deep species. The chlorophvll maximum            Dr. Pearn P. NiUer designed drifting
layer comprises species characteristic of        buoys that are drogued in the mixecllayer,
the deep assemblage, with only insignifi-        and which are tracked by, and transmit sub-
cant numbers of shallow species. These ob-       surface data to, the ARGOS satellite system.
servations are inconsistent with some of the     Early data and analyses from 237 drifter
earlier hypotheses about the formation of        tracks in the eastern Pacific show that off
maximum layers.                                  Baja California the horizontal diffusion of
   Tetsuo Matsui studies the life histories of   nutrients, temperature, and salinity on the
the sablefish (Anopfopoma/imbn'a) and            ocean surface is not uniform. The data also
the grenadier (Cor)phaenoides acrolepis).        demonstrate that diffusion rates vary by a
He analyzed catch records of vertically set,     factor of ten or more, depending primarily
free-vehicle longlines deployed in 200-          on the strength of mesosca le edd ies. Stron-
3,200 m of water off the Californias in the      ger diffusion rates are seen near the coast.
1960s and 1970s tvlost grenadiers were              Dr. James J Simpson has embarked on
taken on hooks that were 14-40 m off the         three cruises in the coastal waters of the
                                                 Dr. Spahr C. Webb prepares a group ot his new
                                                 pressure instruments tor a major cruise.
             :MARINE
            PHYSICAL
        LABORATORY




~              CIENTISTS AT THE Marine
               Physical Laboratory (MPL), di-
               rected by Dr. Kenneth M. Wat-
son, study ocean acoustics and develop
acoustic instrumentation. MPL researchers
also investigate seafloor geology and geo-
physics, ocean dynamics, signal processing,
and ocean technology.
    New instruments and new methods of
deploying existing instruments were devel-
oped by Dr. Spahr C. Webb. A long, rigid
tube with a transducer at the midpoint was
used to measure the pressure difference
between two points on the seafloor sepa-
rated by a few hundred meters. This "gra-
dient pressu re gauge" can measure signals
near the am bient seismic or acoustic sea-
fl oor noise levels in a broad band from
abou t .01 Hz to .5 Hz. Dr. Webb and a col-
league conducted a joint experiment at two
sites in the Pacific northeast. They observed
very-low-frequency signals in shallow water
and used explosive shots to test the perfor-
mance of the gradien~ pressure gauge. One
instrument was also deployed on the Gala-
pagos Ridge, the fi rst bare-rock site for any
deployment, which should differ acous-
tically from sedimented sites.
    An experiment was conducted to study
the sou rces and propagation of very-Iow-
frequency (below 1 Hz) acoustic, seism ic,
and hydrodynamic signals and noise on the




                                                                                         I
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES
                                                  John T. Lyons and a student (in background) wind
                                                  cable before deploying it on the seafloor.



deep seafloor. A 17-instrument large-aper-
ture array was deployed; it included 5
Scripps ocean-bottom seismometers, 4
electric-field instruments, and 8 pressure-
gradient instruments. This experiment co-
incided with a deployment of surface-scat-
tering sonars from FLIP by other MPL re-
searchers. The surface wave data derived
from the sonars, and the pressure measure-
ments from the seafloor will be examined
for mechanisms that generate low-fre-
quency sound.
     Drs. John A Hildebrand and Fred N.
 Spiess developed an instrument package to
 measure the earth's gravity field on the
 ocean bottom. This instrument makes accu-
 rate and fine-scale gravity measurements in
 the deep sea. The instrument includes a
 laCoste and Romberg gravimeter, a sonar
 navigation package, and a precision pres-
 sure gauge. The seafloor gravimeter was
 tested off the California coast from RN
 Melville in 2,500 m of water, and measured
 with an accuracy of 0.05 mGals. Seafloor
gravity readings were conducted with as lit-
 tle as 5 minutes bottom time, although it
was found that the ship's station keeping
 was adequate to extend bottom time to               The seafloor vehicle RUM III was initi-         to relieve the torque of the longer cable.
 over 45 minutes. In the spring the gravime-      ated this year in the Catalina Basin, 40 km        An additional TV camera and associated
 ter was used from RN 7hamas \~ashingtan          off southern California. During the 24 days        pan-tilt mechanism reduces task time and
 in water 5,000 m deep in the Northeast Pa-       on station, RUN! III was in the water 40 per-      operator fatigue by providing two orthogo-
 cific at 35°N, 132'\'(1 Seafloor and shipboard   cent of the time and on the bottom for 80          nal views of the work area. These improve-
gravity measurements were made simul-             hours. Two types of operations were con-           ments were tested in 1,500 m of water. RUM
 taneously to allow comparison for calculat-      ducted during the trip. The major effort           III has been designed, fabricated, and oper-
 ing the Newtonian gravitational constant G.      was a pilot sedimentation study in prepara-        ated under the direcrion of Dr. Victor C.
 The value of G may depend on the scale           tion for a more extensive expedition to a          Anderson.
 length of the measurement, and an oceanic        4,500-m-deep manganese nodule field. The              Dr. Robert Pinkel 's upper ocean physics
 measurement of G covers several kilome-          second operation was the test deployment           group developed new instrumentation and
 ters.                                            of acoustiC sensors. The tasks accomplished        analyzed data. They focused on clarifying
     The seafloor gravimeter also facilitates     in the 1,200-m-deep water included obtain-         the relationship between shear (~) and the
 study of fine -scale features on the ocean       ing 32 box cores of treated and untreated          vertical component of vertical strain
 bottom that extend to 100 m, whereas ship-       sediment, making 9 artificial mounds, plac-        (~) in t.he upper ocean. Graduate student
 board gravimeters are limited to features        ing a "pit mimic" dish and two colonization        Jeff T. Sherman has created a pu lse-to-pulse
 that are roughly the scale of the water          trays on the seafloor, and deploying two           coherent sonar for measuring the small-
 depth (about 5 km). Ridge-crest vent fields      Swallow float acoustic experiments. The            scale shear. This device has a ma;·{jmum
 are seafloor structures that change signifi-     RUM III telemetry system has been im-              range of 30 In, with one-cubic-meter reso-
 cantly over a few hundred meters. In such        proved so it can operate over 7,000 m of           lution. When Sherman compares the coher-
 places the seafloor gravimeter can help re-      coaxial cable at depths of 6,000 m. A tether-      ent sonar's shear measu rements to profi 1-
 searchers delineate the underlying density       cable swivel with slip rings has been added
 st ructure.
ing cm observations of isopycnal vertical       tion, and developing a new 200-kHz system          Dr. Richard K. Brienzo is analyzing a data
displacement and strain, the agreement is      with a target resolution of about 2 J11 (cor-    set (taken on the Monterey Fan) for low-
good. However, significant differences ex-      responding to waves of 1.6-second period        frequency acoustic signal propagation in
ist. If cm fixed-depth measurements of the      at the cutoff). As a surface-wave directional   thick sediments. Of interest·are the acous-
density profile are used instead of the        array, the sonar systems should provide          tic attenuation characteristics of thick sedi-
semi-Lagrangian isopycnal measurements,        quantitative, separate estimates of oppo-        ment sections as a function of frequency
the agreement between density and shear        sitely directed wave components in the           and depth, and the coherence between
statistics is improved.                        open ocean.                                      sediment-borne and water-path acoustic
   A coherent sonar was modified for the           Dr. William S. Hodgkiss's group focuses      signals.
coming Arctic experiment. The sonar will       on underwater acoustics and signal pro-             Graduate srudent David A1magor is syn-
be operated in a cOlpbined coherent/inco-      cessing. Dr. Hodgkiss continued upgrading        thesizing the reverberation time series out-
herent mode, with short-range (30 m),          the system control and quick look/calibra-       put from a multielement or multibeam
very-high-resolution sampling interspersed     tion analysis software for a high-speed          transducer array. Reverberation is the
with longer-range (400 m) probing. This        data-recording system (HSRS). The HSRS,          acoustic backscatter returning to a trans-
sonar will be used in the Arctic to measure    designed and fabricated by MPL, is collect-      ducer from an active sonar ping and is
both small-scale ancllarge-scale shears at     ing data in a series of flow noise studies.      caused by particulate matter in the volume
an ice camp north of Spitsbergen.                  Dr. Hodgkiss also continues to work on       as well as backscatter from the boundaries
   Under the gUidance of Dr. Jerome A.         the Swallow float array program to fabri-        (surface and bottom).
Smith, a new high-resolution surface-scat-     cate and take to sea a freely drifting array        Richard W Johnson's optical systems
tering sonar system is being developed for     for measuring infrasonic acoustic ambient        group developed and tested a family of
use in a surface wave experiment, SWA.PP       ocean noise in the I-20-Hz frequency re-         compact, solid-state imaging systems to au-
The new sonars will operate at 200 kHz,        gion. Although the group of Swallow floats       tomatically measure atmospheric optical
and have a range of 500 m, with 3-m spatial    is freely drifting, each buoy emits a locali-    and meteorological properties. Each of
resolution. The transducers will have fan-     zation signal that is received by the other      these devices contains a computer-con-
shaped beams, similar to those used in         buoys. When the locations of all elements        trolled solid-state video system, which
geophysical exploration. The sonar has         are known, the outputs of the array can be       proVides calibrated multispectral imagery
been interfaced to a personal computer,        used to assess the directionality of the am-     suitable for extracting local image trans-
which greatly reduced the cost and size of     bient noise field.                               mission and information about cloud cover.
the data analysis system.                          In conjunction with Dr. Hildebrand's and     Experimental results from these systems
   Dr. Smith continues to study the interac-   Dr. Frederick H. Fisher's research groups,       demonstrate the effectiveness of algorithms
tions of surface waves and currents in the     Dr. Hodgkiss participated in a major signal-     for reliably detecting and identifying cloud-
open ocean. The combined effects of wind       propagation and ambient-noise experi-            field characteristics in fully automatic
drift and waves can cause tlle formation of    ment. His group deployed their Swallow           mode. The automatic determination of lo-
Langmuir circulation in the top layer of the   floats as a vertical array of freely drifting    cal-sector visibilities is also being ad-
ocean. Langmuir circl'llation - potentially    VLF sensors in the vicinity of the large-ap-     dressed. Four automatic systems have been
important as a mechanism for mixing            erture array deployed by Dr. Hildebrand.         deployed at sites in New Mexico and Cali-
wind-generated momentum throughout the             Dr. Hodgkiss continues to analyze data       fornia. These small systems-designed for
mixed layer-has proven diffi~ult to ob-        on ambient noise that were collected by Dr.      assessing key amlospheric properties-can
serve in the open ocean. Recent observa-       Fisher's research group during twO experi-       be deployed to support experimentation
tions with 75-kHz Doppler sonar systems        ments. In the first, scientists used the 48-     and modeling The databases derived from
revealed definite evidence of Langmuir cir-    element NORDA VEKA vertical array de-            these devices will establish a new standard
culation at scales from three times the        ployed from FLIP moored at 32°N, I240W In        for consistent and reliable weather-related
mixed layer depth (3 x 60 m) down to the       the second, they used the 32-element MPL         studies and analyses.
resolution of the system as configured         vertical array deployed from FLIP while
(2 x 20 m). The same system could simul-       drifting at 32°N and I24OW, I36OW, and
taneously measure the surface wave field .     1500W Their goal is to study the time-evolv-
With such surface wave and current mea-        ing vertical directionality of ambient noise
surements in mind, Dr. Smith is redesign-      in the 1OG-300-Hz frequency region.
ing a 75-kHz system to achieve 10 m resolu-
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




   NEUROBIOLOGY
             UNIT   OJ             HE NEUROBIOLOGY UNIT is
                                    part of the Marine Biomedical
                                    Program and includes four
                    professorial laboratories with postdoctoral
                    visitors and doctoral students,
                       DI's, Horst Bleckmann, Oliver Weiss and
                    Theodore H, Bullock found centers that re-
                    ceive and analyze input from an elasmo-
                    branch's lateral-line system of water-move-
                    ment sensors, They also found some of the
                    differences in integrative properties from
                    the lower-level centers Dr. Bleckmann and
                    a visiting scientist discovered the first wa-
                    ter-movement, latera l-line-like sense organs
                    in cephalopods, by recording receptor po-
                    tentials from a row of tiny sensors in baby
                    cuttlefish, While studying the evolution of
                    behavioral, neural and mental capabilities,
                    Dr. Bullock and a colleague found a place
                    in a ray's optiC lobe that generates an elec-
                    trical wave, This wave is produced about
                    the time a flash is omitted from a sel-ies;
                    over a wide range of flash intervals the
                    wave occurs on schedu le with the missing
                    flash, The researchers are now comparing
                    this to the cogn itive waves known in hu-
                    mans noticing a novel stimulus or the ab-
                    sence of an expected one,
                        In Dr R Glenn Northcutt'Slaboratory,
                    Dr. Richard L. Puzdrowski and graduate
                    studentJiakun Song found that in the lat-
                    eral-line systems of cyprin id and holostean
                    fishes the body surface is mapped onto a
                    part of the brain, Dr, Jacqueline F Webb has
                    found that the peripheral lateral-line sys-
                    tem in teleosts is extremely diverse but
                    falls into several major patterns, Dr. North-
                    Cutt is currently testing the hypothesis that
                    much of the evolutionary diversity in lat-
                    eral-line morphology is caused by changes
                    in the timing of developmental processes,




                    Dr. Jiakun Song prepares a Florida gar (Lep-
                    isosteus platyrhincus) lor electron microscopic
                    examination.
Top lell, a dorsal view of the head of a Florida gar. A colored plastic solution has been injected into the lateral-
line canals to increase their visibility. Top righi, a cleared specimen stained with Sunda black to show the
innervation of the cephalic lateral-line system . Bottom left, a gular pit organ above several external taste buds
(700x); middle, a higher magnification of two external taste buds (2,100x); bottom right, the mandibular pit
line, lateral-line canal pores, and epidermal bristles (90x).
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




               OCEAN
           RESEARCH                                      OJ            HE OCEAN RESEARCH
                                                                       DfYlSION encompasses many
                                                                       aspects of marine science,
                                                         from physica l oceanography and climate
                                                         studies to marine chemistry and electro-

             DIVISION                                    physiology of fishes. Here on ly a few se·
                                                         lected research areas are discussed.

                                                         Circulation and Water Mass Formation
                                                         in the Arctic and Greenland Seas
                                                             Dr. James H. Swift continued studying
                                                         the formation and circu lation of the inter·
                                                         mediate and deep waters of the Greenland
                                                         Sea and Arctic Ocean. He uses all available
                                                         hydrographic and tracer data and makes
                                                         new measurements when necessary. He is
Dr. James H. Swill plots a track for an Arctic cruise.   determining the sources of the waters'
                                                         physical and chemical characteristics, and
                                                         the location, strength, and Structure of the
                                                         circu lation that carries these waters
                                                         through the various ocean basins, Because
                                                         he includes man-made substances in his
                                                         analyses, he can view some aspects of the
                                                         oceans' responses to other types of envi-
                                                         ronmental forCing, such as short-term cli-
                                                         mate fluctuations.
                                                             Dr. Swift participated in the [Wo-month
                                                         cruise Arktis IV/3 of the German ice-
                                                         breaker RN Polarstem, which was the first
                                                         shipborne survey of a major deep basin of
                                                         the Arctic Ocean, the Nansen Basin. The
                                                         scientists used modern oceanographic
                                                         techniques, including measurements of
                                                         many chemical tracers, to survey this basin
                                                         north of the Barents and Kara seas. Pre-
                                                         vious oceanographic measurements in the
                                                         centra l Arctic Ocean have been from ex-
                                                         pensive, widely separated, air-supported
                                                         ice camps, with the data corresponding to
                                                         si ngle, isolated stations.
                                                             Cru ise time was spent working into and
                                                         then out of the Nansen Basin, which is per-
                                                         manently ice-covered, This station (the
                                                         northernmost ever achieved by an ocean-
                                                         ographic research vessel) was at 86.l°N,
                                                         23°E, less than 240 nautical miles from the
                                                         North Pole. There were no oceanogra phic
                                                         stations in open water, and progress was
An array is lowered into Arctic water from the
German icebreaker RN Polarstern.




                                     ~
                                     i . .




                                                                                                                                                ..
                                                                                                                                                ::
                                                                                                                                                "i
                                                                                                                                                :z:
                                                                                                                                                -;




often very slow, especially in the north, be-    can be identified. In the Nansen Basin, a      plete seasonal cycle. The Greenland Sea is
cause of heavy ice conditions-surface ice        dramatic change in the characteristics of      one of the few regions of the world ocean
as deep as 4 m, and impenetrable pres-           the upper layers occu rs over a very short     where sea-surface characteristics are car-
sure-packed ridges of ice tens of meters         distance at 83°N. South of this transition,    ried into the deep waters by processes that
thick.                                           the surface layers have a large component      form water masses. Quantifying and under-
   During this cruise Dr. Swift measured         of water originating in Fram Strait, with      standing these processes can improve the
the temperature, oxygen, and nutrients           added sea ice meltwater. North of thiS, the    monitoring and modeling efforts aimed at
from the surface to the bottom. Other            water originates east of the section and       understanding the ocean's contribution and
groups made conductivity-temperature-            contains runoff from the Siberian rivers.      response to climate changes.
depth (eTO) measurements, analyzed wa-              Dr. Swift is now evaluating the new             Dr. Swift and a graduate student are ex-
ter samples for total carbonate and ch loro-     Polarstem data, and placing the measure-       amining the intermediate and deep circula-
f1u oromethanes (freons), and completed          ments in the con text of existing high-qual-   tion of the North Pacific Ocean in terms of
other physical, chemical, geological, and        ity data from other regions of the Arctic      1985 expedition data. They are comparing
biological measurement programs.                 seas. This will involve collaboration with     the new data to those in the historical data
   These data, added to those from three         many other oceanographers.                     files, and using a multitracer analysis tech-
other polar expeditions made by Dr. Swift,          Dr Swift is examining interannual and       nique to quantify the water mass distribu-
are the first multibasin, deep-ocean Arctic      seasonal variability in the Greenland Sea      tions . Principal component analysis has
data set obtained with the standards and         during 1987-1989. This study will provide      been applied to the problem of identifying
techniques used in examining the other           eTO intercalibration required to interpret     and quantifying oceanic mixing along flow
oceans.                                          the acoustic tomographic data collected        paths.
   The data reveal boundary regimes with         during 1988-1989 by Dr Peter F. Worcester.
clearly marked, narrow features such as          Dr Swift will oversee the data collection on   Physics and Chemistry of Gas
cores of boundary currents and intrusions        twelve eTO cruises involving vessels from      Exchange on the Ocean Surface
of waters from peripheral regions into the       five countries. Dr Swift is also using the        A new interdisciplinary research area has
interior. Early results show that various re-    new data to quantify the changes in the        been established in the Ocean Research Di-
mote sources for the interior basin waters       Greenland Sea water masses over a com-         vision by Dr Bernd .lahne. His group
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




studies the physics and chemistry of air-sea       thin gas-exchange bou ndary layer. Simul-         connect by phone directly to the ARC com-
gas exchange.                                      taneously, images of waves are taken with         puter.
    Transport of gases between the ocean           the imaging slope gauge. Image sequences             Whritner originally assisted U.S. Navy
and atmosphere is controlled by a very thin        from both instruments are processed dig-          personnel in temporari ly installing a mili·
 layer-only 130 to 300 f101 thick-at the           itally. "n1US the waves' influence on the         tary system to receive and process \JOM
top of the ocean. In this layer, a compli-         boundary layer can be directly investigated.      and USAF weather sate llite data at McMur-
cated interplay takes place between mo-            Afascinating interdisciplinary research area      do Station in the Antarctic. This system,
 lecular diffusion of gas from the interface       is unfolding that will merge chemistry,           which remained at McMurdo only two
 into the water and turbulent transport into       physics, and advanced image processing            months, proved valuable in flight support
deeper layers. For reactive gases, chemical        and will be carried out in a specially de-        operations. Later Scripps and a small San
reaction further complicates the situation.        signed, small wind/wave facility.                 Diego firm jOintly proposed the develop-
    It is not surprising that so little is known      A final focu s of Dr. ]ahne's group con-       ment of what is now the Antarctic Research
about these processes, because the thin            cerns satellite remote sensing of the air-sea     Center.
boundary layer at a wavy ocean surface is          gas exchange rate as part of the VIERS pro-          The McMurdo acquisition and process-
very difficult to access experimentally. Sci-      gram. In cooperation with European scien-         ing system, which was named GODDESS
entists stil l do not know the scales and in-      tists, the relationship between microwave         (Geophys ical Operational Data Display En-
tensity of turbulence in the vicinity of this      backscatter, small-scale waves, and the air-      vironmental Satellite System), was placed
 layer. The wind blowing over the ocean            sea gas exchange rate is being studied. The       in the Antarctic in October 1987 by W'hrit-
surface acts as the motor in two ways. First,      first results are encouraging. Precise satel-     ner and a colleague. The system is operated
a turbulent shear current is generated at          lite mapping of the gas transfer rate would       by u.s. Navy Antarctic Support Forces per-
the ocean surface. Second, the energy put          be a big step forward for modeling and un-        sonnel.
into the wave field will, at least partly, be      derstanding global cycles of carbon diox-            The system is collecting NOM polar-or-
transferred to turbulent motions. This             ide and other gases that are crucially im-        biting weather satellite data at fulil-km res-
might be by wave-breaking with bubble en-          portant to the earth's climate.                   olution. The data are processed on si te and
trainment or, less spectacularly, by "micro-                                                         used in real time for operational weather,
scale breaking."                                   Antarctic Research Center                         searchlrescue, and flight forecasting pur-
    Conventional measuring techniques give            The Antarctic Research Center (ARC) was        poses. The raw digital telemetry from all
no insight into these processes. New instru-       established in 1987, under the direction of       collected overpasses is also stored on mag-
ments have been developed that allow di-           Robert H. Whritner, to install one or twO         netic tape for subsequent shipment to the
rect access to tbe thin boundary layer. The        stations in the Antarctic to collect sate llite   Antarctic Research Center, where it is per-
controlled flux technique uses heat as a           data from several of the polar-orbiting           manently archived and available for retro-
tracer to measure the local and instan-            spacecraft. The data collected would be           spective research purposes to Antarctic in-
taneous transfer rate across the aqueous           used in support of aircraft flights to se-        vestigators.
boundary layer. For the first time, the fluc-       lected research bases throughout the conti-
tuations of the transfer process have been          nent. These data, which contain digital in-      Theoretical Ecology
stud ied in laboratory wincllwave facilities.      formation about the visible and infrared             Natural populations rise and fall, existing
Scientists can use this instrument from            characteristics of the ice, ocean, and the        together in dynamiC balance within vari-
ocean platforms and ships to measure the           clouds over most of the Antarctic continent,      able environments. As a class of dynamiC
transfer rate directly as a function of wind       will then be shipped to the ARC at Scripps.       systems, ecological systems appear very
speed and wave parameters. The waves will             The ARC's growing archive now consists         complex. They occupy the so-called "mid-
be measured with lWO new optical wave-             of over 300 satellite passes covering parts       dle number systems" that are difficult to
measuring instruments-the reflective               of the Antarctic continent. Researchers can       treat, either statistically as an ensemble
slope gauge and the reflective stereo slope        access data at the ARC and view them on a         (many-body problem) or deterministically
gauge. Both instruments have been suc-             high-resolution television monitor, process-      as a few-body problem. One approach to
cessfully used in laboratory wincllwave fa-        ing and enhancing the display to suit par-        this dilemma is to try to resolve natural
cilities. They are designed to operate even        ticular research projects. Data can also be       syste ms into relatively simple patterns
at high wave heights in the ocean.                 se lected from the archive and put Onto           through the choice of appropriate models.
   Chemically reactive gases and fluoresc-         standard digital tape, or reproduced photo-       Here the idea is to find descriptive models
ing pH-indicators allow visualization of the       graphically. Another convenient access is to      that uncover regularities or symmetries in




I
Satellite photo 01 an iceberg that broke olllrom
the Ross Ice Shelf in October1987. The iceberg is
now being tracked by GODOESS.


                                                                                                     exponents on length scales between 10 km
                                                                                                     and 10,000 km. When stable low-produc-
                                                                                                     tivity patterns of typical years are com-
                                                                                                     pared with transient EI Nino conditions, a
                                                                                                     correlation between fragmentation and va-
                                                                                                     gility is observed. Transient EI Nino years
                                                                                                     show low and high productivity regions
                                                                                                     having a patchier and more highly dis-
                                                                                                     sected appearance than in typical years.
                                                                                                     Such scaling between spatial pattern and
                                                                                                     persistence is characteristic of certain frac-
                                                                                                     tal patch extinction models.
                                                                                                        In a Similar vein, certain persistent coral
                                                                                                     colonies (e.g., Montipora sp.) often have
                                                                                                     simpler outlines and are less patchy than
ecological data. Then these symmetries are          presently no detailed examples of whole-         colonies of more ephemeral species (e.g.,
used as physicists would - to construct bet-        system food webs. In collaboration with          Pocillopora sp.). In collaboration with UC
ter theories.                                       University of Wisconsin researchers, Dr.         Santa Barbara scientists, a study is being
   Dr. George Sugihara and Rockefeller              Sugihara is attempting to assemble the first     proposed to determine to what extent frac-
University colleagues are investigating one         detailed data base for the trophic structure     tal exponents computed from photographs
class of models that involves constructing          of the whole ecosystem. This data base will      can be used as an index of the physiologi-
various topological representations of food         be used to examine the robustness of the         cal state or persistence of patches. Methods
webs. These models, based on graph the-             new generalizations about food-web struc-        are also being developed to relate the frac-
ory and algebraic topology, are stylized            ture and their applicability to whole sys-       tal dimension of a population time series to
portraits of the feeding relationships for a        tems.                                            local species extinction.
system. Applied to a large compendium of               Another class of models that may yield           In a slightly different vein, Dr. Sugihara
data (obtained from the literature repre-           simple patterns in ecology is the fractal        and students are investigating the possi-
senting 102 different marine terrestrial and        models of Benoit MandelbroL Fractals are         bility that the apparently noisy behavior of
freshwater systems), they have discovered           based on the idea that any measure as-           some ecological populations may be char-
several curious regularities that appear to         signed to an object (e.g., the amount of         acterized by low-dimensional nonlinear dy-
distinguish ecological systems as a very            length, area, volume) depends on some no-        namics, so-called "chaOtic and strange at-
narrow subset of mathematical possi-                tion of appropriate dimensions. Thus, for        tractors." One of the central questions
bilities. Such regularities or special ele-         example, a line has zero area (planar mea-       theoreticians must answer concerns the
ments of structure are regarded by some             sure), whereas a plane has infinite length       complexity of dynamiC models: How many
authors as "food web laws." In particular,          (because it would take a line of infinite        dimensions or degrees of freedom are re-
natural ecosystems appear to display cer-           length folded back on itself to fill it) Lines   quired to capture the essential behavior of
tain invariant patterns of trophic connect-         that are jagged and irregular may have a         a system? In principle, such information
ance. Aside from their significance for con-        fractal dimension (a scaling exponent)           may be obtainable from a time series for
structing models of ecological systems,             greater than one.                                one component of a dynamic system. Initial
these patterns in trophic linkages are inter-          Dr. Sugihara is involved in a variety of      analysis of the Scripps Pier temperature se-
esting because some can be shown in a for-          projects that concern applications of fractal    ries suggests that this system does not have
mal sense to lead to a general, necessary,          scaling techniques in ecology. With the          a low-dimensional attractor. Rather, the dy-
and sufficient rule guiding the dynamic as-         help of students, a study is being made to       namics resemble a noisy limit cycle, or a
sembly of ecosystems.                               determine the feasibility of using fractal       sine wave with superimposed noise
   However attractive such general patterns         models to study the large-scale structure of     (noise = high-dimensional dynamics).
may seem, they are presently based on               marine phytoplankton distributions. Initial      These techniques are presently being re-
large amounts of coarsely aggregated data           analyses of satellite images of the California   fined for low-densitj time series and will
or data from small subsystems. Despite the          Current, taken by the CZCS remote color          be applied to a variety of biological time
antiquity of the term/ood web, there are            scanner, reveal good fits to single fractal      series.




                                                                                                                                              I
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




                                                                                                 results corroborate, in a surprisingly clear
    PHYSIOLOGICAL                                                                                way, long-known findings about the distri-
                                                                                                 bution of animals in the ocean. Biogeogra-
           RESEARCH                                                                              phers had shown mat the distribution of
                                                                                                 animals is confined to depth ranges and,
                                                                                                 indeed, that depth-dependent endemism
        LABORATORY                                                                               exists in the ocean.
                                                                                                    Dr. Linda H. Lutz completed research on
                                                                                                 the ability of deep-sea bacteria to repair
                                                                                                 DNA damage caused by UV light or by DNA
                                                 during ontogeny and in the creation of gas      methylating agents. She found evidence
                                                 vesicles in many bacteria and cyanobac-         that deep-sea bacteria irradiated with UV
                                                 teria. The process is also seen in the forma-   light can repair damaged DNA. By th is pro-
                                                 tion of bubbles under certain conditions in     cess, called photoreactivation, the damage
                                                 invertebrates, fish, and other animals, in-     caused by exposure to UV light is repaired
                                                 cluding humans, where it can lead to de-        by a subsequent exposure to visible light.
                                                 compression sickness.                           She also showed that seve ral deep-sea bac-
                                                    Although it has previously been assumed      terial isolates presumably contain the SOS




~
                                                 that in vivo bubbles generally arise from       (distress signal) DNA-repair system be-
               CIENTISTS IN THE Phvsi-           gas adsorbed to hydrophobic surfaces or         cause they have the reeA gene. This system,
               ological Research Laboratory      from microscopic gas nuclei chronically         involved in the repair of DNA damaged by
               (PRL) concentrate on the be-      present, the research in Dr. Hemmingsen's       UV light and possibly by other agents, is
havioral, physiological, and biochemical         laboratory indicates otherwise. Through         widely studied in nonmarine organisms.
adaptations of aquatic and terrestrial ani-      studies of various invertebrates and fish,      Dr. Lutz also demonstrated that deep-sea
mals. In this report, recent findings of [wo     Dr. Hemmingsen and his graduate students        bacteria can repair the damage caused by
PRL scientists and their students are pre-       have shown that bubbles can be nucleated        DNA methylating agents and that this re-
sented.                                          spontaneously-even at low gas super-            pair-known as the adaptive response-
                                                 saturations-by generating momentarily           also involves the activation of genes. Her
Bubble Mysteries at High Pressures               large tensile forces in the aqueous fluids      studies set the foundation for further re'
    Dr. Edvard A. Hemmingsen studies the         be[Ween closely spaced su rfaces while the      search on how deep-sea bacteria regulate
 physical process of spontaneous gas-phase       animals are moving. Preformed gas nuclei        gene function at deep ocean pressures.
 nucleation when gas is supersaturated in        do not appear to contribute to the bubble          Graduate student Frankl. Cynar studies
 water, aqueous solutions, cells, and rela-      formation in any of the organisms exam-         the microbial aspect of the global methane
 tively simple organi sms. The nucleation        ined. Hydrophobic surfaces have proved          cycle. He has hypothesized that the meth-
 events cannot be predicted quantitatively       less effective as initiation points for bub-    ane found near the sea surface is produced
from theory. Attempts of Others yielded nu-      bles than od1ers had postulated, partic-        in the guts of animals. The gut environ-
cleation thresholds an order of magnitude        ularly when the contacting fluids contain       ment might allow the anaerobic meth-
 or more higher than d10se established and       amphiphilic or other polar substances.          anogenic bacteria to flourish. Cynar deter-
 proven by experiments in Dr. Hem-                                                               mined where the methane concentration
mingsen's laboratory. The unpredictable          Barophilic Bacteria-New InSights                peak is found in the PaCific Ocean near
behavior of water probably can be traced         from the Deep                                   southern California, and he has cultivated
to unexpected surface-tension properties            The studies of Dr. A. Aristides yayanos      methane-producing bacteria from anima ls
of the water-gas interface at the sub-           are clarifying the role of pressure in the      captured in the depth range where seawa-
microscopic level. Dr. Hemmingsen is also        ecology and evolution of deep-sea organ-        ter is supersaturated with methane. He will
investigating this aspect of the problem.        isms. Physiological studies of deep-sea bac-    determine if these methanogenic bacteria
    The process of gas-phase nucleation in       teria from depths of 2,000-10,500 m have        thrive in the guts of animals. Ultimatc!v,
liquids has many biological implications.        shown that pressure may be one of the pri-      Cynar plans to model the flow of methane
For example, it is involved in the initial gas   mary depth-dependent variables restricting      from its sources to its sinks in the sea sur-
deposition in the swim bladders of fish          organisms to depth zones of me sea. The         face.
Dr. Edvard A. Hemmingsen prepares for high-
speed cinephotomicrography of bubble formation
in ciliates during rapid decompression. Below is
a 50-millisecond film of bubbles forming inside
and outside the cells.




                                           I
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




             CENTER
                  FOR
             COASTAL
             STUDIES




[SJ             CIENTISTS AT THE Center for
                Coastal Studies (CCS), under
                the direction of Dr, Clinton D.
Winant, focus on the processes that affect
                                                  ray of current meters and pressure sensors
                                                  both offshore and within the jetty. The in-
                                                  struments, together with tracer dye studies
                                                  conducted at the jetty enabled the group to
                                                                                                   ties, and evaluating and refining computer
                                                                                                   programs to predict how extreme ocean-
                                                                                                   ographic and meteorological factors affect
                                                                                                   littoral harbor structures,
the coastal environment. Their studies in-        determine how much wave energy the                   Future work will include developing
clude fluid-sediment interactions that trans-     breakwater dissipates under various wave         technologies to efficiently pass sediment
port sand along beaches and shelves; up-          conditions, This information also led to a       around dams. Sediment accumulation has
welling processes that bring nutrient-rich        mathematical model of the physical mecha-        far-reaching effects, ranging from dimin-
cold water to the surface along the Califor-      nisms involved in breakwater-wave interac-       ished water-storage and flood-control ca-
nia coast; circulation in semienclosed seas       tions for a conventional breakwater design.      pacities of reservoirs to accelerated beach
such as the Gulf of California; dynamics of          In the laboratory, experimeillal hreakwa-     and stream-bed erosion.
the straits that connect those seas to larger     ter sections were constructed using key el-          Other CCS researchers include Dr.
ocean basins; surface gravity waves and           ements of wave-dissipating structures            Nancy A Bray, who studies the thermo-
wave-induced currents in nearshore .;vaters;      found in nature-coral reefs, grooved bed-        haline circulation in marginal seas; Dr.
and sediment management in harbors and            rock, and natural cliff profiles. The perfor-    Reinhard E. Flick, who investigates surf-
estuaries, Many of these projects involve         mance of these designs was evaluated with        zone turbulence and beach profiles; and
field activities, and require specialized in-     an array of single-wire wave staffs in the       Dr. Robert Guza, who observes and de-
strumentation developed in the Scripps Hy-        wave-generating basin of the Scripps Hy-         scribes surface gravity waves and wave-
draulics Laboratory. This year one of the         draulics Laboratory,                             induced currents in nearshore waters, Dr.
many CCS research areas is reviewed in               An opportunity for a full-scale test of an    Douglas L. Inman studies the fluid-sedi-
depth.                                            experimental sea wall presented itself           ment interactions that cause sediment
   The Sed iment Management Group,                when the group was asked to design a sea         transport, and the resulting bedforms-
headed by Dr, Scott A Jenkins, is develop-        wall for a private residence. The wall is cur-   ripples, cusps, and the bars and berms
ing dissipative breakwater and seawall            rently in the final phase of construction,       characterizing the beach profile, Dr. Winant
structures for harbors, inlets, and coastal       and a field study will begin this winter to      focuses on geostrophic flow along coastal
bluffs. The initial phase of this research in -   evaluate its effectiveness,                      margins anel across si lis.
volved a California field study at the Camp          The group is also reviewing work on
Pendleton-Oceanside jetty, and used an ar-        wave overtopping of breakwaters and jet-




I
Michael I. Kirk and Dr. Clinton D. Winant observe
a current meter through the clear wall of the
stratified flow tank at the Hydraulics Laboratory.
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




      GEOLOGICAL
        RESEARCH
                    [SJ           CIENTISTS IN THE Geologi-
                                  cal Research Division investi-
                                  gate a variety of ocean-related
                    problems. Work reported on this year
                    ranges from using vaI\led sediments to re-
                    construct ocean climate, to developing a
         DIVISION   nuclear method to study phosphorus recy-
                    cling.
                       Dr. Wolfgang H. Berger's paleoclimate
                    group is reconstructing the climate of the
                    California Current system, based on varved
                    sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin. The
                    last 50 years have been studied in great de-
Patricia S. Doyle, opposite page, removes teeth Irom a flying fish, Hirundichthys ronde/etii, for comparison with lossil
lorms as part of a project to determine the biological origin of the solution-resistant, phosphatic skeletal fragments
found in deep-sea sediments. Be/ow, operculum raised to expose gillS. Flying fish have lew teeth in the mouth, but the
gill arch has a well-developed pharyngeal jaw with several hundred teeth. Bottom, enlarged portion (40x) of the upper
pharyngeal tooth plate. The distinctive trilobed teeth first entered the deep-sea sediments about 15 million years ago.


                                                     tail; microfossil data indicate a dramatic de-         petrological-geochemical analYSis of ig-
                                                     crease in diatom and planktonic for-                   neous rock samples from the very deep
                                                     aminifera between the periods 1950-1969                Tonga and Philippine trenches. Similar
                                                     and 1970-1987. Stable isotope ratios in or-            work is under way to evaluate the struc-
                                                     ganic matter show synchronous shifts,                  tural implications of collections from the
                                                     which appear to be the California coastal              Challenger Deep. Dr. Fisher collaborated
                                                     ecosystem 's response to long-term fluctua-            with Dr. James H. Natland and others on
                                                     tions in atmospheric and oceanic circula-              petrological-geochemical analysis of
                                                     tion of the northeast P'dcific. Dr. Berger's           Scripps's extensive dredged collections of
                                                     group is also studying older sediment                  tholeiitic glasses and volcanics, and mafic-
                                                     layers-dating back to 1500 A.D.-to accu-               ultramafic plutonic rocks from the Central,
                                                     mulate a paleoclimate database. This                   Southeast, and Southwest Indian ridges.
                                                     database should provide detailed stratigra-            The data provided ground-truth input for
                                                     phy for EI Nino events and insights about              models of magma generation and mixing
                                                     variations in biological production.                   in the mantle, of processes of emplacement
                                                        Patricia S. Doyle is using the unique               and exposure in the spreading ridge seg-
                                                     shapes of fishes' teeth and scales to link             ments and cross-cutting fracture zones, and
                                                     present·day, open-ocean fish to their fossil           for the recognition of significant geochemi·
                                                     record in oceanic sediments. The primary               cal differences or similarities between re-
                                                     fishing grounds for the project is in the              gions or entire ocean basins.
                                                     deeper (>4,000 m) world ocean. Here the                   Dr. William R Riedel is investigating how
                                                     fossil record of deep-sea fauna extends                artificial intelligence programing can be
                                                     back about 150 million years. Because the              applied to microfossil investigations. He
                                                     abyssal clay deposits that underlie this part          and his colleagues are developing pro-
                                                     of the ocean do not ordinarily outcrop on              grams to help identify the fossils, assign
                                                     land, this is the first glimpse into the evolu-        ages, and interpret paleoenvironmental
                                                     tiOlmy history of deep-sea fish popula-                conditions. The database being assembled
                                                     tions. Identifying the fish species that pro-          for this purpose comprises information on
                                                     duce the fossil assemblages, and                       radiolarians and sediment types collected
                                                     identifying where in the water column they             from the Cenozoic World Ocean during the
                                                     originate will increase the fossils' useful-           Deep Sea Drilling Project.
                                                     ness for investigating biostratigraphy, paleo-            Annika Sanfilippo is studying the evolu-
                                                     geography, paleotemperature, and climate.              tion of radiolarians in deep-sea sediments
                                                        Dr. Robert L. Fisher began a four-year              recovered by the Deep Sea Drilling and
                                                     collaborative project to syntheSize all geo-           Ocean Drilling projects. She supplements
                                                     physical data for the Indian Ocean and the             the data with land-based sequences for
                                                     contiguous southern oceans down to Ant-                greater resolution near the Eocene/Olig-
                                                     arctica, from 10'W to 1600 E. Data on                  ocene boundary (samples from Barbados,
                                                     bathv1l1etry, magnetiCS, deflection-of-the-            West Indies) and in the Paleocene (samples
                                                     vertical and satellite-derived gravity field           from SW France). TI1e problem of identify-
                                                     will be analyzed, and tectonic interpreta-             ing ancestral forms to reconstruct phy-
                                                     tions and upgraded plate reconstructions               logenies based on fossil evidence is a com-
                                                     for the area will be published. This study,            plex one because of the uncertainty of how
                                                     under the overall direction of Dr. John G.             representative the fossil record might be.
                                                     Sclater, involves field scientists and data            However, a number of lineages have been
                                                     modelers from the United States, Europe,               revealed. The lineages are essential for
                                                     Africa, and Australia.                                 constructing a natural taxonomy, for study-
                                                        Dr. Fisher continued his collaboration              ing stratigraphy, and for elucidating species
                                                     with a Boston University colleague on the              diversity and evolutionary patterns among
                                                                                                            fossil and living Radiolaria.




                                                                                                                                                     I
RESEARCH
AC TI VITIES




    Dr. Devendra Lal and colleagues devel-
oped a new nuclear method to study phos-
phorus recycling in the upper ocean. This
method uses the rwin radiotracers 3ZP
(half-life, 143 days) and 33p (half-life 25.3
days), which are produced by interactions
of cosmic rays in the earth's atmosphere
and in the oceans. These nuclides in dis-
solved inorganic/organic phosphorus and
in particulate organiC phosphorous pools
are useful for studying P cycling on
timescales compatible with those involved
in biogeochemical processes and in tro-
phic interactions within the food web.
    Dr. Clare E. Reimers and her group con-
tinued studying the oxidation of organic
 matter and the early diagenesis that occurs
 near the sediment-water interface. Factors
producing variable patterns in pore-water
oxygen gradients and consumption rates
 were investigated on both small and large
spatial scales. The group used Woods Hole's
 research submersib le Alvin to deploy re-
 peated ly a microelectrode-based instru-
 ment-called the in situ microprofiler-on
 the seafloor of the Santa Catalina Basin.
The microprofiler was also deployed along
 rwo E-W transectS of the central California
 continenta l slope, where box cores were
 also made. This work demonstrates that
 oxic respiration consumes nearly all of the
 organic carbon input to the seafloor within
 the first 1-2 Col of sediment, except at loca-
 tions in the heart of the oxygen minimum
 zone.
    Dr. Reimers also began a study of phos-
 phorus cycling and authigenic mineral for-
 mation within the laminated sedimentS of
 the Santa Barbara Basin. This research fo-
 cuses on the roles that bacterial and redox-
sensitive equilibria play in phosphate-min-
 erai precipitation.


Dr. Clare E. Reimers constructs an oxygen micro-
electrode for the in situ microprofiler. Bottom left,
the instrument profiles ocean sediments at 3345
m. This photo was taken with a stereo camera
mounted on the deployment free vehicle . Bottom
right, a close-up of the instrument's sensors.




I
                                                                                             Dr. Mahmoud Tarokh tests a new control algo-
                                                                                             rithm for the robot arm.
        CALIFORNIA
               SPACE
         INSTITUTE




                             I !>r~l C) I., I
"'_ _-" Unllt:r>I[I"ldt iJnlt       hl'Ju ·
c.j uartereu at Lripps, Wh iCh SUppOrL~ and
conducts space-related research. Cal
Space's strongest ties to Scripps are in the
field of satellite remote sensing of the
ocean atmosphere. In addition to its re-
search for the institute, Cal Space operates
 a small universitywide grant program open
 to researchers in astrophysics, space sci-
ence, satellite remote sensing, and space
technology Each year Scripps scientists
have successfully competed for these
grants, which support students or are used
as program seed money.
     Cal Space, uncler the direction of Dr.
James Arnold, has made advances in autO-
mation and robotics. As NASA'S space sta-
tion project moves forward, Cal Space sci-
entists are pursuing a variety of research       Dr. Mahmoud Tarokh is using improved        Dr. Lucy-Ann McFadden focuses on the re-
activities.                                   control algorithms and sensors to increase     mote use and control of complex scientific
     Cal Space researchers discovered early    the dexterity and precision of robot arm      instruments in space. Her work may apply
on that there is a similarity between the      movements. Philippe E. Collard is studying    to problems in the ocean-atmosphere sys-
problems faced in space and those under        the application of ADA language to auto-      tem.
the sea. Thus Cal Space scientists are work- . mation and robotics. In work with Cal            The earth remote sensing group, di-
ing with Marine Physical Laboratory investi- Space's remote senSing group, Collard is        rected by Dr. Catherine H. Gautier, ex-
gatOrs who have research interests in un-     developing computer-based procedures for       tended its involvement in earth science and
dersea robotics and teleoperarion.            classifying cloud types in satellite images.   global change studies, partiCipating in in-




                                                                                                                                    I
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




terdisciplinary research programs such as        on the California Current. Such models as-      c1oudlsubcloud coupling Collaboration
the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere and         Similate remotely sensed and in situ-mea-       with other Cal Space researchers will im-
the International Satellite Cloud Climatol-      sured geophysical forces like surface winds     prove remote senSing of marine boundary
ogy programs. The group is interested in         and heat fluxes to provide forecasts for cli-    layer phenomena.
 long-term variation of the earth's energy       mate dynamic studies and seagoing activ-            As part of the International Land Surface
and water cycles and their impact on the         ities. Geoffrey K Vallis and Alejeandro         Climatology Program and in an effort to
 planet'S ecology. Satellite observations of     Pares-Sierra have built quasi-geostrophic       better understand interactions between the
the earth's atmosphere and surface (land         models of varying resolution of the North       atmosphere and land, Cal Space re-
and ocean) are used to investigate clouds'       Pacific Ocean and California Current. Vallis    searchers have been studying the surface
effects on radiative energy and water bud-       and Pares-Sierra also developed a high-res-     radiative processes occurring over small
get interactions between the atmosphere          olution, primitive equation model, which        spatial scales (1 to 10 km). Using satellite
and oceans.                                      depicts the California Current's upper-layer    observations, they estimated the different
    Using geostationary satellite observations   thickness in a one-layer reduced-gravity        parameters characterizing the surface radi-
and radiative transfer models, Cal Space         model. These models test important hy-          ation budget (downwelling and upwelling
scientists can accurately compute surface        potheses about how El Nino events influ-        solar radiation, surface albedo, downwell-
solar andlongwave irradiances - the driv-        ence California coastal sea :level, partic-     ing and upwelling longwave radiation, and
ing force behind atmospheric and oceanic         ularl), whether sea-level variations result     surface emissivity) in clear conditions.
circulations. Drs. Gautier and Robert).          from northward propagation of coast:11 oce-     They then validated these estimates with in
Frouin are studying the interannual vari-        anic Kelvin waves or from atmospheric           situ measurements made in 1987 during an
ability of surface solar radiation over the      teleconnections. Currently under develop-       intensive observation experiment in Kan-
tropical Pacific Ocean to clarify its impact     ment is a multilayered extension of the re-     sas. The analyses will further the quantita-
on climate processes, particularly the EI        duced-gravity moclel, which incorporates        tive interpretation of satellite observations
Nino/Southern Oscillation-one of the             topography and an efficient method for de-      from high-resolution 00-30 m) sensors on
           i
most intr,guing climatological phenomena         termining a flUid 's barotropiC component.      satellites devoted to land observations, such
in recent years. They are investigating and          In the same program Drs. Gautier and        as Landsat and Spot.
quantifying the role that reduced solar ra-      John). Bates, and Collard supplied the             Cal Space scientists also study biological
diation in the central and eastern Tropical      models with satellite-derived products of       primary ocean productivity on a regional
Pacific Ocean (associated " 'ith the displace-   atmospheric forcings (heat and momen-           and global scale. To this end, Drs. David W
ment of large-scale convective systems)          tum) of upper ocean circulation and heat        Lingner and Gautier are developing a
may play in decreasing warm sea-surface          content. The researchers are devising           method to estimate marine primary pro-
temperatures.                                    methods to analyze multisensor satellite        ductivity from space by using satellite mea-
   Another Cal Space project focuses on the      observations to account for spatial and tem-    surements of environmentally forced pa-
Indian summer monsoon and the dramatic           poral information. To do this they created      rameters. The model incorporates (1) plant
heat and moisture exchanges across the           automated techniques to compute the dis-        biomass, inferred from Coastal Zone Color
ocean-atmosphere interface in conjunction        placement of surface thermal features from      Scanner ch lorophyll images; (2) sea-sur-
with the monsoon's abrupt onset. Umil re-        consecutive infrared images of the ocean        face temperature, derived from the Ad-
cently, such studies relied solely on ships      surface.                                        vanced Very High Resolution Radiometer;
for collecting measurements and were thus            Dr. David P Rogers measures and             and (3) incident photosynthetically avail-
limited in describing the monsoon's large,       models the evolution of the marine atmo-        able radiation, estimated from the Visible
rapid, and spatially extended geopbysical        spheric boundary layer. In conjunction          and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer. To ver-
processes. An ensemble of satellite obser-       with airborne studies carried Out during        ify and improve upon the biological model,
vations is used to quantify the air-sea heat     the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment,     the satellite-derived productivity estimates
and moisture exchanges as well as the radi-      he is developing a numerical model to in-       are compared against surface-based (ship,
ative, mOisture, and water (precipitation)       vestigate how cloud fields respond to           buoy, and mooring) data.
changes occurring in the atmosphere.             ocean temperature fronts. This study indi-
   Several Cal Space scientists are partici-     cates that the boundary layer is strongly in-
pating in Scripps's UniverSity Research Ini-     fluenced by temperature discontinuities in
tiative program to design realistic models       the ocean, particularly through the devel-
of the North Pacific Ocean, with emphasis        opment of internal boundary layers and




I
                                INSTITUTE OF
                                  GEOPHYSICS
                              AND PLANETARY
                                                                                  OJ             HE SAN DIEGO branch of the
                                                                                                 University of California sys-
                                                                                                 temwide Institute of Geo-
                                                                                  physics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is lo-
                                                                                  cated at Scripps and is strongly linked to
                                                                                  Scripps through joint faculty appointments,
                                       PHYSICS                                    research interests, and shared facilities.
                                                                                  Other IGPP branches are located at the Los
                                                                                  Angeles and Riverside campuses and at the
                                                                                  Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore na-
                                                                                  tiona I laboratories. Research at IGPP spans
                                                                                  numerous fields, from seismology to un-
                                                                                  derwater acoustiCS; in this report two se-
                                                                                  lected research programs on very different
                                                                                  topiCS are discussed.
On the ice sheet in Greenland, Dr. Mark A. Zumberge reads a gravity meter.




                                                                             --~~----------------------~--- ~
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES

Graduate student Glenn S. Sasagawa assembles
an absolute gravity meter before testing.




I
 Determination of the Newtonian                      observer as mass moves from below him to        earth 's molten iron core, which acts as a
 Gravitational Constant                              above him. The first term can be calculated     self-regenerative electrical fluid dynamo
                                                     when there is an adequate knowledge of          (molten iron is not magnetiC)' The flow
     Scientists from several U.S. institutions       the earth's shape and the local tOpography      and the dynamo could be studied if the
  have gathered at IGPP to address recent            The second term requires precise informa-       geomagnetiC field B at the core-mantle
  global measurements that suggest that              tion on the density of the material through     boundary (elvIB) could be measured. For
  Nev.rron's law of gravity may break down at        which the observer moves. Therein lies the      this purpose, the available data are mea-
  distances in the range of a few tens of me-        advantage of performing the experiment in       su rements of B on and above the earth 's
  ters to a few tens of kilometers. Nev.rron's       water rather than rock. The density of sea-     surface. Even satellite measurements pro-
  law predicts the anraction between any             water and its variation with depth, tempera-    vide only finite data, and there are infinite
  pair of objects separated by a particular          ture, and salinity is widely known. The ice     dimensions in the model space X of all
  distance. Some physiciStS attribute the            in the great ice sheets is amaZingly pure, so   possible magnetiC fields B produced out-
  anomalous behavior to a new force in na-           its density is readily predicted. The prob-     side the core by electric currents within.
  ture. Classical geophysica l survey tech-          lem then becomes separating the rwo             Hence, finding B at the c~m from surface
  niques are being applied to test the radi-         terms.                                          and satellite data requires that scientists
  cally new theories of phvsics.                        In the Greenland experiment, which was       solve a finite number of equations for an
     Scientists from Scripps and Los Alamos          performed during the summer of 1987,            infinite number of unknowns. Moreover,
   National Laboratory make up a planning            gravity measurements were made in a             even if the surface data available were infi-
   group, sponsored by IGPP, to study how the        borehole previously drilled 1,700 minto         nite, none would be perfectly accurate. Dr.
  earth's gravity varies with height in an envi-     the ice sheet. A radar survey and a series of   Jacques-Salomon Hadamard showed that
  ronment where the density of nearby mate-          gravity measurements along the surface of       arbitrarily small errors in the surface data
  rial is welJ known. Others have made mea-          the ice sheet were made to model the ef-        propagate down to large errors at the CIYIB
  surements in mines and boreholes in the            fects of subice rock. Analysis of the data is   if the horizontal wavelength of the errors is
  ground but lacked knowledge of the mass            currently under way.                            shorr enough.
  of surrounding rock. The IGPP study                   Because of ship motion and currents at          Geomagneticians resolve these diffi-
  group, which eventually included Scripps           depth, measurements of gravity below the        culties by incorporating prior information
  scientists and researchers from many other         ocean surface are far from routine. New         into the data analysis. The magnetiC energy
  institutions, planned two experiments thar         gravity meters are being perfected for use      at short horizontal wavelengths cannot be
  involve measuring the variation of gravity         in this ever-moving environment. The great      so great that more ohmic heating in the
  with depth in water. The first experiment          depth of the ocean, the ability of ocean-       core is required for its generation than is
  was performed in frozen water (on the ice          ographers to create maps of undersea to-        observed to diffuse out of the earth 's sur-
  cap covering Greenland); the other is be-          pography, the readily available gravity in-     face. And the magnetiC energy cannot be so
  ing done in the PaCific Ocean near Hawaii.         formation contained in the shape of the         great that its rest mass exceeds the astro-
     The idea behind these experiments               ocean surface, and the high precision with      nomically measured mass of the earth.
  stems from nineteenth-century work by Sir          which the density of seawater can be deter-     Both heat ~ow and magnetiC rest mass pro-
  George Airy, and recent work by Dr. Frank          mined provide the right combination for         vide "prior quadratic bounds" on the cor-
  Stacey, University of Queensland, Australia.       an unusually accurate determination of the      rect magnetic field B. That is, each pro-
  The universal gravitational constant, G, in        Newtonian gravitational constant. The grav-     vides a number, q, and a homogeneous,
  Nev.rron's law of gravity can be determined        ity measurements begun on the ocean bot-        positive, quadratic polynomial Q (x) de-
  by measuring the strength of gravity at var-       tom during the summer of 1988 may yield         fined for all x in X, such that even without
  ious depths in a mine. Two terms govern            the best test ever of Nev.rron's law.           the data the observer is confident that the
  the variation of gravity as an observer de-                                                        true field B satisfies Q (B) ,,:;; q
  scends from the earth 's su rface. The fi rst is   Measuring the GeomagnetiC Field at                  In the last decade scientists have dis-
  the attraction of the earth 's bulk, including     the Core-Mantle Boundary                        agreed on how to incorporate such prior
  the globe as a whole and local structures             t.,lagnetic north in London has swung 36°    quadratic bounds into magnetiC data pro-
. like mountains and subterranean rock for-          in twO centuries, and in the last century the   cessing. The currently favored tech-
  mations. The second term comes from the            strength of the earth's magnetic dipole has     niques- Bayesian inference (BI) and
  direction revel'sal of pull by the material        dropped by five percent. These large and        stochastic inversion (SI)-require a proba-
  that immediately surrounds the descending          rapid changes are produced by flow in the                             x
                                                                                                     bility distribution P on X, which describes




                                                                                                                                              I
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES




                                                                                       INSTITUTE
where the observer thinks the correct B is
 likely to be in X if the scientist has nOt yet
seen the data. Then BI and SI are twO stan-                                                     OF
dard statistical theories that tell the ob-
server how the data's new information
should lead to modifying the prior PX' The
                                                                                          MARINE
difficulty with BI and SI lies in choosing a
prior Px that conveys roughly the same in-
formation contained in the belief that Q (x)
                                                                                      RESOURCES
~ q. The "hard bound" Q (B) ~ q must be
"softened " to a probability distribution PX    '
Recently Dr. George E. Backus found a rig-
orous proof that this cannot be done. Soft-
ening a hard quadratic bound inevitably
adds spurious information about the earth,




                                                    ~
information and structure implied neither
by the data nor the bound Q(B) ~ q.                                URlNG 1988 Dr. William H.        which a cell is not likely to be detected by
Therefore, if the prior information really is                      Fenical was appointed acting     chemical means. Because of this size limita-
a hard quadratic bound, neither BI nor SI                          director of the universitywide   tion for chemical detection, small cells in-
is an acceptable tech~ique for data reduc-          Institute of Marine Resources (IMR), which      teract differently than larger cells. This oc-
tion.                                               is headquartered at Scripps. IMR oversees       curs because the interactions involve
    Fortunately there is an alternative tech-       several research programs at Scripps and at     different sensory exchanges. For example,
nique for dealing directly with hard                Davis. It also administers the California Sea   cope pods graze on algal cells by sensing
bounds-confidence set inference (CSI);              Grant College Program, headquartered at         the chemical environment around them.
presoftening is unnecessary. CSI, based on          Scripps. Highlighted this year are the Cali-    The fact that many cope pods do not eat
Neyman's now classical work on confidence           fornia Sea Grant Program and the activities     cells smaller than about 5-10 fLm, but other
intervals, gives about the same results as BI       of twO members of the Scripps-based Food        larger animals, such as salps, do suggests
and SI, but the error bounds are larger in          Chain Research Group.                           that this is caused by an inability to sense
CSI. (In compensation, they are rationally                                                          the small cells. Such size-based constraints
defensible.) Both BI and SI have overesti-          Food Chain Research Group                       can be important in structuring marine
mated the horizontal resolution available              The Food Chain Research Group (FCRG)         food webs.
on the CMB. The circle of confusion for B           is an interdisciplinary program investigat-        PhYSical processes on a larger scale also
there has a diameter of about 25° rather            ing the production, transformation, and         help determine the nature of the kelp bed
than 16°. (In SI, BI, and CSI the primary           loss of organiC material in the ocean over a    ecosystem. Th is system depends on sur-
cause for inaccuracy and poor resolution at         spectrum of scales from molecular to             rounding waters to supply nutrients to sup-
the CMB is the unknown crustal magnetiza-           global Working on the smaller scales of         port kelp growth, larvae to provide the new
tion.) CSI requires more computing than             physical and chemical processes, Dr.            generations of fishes and other animals,
BI or SI, and depends heavily on efficient          George A. Jackson uses mathematical             and food to feed planktivorous fish. Dr.
use of the accumulated prior information            models and computer simulations to clarify      Jackson has been studying the currents that
about the earth. \'(k)rk on both these prob-        how particle size, leakage rate, and water      move these materials in and out of the kelp.
lems continues.                                     motion affect interactions between organ-       The high drag of the kelp dramatically
                                                    isms. Dr. Jackson's idealized system involves   slows water movement into the bed, as well
                                                    a solitary algal cell, which leaks a chemical   as the subsequent distribution of the water
                                                    cue to the water, and a bacterium that tries    and its material within the bed . He is trying
                                                    to find and stay near or attach to the alga.    to predict the distribution of organisms in
                                                    The idealized bacterium incorporates bio-       the kelp by studying their behavioral re-
                                                    logical responses and acts as a surrogate       sponses to the kelp system and its currents.
                                                    for other microscopic organisms. He sees a      Results suggest that many of the more ac-
                                                    cutoff size of about 5 fLm diameter, below      tive waterborne materials may not reach




I
                                                                                              Dr. George A. Jackson uses a computer to simu-
                                                                                              late bacterial motion around a falling particle.




more than 1OG-200 minto lhe kelp bed. A        cause grazing by sea urchins is so impor-      tions. Drs. JacKson and Peter M. Williams
large kelp bed, such as that at Point Loma     lant in kelp ecosystems, this is one example   have been analyzing the interactions be-
off San Diego, may be 7 km along the           of how the decrease of currents in a kelp      (Ween dissolved organic compounds and
shore and 1 km wide. ll1e area within          bed can influence the ecosyslem.               other chemical cycles, including that of ox-
100 m of an edge of such a kelp bed is a          Organisms control the distribution of       ygen. Whatever the actual concentrations of
small fraction of the total bed. If the reo    many chemical elements in the sea, includ-     DOC and DON, they must be consistent
cruitment of benthic animals from plank-       ing nitrogen and carbon. Their concentra-      with the concentrati ons of other elements
tonic larvae occurs mostly in the outer re-    tions are influenced by the presence of or-    (such as oxygen), and their distributions
gions, then the ecological interactions in     ganic carbon compounds. Presently there        must be consistent with those of other pro-
the interior wil l be much different Anecdo-   is confusion about the concentrations of       cesses and chemical forms, including the
tal evidence provided by sea urchin collec·    dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitro-      sinking of particles containing carbon and
tors indicates that sea urchins recr uit       gen (DON) because new analytical tech-          nitrogen.
mainly within 100 m of the outer edge. Be·     niques have measured different concentra-          Other members of the FCRG are in-




                                                                                                                                         III
RESEARCH
ACTIVITIES


                                                                                  Currents within a kelp bed diHer with position.
                                                                                  Map and aerial photos show the positions of four
                                                                                  stations separated from adjacent stations by
 volved with national and international re-                                       about 250 m. The graphs show currents flowing
 search programs focused on global prob-                                          alongshore, with the lower sections representing
 lems- such as the increase in atmospheric                                        currents farther inside Ihe kelp bed. The velocity
 carbon dioxide ,md large-sca le climate                                          decreases over short distances because of the
                                                                                  kelp drag.
 changes. The ocean plays a large role in cli-
 mate change. It is a si nk for some of the at-
 mospheric carbon dioxide produced by
 burning fossil fuels; it is also a source of
 methane, dimethyl sulfide, and other vol-
 ati le substances important to the heat bud-
 get of the atmosphere and the earth 's su r-
 face.
     Several members of the FCRG are study-
 ing such large-sca le ocean biochemica l cy-
 cles in the context of the national Global
 Ocean Fl ux ' rudY( OFS) Dr. Wi lliams is
 illvolwu 111 jOint I 'i lapall GOP; 1>LUrues of
\,<1     I   II 't: 1tlrg;lIltl m lit '(      II )
       ntl         '-   pe    (IIth
o             'lIr)(1        'un . nd
G. I              lrkJlI                     n upper
PI'!                    104.11110(/   'IIn
    Dr RidlJrd \\: El'plt::} 'HI p;trm.:iI),JlC in
a study of the spring plan"'1on bloom in the
North Atlantic aboard RIV Meteor. Scientists
on the cruise 'Ivill measure the fraction of
primary production that will be exported
 from the surface layer to the ocean's inte-
 rior. Biologists call this fraction "new pro-
duction:' contrasting it with tbe fraction of
primary production that is recycled within
the su rface waters.
    Current estimates of global new produc-
tion are on the order of 5 gigatons of car-
bon per year (5 x 109 tons/year). This is
the same magnitude as the input of carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere from the burn-
ing of fossil fuel s. Small changes in the rate
of ocean ic new production may thus be im-
portant for carbon dioxide's rate of trans-
port to the interior ocean, and for its
buildup in the atmosphere. Most new pro-
duction takes place where nitrate is
brought to the surface-in regions of deep
winter mixing in temperate and polar lati-
tudes, and in regions of upwelling. The lat-
ter include the equatorial PaCific and the
eastern boundary currents, including the
Ca lifornia Current. Primary prod uction
                                                       lIIust,atlon; Steve Cook
  shows large interannual variab ility in such      Grant College Program, is a partnership be-    Doppler system for directional wave mea-
  regions, some of it related to EI Nino type       tween the federal government and public        surements, a hybrid sonar system that will
  events. New production may be equaJJy or         universities in the coastal and Great Lakes     improve methods of surveying river chan-
  even more sensitive to such climate-related      states. The Sea Grant program promotes          nels and other shallow bodies of water, and
  changes. The plankton processes, their           development, conservation, and manage-          an instrument to profile the thermal flow
  physical forcing, and climate are interre-        ment of marine resources through pro-          of "black smoker" vents to determine their
  lated in scenarios of global change. Individ-    grams of research and education.                potential for providing thermal power. As
  ual oceanographers in multidisciplinary             Modeled loosely on the Land Grant con -      pa rt of these projects, Sea Grant supported
  programs such as GOFS find many chal-            cept, Sea Grant supports fundamental re-        10 Scripps students.
  lenging problems to be addressed.                search projects that have potential social         Because of Sea Grant's mandate to in-
                                                   benefit. In 1987-1988, California Sea Grant     crease the social benefits of SCience, its re-
  California Sea Grant College Program             sponsored research projects at Scripps on      searchers have historica lly sought to create
     The California Sea Grant College Pro-         such topics as nearshore sediment trans-       stronger links among the university, indus-
  gram, directed by Dr. James]. Su llivan , is a   port, atmospheric forcing of coastal sea       try, and government. This linking function
  systemwide program of the University of          level, halibut metabolism, Pacific whi ting    was the focus of research by Dr. Su llivan,
  California adm inistered by the Institute of     prey, and potentia l new pharmaceutical        who spent a year in Japan studying how the
  Marine Resources and headquartered at            agents from marine organisms. In addition,     Japanese target their efforts in research and
  Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Cali-       wi th Sea Grant suppOrt, Scripps re-           development to areas believed important
  fornia Sea Grant, part of the National Sea       searchers worked to develop an acoustic        to their nation's economy.




                                                         Longshore Deployment #6 Sep-oct '82


        5 CM/S
OUTER STATION 1---.,L~:--:-T""":t'"---+~+-I---+---r~t-"""":rolM'rt:--jJtrrJ:f---1------:;r---rJ~t---j~4nY--1-'fl
     - 5 CM/S


        5 CM/S
    STATION M
     - 5 CM/S




                                                                 .6.          tv..     11         A          A          .A         ... !\




              30 SEP                                                                                                                         6 OCT
                                                                       Ticks are 1 day apart
             SHIP CRUISE TRACKS FOR FISCAL 1988

         180-o0E                                            100-o0W   80-o0W
    50-o0N




    30-00N




    O-OON




                                                  13O-GOE             BO-oOW




I
RN Roberl Gordon Sproul
DATE                 EXPEDITION          AREA OF OPERATION                WORK PERFORMED            PORTS OF CALL        CHIEF SCIENTIST             CAPTAIN

07/01--D7!10/87                          Southern Californ ia coast       Shark studies             San Diego            ( Lai                       L. Zimm
07113--D7I16/87                          Southern California coast        Equipment testing         San Diego            ( Reimers                   T Beanie
0712O--D7/22/87                          Southern California coast        Biology                   San Diego            D. LaI                      T Beanie
07/23--D7/25/87                          Santa Barbara Basin              Biology                   San Diego            ( Carl'                     T Beauie
08/12 --D811S187                         Southern Cali fornia coast       Equipment testing         San Diego            P Niiler                    T Be-onie
08119/87                                 San Diego Trough                 Equipment testing         San Diego            R \x'Illiams                T Beanie
08/23--D8/29/87                          Southern California coast        Food chain biology        San Diego            W Balch                     T Beanie
09/02--D9114J87                          Southern California coast        Physical oceanography     San Diego           J Simpson                    T Beauie
09115--D9/22/87                          San Diego Trough                 Acoustics studies         San Diego            W Hodgkiss                  T Beauie
09/26--D9/28/87                          Southern California coast        Geochemistry              San Diego            D. LaI                      T Beattie
09/29--10101187                          Southern California coast        Benthic biology           San Diego            A Yayanos                   T Beanie
10102-10106/87                           Southern California coast        Biology                   San Diego            T Klinger                   T Beattie
11/01-11108/87                           Southern California coast        Student cruise            San Diego            K. Smith                    T Beattie
11/09/87                                 Southern California coast        Equipment testing         San Diego            R Davis                     T Beattie
02/20/88                                 Southern California coast        Student cruise            San Diego            R Rosenblatt                T Beanie
02/22 --D2/27 188                        Southern California coast        Biology                   San Diego            ( Reimers                   T Beallie
03/3O--D4J03/88                          Santa Cruz Channel               Equipment testing         San Diego            ( Cox                       T. Beatlie
04/05--D4/09/88                          Santa Monica Basin               Biology                   Los Angeles          N. Kachel (UW)              T Beattie
04/09--D4112188                          Santa Monica Basin               Biology                   San Diego            N. Kachel (UW)              T Beanie
04119--D4/22/88                          Southern California coast        Biology                   San Diego            A Yayanos                   T Beattie
04/26--D5/05/88                          Southern California coast        Physical oceanography     San Diego           J Simpson                    T Beattie
05113--D5/23/88                          Santa Cruz Basin                 Tracer studies            San Diego           J Ledwell (LOGO)             T Beatlie
05/24--D5/30/88                          31°30'N,121°30'W                 Equipment recovery        San Diego           J Orcutll ( Cox              T Beauie
06/02 --D6117188                         Santa Cruz Basin                 Tracer studies            San Diego           J Ledwell                    T Beattie
06/2O--D6/25/88                          Santa Barbara Basin              Geochemical studies       San Diego            C. Reimers                  T Beatlie
06/27-07/01188                           Southern California Bight        Food chain biology        San Diego            B. Ward                     T Beallie
TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED: 12,854 nautical miles OPERATING DAYS: 136

AN Melville
DATE                 EXPEDITION          AREA OF   OPE~TION               WORK PERFORMED            PORTS OF CALL        CHIEF SCIENTIST             CAPTAIN

07/23--D8113/87                          44°20'N, 129°45'W            Deep Tow and thruster tests   Newport            F Spiessl   J Delaney (U\V)   C.johnson
08/16--D8/29/87                          48°N,139°W                       Mooring deployment        San Diego            R. Davis                    C. johnson
09116-10119/87       Helios I            135"W berween 25"N and 25°S Geochemistry                   Papeete         H. Craig! R Sheltema (WHOJ)      R Haines
10/24-11124/87       Helios II           5°-25°5, 1100-I40"W              Ge()chemistry             Easter Island        S Riser (UW)                A Arsenault
11126-12/18/87       Helios III          5°-25°S,1l00-140"W               Geochemistry              Easter Island        S. Riser (UW)               (johnson
12/20/87--D1I05/88   Helios IV                                            Transit                   San Diego                                        C. johnson
01126/88                                 Off San Diego coast              Sea trials                San Diego                                        C. johnson
03/06--D31 I R/88    CIRCUS II           33°--400N, 119°-35"W             Geodesy and Deep Tow      San Diego            F Spiess! J Hildebrand      C. johnson
03/~3-O4/01l88       Galapagos '88 I                                      Transit                   Puerto Queual                                    c. Johnson
04/04--D4123/88      Galapagos '88 Il    Gal.apagos vents                 Biology with ALliin       Galapagos           J Childress (UCSB)           C. Johnson
04/23--D5/14/88      Galapagos '88 III   Galapagos vents                  Biology with Alvin        San Diego           J Childress (LJCSBl          C.johnson
05/23-05/25/88                           San Diego coast                  Equipment testing         San Diego            P \'(k)rcester              C.Johnson
06/01-06/05/88                                                            Transit                   Astoria                                          C. Johnson
06/06--D6/15/88                          Endeavor Ridge                   Hydrothermal tracers      Seaule               M. Lilley (UW)              C. Johnson
06117--D7/07/88                          47"N, 37'W                       PhySical oceanography     Newport              C. Eriksen                  (Johnson

TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED: 31,718.90 nautical miles OPERATING DAYS: 256




                                                                                                                                                               II
SEAGOING
OPERATIONS




RN New Horizon
DATE                EXPEDITION        AREA OF OPERATION             WORK PERFORMED             PORTS OF CALL      CHIEF SCIENTIST            CAPTAIN

07/1 2--D8/03/87    Bempex I          Honolu lu                     Biology                    Honolulu           J Childress (UCSB)         P Munsch
08/06--D8/18/87     Bempex 11         orr Kona and Hilo             Biology                    Honolu lu          R Young (UH)I              p Ivlunsch
                                                                                                                                              ,
                                                                                                                  F. Tsuji
08119--D8/28/87     Bempex III                                      Transit                    San Diego                                     P Munsch
09/04--D911 9187    CalCOFI 8709      Southern California Bight     Physical, chemica l,       San Diego          E, Venrick                 P Munsch
                                                                    and biological studies
             '
09/22--D9/261t37                      San Clemente Basin            Marine hiology             San Diego          J Childress (UCSB)         P. Munsch
09/30-10105/87                        Santa Catalina and            Food cha in bioloil\'      San Diego          A, Carlucci                P Munsch
                                      Santa Monica Basin
10/08-10115/87      CaBS VIl, l.l     Southern California Bight     Food chain biology         Los Angeles        E. Renger                  P Munsch
1011 5-10/23/87     CaBS Vll , 1.11   Southern California Bight     Food chain biology         San Diego          N, Kachel (UW)             P Munsch
10126-1111 0/87                       Off PI. Sur                   Geochemistry               San Diego          C. Reimers                 P Munsch
11 113-11128/87     Ca ICOFI 8711     Southern California Basin     Physical, chemical,        San Diego          G, Hemingway               P. Munsch
                                                                    and biologica l stuelies
02/0 1--D2/12/88    CaBS vll!         Southern California Basin     Food chain biology         San Diego          F. Azami                   P Munsch
                                                                                                                  N, Kachel (UW)
03114--D3119/88                       California borderlands        Food chain hiol ogy        San Diego          A. Carlucci                P. Munsch
04/05--D4/08/88                       Southern California Bight     Microbiology               San Diego          ivl, Ohman                 P. Munsch
05/02 - 05114/88                      31'30'N,121°30'W              Seismic and elect ric      San Diego          J Orcutt!                  P Munsch
                                                                    st udies                                      C. Cox
0511 7--D5/26/88                      S;lilta Monica, San Ped ro,   Benuli c flux studies      San Diego          D, Hammond (USC)           P Munsch
                                      Santa Cruz, Tanner basins
                                      anel Patton Escarpmellt
06/01--D6/05/88                                                     Transit                    Grays Harbor                                  P Munsch
06/08--D7/09/88                       Washington continental        Benthic flux studies       Grays Harbor       A, Devol (UW)              p, ivllillsch
                                      shelf

TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED: 20,399,83 nauti cal miles OPERATING DAYS: 208

RN Thomas Washington
DATE                EXPEDITION        AREA OF OPERATION             WORK PERFORMED             PORTS OF CALL      CHIEF SClENTIST            CAPTAIN

06/29-Q8/04/87      Crossgrain VI r   Equatorial Pacific            USC Lander; box              San Diego        D, Hammondi                T Desjardins
                                                                    cores                                         \XI Berelson (USC)
08/05--D9121 187                                                    Overhaul
10108/87                              Off San Diego coast           Sea trials                   San Diego                                   T. Desjardins
10116-11106/87      Tortuga I         Galapagos Propagating Rift    OBS, Sea Beam, and           Puerto Quetzal   J OrCutt                   T.   De,j~rd i n"
                                                                    explosiws
11109- 12/01 /87    Tortuga IJ        Galapagos Propagating Rift    Sea Beam and OBS             Gal apagos       J.   Phipps-Morgan (MIT)   T. Desjardins
                                                                    deployment
12/03-12115/87      Tonuga III        Galapagos Propagating Rift    OBS instrument recoverv      San Diego        M, Riedesel (UT)           T. Desjardins
01108--D2/07/88     RAlTT I           East Pacific Rise             Geophysics                   Acapulco         G, Purdv (\XfHOI)          T. Desjardins
02ll1--D21l3!H8     RAITT II          EaSt Pacific Rise             Sea Beam and                 Manzani llo      R. Batiza (\l\X'lJ)        T. Desjardins
                                                                    dredging
031l5--D4/02!HR     RAITT III         East Pacific Rise             Geophvsics and Sea Beam     San Diego          P. Lonsdale               T. Desjardins
04/29--D51 j 5188   Roundabout I      35°N,133OW                    Sea Beam                     Honolulu         J Hildebrand               A Ar,enault
05117--D611 0/88    Roundabout II     23°N, 158'\'(1                Seismi c profilinglSea Beam Honolulu          R. Detrick ( URI )         T. Desjardins
061l2--D(,120/88    RoundalJout III                                 TranSit                      San Franci,co                               T. Desjardins
06/24 - 07/23/88    Roundabout IV     Noru1e'Jst Pacinc             Phvsical , chemical,         Newport          T. Cowles (OSU)            T. Desjaruins
                                                                    and biological studies

TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED: 33,315,) nautical miles OPERATING DAYS: 240




I
RIP ORB
DATE                   EXPEDITION              AREA OF OPERATION                   WORK PERFORMED                PORTS OF CALL     CHIEF SCIEI\'TIST   O-in-C •
08/02--08127187                                33'-12°N, 1I8'-30<W                 Multiple discipline           San Diego         V Anderson          T Hoopes
                                                                                   seafloor experiments
06/28--07/07/88                                San Diego Basi n                    Thruster tests                San Diego         V Anderson          T. Hoopes
TOTAL DISTANCE TOWED: 334 .6 nautical miles OPERATING DAYS: 32                 'OFFICER-IN-CHARGE OF FLOATING PLATFORM

RIP FLIP
DATE                   EXPEDITION              AREA OF OPERATION                   WORK PERFORMED                PORTS OF CALL     CHIEF SCIENTIST     O-in-C •
09/02-10102/87         VlA I                   35'N, 126,\,<1                      Array tests                   San Diego         J Hildebrand        D. Efird
11 /09-1lI20/87                                San Diego Basin                     Equipment test                San Diego         R Pinkel            D. Efird
05111--05/23/88                                San Diego Basin                                                   San Diego         R. Pinkel           D Efird

TOTAL DISTANCE TOWED: 1.390 nautical miles OPERATING DAYS: 53                  'OFFICER-IN-CHARGE OF FLOAfiNG PLATFORNI




RESEARCH VESSELS OF SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY

                                                                ROBERT
                                                                GORDON        THOMAS
                       MELVILLE          NEW HORIZON            SPROUL        WASHINGTON            FLIP           ORB
TYPE                   Oceanographic Oceanographic              Offshore      Oceanographic         Floating       OceanogrJphic
                       research      research                   supplv        research              Instrument     Research Buoy
                                                                                                    Platform

YEAR BUILT             1969              1978                   1981          1965                  1962           1968

YEAR ACQUIRED
BY SCRIPPS    1969                       1978                   1984          1965                  1962           1968

OWNER                  US Navy           University of          University of US. Navy              U.S. Navy      US. Navy
                                         California             California

LENGTH                 74.2 m            51.8 m                 38.1 m        63.7 m                108.2 m        21.0 m

BEAM                   14.0 m            11.0 m                  98 m         12.0 m                     6.0 m     137 m

DRAFT                   49 m              37 m                   25 m          4.4 m                     34/91.4 m fwd 1.5 m
                                                                                                                   aft 16 m

DISPLACEMENT
FUlL
(metric tons)          1,882             698                    513           1,235                 1,359          294

CRUISING SPEED
(knots)                10                10                     95            10                    varies'"       varies'

RANGE
(nautical miles)       9,000             6,000                  3,500         9,000                 varies'        varies'

CREW                   23                12                                   23                    6
SCIENTIFIC
PARTY                  29-39**           17                     12-1 8*'      22                    10             10

1987- 88 Towl nautical miles traveled : 100,01283       Total operating davs: 925       'Depends on rowing vessel
"With berthing "ans
rn
                                               Biological Oceanography
              HE GRADUATE DEPARTMENT              Biological oceanographers study the in-
              of the Scripps Institution of    teractions of marine organisms with the
              Oceanography offers instruc-     physical-chemical environment and with
tion leading to PhD. degrees in oceanogra-     each other. Research and instruction in this
phy, marine biology, and earth sciences. Be-   curriculum range from food-chain dy-
cause of the interdisciplinary nature of the   namics and commun ity structure to taxon-
ocean sciences, the department provides a      omy, behavior, physiology, ,md zoogeogra-
choice of seven curricular programs            phy
through which the student may pursue a
five-year PhD degree. Each of these curric-    Geochemistry and Marine Chemistry
ular groups has prerequisites for admission       The geochemistry and marine chemistry
in addition to the departmental require-       curricu lum emphasizes the chemical and
ments. The curricular programs are de-         geochemical processes operating in the
scribed below. For application procedures      oceans, the solid earth, the atmosrhere,
and more information, please write to          marine organisms, polar ice sheets, lakes,
Graduate Department, A-OOS, Scripps Insti-     meteorites, and the solar system. This rro-
tution of Oceanography, La Joila, California   gram, designed for students with under-
92093.                                         graduate majors in either chemistry or ge-
                                               ology, features areas of advanced study and
Applied Ocean Sciences                         research that include the physica l and inor-
   This interdepartmental curriculum com -     ganic chemistry of seawater; ocean circula-
bines the resources of the Scripps Gradu-      tion and mixing based on chemical and
ate Department with those of the Depart-       isotopic tracers; marine organic and natu-
ment of Applied Mechanics and                  ral products chemistry; geochemical inter-
Engineering Sciences and the Department        actions of sediments with seawater and in-
of Electrical and Computer Engineering, on     terstitial waters; geochemistries of volemic
the UC San Diego campus. Engineers gain        anel geothermal phenomena; chemical ex-
a substantial education in oceanography,       changes between the ocean and the atmo-
and oceanographers receive training in         sphere; geochemical cycles of carbon, sul-
modern engineering. Instruction and basic      fur, nitrogen, and other elements; isotope
research include the applied science of the    geochemistry of the solid eanh and mete-
sea, and structura l, mechanical, material,    orites; atmospheric trace gas chemistry;
electrical, and physiological prob lems        paleoatmospheric comrosition recorded in
within the ocean.                              polar ice cores and in sediments; and
                                               chemistry of lakes and other freshwater
                                               systems.
                                                                                              Dr. John A. Orcutt discusses plate tectonics with
                                                                                              students in a geology seminar.




Geological Sciences                          Geophysics
   This curricu lum applies observational,      This curriculum is designed to educate        biological diSCiplines, including behavior,
experimental, and theoretical methods to     the physicist (theoretician or experimental-     neurob iology, developmental biology, and
the understanding of the solid earth and     ist) about the sea, the sol id earth on which    comparative physiology/biochemistry.
solar system and ho'" they relate to the     the waters move, and the atmosphere with
ocean and atmo~ph ere. Principal su bpro-    which the sea interacts. Students gain un-       Physical Oceanography
grams are marine geology and tectonics,      derstanding of the nature of the earth              Studies in physical oceanography in-
sedimentology, micropaleontology and pa·     while they master new field , laboratory, ancl   clude observation, analysis, and theoretical
leoceanography, petrology, geochemistry,     mathematical techniques.                         interpretation of the general circulation of
and cosmochemistry. Expedition work at                                                        ocean cmrenrs and the transport of dis-
sea, and field work on land are emphasized   Marine Biology                                   solved and suspended substances and heat;
as essential complements to laboratory and      The marine biol ogy curricu lum empha-        the distribution and variation of oce~mi c
theoretica l studies.                        sizes the biology of marine organisms-           prope rties; the propagation of sound and
                                             an imals, plants, and prokarl'otes. The reo      electromagnetic energy in the ocean ; and
                                             search and teaching encompass a range of         the properties ancl propagation of ocean
                                                                                              waves.
GRADUATE
DEPARTMENT




          GRADUATE
                                                              In the fall of 1987, 56 new students were admitted to gradu-

          STUDENTS                                            ate study. Of these, 16 were in marine biology, 8 in geologi-
                                                              cal sciences, 8 in geochemistry and marine chemistry, 4 in
                                                              geophysics, 9 in physical oceanography, 6 In applied ocean

       AND DEGREE                                             sciences, and 5 in biological oceanography. Enrollment at
                                                              the beginning of the academic year was 197. UC San Diego
                                                              awarded 22 Doctor of Philosophy degrees and 6 Master of

         RECIPIENTS                                           Science degrees to the students listed below.




Doctor of Philosophy Degrees Awarded, with Titles of Dissertations

Earth Sciences
Susan E. Hough, "The Arrenuarion o f           Mary S. Lowery, "The Effects of Starva-      Annalisa C. Griffa, "Wi nd-D riven Circula-
High Frequency Seismic Waves."                 tion on PrOtein Svnthesis and Nucleic        tion and Statistical Mechanics."
                                               Acid Metabol ism "in the Muscle of the
Martin C. Kleinrock, "Dera iled Struc-                                                      Katherine S. Hedstrom, 'l\n Experi men-
                                               Barred Sand Bass Paralabra.."( nebulifer "
rural Srudies of the Propagator System                                                      tal Study of Homogeneous Len ses in a
Near 95.5"W on the Gal apagos Spreading        linda H. Lutz, "DNA Repair in Deep-Sea       Strmified Rotating Fluid."
Axis."                                         Bacteria ."
                                                                                            Scott]. Hills, "The AnalySiS of Microfossil
Alan M. Volpe, "Petrogenesis and Sr-Nd         Joseph R. Pawlik, "Chemical Induction of     Shape: Experiments Using PlanktoniC
IsotopiC Geochemistry of Basalts from          the Larva l Settlement of Honeycomb          Fo raminifera."
Western Pacific Backarc Basins and Pre-        Worms (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae)."
                                                                                            Homa]. Lee, "Geotechnical Properties of
cambrian Mafic Amphibolircs and Di-
                                               Donald C. Porter, "Phosphorylation o f       Northeast Pacific Oce:J11 Sediment and
orites in the Delhi Supergroup, India."
                                               Sperm Histone HI During Sea Urchi n          Th eir Relation to Geologic Processes."
Frank K Wyatt, "Measuremenr of Con-            Fertili zation."
                                                                                            David]. Pierotti, 'The Measurement o f
tinuous Strain : Pinon Fl at Observatorv."
                                               Carolyn A. Shumway, "Multiple Sensory        Trace Oxygcnared Hydroca rbons in the
                                               Mars in Weakly Electric Gymnotiform          Environment."
Marine Biology                                 Fish."
                                                                                            Barbara A. Price , " Equatorial Pacific Sed-
Daniel L. Distel, "Characterizat ion o f the                                                imems: A Chemical Approach to Ocean
Symbiosis Berween Chemo-                                                                    HistOry."
lilhoautotrophic Bacteria and the Bivalve      Oceanography
                                                                                            Daniel L. Rudnick, "Mass and Heat Bal-
Lucinoma aequizonata: Morphology,              James P. Barry, " ?altern and Process:
                                                                                            ances in the Upper Ocean."
Biochemistrv, and Phylogeny."                  Patch Dynamics in a Rocky Intertidal
                                               Communit y in Southern California ."         Timothy]. Shaw, "The Early Diagenesis
Kathryn A. Dickson , "Whv Are Some
                                                                                            of Transitio n Metals in Nearshore
Fishes Endothermic? Interspecific Com-         l\'1aria S. Gil-Turnes, "Antimicrobial Me-
                                                                                            Sediments."
parisons of Aerobic and Anaerobic Meta-        tabolites Produced bv Epibiotic Bacteria :
bo lic Capacities in Endothermic and Ec-       Their Role in Microbial Competition and      Thomas E. White, "Nearsho re Sand
tothermic Scombrids."                          Host Defense."                               Tran sport."


Master of Science Degrees

Marine Biology                                 Oceanography
Sandor E. Kaupp                                Bradley G. DeRoos
Ngai C. Lai                                    Thomas C. Fu
Wendy L. Ryan                                  Jean-Marie Q . D. Tran
                                       SHORE
                                   FACILITIES



Analytical Facility
   Instruments at the faCility include a Phi-   crystal spectrometers, polarized light op-
lips automated X-ray fluorescence spec-         tics, SEM, TEM capabilities, Ortec EDS
trometer with computerized control and          X-ray system , and a CanberralDEC com-
data analysis; three X-ray diffraction sys-     puter system.
tems, including a Philips APD 3600/02 with         The Analytical Facility also has several
computer-aided search/match mineral flies;      complete sample preparation laboratories,
a Perkin Elmer Zeeman/5000 atomic ab-           including "wet" chemical, rock processing,
sorptionlfluorescence spectrometer with         biological EM, photographic, vacuum evap-
heated graphite, furnace auto sampler, and      oration/sputtering, sedimentation, and
metal hydride systems; a Hewlett-Packard        grinding/lapping.
5988 computerized GC/mass spectrometer
and four H/P gas chromatographs with EC,        Aquarium Facilities
FI detectors; a Perkin Elmer HPLC with             There are tvvo research aquarium facili-
multicolumn capability and fluorescence;        ties; each is provided with a dual-line sys-
diode array detectors; a superconducting        tem that delivers seawater at ambient tem-
IBM nuclear magnetiC resonance spec-            peratures, a single-line chilled seawater
trometer with an aspect 3000 color graphic      system, and compressed air. The Experi-
system; a Coulometrics total carbon/C0 2        mental Aquarium (250 m2) is equipped
analyzer; a PIE model 2400 CHN analyzer; a      with 5 rooms for controlled experiments,
PIE radio-recording computerized infrared       20 tanks with capaCities from 425 to 2,200
spectrometer; a PIE UV-VJS Lambda 3B            liters, 9 seawater trays, counter space, sinks,
spectrometer; a Cambridge S60 scanning          and lockers. The Marine Biology Aquarium
electron microscope with Onec EEDS II           (280 m2) is equipped with 26 tanks with
energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer; a         capacities from 750 to 1,500 liters, 16 sea-
Hitachi H-500 scanning transmission elec-       water trays, counter space, and sinks.
tron microscope with an Onec EDS X-ray
spectrometer; a Zeiss 9 TEM; ciiamond
knife microtomes; a Cameca "Camebax"
elecn"on microprobe with three automated
FACILITIES
AND
                                                                                                  Robert Snodgrass checks the maximum-
COLLECTIONS                                                                                       minimum thermometer on the end of the
                                                                                                  pier. Below, seawater is pumped from the
                                                                                                  end of the pier into seHling tanks.




Cardiovascular Research Facility                  Electromechanical Cable Test Facility
   This facility, shared by the Physiological        Located at Marine Physical Laboratory,
Research Laboratory and the UC San Diego          Point Loma, this special-purpose facility en-
School of Medicine, consists of an experi-        ables scientiStS to investigate the physical
mental animal colony, equipment for mea-          properties of electromechanical cables
suring Circulatory and cardiac functions in       used in deep-sea research operations and
conscious, unrestrained animals, and an in-       to develop new methods of splicing and re-      nel, test section 1.1 x 11 x 16 m; a 15 x 18-m
strumentation development laboratory.             pair.                                           wave-and-tidal basin with an adjustable
                                                                                                  simulated beach; a 40-m glass-walled wave-
Diving Facility                                   Ellen Browning Scripps Memorial Pier            and-current channel; a granular fluid me-
   The research diving program is housed            The 320-m pier serves as a launching site     chaniCS test facilit y comprising a
in twO separate facilities that contain the       for small boatS used for local ocean-           6 x 12 x 3-m concrete basin, a 10 x 1 X I-m
mechanical gear, a storage locker for wet         ographic work, provides space for studies       fluidizing channel, and three tanks 4 m
equipment, and showers.                           and tide gage and weather recordings, and       high by 5 m in diameter, all serviced with a
   The scientific diver training and certifica-   supporrs the seawater system that suppl ies     high-now, slurry pumping system; a 16-m
tion program, which originated at Scripps         the aquaria and laboratories.                   oscillatory flow tunnel; an insulated, refrig-
in 1951, is the oldest of its type in the coun-     The original pier was constructed in 1916     erated, cylindrical seawater tank 10 m deep
try. The program consistS of a nonrecrea-         with funds provided by Ellen Browning           and 3 m in diameter equipped with artifi-
tional 100-hour training class in the use of      Scripps. The new pier, which is 2 m wider       ciallighting; a pressure facility 2 m long
open-circuit scuba, which may lead to Uni-        and 15 m longer, is located immediately to      with a .57-m interior diameter; and a tem-
versity of California research diver certi-       the south of the former Structure. It pro-      perature and pressure calibration facility.
fication. This class is open to faculty, staff,   vides increased seawater flow for the sup-      All wave generators in the laboratory incor-
and students who must conduct underwa-            port systems at Scripps and im proved boat      porate servo systems and can be controlled
ter research. Each year an average of 130         launching and sampling facilities.              by computer or magnetiC rape. Microcom-
Scripps/UC San Diego personnel partici-                                                           puter-based data acquiSition and data pro-
pate in the scientific diving program. These      Hydraulics Laboratory                           cessing systems are used in conjunction
individuals conduct their research in wa-           This laboratory has a wind-wave channel       with the various facilities.
ters throughout the world, including the          43 x 2.4 x 2.4 m, with a tow cart for instru-
Antarctic.                                        mentS and models; a two-layer flow chan-




I
                                                                                               B. Walton Waldorf maintains the tide gauge at the
                                                                                               end of the pier for the National Oceanic and
                                                                                               Atmospheric Administration. Below, Ronald R.
                                                                                               McConnaughey prepares to remove a skiff from
                                                                                               the water.




Kendall-Frost Mission Bay Marsh               Mass Spectrographic Equipment
Reserve (lvIission Bay, San Diego)               Nine mass spectrometers are available:
   Approximately 50 acres of Mission Bay      two 15-cm, Nier-type spectrometers, and
marshland (16 acres university-owned)         one 6-cm Micromass instrument for iso-
constitute a marsh preserve and wildlife      topic analysis of light elements; a 15-cm,
refuge designated for teaching and re-        Nier-type spectrometer for rare gases; a
search. The reserve is the last fragment of   25.4-cm double-collection mass spectrome-        Physiological Research Laboratory
the once extensive Mission Bay salt marsh.    ter for He 3/He 4 ratio measurements; a          Pool Facility
This property is one of 27 natural reserves   Hewlett-Packard 5988 gas chromatograph-             This facility includes a holding pool for
used for teaching and research in the Uni-    quadrupole mass spectrometer for qualita-        large marine animals and fish, and a ring
versity of California Natural Reserve Sys-    tive separation and analysis of organic com-     pool of lO·m radius equipped with a vari·
tem. Asmall laboratory is located on the      pounds; a 30-cm radius, solid-source mass        able·speed trolley to carry instruments for
preserve. For more information write to       spectrometer for geochronology and iso-          hydrodynamic and biological studies of hu·
the Reserve Manager, UC San Diego Natu-       tope dilution analysis; a small, portable, he-   mans and other mammals. A central island
ral Reserve System, Scripps Institution of    lium mass spectrometer for field use; and a      within the ring pool contains small, "dry"
Oceanography, A-OOl, La Jolla, California     3-cm mass spectrometer for stable isotope        laboratories and a "wet" laboratory
92093.                                        tracer measurements.                             equipped to handle large animals. A chan·
                                                                                               nel through the island permits transfer of
Marine Science Development and                Petrological Laboratory                          animals from the ring pool into the labora-
Outfitting Shop                                 This facility provides thin-sectioning, mi-    tory
  This shop is equipped with precision        croprobe sample preparation, and rock-
tools and machinery Astaff of toolmakers      surfacing services to staff, students, and       Radio Station WWD
and d iemakers designs and fabricates re-     associated research groups. All types of           Owned and operated by Scripps and li-
search equipment and instrumentation for      submarine and subaerial igneous, meta-           censed to the National Marine Fisheries
various Scripps laboratories and other edu-   morphic, and sedimentary materials in var-       Service (NIvlFS), station \V\VD provides
cational and governmental organizations       ious states of lithification are prepared here   worldwide communications services to
throughout the United States.                 with plastic-vacuum techniques and other         Scripps, NIvlFS, and other governmental
                                              types of impregnations.                          and university ships. Weather advisories are
FACILITIES
AND
COLLECTIONS




routinely broadcast to the fi sh ing fleet as    collection featuring accounts and journa ls      data processing and analysis, Both systems
well as to scientific vessels. Western Union     of famous voyages of scientific discovery. A     wi ll be significantly faster and have more
(TWX-Telex), TELEFAX, and Telemail ser-          large map collection contains bathymetric,       storage capabilities than the present sys-
vices are avai lable for the San Diego           geologic, and topographic maps and charts        tem. Current applications include tracking
campus, \'(fWD has computerized its radio        of world areas and oceans.                       of drifting buoys via [he ARGOS data col-
and TWX-Telex for local users.                      The library also houses the archives of       lection system, and near-real-time support
                                                 the Scripps Institution of Oceanography,         of research vesse ls and aircraft by using re-
San Vicente Lake Calibration Facility            which include official Scripps records, per-     mote detection to determine sea-surface
(48 km from Scripps)                             sonal papers, photographs, and other mate-       temperature, It is anticipatecl thar GEOSAT
   This facility, operated by the Marine         rial documenting the history of oceanogra-       altimeter data also will be processed on the
Physical Laboratory, is equipped for testing     phy and of Scri pps,                             new systems, Once the harclware update is
and calibrating acoustic transducers used                                                         complete, a four-day course will be taught
in oceanograph ic research. The equipment        Scripps Satellite Oceanography                   every quarter by the facility staff to give po-
is located on an 8 x 15-m enclosed platform      Facility                                         tential users an overview of the available
in water 40 m deep, and offers an unob-              This facilit y enab les oceanographers to    tools as well as several hours of hands-on
structed range of 1,372 m,                        receive and process satellite imagery. Data     experience.
                                                 transmitted in real time by the NOM polar
Scripps Coastal Reserve                          orbiting satellites are received by the 5-m      Seawater System
   The reserve area is situated just north of    tracking antenna and stored on computer-            Pumps located on the seaward end of
La Jolla, where a small hooked bay opens         compatible tapes. In addition to real-time       Ellen Brown ing Scripps Memorial Pier de-
to the northwest. The she lf area within the     coverage, retrospective archives of world-       liver seawater to the laboratories and
bay is cut by rwo branches of the Scripps        wide data are also available. The most com-      aquaria of SIO and the Southwest Fisheries
submarine canyon, extending to within             mon ly usecl sensors include the Advanced       Center The raw seawater is filtered
about 300 m of the low-tide shoreline.           Very High Resolution Radiometer (AYHRR)          through three, 18-cm-diameter, high-speed
   This area is collectively called the Knoll    and Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS),           sand fi lters and pumped into twO concrete
and consists of two coastal canyons, the         which provide information in the infrarecl       storage tanks with a total capacity of ap-
knol l berween the canyons, and 106-m-high       and visible portions of the spectrum . Scan-     proximately 450,000 liters. Water flows by
steep sea cliffs_Numerous archaeological          ning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer          gravity to the pub lic aquarium and Scripps
sires are located in this region,                (SMMR) data, from which sea-surface winds        resea rch laboratories, while approximately
   The shoreline consists of intertidal rocky    may be derived, are also processed at the        750 liters per minute is pumped up to the
and beach environments; the underwater           faCility.                                        National Marine Fisheries building, The
area conta ins various subtidal marine habi-         The central processor is an HP 3000 Se-      system is capable of delivering a m3.ximum
tats i n~luding the canyon and a 320-m pier.      ries Il computer dedicdted to the facility.     of 6500 liters per minute.
The area is adjacent to the San Diego-La         This processor has 2 megabytes of main
Jolla Ecological Reserve of the Californi a       memory and 250 megabytes of disk stor-          Shipboard Technical Support
Department of Fish and Game.                     age. Tape clrives capable of operating at           Shipboard Technical Support is an amal-
                                                 800, 1,600, or 6,250 bpi densities assure        gamation of several groups that serve both
Scripps Library                                  complete versatility. A high-resolution color    Scripps and the oceanographic com munity
   With outstandi ng collections in ocean-       display station allows users fu ll interaction   at large, The group provides techn ica l and
ography, marine biology, and marine tech-        with the satellite imagery at near-real-time     data-collection services aboard Scripps's re-
nology, in add ition to extensive resources       rates for most common operations. This          sea rch vessels, supplying and maintaining
in atmospheric sciences, ecology, fisheries,      particular hardware configuratiOn is pres-      sh ipboa rd scientific facilities (computers
geology, geophysics, and zoology, the            ently being replaced with a Digital Equip-       and geologica l, biological, physica l, and
Scripps library is the largest marine sci-        ment Corporation Micro VAX It system that       chemical data-acquisition systems); logistic
ence library in the world. The library cur-      will hand le data collection and archiving       support for these faCi lities; and postcruise
rent ly receives more than 3,800 serial titles   (us ing software developed at the University     data processing, distribution, and archiv-
and has more than 200,000 volumes, in-           of Miami) and a Hewlett-Packard 9000 Se-         ing. Shipboard Techn ical Support also fur-
cluding an extensive collection of technical      ries computer (using sofl\vare developed        nishes data collection equipment and
reports and translations, and a rare book         by Global Imaging, Inc) that will handle        highly trained technicians for UniverSity
National Oceanographic Laboratory System           The group participates in expeditions by     substantial computing capaCity for local
(UNOLS) ships and international programs.       making high-precision hydrographic mea-         processing. The computer is a VAX 785
    The ship support administrative organi-     surements, specializing in Neil Brown In-       with the VJvIS operating system and a UNIX
zation comprises the Shipboard Computer         strument Systems CTD (conductivity, tem-        subsystem. Several plotters, printers, tape
Group, resident techniCians, geophysical        perature, depth) work, and shipboard            drives, and terminals are available around
techniCians, the Geological Data Center,        determinations of salinity, dissolved oxy-      the clock.
and the Oceanographic Data Facility. For        gen, nutrients (silicate, phosphate, nitrate,
administrative purposes, the Scripps scien-     and nitrite), alkalinity, and total CO 2 from   Thomas Wayland Vaughan
tific collections and the Geological Data       water samples collected with multiple-          Aquarium-Museum
Center are part of Shipboard Technical          bottle sam plers.                                  The aquarium-museum is the interpre-
Support; for further information about             ODF resources include a chemistry labo-      tive center for Scripps Institution of Ocean-
them see the Special Collections Section.       ratory; an electronics shop; a cm and           ography. Its goals are to increase public un-
    The Shipboard Computer Group is com-        deep-sea, reverSing-thermometer calibra-        derstanding and appreciation of the oceans
posed of programers and engineers who           tion laboratory; and a data-processing and      and to generate suppOrt for marine re-
support VAX/UNIX computers ashore and at        computer facility. The processing equip-        search. The facility features museum ex-
sea through programing, interface design,       ment includes a Hewlett-Packard 1000 mini-      hibits on oceanographic tOpics, a variety of
and maintenance. A shore-based VAX 750,         computer as a shore-based processor,            educational programs, and displays of liv-
available for use by the Scripps community,     and seven Tektronix 4050 series micro-          ing marine animals from local waters and
supports the VAX 730s on the ships. These       processors used primarily at sea to monitor     the tropical Pacific. This year more than
computers are installed permanently on          CTD data acquisition.                           46,000 students in educational groups par-
R!V Thomas Washington and R!V Melville,            Shipboard equipment for acquiring and        ticipated in study trips to the aquarium-
and they are interfaced to navigational and     processing data has been substantially im-      museum. The aquarium is open to the
SCientific instruments, including the RN        proved. CTD instruments have been re-           public daily; admission is free.
Thomas Washing/on Sea Beam system.              built, and the IBiVI-based data acquisition        Aquarium-museum scientific staff offers
    Resident technicians are knowledgeable      system (which served to develop the UNIX-       UC San Diego and Scripps researchers aid
guides who dive, rig, handle explosives,        based software) has evolved into an Inte-       and information on marine organism main-
operate geological sampling gear (box           grated Solutions Inc microcomputer-based        tenance, fish diseases, local species distri-
corers, piston corers, dredges, etc), oper-     system. These processors have proved to         butions, and other related tOpics. Through
ate net tows and trawls, and perform a          be rugged and reliable for shipboard use.       its collecting facility, the aquarium supplies
wide variety of other tasks on Scripps re-      The group has also acquired two HP inte-        scientists with living specimens.
search vessels. They also handle logistics      grated computers for seagoing data pro-            A new aquarium-museum, to be named
for distant expeditions, and receive and        cessing where no cm casts are taken.            the Stephen Birch Aquarium-Museum in
store scientific equipment for future                                                           honor of the major donor, is currently be-
cruises.                                        SSURF: SID Supercomputer Users                  ing designed. The new building will be 2Y2
    Geophysical technicians provide and         Remote Facility                                 times larger than the present one and is ex-
operate the analog and digital seismic re-         SSURF provides remote access to the San      pected to cost 8.6 million.
flection systems using airguns or water-        Diego Supercomputer Center, which is sit-          Scripps Aquarium ASSOciates, the aquar-
guns and refraction systems. They maintain      uated on the UCSD campus. The Super-            ium-Illuseum public membership group,
the magnetometers and echo-sounding sys-        computer Center provides scientists with        offers ocean-related activities to its mem-
tems installed on Scripps vessels.              some of the most powerful computers             bers, including local field trips, lectures,
    Technicians in the Oceanographic Data       available for computationally intensive         family activities, scuba and snorkeling ex-
Facility (ODF) collect data and samples for     studies. The facility at Scripps furnishes a    peditions, a calendar, and a newsletter.
investigators from Scripps and other insti-     high-speed link to the center, enabling twO-
tutions. ODF also maintains an inventory of     way transfer of data and interactive use.
water samplers and other equipment, avail-      SSURF also offers electronic mail access to
able at cost to qualified users. More sophis-   many of the major networks, including
ticated or expensive apparatus may be used      ARPAnet, OMNet, and BiTnet.
only when accompanied by ODF techni-               In addition to accessing computers
Cians, who operate and maintain the equip-      around the world, this facility provides
ment at sea.
FACILITIES
AND
COLLECTIONS



             SPECIAL
                                                Marine Botany Collection                        tide-gage records from 1947 to 1967 and
      COLLECTIONS                                  A small herbarium of marine benthic al-
                                                gae incorporates specimens from the U.s.
                                                                                                from 1980 to rhe present are available in
                                                                                                the Scripps Library archives. Records be-
                                                Pacific coast, chiefly from the San Diego       fore 1947 and from 1967 to 1980 can be ob-
                                                area, or collected during Scripps expedi-       tained by writing the Chief of the Datums
                                                tions in the Pacific Ocean. There are some      and Information Branch, James R Hubbard,
                                                1,600 sheets of pressed seaweeds, identi-       C-233, NOANNOS, 6011 Executive Blvd .,
                                                fied and arranged in taxonomic order. The       Rockville, MD 20852. The Marine Life Re-
                                                specimens, although primarily used for          search Group has kept a tide gage on Cata-
                                                teaching, are available for examination by      lina Island from 1978 to 1988; daily records
Benthic Invertebrates                           any botanist or interested student.             are available by writing Arnold W Mantyla,
   The collection contains some 29,000 lots                                                     A-030, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
of specimens sorted into major taxonomic         Marine Invertebrates                           La]olla, California, 92093
groups such as Coelenterata, Echinoder-              Included in this collection of more than      Data from more than 20,000 hydro-
mata, and Mollusca. All are accessioned         · 53,000 documented whole zooplankton           graphic casts from Scripps cruises are man-
with collection data, and more than 35 per-       samples are accessioned holdings from ex-     aged by Shipboard Technical Support, The
cent are identified to species. Specimens,        peditions, the continuous CalCOFI pro-        Marine Life Research Group manages an
several catalogs of holdings (Decapod and         gram, and special projects. Samples repre-    additional 45,000 stations of hydrographic
Stomatopod Crustacea, Brachiopoda, and            sent zooplankton collected with nets,         data as well as daily temperature and sa-
Echinodermata), and IBM-compatible                ranging from surface neuston to bathy-        linity records from data collected at
dBase IV catalog data for various groups          pelagic midwater trawls. The major em-        Scripps Pier anel other shore stations along
are available to qualified students and re-       phaSiS of the collection has been in the      the California coast.
searchers.                                        northeastern Pacific, but an increasing          Historical meteorological and ocean-
                                                  number of samples are also available from     ographic data for the Pacific are kept in the
Geological Core Locker                            Other oceanic and continental slope re-       NORPAX data library These data include
    This geological "library" contains a col-    gions. The collection includes identified      marine weather and sea-surface tempera-
lection of several thousand deep-sea sedi-       specimens for some of the major tax-           ture observations from 1854 to the present;
ment cores kept under refrigeration, and          onomic groups. Samples are supplemented       National Oceanographic Data Center files
bulk assemblages of rocks and manganese          with physical and chemical data.               to 1976; and monthly pressure, tempera-
nodules dredged from the major ocean ba-                                                        ture, and precipitation at selected World
sins. These materials are available to scien-   Marine Vertebrates                              Meteorological Organization stations,
tific investigators and students.                  This collection contains approximately
                                                2.5 million specimens, with about 4,000         Scripps Core Repository of the Ocean
Geological Data Center                          cataloged species, including 154 primary        Drilling Program
   The Geological Data Center provides at-      types. Approximately 200 collections are           The Scripps core repository (under lease
sea data processing and on-shore process-       added each year. Although the collection is     agreement with the Ocean Drilling Pro-
ing, distribution, and archiving of under-      wnrldwide, deep-sea fishes and eastern Pa-      gram at Texas A & M University) houses the
way marine geophysical data. Navigation,        cific shorefishes are emphasized. Included      West Coast repository for cores collected
depth, magnetics, gravity, and Sea Beam         are some large holdings of shorefishes          by the Deep Sea Drilling Project in the Pa-
data are computer-processed for entry into      from the Gulf of California and Panama,         cific and Indian oceans, Core samples are
the digital database and for production of      and an extensive skeletal collection of         made available to qualified researcher'
cruise reports and plots. A multidisCiplin-     dried preparations and cleared-and-stained      throughout the world under poliCies estab-
ary index of all samples and measurements       specimens in glycerin.                          lished by the National Science Foundation
made on major Scripps cruises is main-                                                          and implemented through the Joint Ocean-
tained by the data center. Charts and Other     Oceanographic Data Archives                     ographic Institutions, Inc. anel Texas A & M
geophysical data sets are also available.          Tide-gage records have been taken daily      University
                                                from the Scripps Pier since 1925 Monthly
                                   APPENDIX A


                                     PUBLICATIONS
                                                                                                The results of Scripps re-
                                                                                                search are published ~n
                                                                                                man          nt forma. 1"*-
                                                                                                publlcMlons range from
                                                                                                Short contractUal reports to
                                                                                                long taxonomic deacrlp-

                                                                                                                bV.,.....,..
                                                                                                tions Scripps publlci'tlons
                                                                                                are distributed
                                                                                                tion, exchange, or govern-
Bulletin                                         CalCOFI Publications                           ment contract;

                                                                                                Belo   Is a co."". .~. .........,.~~
                                                                                                             '
    The Bulletin of the Scripps Institution         The work of the California Coopera-
of Oceanography is an irregularly pub-           tive Oceanic Fisheries Investigations          of ScHpps publications for
lished series for lengthy, in-depth scien-       (CaICOFI), in which the Scripps Institu-       fiscal 1988. Detailed Infor-
tific papers written by Scripps scientists.      tion of Oceanography, the California De-       matlo on the availability of
For information about subscriptiOns and          partment of Fish and Game, and the             each series Is Included.
a list of volumes available please write to      National Marine Fisheries Service coop-                 .,
University of California Press, 2223 Ful-        erate, is published in a variety of formats.
ton Street, Berkeley, California 94720.          Peer-reviewed scientific articles are pub-
    The most recent volumes are listed           lished ann ua lly in the California Cooper-
below.                                           alive Oceanic Fisheries Investigations
v.25    Wilson, George D. F. Systemat ics of a   Reports. Maps of physical , chemical, cli-
       Species Comp lex in the Deep-Sea Ge-      matological , and biological factors mea-
       nus Eurycope, with a Revision of Six      sured by CalCOFI researchers during the
       Previously Described Species (Crusta-
                                                 program 's 40-year history are published
       cea , Isopoda, Eurycopidae). 1983. 68p.
v.26   Matsui, Tetsuo and Richard H. Rosen-
                                                 irregularly in the California Cooperalive
       blatt. Review of the Deep-Sea fish        Oceanic Fisheries Investigalions Alias se-
       Family Platytroctidae (Pisces: Sal-       ries. Data reports, containing the pro-
       moniformes). 1987. 159p.                  cessed data from specific cruises carried
v.27   WIlson, George D. F Systematic Revi-      out under CalCOFI sponsorship, are
       sion of the Deep-Sea Lipomerinae in       published irregularly in the SIO refer-
       the Isopod Crustacean Family Mun-         ence series and in the CalCOFI data re-
       nopsidae. In press.                       port series. To obtain copies of any of
                                                 these publications, write to CalCOFI Co-
                                                 ordinator, Scripps Institution of Ocean-
                                                 ography, A-027, La Jolla, California
                                                 92093.
APPENDIXES




Contributions                                      Aref, H, M. Gharib and C W Van Alta.               Berger, Wolfgang H. and L A. Mayer.
                                                   Chaos in shear flows. In American Imtitute of      CenozoiC paleoceanography 1986: an intro-
                                                  Aeronautics and Astronautics 19 th Fluid Dy-        duction. Paleoceanograpby, v,2, no.6, 1987.
   The Scripps Institution of Oceanogra-
                                                   namics, Plasma Dynamics and Lasers Confer-         pp. 613-623
phy Contributions is a compilation of se-         ence, june 8-10, 1987, Honolulu, Hawaii.            Berger, Wolfgang H., S. Burke and Edith
lected reprintS authored by the Scripps           New York, Ameri ca n Institute of Aeronautics       Vincent. Glacial -Holocene transition: climate
faculty and staff. This annual publication        and Astronautics, 1987. pp. 1-4.                    pulsations and sporadic shutdown of NADW
is available ONLY on an exchange basis             Aref, H. and S. Balachandar. Chaotic advec-        production. In Abrupt Climatic Cbange· Evi-
to other scienti fic , research, and educa-        tio n in a Stokes fl ow. Physics Fluids, '1.29 ,   dence and Implication NATO ASI Series. Se-
tional institutions. For exchange informa-         noll, 1986 pp. 3515-3521.                          ries C: Mat/Jematiad and Physical Sciences,
tion please write to Scripps Institution          Aref, H. Finger, bubble, tendril, spike, An es-     \~ 216 ,
                                                                                                             edited by W H . Berger and L D. La-
of Oceanography Library, Exchange De-             say on the morphology and dynamics of inter'        beyrie. Dordrecht, Netherlands, D. Reidel Pub-
partment, C-075C, La Jolla, California            faces in fluids . In Flwd Dynamics Tram-            lishing, 1987 pp. 279-297
                                                  actions, v.13. Proceedings of /he 17tb Sympo-       Berger, Wolfgang H. Ocean ventil ation dur-
92093.                                                                                                ing the last 12,000 yea rs : hypothesis of coun-
                                                  sium on Advanced Problems and Metbods in
   The articles listed below were pub-            Fluid MechaniCS, Sobieszewo, Poland, Septem-        terpoint deep water production. tvlarine
lished in the 1987 volume and may also            ber 2-6, 1985, edited by W Fiszdon, H.              Geology, v.78, 1987, pp. 1-10.
be found in the publications cited. Infor-        Zm'ski, and E. Zawistowska. Warszawa, Poland,       Berger, Wolfgang H., J S. Klllingley and
mation about a specific reprint can be            Polish Scientific Publishers, 1987. pp. 25-54.      Edith Vincent. Time sca le of the Wisconsin!
obtained by writing directly to the au-           Aref, H The numerical experiment in fluid           Holocene trans ition: oxygen isotOpe record in
thor in care of Scripps Institution of             mechanics.jotlrnal of Fluid MechaniCS, v.l73,      the western equatorial Pacific. Quatem£I.rY Re-
Oceanography, La Jolla, California                 1986. pp. 15-41.                                   searcb, v.28, 1987. pp. 295-306.
92093.                                            Aref, H., Scott W jones and Gretar Tryg-            Bleckmann, H., Theodore Holmes Bullock
                                                  gvason. On Lagrangian aspeCtS of flow sim-          andJ M. j0rgensen. The lateral line
                                                  ulation. Complex SySlems, '1..1, 1987. pp.          mechanoreceptive mesencephalic, dien-
Abel , D. C, William R. LoweU, Jeffrey B.          545-558                                            cephalic, and telencephalic regions in the
Graham and R. Shabeta1. Elasmob ranc h            Arrhenius, Gustaf 0. S. The first 800 million       thorn bac k ray, PlaJyrhinoidis triseriala ( Elas-
pericardial function. 2. The influence of peri-   years: environmental models for early earth.        mobranchi i). journal of Comparative Physiol-
cardial pressure on cardiac stroke volume in      Earth, MOOl1, and Planets, v'37 , 1987. pp.         ogy A, v.l61, 1987. pp. 67-84.
horn sharks and blue sharks. Fish Physiology      187-199                                             Bloomer, S H. and Robert L Fisher. Petrol-
and BiodJemistry, '1.4, no.l, 1987. pp. 5-14.     Backus, George E., R. H. Estes, D. Chinn            ogy and geochemistry of igneous rocks from
Adair, Richard G., Michael M. Han-is, John A.     and R. A. Langel. Comparing the jerk with           the Tonga Trench - non-accreting plate
Orcutt and Thomas H. jordan. Description           other global models of the geomagnetic field       boundary. journal of Geology , v.95, 1987. pp.
and performance of the marine seismic sys-         from 1960 to 1978 journa l of Geophysical Re-      469-495
tem during the Ngendei Experiment. In Ini-        searcb, v,92 , no.B5, 1987. pp. 3615-3622.          Boltovskoy, Demetrio and William R
tial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project,    Balch, W M. Studies of nitrate transport by         Riedel Polycystine radiolaria of the Califor-
v.91, edited by H. W Menard, ]. Natland, T H.     marine phytoplankton using 36CI-C10 3 as a          nia Current regio n: seasonal and geographic
Jordan, ]. A Orcutt, et aI. washington , D.C,     transport analogue. I. Physiological findings.      patterns. Mm"ine Micropaleontology, '1..12 ,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987. pp.        journal of Phyco{ogy, '1.23, 1987. pp. 107-118.     1987. pp. 65-104.
335-345.                                          Balch, W M., Chris Garside and Edward H.            Bradner, Hugh, M. Bartlett, Grant Blackln-
Adair, Richard G., John A. Orcutt and             Renger. Studies of nitrate transport by ma-         ton, J Clem, D M. Karl,]. Learned, A.
Th omas H. jordan. Preliminary analySiS of        rine phytoplankton using 36CI-C10 3 as a trans-     Lewitus, S. Matsuno, D. O'Connor, W
ocean-bottom and sub-bottom microseismic          port analogue-II. Field obse rvations. Deep-        Peatman, Michael Reichle, C Roos , J
noise during the Ngendei Experiment. In Ini-      Sea Research, v'34 , no.2, 1987. pp. 221-236.       Waters, M. Webster, and M. Yarbrough. l3io-
tial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project,    Bascom, Willard. Pre-des ign ocean outfall          luminescence profi le in the deep Pacific
v.91, ed ited by H. W Menard, J Natland, T H.     studies. Waler Science Technology, v'18, no.ll,     Ocean. Deep-Sea Research, v'34, no.11, 1987.
Jordan,]. A Orcutt, et aI. \X'ashington , D.C,    1986. pp. 105-110                                   pp. 1831-1840.
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987. pp.        Bascom, Willard . \~5te disposal in the sea off     Bray, N. A. Salinity calculation techniques for
357-375                                           southern California. Water SCience Technol-         separately digitized fast response and plat-
AJbizati, Kim F., T Holman, D. John Faulk-        ogy, v' 18, no.Jl, 1986. pp. 1-9.                   inum resistance CTD temperature sensors.
nef, K. B. Glaser and R. S. jacobs. Luffariel-    Beardsley, R. C, C. E. Donnan, Carl A               Deep-Sea Research, '1.34, no.4, 1987. pp.
lolide, an anti-inflammatory sesterterpene        Friebe, L K. Rosenfeld and Clinton D.               627-<:i32.
from the marine sponge Luffariella sp. Experi-    Winant Local atmospheric forcing during the         Brinton, Edwa rd and Joseph L Reid. On the
entia, '1.43, 1987 pp. 949-950.                   Coastal Ocean DynamiCS Experiment. 1. A de-         effects of interannual variations in circulation
AJexandrou, D. Boundary reverberation re-         scription of the marine boundary layer and at-      and temperature upon the euphaus iids of the
jection via constrained adaptive beamforming.     mospheric conditions over a northern Califor-       California Current. In Pelagic Biogeography.
journal of the Acoustical Society of America,     nia upwelling region. journal of Geophyszcal        Proceedings of an IntenUitional Conference,
v,82, no.4, 1987. pp. 1274-1290.                  Researcb, v,92, no.C2, 1987. pp. 1467-1488.         The Netherlands, May 29-june 5 , 1985-
Ammerman, James Wand Farooq Azam.                 Berger, Wolfgang H. and L D. Labeyrie.              UNESCO Tecbnical Papers in Marine Science,
Characteristics of cyclic AMP transport by ma-    Abrupt climatic change- an introduction. In         v.49, edited by A. C Pierrot-Bults, S. van del'
rine bacteria. Applied and Environmental Mi-      Abrupt Clirruuic Change: Evicknce and Imp/i-        Spoel, B. J Zahuranec, and R. K. Johnson.
crobiology, v.53, no.12, 1987. pp. 2963- 2966.    caliom. NATO ASI Series. Series C: Mathemati-       Paris, United Nations Educational Scientific
Anderson, John G. and Paul Bodin. Earu\-          cal and Physical Sciences, v. 216, edited by        and Cultural Organization, 1986. pp. 25-34.
quake recurrence models and histo rica l seiS-    W H . Berger and L D. Labeyrie. Dordrecht,          Brinton, Edward , V J Loeb, Michael C Mac-
micity in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley Bulle/in    Netherlands, D. Reidel Publishing, 1987 pp.        aulay and Eric Shulenberger. Variability of
of the Seismological Society of America , v'77,    3-22                                               Euphausia superba p opulations near Elephant
no.2 , 1987 pp. 562-578.                                                                              Island and (he south Shetlands: 1981 v.s. 1984.




I
Polar Biology, v.7, 1987 pp.345-362.                  passive tracers. journal of Marine Research,        GOES-6 VlSSRlYAS solar channels. Rernote
 Broecker, W 5., james R. Ledwell, Taro Tak-           vA5 , 1987 pp. 635-666                             Sensing of Environment, v.22, 1987. pp.
 ahashi, Ray E Weiss, Liliane Merlivat, Lau-          Delcroix, Thierry and Catherine Gautler. Es-        73-101
  rent Memery, Tsung-Hung Peng, Bernd                  timates of heat content variations from sea        Gautler, Catherine. Net radiative flux at the
Jiihne and Karl Otto Munnich. IsotOpic                 level measurements in the central and west-        earth surface: estimation from satellite obser-
 versus micrometeorologic ocean CO2 fluxes;           ern tropical P-Jcific from 1979 to 1985.journal     vations. In Centre Natiorutl DEtudes Spatiales.
 a serious conflict. journal of Geophysical Re-       of Physical Oceanography, v.17, no.6, 1987. pp.     Climatology and Space Observations. Tou -
 search, v.91 , no.C9, 1986 pp. 10, 517-10, 527.      725-734                                             louse, France, Cepadues-Editions, 1987. pp.
 Brown, Wendell S.,james D. Irish and Clin-           de Moustler, Christian and F V. Pavlicek. A         371-382
 ton D. Winant. A description of subtidal pres-        fully transportable Sea Beam complex acous-        Gautier, Catherine. Radiative processes affect-
 sure field observations on the northern Cali-         tic data acquisition system. Offshore Technol-     ing ocean mixed-layer heat content and their
 fornia continental shelf during the Coastal          ogy Conference Proceedings, v.3, 1987. pp.          mon itoring from satellite. In Dynamics of the
 Ocean Dynamics Experiment. jownal of Geo-             269-274.                                           Oceanic SlI1face Mixed Layer. Proceedings of
physical Research, v. 92, no.C2, 1987. pp.             Detrick, R. S., P Buhl, E. Vera, j. Mutter,        the Aha Hulikoa Hawaiian Winter Workshop,
 1605--1635                                           john A. Orcutt, j. Madsen, and T Brocher.           University of Hawaii at Manoa, january 14-
 Bukry, David. Eocene siliceous and cal-              Multi-channel seismic imaging of a crustal          16, 1987, edited by Peter Muller and Diane
 careous phytoplankton, Deep Sea Drilling              magma chamber along the East Pacific Rise.         Henderson . Honolulu, Hawaii, Hawaii Insti-
 Project Leg 95 In Initial Reports of the Deep        Nature, v.326, no.6108, 1987. pp. 35-41.            tute of Geophysics 1987. pp. 229-247.
 Sea Drilling Project, v.95, edited by C. W            Dickson, Andrew G. Standardization of the          Gautier, Catherine and Mark Anderson. Sat-
 Poag, A B \XY.lftS, et al. 'Washington, D.C., U.S.   (AgCI+ Y>H 2 = Ag+HCI) cell from 273.15 to          ellite-derived Indian Ocean precipitation ac-
 Government Printing Office, 1987. pp.                318.15 Ka.journal of Chemical Thermo-               tivity during summer MONEX (May-june-july
 395-415.                                             dynamics, v.19, 1987. pp. 993-1000                  1979). In 17th Conference on Hurricanes and
 Bukry, David. North Atlantic Quaternary sil-         Enright, james T Perspective vergence : ocu-        Tropical Meteorology, April 7-10, 1987,
 icoflagellates, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg        lomotor responses to line drawings. Vision          lv/iami, Florida. Boston, American Mete-
 94. In Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling      Research, v.27, no.9, 1987. pp. 1513-1526.          orological SOCiety, 1987. pp. 359-362
 Project, v.94, edited by W E Ruddiman , R. B.        Filloux, jean H. Instrumentation and experi-        Gautier, Catherine. Satellite estimations of
 Kidd, E. Thomas, et al. \~s hington, D.C., U.S.      mental methods for oceanic studies. GeonUlg-        the solar radiation flux at the surface. In Cen-
Government Printing Office, 1987. pp.                 netism, v.1, 1987. pp. 143-248.                     tre National D'Etudes Spatiales. Climatology
779-783                                               Fisher, Frederick H. and R. A. Harriss. Sea-        and Space Observations. Toulouse, France,
 Bullock, Theodore Holmes. Interspecific              test performance of a unique connector-less         Cepadues-Editions, 1987. pp. 383-405.
 comparison of brainstem auditory evoked po-          hydrophone array. In Current Practices and          Gieskes, joris M.,]. R. Lawrence, E. A. Perry,
 tentials and frequency following responses           New Technology in Ocean Engineering, 1987,          S. J. Grady and H. Elderfield. Chem istry of
 among ve rtebrate classes. In Evoked Poten-          Ocean Engineering Division, vol.12, presented       interstitial waters and sediments in the Nor-
 tials. Frontiers of Clinical Neuroscience, v.3,      at the Tenth Annual Energy-Sources Technol-         wegian-Greenland Sea, Deep Sea Drilling
 edited by Roger Q . Cracco and Ivan Bodis-           ogy Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas,       Project Leg 38. Chemical Geology, v.63, 1987.
 Wollner. New York, Alan R. Liss, 1986. pp.           February 15-18, 1987, edited by George K.           pp. 143-155
 155--164                                             Wolfe. New York, American Society of Mechan-        Goldberg, Edward D. Comparative chemistry
 Bullock, Theodore Holmes. Some principles            ical Engineers, 1987. pp. 143-147.                  of the platinum and other heavy metals in the
 in the brain analysis of important Signals:          Fleminger, Abraham and K. Hulsemann.                marine environment. Pure and Applied Chern-
 mapping and stimulus recognition . Brain, Be-        Geographical variation in Calanus helgolan-         i.,try , v.59, no.4, 1987. pp. 565-571
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APPENDIXES




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APPENDIXES




Oceanography, v.17, no.4 , 1987. pp. 440--454 .      Jorclan, J. A. Orcutt, et al. \l;ashington, D.C.,     mospheres and Oceans, v.10, 1986 pp.
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 combined amino acids in seawate r: a precau-        Somerville, Richard c.). The predictability of        reaction of sea urchin sperm . journal of Cell
 tionary note. Limnology and Oceanograpby,           weather and climate. Climatic Cbange, v. 11 ,         Biology, v.105, 1987. pp. 1121-1128.
 v.32, no.4, 1987 pp. 996-997                        1987. pp. 239- 246.                                   Vacquier, Victor D. Plasma membranes iso-
 Rosso, Abbey L. and Farooq Azam . PrOteOlyl-        Spiess, Fred N. Deep-ocean near-bottom sur-           lated from sea urchin spermatozoa. In New
 ic activity in coastal oceanic waters: depth dis-   veying techniques. In Marine Minerals: Ad-            HOl'izons in Spenn Cell Research, ed ited by H.
 tribution and relationship to bacterial             vances in Researcb and Resource Assessment.           Mo hri. Tokyo, japan Scientilic Societies Press,
 populations. Marine Ecology-Progress Series,        NATO ASI Series. Series C: Mathematical and           1987 pp. 217-233
 v.41 , 1987 pp. 231-2 40                            Physical Sciences, v.194 , edited by P. G. Teleki,    Van Dorn, William G. Tide gage response to
 Schmitz, William J., Pearn P. Niiler and C. J.      M. R. Dobson,). R. Moore, and U von Stackel-          tSunamis. Part II: other oceans and smaller
 Kobllnsky. Two-year moored instrument re-           berg. Dordrecht, Netherlands, D. Reidel Pub-          seas. j ournal of Pbysical Oceanograpby, v.17,
 sultS along 152°E.journal of Geophysical Re-        lishing, 1987. pp. 259-275.                           no.9, 1987. pp. 1507-1516.
searcb, v.92, no.CIO, 1987. pp. 10,826-10,834.       Spiess, Fred N. Seafloor research and ocean           Venrick, Elizabeth L.,). A. McGowan, Daniel
 Send, Uwe, R. C. Beardsley and Clinton D.           technology. Marine Tecbnology Society jour-           R. Cayan and Thomas L. Hayward. Climale
Winant. Relaxation from upwe lling in the            nal, v.21, no.2, 1987. pp. 5-17.                      and ch lorophyll a: long-term trends in the
 COastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment. journal          Stallard, Martha, V F. Hodge and Edward D.            central North Pacific Ocean. Science , v.238 ,
of Geophysical Research, v.92 , no.C2, 1987. pp.     Goldberg. TBT in Ca li fo rnia coastal waters:        1987. pp. 70-72.
 1683-1698                                           mon itoring and assessment. Environmental             Venrick, Elizabeth L. On fluorometric deter-
 Sereno, Thomas J. and j ohn A. Orcutt. Syn-         MonitOring and A'>Sessment, v.9, 1987. pp.            minalion of lilter-retained pigments. Limnol-
 thetic Pn and Sn phases and the frequency de-       195-220.                                              ogy and Oceanograpby , v.32, no.2, 1987. pp.
 pendence of Q of oceanic lithosphere.               Stark, Phil ip B. Rigorous velocity bounds            492-493
Journal of Geopbysical Research, v.92 , no.B5,       from soft -rep) and X(P) data. Geophysical            Venrick, Elizabeth L. Patchiness and the para-
 1987. pp. 3541-3566.                                journal of tbe Royal Astronomical Society of          dox of the plankton. In Pelagic Biogeography.
Seymour, Richard). Collecting long-term              London, v.89, 1987. pp. 987-996                       Proceedings of an InterfUilional Conference,
 wave records. Shore and Beach, v.55, nos.3-4 ,      Stark, Philip B. and R  obert L. Parker.              The Netberlands, May 29-june 5, 1985-
 1987. pp. 109-112                                   Smooth proliles from -rep) and X(P) data. Geo-        UNESCO Technical Papers in Man·n e Scien.ce,
 Shearer, P. M., John A. Orcutt, Thomas H.           physical journal of the Royal Astronomical            v.49, edited by A. C. Pierrot-BultS, S. van der
Jordan, R. B. Whitmarsh , Isaac I. Kim , Rich-       Society of London , v.89, 1987. pp. 997-1010.         Spoel, B.). Zahuranec, and R. K. johnson.
 ard G. Adair and M. Burnett. The Ngendei            Stark, Philip B. and Robert L. Parker. Veloc-         Pari s, United Nations Educational SCientific
 Seismi c Refraction Experiment at Deep Sea           ill' bounds from statistical estimates of -rep)      and Cultura l Organization, 1986. pp. 261-265.
 Drilling Project Hole 595B- ocean bottom            and X(p).journal of Geophysical Researcb,             Vesecky, John E, Roben H. Stewart, R. A.
 seismometer data and evidence for crustal           v. 92 , noB3, 1987 pp.2713-2719.                      Shuchrnan, Hany M. AssaI, E. S Kasischke
 and upper mantle aniSOtropy. In Initial Re-         Stokking, Laura B. and Lisa Tauxe . Acquisi-          and J D. Lyden. On the abi lity of synthet ic
ports of tbe Deep Sea Drilling Project, v.91, ed-    tion of chemical remanent magnelizalion by            apenure radar to measure ocean waves. hi
 ited by H. W Menard, J. Natland, T. H. jordan,      synthetic iron oxide. Nature, v.327, no.6123,         \'(lave Dynamics and Radio Probing of the
). A. Orcutt, et 31. \l;\lshington, D.C., US. Gov-   1987. pp. 610-612.                                    Ocean Surface, edited by 0. M. Philli ps and
 ernment Printing Oflice, 1987. pp. 385-435.         Swenson, Mark. Equivalent modons in si m-             Klaus Hasse lm ann. New York, Plenum Publish-
Shearer, P. M., Richard G. Adair,john A. Or-         ple shear. journal oftbe Almosphen"c Sciences,        ing Corpo ration, 1986. pp. 403-421.
cutt and Thomas H. Jordan. Simultaneous              v.43, no.24, 1986 pp.3177-3185                        Ward, B. B. Kinetic studies on ammo nia and
borehole and ocean bottOm seismometer re-            Swenson, Mark. Instability of equivalent-bar-         methane oxidalion by Nin-osococcLiS oceanus.
cord ings of earthquakes and explosions: re-         otrop ic riders. journal of Pbysical Ocean-           Arcbives of Microbiology, v.147 , 1987. pp.
sultS from the 1983 Ngendei Experiment at            ograpby, v.1 7, no.4, 1987. pp. 492-506.              126-133.
Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 595B. In Ini-         Swenson, Mark. A note on baroclinic solitary          Ward, B. B., K. A. Kilpatrick, P. C. Novelli
tial Reports of tbe Deep Sea Drilling Project,       waves with radial symmetry. Dynamics of AI-           and I,,!. I. Scranton. Methane oxidation and
v.91, edited by H . W Menard, J. Natland, T. H.                                                            methane flu xes in the ocean surface layer and
deep anoxic waters. Nature, v.327, no.6119,          Drilling Project, v.91, edited by H . 'If.! Menard,          DepOSition. 1 January 1987-31 March
1987. pp. 226-229.                                   J Natland, T. H. Jordan, and J A Orcutt, et a!.              1987. Quarterly progress repon no. 3
Ward, B. B. Nitrification in marine environ-         Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing                   to Southern California Edison Com-
ments. In Nitrification. Special Publications of     Office, 1987. pp. 447-468.                                   pany. 1987. 15p.
the Society for General Microbiology, v20, edi-      Zetler, Bernard D. The evolution of modern            87-3   Thomas, 'If.! H . Microalgae and Bacte-
ted by J I. Prosser. Oxford, IRL Press, 1986. pp.    tide analysis and prediction-some personal                   ria in Eastern Brook Lake, Sierra Ne-
157-184.                                             memories. InteY7Ulliona/ Hydrographic Re-                    vada, California: Seasonal Rate
Ward, B. B. Nitrogen transformations in the          view, v.64 , no.l, 1987. pp. 123-139.                        Processes in Relation to Potential Acid
Southern California Bight. Deep-Sea Research,                                                                     DepOSition. 1 Ju Iy 1986-30 June 1987.
v34, nos.5-{'i, 1987. pp. 785-805                                                                                 Annual report to Southern California
Westberg-Smlth, M. Jean, L. E. Tway and              Other Works                                                  Edison Company. July 1987. 35p.
William R RIedel. Radiolarians from the                                                                    87-4   Nogami, T. Time-Domain Response of
north Atlamic Ocean, Deep Sea Drilling Proj-         Bradner, Hugh. Comparisons between John                      Nonlinear Pile Foundations. Final re-
ect Leg 94. In Initial Reports of the Deep Sea       Earle's Easter Island cowrie and Cypraea Ger-                POrt to the National Science Founda-
Drilling Project, v94, edited by 'If.! F. Ruddi-     nica Sowerby, 1870. The Feslivu5, v19, no.8,                 tion, 1987. (In press).
man, R B. Kidd, E. Thomas, et a!. Wlshington,        1987 pp. 75-79                                        87-5   Seymour, R. J. and 'If.! C Webster.
D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.         Bradner, Hugh. Is John Earle's Easter Island                 Ocean Engineering Rese~rch Needs.
 pp. 763-777                                         cowry C cemica Sowerby, 1870? Hawaiian                       Results of a workshop on basic engi-
Weydert, Marco M. P. Manganese nodule dis-           Shell News, v35, no.10, 1987. p. 8.                          neering research needs in ocean engi-
tributions at a site in the eastern North Pacific.   Bradner, Hugh. Regarding the Easter Island                   neering, 19-23 October 1986, hosted by
lV/mine Mining, v.5, no.4, 1986. pp. 357-392.        Cypraea cernica. The Festivus, v.19, no.ll,                  the University of California and spon-
White, \X{lrren B. and Gerard McNally. Eva-          1987. p. 103.                                                sored by the National Science Founda-
nescent pressure gradient response in the up-        Lewin, Ralph A. The Biology of Algae and                     tion. 1987. 22p.
per ocean to 5ubinertial wind stress forCing of      Diverse Other Verses. Pacific Grove, CA, Box-
finite wavelength. jOUY7U/1 of Physical Ocean-       wood Press, 1987. 191p.
ography, vl7, no.7, 1987. pp. 1032-1043.             Lewin, Ralph A and Lanna Cheng. La kultivo            Naga Report Series
White , Warren B. and Susumu Tabata. Imer-           de unucelaj algoj kiuj sintezas uzeblajn pro-
annual westward-propagating baroclinic long-         duktajojn. Tutmorulaj Sciencoj kaj Teknikoj              The Naga Report series covers the sci-
wave activity on Line P in the eastern midlati-      (Academia Sinica, Beijing, China), 1, 1987. pp.       entific resulrs of marine investigations in
tude North Pacific. journal of Physical Ocean-       28-29                                                 the South China Sea and the Gulf of
ography, v.17, no.3, 1987 pp. 385-396.               Lewin, Ralph. Supplementary reading. Na-
Whitmarsh, R B., John A Orcutt, Thomas H.
                                                                                                           Thailand from 1959 through 1961. For a
                                                     lure, v.330, 1987. p. 284.
Jordan, Richard G. Adair and P. M. Shearer.          Scully-Power, Paul and Roben E. Steven-               list of available reporrs and cosrs, please
Velocity bounds on the seismic structure of          son. Swallowing the transparency pill'      Us.       send inquiries to Naga Reports, A-OOl,
Mesozoic crust and upper mantle in the               Navailnstilute Proceedings, 1987. pp. 150-152.        Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La
southwest Pacific Basin from downhole obser-         Spindel, Robert C. and Peter F. Worcester.            Jolla, California 92093.
\'3tions at Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole           Technology in ocean acoustic tomography.
595B. In /nitial Reports of the Deep Sea Drill·      Marine Tedmology Society journal, v20, no.4,
ing Project, v91 , edited by H . 'If.! Menard, J     1986. pp. 68-72.                                      Scripps Aquarium Newsletter
Natland, T. H. Jordan, J A. Orcutt, et al. Wash-     Walker, H . J, Jr., William Watson and Arthur
ingtOn, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office,       M. Barnett. Seasonal occurrence of larval                The Scnpps Aquarium Newsletter is
1987 pp. 437-444.                                    fishes in the nearshore Southern California           published quarterly by the Scripps
WJ..IJiams, P. M., E. R. M. Druffel and K. L.        Bight off San Onofre, California. Estuarine,          Aquarium Associates and is sene free to
Smith, Jr. Dietary carbon sources for deep-          Coaslal and SheIjScien.ce, v.25 , 1987 pp.91-
sea organisms as inferred from their organic
                                                                                                           members. The newsletter contains arti-
                                                     109.
 radioClrbon activities. Deep-Sea Research,                                                                cles and photographs featuring Scripps
v.34 , no.2, 1987. pp. 253- 266.                                                                           scientisrs and their research, aquarium
Wllson, George D. and Robert R. Hessler.                                                                   evenrs, associates' expeditions, and orher
Speciation in the deep sea. Annual Review of
                                                     Institute of Marine Resources                         items of interest. For a free sample copy
Ecology and Systematics, v.18, 1987. pp.             Reference Series                                      and membership information write to
185-207.                                                                                                   Editor, Scripps Aquarium Newsletter,
Wilson, Raymond R, Jr., and Francis C.
                                                        Information about the Institute of Ma-
                                                     rine Resources Reference Series may be                A-007, Scripps Institution of Oceanogra-
Knowles. Temperature adaptation of fish he-                                                                phy, La Jolla, California 92093.
moglobins reflected in rates of autOxidation.        obtained from the Institute of Marine
ArdJives of Biochemistry and Biophysics,             Resources, A-02S, University of Califor-
v.255, no.1, 1987. pp. 210-213.                      nia, San Diego, La Jolla, California
Winant, Climon D., R. C. Beardsley and Russ          92093.
E. Davis. Moored wind, temperature, and cur-
rent observations made during Coastal Ocean
                                                     87-1    Seymour, R., D. Castel and J 0.
DynamiCS Experiments 1 and 2 over the
                                                             Thomas. Coastal Data Information
                                                             Program . Eleventh annual report, Janu-
northern California continental shelf and up-
                                                             ary-December 1986. Ocean Engineer-
per slope. journal of Geophysical Research,
                                                             ing Research Group. 1987. 204p.
v92, no.C2, 1987. pp. 1569-1604
                                                     87-2    Thomas, W H. Microalgae and Bacte-
Winfrey, E. c., P. S. Doyle and William R.
                                                             ria in Eastern Brook Lake, Sierra Ne-
Reidel. Preliminary ichthyolith biostratigra-
                                                             vada , California: Seasonal Rate
phy, southwest PaCific, Deep Sea Drilling Proj-
                                                             Processes in Relation to Potential Acid
ect Leg 91. In Initial Reports of the Deep Sea




                                                                                                                                                     I
APPENDIXES




Scripps Institution of                           87-11 Surface water temperatures at shore                  cast measurementS. UCMBO data re-
Oceanography Reference Series                          stations United States West Coast 1986;              port. September 1987. 290p.
                                                       including surface salinilies from sev-       87-24   Baker, Karen S. and Charleen R.
   The reference series includes data re-              eral stations and five-meier Itmlpem-                Johnson. Seasonal Opt.ical Variability
ports, preliminary research reports, his-              tures and salinities at Scripps Pier.                Cruise April 1984; Discrete chlorophyll
torical reports, and contractual reports               April 1987. 39p.                                     measurementS and satellite coverage.
distributed mainly under government              87-12 Baker, Karen S. and Raymond C.                       UCMBO data report. October 1987.
                                                       Smith. Bio-optical measurements                      140p.
contracts. There is no mailing list for this
                                                       from the FRONTS-85 Cruise July 1985,         87-25   Baker, Karen S. and Raymond C.
series, though many numbers are avail-
                                                       UCMBO data report. nd . 45p.                         Smith. Bio-optical measurementS
able from the National Teclmical Infor-          87-13 Baker, Karen S. and Raymond C.                       from the BIOWAfT-oc2 Cruise May
mation Service, Operations Division,                   Smith. Bio-optical measurementS                      1987. UCMBO data report. October
Springfield, Virginia 22151, by the AD                 from the BI0WAJT-87 Cruise, Febru-                   1987.72p.
number listed. Other inquiries about the               ary-March 1987, UCMBO da.ta report.          87-26   Nichols, Jean A Antifouling paint use
Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ref                May 1987 70p.                                        in San Diego Bay: a data report . Center
erence Series should be sent to Teclmical        87-14 Craig, H. and R. Poreda. Papatua Ex-                 for Coastal Studies October 1987. 65p.
Publications, A-033B, Scripps Institution              pedition Legs V and VI, 1 February           87-27   Poulain, P. M.,J D. IlIeman and P. P
                                                       1986-15 March 1986. Studies of meth-                 Nliler. Drifter observations in the Cal-
of Oceanography, La Jolla, California
                                                       ane and helium in hydrothermal vent                  ifornia Current system (1985-1986). A
92093.                                                 plumes, spreading-axis basaltS, and vol-             data report. November 1987. 72p.
   Reference numbers listed below were                 canic island lavas and gases in South-       87-28   Brienzo, Richard K Velocity and at-
issued in 1987.                                        west Pacific marginal basins. May 1987.              tenuation profiles in the Monterey
87-1  Pazan, Stephen E. , 'w.irren B. Whlte            80p.                                                 Deep-Se~ F:.tn . Marine Physical labora-
      and Youhai He. JEDA Cemer annual re-       87-15 Plueddemann, Alben James. Obser-                     tory. December 1987. 101p.
      port on tropical PaCific subsurface              vations of the upper ocean using a           87-29   Fisher, F. H. and C. B. Bishop. Stable
      thermal structure-1985. January 1987.            multi-beam Doppler sonar. Marine                      research platform workshop. Marine
      66p.                                             Physical Laboratory. May 1987. 145p. AD               Physica l Laboratory. April 1988. S8p.
87-2 Canceled                                          Al88896.                                     87-30   Berger, W. H., K Fischer, C. Lai and
87-3 Bray, N. A, M. C. Hendershott, J M.         87-16 Jenkins, Scott A and David W Skelly.                 G. Wu. Ocean productivity a.nd or-
      Robles, S. Shull and A C. Carrasco.              Hydrodynamics of artificial seaweed                  ganiC carbon flux. Part I. Overview and
      Pichicuco 5: Gulf of California CTD              for shorel ine protection. Center for                 maps of primary production and ex-
      data report, May 1984, RN New Hon-               Coastal Studies. June 1987. 1l0p.                     port production. December 1987. 70p.
      zon. March 1987. 112p.                     87-17 Hayward, T L., A. W. Mantyla and P P         87-31    Kuhns, Kittie K. Bibliography of the
87-4 Hu, Jian-Hwa and Pearn P Nliler.                  Nliler. PhYSical, chemical and biolog-                Scripps Institution of Oceanography
       NEPAC current meter and XBT data for            ical data cruise SQ86 15-22 March,                    Reference Series. June 1988. 7p.
      the circulation in Northeast PaCific             1986 Marine Life Research Group. July
      thermocline 42 degrees north and 28              1987. 58p. AD Al92 240.
      degrees north and 152 degrees west.        87-18 Petzold, T J and R. W Austin. Remote         Sea Grant Extension Series
      July 1982-October 1985. February 1987.           senSing of atmospheric optical thick-
                                                       ness and sea-water anenuation whe n             The Sea Grant Extension Series in-
      175p.
87-5 Spiess, F. N., R. Hessler, G. Wilson              submerged: wavelength selection and          cludes booklets, brochures, papers, and
      and M. Weydert. Environmental ef-                antiCipated errors. Visibility Laboratory.   other publications produced b y Sea
      fectS of deep sea dredging. Marine               July 1987. 84p.                              Grant Extension at the University of Cali-
      Physical Laboratory. February 1987.        87-19 Physical, chemical and biological data,      fornia, Davis. Copies of the publications
      89p.                                             CalCOFI Cruise 8703, 2-17 March 1987,        listed below can be obtained by writing
87-6 Merrifield, Mark A., Antoine Badan-               and CalCOFI Cruise 8705, 30 April-14
                                                                                                    Sea Grant ExtenSion, University of Cali-
      Dangon and Clinton D. Winant Tem-                May 1987. August 1987. 93p.
                                                                                                    fornia, Davis, California 95616.
      poral behavior of lower atmospheric        87-20 TsucWya, Miwki and Roger Lukas.
      variables over the Gulf of California.           Western equatorial PaCific Ocean circu-      Dewees, Christopher M. Fishing Vessel Fuel
      1983-1985. A data report. Com porta-              lation study (WEPOCS II); Shipboard         Conservation Project. Technical Report. 1988.
      miemo temporal de variables fi sicas en          chemical and physical data report, 13        46p.
      las capas bajas de la atm6sfera sobre El         January 1986-14 February 1986. RN            Marine Extension Program of Sea Grant, Cali-
      Golfo de California. 1983-1985. Un in-           MOCI17£1 Wave. August 1987. 253p.            fornia Department of Fish and Game, and Na-
      forme de datos. March 1987. 195p.          87-21 Shor, George G.,Jr., and Thomas Des-         tional Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest
87-7 Physical, chemical and biological data,           jardins. Rose M. Dufour, editor. Re-         Region. Marine Sportfish IdentificatiOn. 1987.
      CalCOFI Cruise 8609, 18 September-3              search Vessel Tb011UlS Washington            164p.
      October 1986 and CalCOFI Cruise                   handbook. nd. 46p.                          Marine Extension Program, University of C:lIi-
      861l, 11-26 November 1986. April 1987.     87-22 Smith, Raymond C. and Karen S.               fornia Cooperative Extension, Californ ia De-
      9Op.                                              Baker. Optical dynamiCS experiment          partment of Boating and 'w.iterways, U.S. Coast
87-8 Canceled                                          (ODEX) III Cruise, 10 October 1982-17        Guard, and Vietnamese Fishermen's Associa-
87-9 Fisher, Fred and Charles Bishop. Pro-             November 1982. Vol 3: Discrete chloro-       tion of America. Safety and Survival: A Train-
      ceedings of a ~rkshop on Passive                  phyll measurementS. UCMBO data re-          ing Video for Vielrwmese Fisbermen. 1987.
      ACOUStics. Marine Physical Laboratory.            port. October 1987. 166p.                   Sixty-minute video.
      SECRET.                                    87-23 Smith, Raymond C. and Karen S.               Toole, Christopher L. Report of a Study Trip
87-10 Nolten, Jeffrey w. PLDT, a data acquisi-          Baker. Optical Dynamics Experiment          10 Japan. I. Molluscan Aquaculture and Fisb-
      tion, analysis and display system. Visi-          (ODEX) III Cruise, 10 October 1982-17       eries, 1988. 68p.
      bility Laboratory. March 1987. 116p.              November 1982. Vol. 5: BOPS vertical




I
Toole, ChristOpher L. Report of a Study Tnp        T-018   Abbott, Isabella A., editOr. Taxonomy
10 Japan.   II. Salmonid AqU£ICulture and Fish-            of Economic Seaweeds with Reference
eries, 1988. 37p.                                          to Some Pacific and Caribbean Species,
Toole, Christopher L. Report of a Study Trip               Volume II . Results of an imernational
to Japan. III. Fisheries Education and Exten-              workshop sponsored by the California
sion ActiVities, 1988. 22p.                                Sea Gram College Program in cooper-
                                                           ation with the Pacific Sea Gram Col-
                                                           lege Programs of Alaska, Hawaii,
Sea Grant Reference Series                                 Oregon, and WashingtOn. Sea Grant
                                                           publication number T-CSGCP-0l8. 1988.
  The Caltfornia Sea Grant Reference                       166p.
Series includes bibliographies, directo-
ries, symposium proceedings, and other
institutional reports. The publications
listed below can be obtained by writing
the California Sea Grant College Pro-
gram, A-032, University of California,
San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
R-023 AmJdei, Rosemary, editor. California
      Sea Gram: Coastal Ocean Science and
      Technology-A Report to the Re-
      sources Agency Sea Gram Advisory
      Panel. Five year report, 1982-1987. Sea
      Gram report number R-CSGCP-023.
      1988 64p.
R-024 California Sea Gram College Program.
                                                                                                    A pile is removed as the old pier is dismantled .
      California Sea Gram Biennial Report,
      1984-1986: A Report on the California
      Sea Gram College Program for OCtO-
      ber I, 1984, to September 30,1986. Sea
      Gram report number R-CSGCP-024.
      1986. 160p.
R-025 California Sea Gram College Program.
      California Sea Gram program direc-
      tory 1988-1989. Sea Grant report num-
      ber R-CSGCP-025 1988 28p.


Sea Grant Technical Series
   The California Sea Grant Technical
Series includes professional papers, sci-
entific and technical reports, instructive
manuals, and public policy papers result-
ing from Sea Grant-sponsored research.
The publications listed helow can be ob-
tained by writing the California Sea
Grant College Program, A-032, Univer-
Sity of California, San Diego, La Jolla,
California 92093.
T-017   Am.idei, Rosemary, editOr. West Coast
        Mollusc Culture: A Presem and Future
        Perspective. Proceedings of a Califor-
        nia Sea Gram Workshop in coopera-
        tion with the Pacific Sea Grant College
        Program, July 9-10, 1987, University of
        California, Berkeley. Sea Grant publica-
        tion number T-CSGCfl-017. 1988. 87p.
APPENDIXES




        APPENDIXB
                                                  %11 john R Booker, IGPP, Geomagnetism               A E. J Engel, GRD, Geology
                                                  t Charles R. Booth, IMR, Photobiology          &   james T Enright, o.RDINU, Biological
                                                      Hugh Bradner, AMES/1GPP, Physics                   o.ceanography
                                                      Nancy A Bray, YUCCS, Physica l                  Richard W Eppley, lMR/MLRG , Biological
                                                         o.ceanography                                   Oceanography
                                                      Richard K. Brienzo, MPL, Acoustics and          David]. Erickson III, UvIR, Marine
        ACADEMIC STAFF                                   Signal Processing                              Chemistry
                                                      Edward Brinton, MLRG, Marine Biology       %    William E. Evans, MBRD, Marine
                                                  %& james N. Brune, GRDIIGPP, Geophysics                Bioacoustics
                                                  t Ann C. Bucklin, MLRG, Zoology                &    D. john Faulkn·!r, o.RD, Marine Natural
                                                  % john D. Bukry, GRD, Micropaleontology                Products Chemistry
                                                      Theodore H. Bullock, NeurosciencelNU,      &   Horst Felbeck, MBRD, Marine
Academic Staff-July 1, 1987-                             Neurobiology                                    Biochemistry
June 30, 1988                                         Don R. Burtner, GRD, Isotope                   jean-Francois Fels, lGPP, Seismology
                                                         Geochemistry                            t    Teng-Yung Feng, MBRD, Diatom Biology
All symbols and abbreviaJions are listed at the       Angelo F. Carlucci, MLRGIIMR,              &   'Mlliam H . Fen ical , IMR, Chemistry
end of this section                                      Microbiology                                jean H. FillollX, o.RD, PhySical
                                                      George F. Carnevale, o.RD,                         o.ceanography
                                                         o.ceanography                                Frederick H. Fisher, MPL, Marine Physics
      Henry D. I. Abarbanel, MPL, Physi cs            Michael A. Castelllni, PRL, Marine              Robert L. Fisher, GRD, Marine Geology
§     Mark R. Abbott, D-S lo., Biological                Biology                                 +   Ahraham Fleminger, SClMLRG, Marine
        o.ceanography                                 Daniel R. Cayan, o.RD, Meteorology                 [liology
      Duncan C. Agnew, IGPP, Geop hysics          t Thure E. Cerling, GRD, lsotope               %    Re inhard E. FUck, CCS, Coascal Processes
%     Mark E. Ander, IGPP, Geophysics                    Geochemistry                                 Theodore R. Folsom, o.RD, Physical
%    john G. Anderson, IGPP/AMES,                 t Alfred B. Chaet, MBRD, Endocrinology                 o.cea nography
        Engineering/Geophysics                    § Alan D. Chave, IGPP, Geophysics                  jeffery D. Frautsehy, SG , Coastal Zone
      Victor C. Anderson, ECS/MPL, Marine             Shyh-Chin Chen, o.RD, Meteorology                  Management
         Physics                                  t Yingyi Chen, o.RD, Meteorology               &    Edward A Frieman, Director,
      Daniel E. Andrews ,jr., MPL, Acoustical         Lanna Cheng, MBRD, Marine                          o.ceanography
        Engi neering                                     Entomology                                   RobertJ Frouin, CS, Meteoro logy
      Hassan Aref, AMESIIGPP, Theoretical             Teresa Chereskin, MLRG, PhYSical               Stephen J G. Galer, GRD, Earth Sciences
        Physics                                          o.ceanography                                Catheri ne H. ~utier, CS, Meteorology
&     Laurence Aroti, o.RD, Physical                  Tsa ihwa J Chow, o.RD, Chemistry           &    Carl H . Gibson, AMESID-Slo., Fluid
        Oceanography                                  Catherine Constable, IGPP, Geophysics              Dynamics
     james R. Arnold, Chemistry/CS, Space             Steven C. Constable, o.RD,                 &   j oris M. T M. Gieskes, o.RD, Marine
        Research                                         Oceanography                                    Chemistry
&    Gu~tafo. S. Arrhenius, GRD,                      Bruce D. CornueIle, o.RD,                  &   J Freeman Gilbert, D-Slo./IGPP,
        o.ceanography                                    o.ceanography                                   Geophysics
      Robert S. Arthur, o.RD, Physical            & Charles S. Cox, MLRG, Phl/sica l             t    Bjorn Gjevik, IGPP, Geophysical Fluid
        o.ceanography                                    o.ceanog raphy                                  Dynamics
     Roswell W Austin , IMRIVL, o.ptical          & Harmon Craig, GRD, Geochemistryl             &    Edward D. Goldberg, o.RD, Chemistry
        Physics                                          o.ceanography                               jeffrey B. Graham, PRLlMBRD, Marine
%    Agustin Ayala.Castanares, GRD,               & joseph R. Curray, GRD, Marine Geo logy               Biol'Ob'YlPhys iology
        Bio logical Paleontology                      David L. Cutchin, o.RD, Physical                Nicholas E. Graham, o.RD, Meteorology
&    Farooq Azam, IMR, Microbiology                      o.ceanography and Climatology           %    Nicolas Grijalva, o.RD, Physica l
     Robert B. Baeastow, GRD, Applied             t Randall W Davis, MBRD, Marine Mammal                 Oceanography
        Mathematics                                      Metabolism                              t    Yonghong Guan, IMR, Biological
&    George E. Backus, IGPp, Geophysics           & Russ E. Davis, o.RD, PhySical                        o.ceanography
&   jeffrey L. Bada, IMR, Marine Chemistry               o.ceanography                                Peter R. Guenther, GRD, Marine
%    Robert D. Ballard, MPL, Marine Geology       & Paul K. Dayton, o.RD, Biologi cal                    Chemistry
        and Geophysics                                   o.ceanography                           &    Robert T Guza, CCSIMLRG, Physica l
     Tim P. Barnen, o.RD, Physical                % Ted E. DeLaca, MBRD, Marine Biology                  Oceanography
        o.ceanography                             § Douglas P. DeMaster, D-SIo., Population          john L. Hakanson, MBRD, Mari ne
t    Miles C. Barnhart, PRL, Carbon Dioxide              DynamiCS                                        Ecology
        Metabolism                                    Christian P. de Moustier, MPL,             §    Edwin L. Hamilton, GRD, Geophysics
%    lzadore Barrett, MLRG, Fisheries                    o.ceanography                                Harold T Hammel, PRL, Physiology
%   Willard N. Bascom, IMR, Applied o.cean            Andrew G. Dickson, MPL, Chemistry               Alistair J Harding, GRD/IGPP,
        Sciences                                  & leRoy M. Dorman, GRD/MPL,                            Seismology
    john j. Bates, CS/o.RD, Meteoro logy                 Geophysics                                  james L. Harris, Sr., VL, o.ptical Physics
    John R. Beers, IMR, Marine Zoology                Patricia S. Doyle, GRD, Paleontology            Richard A. Haubrich, IGPP, Geophysics
&   Andrew A. Benson, MBRD, Marine                    Seibert Q. Duntiey, VL, PhYSics                 Lore n R. Haury, MLRG, Biological
        Biology                                       Barbara A Eckstein, MLRG, Phys ical                o.ceanography
    Yaacov K Bentor, GRD, Geology                        o.ceanography                           &   james W Hawkins, GRD, Geology
    jonathan Berger, IGPP, Geophysics             0/0 R. Nigel Edwards, IGPP, Geophysics         &    Francis T Haxo, MBRD, Marine Botany
&   Wolfgang H . Berger, GRD,                         Holly K. Eissler, IGPp, Seismology         &    Margo G. Haygood, MBRD, Marine
        o.ceanography                             t Hugh I. Ellis, PRL, Energetics/ Physiology           Biology




I
      Thomas L. Hayward, MLRG, Biological      +§ Reuben Lasker, D-SIo., Marine Biology      t   Jonathan Nissanov, o.RD, Behavioral
         Oceanography                          &   Ralph A Lewin, MBRO, Marine Biology               Physiology
&     Walter F Heillgenberg, o.ROINU,              Leonard N. Liebermann, Physics/MPL,            Toyoaki Nogami, IMR, Geotechnical
         Behavioral Physiology                        Physics                                        Engineering
      Edvard A Hemmingsen, PRL,                    Paul P-c. Lin, MBRD, Biochemistry         t Arthur M. Nonomura, MBRO, Marine
         Physiology                                Craig R Lindberg, IGPp, Geophysics                Algae and Fungi
&     Myrl C. Hendershott, o.RO, Physical          David W Lingner, CS, o.ceanographyl       0/0 Jose L. Ochoa de la Torre, CCS, Physical
         o.ceanography                                Remote Sensi ng                                o.ceanography
%     Threah]. Hendricks, IMR, Physical            Bruce D. Long, Jr., MPL, o.ceanography         Mark D. Ohman, MLRG, Oceanography
         o.ceanography                             Peter F Lonsdale, MPUGRO, Geology              Allen H. Olson, IGPP, Geophysics
II    Ivan H . Henson, IGPP, Geophysics            Robert D. Loss, GRO, Cosmochemistry       & John A Orcutt, GROIIGPP, Geophysics
&     Robert R Hessler, MLRGIMBRD,                 Ralph H. Lovberg, PhysicsllGPp, Physics       Robin WOrd, MBRO, Marine
         Biological o.ceanography                  Carl D. Lowenstein, MPL, Marine                  Microbiology
%     Richard N. Hey, GRD, Geophysics                 Physics                                    Jeffrey Paduan, MLRG, Physical
&     John A Hildebrand, IMRIMPUGRO,               Gunter W Lugmair, GRD, Geochemistry              o.ceanography
         Applied Physics                           Douglas S. Luther, o.RD, o.ceanography    + Hans A Panofsky, o.RD, Meteorology
      Mark M. Hildebrand, MBRO, Marine         § Alec D. MacCall, D-SIo., o.ceanography          Alejandro Pares-Sierra, CS, o.cean
         Microbiology                          % Kenneth C. Macdonald, GRDIMPL,                     Modeling and Remote Sensing
      David R Hilton, GRD, IsotOpe                    Geophysics                                 Frances L. Parker, GRO, Paleontology
         Geochemistry                          & ]. Douglas MacdougaU, GRD, Marine           & Robert L. Parker, IGPP/o.RO, Geophysics
&     William S. Hodgkiss,Jr., MPL, Signal            Geology                                % Charles K. Paull, GRD, Geological
         Processing                                Jacqueline Mammerickx, GRD, Geology              o.ceanography
&     Nicholas D. Holland, MBRD, Marine            Arnold W Mantyla, MLRG,                   § William F Perrin, D-Slo., Zoology
         Biology                                      Oceanography                               Melvin N. A Peterson, GRO, Marine
      o.smund Holm-Hansen, IMR, Marine             Patricia M. Masters, o.RD, Marine                Geology
         Biology                                      Chemistry                                  Fred B Phleger, GRO, o.ceanography
      Yoshio Horibe, GRD, Geochemistry         & 1: Guy Masters, IGPP, Geophysics            & Roben Pinkel, MPL, Internal Waves
      Michael E. Huber, MBRD, Biological           Tetsuo Matsui, MLRG, Biological           % Paul]. Ponganis, PRL, Anesthesiologyl
         o.ceanography                                o.ceanography                                 Biology
§     John R. Hunter, D-SIo., Ichthyology      % Nancy G. Maynard, VL, Marine Biology            Melinda Pruett-Jones, D-SIo., Ecology
      Mark E. Huntley, MBRD, Marine Biology        Lucy-Ann Mcfadden, CS, Space Physics          Russell W Raitt, MPL, Marine Geophysics
&     Douglas L. Inman, CCS, Physical          t Margaret]. McFall-Ngai, MBRD, Marine        % Philip F Rehbock, MBRO, History of
        o.ceanography                                 Biology                                       Science
t     Takayoshi Itoh, IMR, Soils Engineering   & john A McGowan, MLRG, Biological                Freda M. H. Reid, IMR, Phytoplankton
      George A Jackson, IMR, Biological               Oceanography                                  Taxonomy and Ecology
        o.ceanography                              John W Miles, AMESIIGPP, Geophy'sicsl     & Joseph L. Reid, MLRG, Physical
      Bernd Jabne, o.RO, Atmospheric                  Fluid Dynamics                                o.ceanography
        Chemistry                                  Arthur]. Miller, o.RD/CS, Physical            Clare E. Reimers, GRD, Marine
0/0   Richard A.Jahnke, GRO, Geochemistry             o.ceanography                                 Chemistry
      SCOtt A Jenkins, CCS, Physical               Jean-Bernard H. Minster, D-SIo.,          t Genelle W Renz, GRO, Marine Geology
        o.ceanography                                 Geophysics                                 Roger R. Revelle, Director Emeritus!
t     GuoliangJin, IGPp, Ocean Acoustics           B. Gregory Mitchell, IMR, Phytoplankton          Political SCience, NRlSPP
t     Karl R Johansson, CS, Biological/Space          Biology                                    William R. Riedel, SClGRD, Marine
        Technology                             t Ralph Mitchell, IMR, Biological                    Geology
      Eric S. Johnson, o.RD, PhySical                 o.ceanography                              Martin Risk, IMR, Microbiology
        o.ceanography                          %11 Henry K. Moffatt, IGPp, Applied               John 0. Roads, o.RD/CS , Meteorology
%     JamesJoseph, IMR, Marine Biology                MathematiCS                                Dean H. Roemmich, o.RO,
      Adrianus]. Kalmijn, o.RD, Biologyl       % H. Geoffrey Moser, MBRO, Fisheries                 Oceanography
         Physics                                      Biology                                    David P Rogers, CS, Meteorology
t     Takeshi Kamei, IMR, Seabed Mechanics         Marvin K Moss, DO., Oceanography              Gary J Rose, o.RD, Neurophysiology
&     Miriam Kastner, GRO, Geology             % James L. Mueller, CSIVL, Physical           & Richard H. Rosenblatt, SCIMBRO,
      Masashi Kawasaki, MBRD, Neurobiology            o.ceanography                                 Marine Zoology
&     Charles D. Keeling, GRD, Marine          & Michael M. Mullin, IMRlMLRG,                    Vassilios Roussis, IMR, Marine Chemistry
        Chemistry                                     Biological o.ceanography               & Richard L. Salmon, o.RO, o.ceanography
      Robin S. Keir, GRD, Geology/Geophysics   #& Walter H. Munk, IGPP/o.RD, Geophysics          Annika B. Sanfillppo, GRO, PaleontOlogy
%     Michael P Kennedy, GRD, Geology              Jerome Namias, o.RO, Climatology              Allan W Sauter, MPL, o.cean Bottom
      Margaret D. Knight, MLRG, Biological         James H. Natland, GRD, Geology                   Seismology
        o.ceanography                          & William A Newman, SCIMBRD,                      Arndt Schimroelmann, GRD,
0/0   Francis C. Knowles, MBRD, Marine                Biological o.ceanography                      Geochemistry
        Biochemistry                               Jean A Nichols, CCS, Biological           % Frederick R. Schram, MBRO,
      Robert A Knox, o.RO/IGPP,                       o.ceanography                                 Invertebrate Paleontology
        Oceanography                               William A Nierenberg, CS,                     Richard A Schwartzlose, MLRG, Physical
      Minoru Koide, o.RO, Marine Chemistry            o.ceanography                                 o.ceanography
      Gerald L. Kooyman, PRL, Physiology       & P Peter Niller, MLRG, Applied MechaniCS     % John G. Sclater, GRD, GeophySics
      Diana M. Kushlan, o.RO, Chemistry        t Toshitaka Nishijima, IMR, Marine            t Kent M. Scudder, D-SIo., Cetacean and
&     Devendra Lal, GRO, Nuclear Geophysics           Microbiology                                  Pinniped Biology




                                                                                                                                      I
APPENDIXES




%   Paul D. Scully·Power, ORD, Applied       %     Frederick I. Tsuji, MBRD, Biochemistry     §    Adjunct Professor Series
       Mathematics                           t    Sachiko Tsuji, IMR, Fisheries Ecology       II   Cecil H. & Ida Green Scholar
    Richard]. Seymour, IMR, Oceanography     t    Linda E. Tway, GRD, Stratigraphy            +    Deceased
& George G. Shor, Jr., MPUSOMTS, Marine           Victor Vacquler, MPL, Geophys ics                Emeritus
      Geophysics                             &    Victor D. Vacquier, MBRD,                   &    Faculty, Department of 510
§ Michael R. Silverman, 0-510, Microbial!            Developmental Biology                         John D. Isaacs Chair
      Molecular Genetics                          Geoffrey K Vallis, CS, Meteorology          #    The Secretary of the Navy Chair
% Meinhard C. Simon, IMR, Aquatic            &    Charles \XI Van Alta, AMESID-SIO,           t    VisitinglPostdoctoral Scholar
      Microbiology                                   Geophysical Fluid Dynamics               %    Nonsalaried, Major affiliation elsewhere
    James]. Simpson, MLRG, Physical               William G. Van Dorn, ORD, Physical
      Oceanography                                   Oceanography
   Jerome A Smith, MPL, Physical                  Elizabeth L. Venrick, MLRG,                 AM - Aquarium-Museum
      Oceanography                                   Oceanography                             AMES-Departmem of Applied Mechanics
    Kenneth L. Smith, Jr., MBRDIMLRG,             Maria Vernet, IMR, Oceanography               and Engineering Sciences
      &ological Energetics                        Russell D. Vetter, MBRD, Biology            CS-California Space Institute
§ Paul E. Smith, MLRG, Pelagic Ecology       t    Heinrich A Vlscher, ORO, Biological         CCS-Cemer for Coastal Studies
% Raymond C. Smith, IMR, Physics                     Oceanography                             DO-Director's Office
    Stuan M. Sooth, SOMTS, Submarine              Benjamin E. Volcani, MBRD, Marine           DSDP-Deep Sea Drilling Project
      Geology                                        Microbiology                             D·S(O - Department of the Scripps Institution
= & George N. Somero, MBRD, Marine                Alan M. Volpe, GRD, Geology                   of Oceanography
       Biology                                    Kenneth J Voss, IMRNL, Physics/Optical      ECS-Departmem of Electrical and Computer
& Richard C. J Somerville, ORO,                      Oceanography                               Science Engineering
       Meteorology                           t    Yong-Chen Wang, ORD, Marine                 GRO-Geological Research DiviSion
    Andrew Soutar, MLRG, Paleontology                Chemistry                                (GPP-Institute of Geophysics and Planetary
& Fred N. Spiess, IMRIMPL, Marine Physics         Bess B. Ward, IMR, Biological                 Phys ics
& Arthur J. Spivack, GRD, Geochemistry               Oceanography                             IMR-Institute of Marine Resources
    Hubert H. Staudigel, GRD, Geology        &    Kenneth M. Watson, MPL, PhYSica l           (PAPS-Institute for Pure and Applied
t Carol A Stepien, 0-510, Marine Zoology             Oceanography                               Physical Sciences
% Robert E. Stevenson, ORD, Geological            Spahr C. Webb, MPL, Oceanography            MBRO-Marine Biology Research DiviSion
       Oceanograph)'                         &    Ray F. Weiss, GRD, Geochemistry             MLRG-Marine Life Research Group
    Joan G. Stewart, MBRD, Biology           %    John A Wellian, GRD, Geochemistry/          MPL- Marine Physical Laboratory
§ Robert H. Stewart, ORDIlGPP,                       Geology                                  NR-Natural Resources
       Oceanography                          &    Fred N.. White , Medicine/PRL,              NU -Neurobiology Unit
    William L. Stockton, MBRD, Ecology               Comparative PhYSiology                   ORO-Ocean Research DiviSion
t Heinz-Gunter Stosch, GRD,                       Wirren B. White, ORD, Oceanography          PRL-Physio logical Research Laboratory
      Geochemistry                                Robert H. Whritner, ORD, Meteorology        SC-Scientific Collections
    Hans E. Suess, Chemistry/ORO,                 Roger C. Wiens , GRD, Geological Phys ics   SGP-Sea Grant Program
       Chemistry                                  Donald \XI Wtlkie, AlV!, Marine Biology     SOMTS-Ship Operations and Marine
& George Sugihara, ORD, Mathematical              Peter M. Wllllams, IMR, Chemical              Technical Support
       Biology                                       Oceanography                             SPP-Science and Public Policy
   James]. Sullivan, IMRlSGp, Economics           George D. F. WIlson, MBRD, Deep-Sea         VL- Visibility Laboratory
t Jun Suwa, 0 -510, Satellite Oceanography           Isopod a Systematics
    James H. Swift, ORD/MLRG, Physical       &    Climon D. Winant, CCS, Oceanography
       Oceanography                          &    Edward L. Wlnterer, GRD, Geology
    Chang-k. Tai, ORD, Oceanography               Peter F. Worcester, IGPp, Oceanograph)'
& Lynne D. TaUey, ORD, Oceanography               Jagdish S. Yadav, CS, Detector Cosmic
    Dianne M. Tapiolas, IMR, Marine                  Rays
      Chemistry                                   A Aristides Yayanos, PRL, Physiology
    Mahmoud Tarokh, CS, Robotics and         &    William R. Young, IGPP, Physica l
       Space Engineering                             Oceanography
& Lisa Tauxe, GRD, Geophysics                     Bernard D. Zeller, IGPp, Oceanography
    Bradley M. Tebo, MBRD, Marine Biology         Jin-Xin Zhou, MBRD, Marine Mo lecular
    Mia]. Tegoer, ORD, Marine Biology                Biology
§ Hans R. Thierstein, GRD, Geology                Claude E. ZoBell, MBRD, Marine
    William H. Thomas, IMR, Microbiology             Microbiology
    Charles C. Trees, IMRNL, Oceanography         Mark A Zumberge, IGPP, Physics
    Mizuki Tsuchlya, lMR, Physical           +t   Benjamin M. G. Zwicker, lMR, Organic
      Oceanography                                   Chemistry




I
  APPENDIX C

                    Dr. Andrew A. Benson Received the Sigma        Dr. Melvin N. A. Peterson Appo inted chief
                    Xi Award of Special Merit from the Sigma Xi    scientist of the National Oceanic and Atmo-
AWARDS AND HONORS   chapter of San Diego State University.
                    Dr. Wolfgang H. Berger Elected a Fellow of
                                                                   spheric Administration by President Ronald
                                                                   Reagan.
                    the American Association for the Advancement   Dr. Robert Pinkel Elected a Fellow of the
                    of Science.                                    Acoustical Society of America.
                    Dr. Theodore H. Bullock Received UC            Joseph 1. Reid Received a Special Creativity
                    Berkeley's Berkeley Citation award .           Award from the National Science Foundation.
                    Dr. Harmon Craig Corecipient of the 1987       Dr. Kenneth 1. Smith Received a Special
                    Vetlesen Prize from Columbia University.       Creativity Award from the National Science
                    Dr. Russ E. Davis Elected 10 the National      Foundation.
                    Academy of Sciences.                           Dr. George N. Somero Elected 10 the Na-
                    Dr. Jeffrey H. Graham Received a J. S. Gug-    tional Academy of Sciences.
                    genheim Fellowship.                            James R. Stewart Received the Golden lfi-
                    Dr. Douglas 1. loman Received the Inter-       dent Award from the International Academy of
                    national Coastal Engineering Award from the    Science and Submarine Technology.
                    American Society of Civil Engineers.           Dr. JamesJ. Sullivan Received a Visiting
                    Dr. Marvin K. Moss Received the Distin-        Fulbright Research Scholarship 10 Japan.
                    guished Civilian Service Award from the        Dr. Peter F. Worcester Elected a Fellow of
                    United States Navy.                            the Acoustical Society of America.
                    Dr. Willlam A. Newman Elected a Fellow of
                    the American Association for the Advancement
                    of Science.




                                                                                                Percentage
  APPENDIX D        Agency                                              Expenditures·             of Total

                    Federal Government
                      National Science Foundation                            19,766,170                30.10
                      Navy, Department of the                                16,734,442                2548
                      Commerce, Department of                                 2,083,558                 317
  CURRENT FUNDS       National Aeronautics and
                         Space Administration                                 2,027,486                 3.09
                      Health and Human Services,
                         Department of                                        1,370,108                 209
                      Energy, Department of                                     613,346                 093
                      Army, Department of the                                 1,149,914                 175
                      Interior, Department of the                               566,829                 0.86
                      Air Force, Department of the                              548,066                 083
                      Defense, Department of                                     29,136                 0.04
                      Other                                                      52,442                 0.08
                    Total Federal Government                               $44,941,498                68.42
                    State General Funds                                      15,080,338                22.96
                    Private Gifts and Grants                                  5,971,519                 9.09
                    Overhead Funds                                            1,069,538                 163
                    State of California                                         549,386                 0.84
                    Endowment Funds                                           -368,479                -056
                    Local Government                                             35,285                 0.05
                    Sales and Services                                      -1,598,780                -243
                    Total Current Funds Expenditures                       $65,680,305               100.00
                                                                                             'Includes overhead




                                                                                                          I
APPENDIXES




       APPENDIX E
                                                                        DIRECTOR
                                                                  Edward A Fr'lemant
                                                               DEPUTY DIRECTOR
                                                                       Marvin K... Moss

                                                            ASSOCLATE DIRECTORS
                                                                         TOm Collins
                                                                   George C. 5hor, Jr.
       ORGANIZATION
                                                               ADMINISTRATION
                                                             ACADEMIC PERSONNEL
                                                                    1::k-:mor IUlll Sll(\{'ll

        GRADUATE DEPARTMENT                                    CONTRACTSfGRANTS                                            RESEARCH DIVISIONS
                                                                      r\'<A rn,InJ ~l lcr
                     CHAIRMAN                                                                                               GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH
                  J. fn.,..mJn Gilb•.:n                                                                                              DrvlSION
                                                               FACIUTIES SERVlCES
                                                                 .I. n1l,..... R nJaut.'tll)<'1 )o,'C1"
                                                                   1                                                           J l)"l;W·LS ,\l.R"L!lr.I g.11l
    CURRICULAR GROUP COORDINATORS
                                                          FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION                                        MAR] NE BIOLOGY RESEARCH
          APPLIED OCEAN SCIENCES                                    AND STAFF                                                            DIVISION
                 \\"II!:,tll ~ IloJgkl..,                       rl'URI 0 Cr.lInpcoo                                                 G<:'Of~N. "",)a\l· r o


         BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY                           TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS                                         OCEAN RESEARCH Of\'ISION
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         GEOCHEMISTlIY AND MARINE                         PUBLIC SERVICE UNITS                                                 CLIMATE RfSF.ARCH
               CHEMISTRY                                                                                                            GROUP
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             GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES                                                                                        SPECIAL RESEARCH UNITS
                  WnJ f!t"jll~H       (krftt:r
                                                                   PCBlIC AffAIRS
                                                                   J;x:qadUICL~r                                         CENTeR FOR COASTAL S11.JDIES
                    GEOPHYSICS                                                                                                      Clim OI1 D. I,t·Ul:u:l
                    )c)lmh~n 8ergt.~r
                                                               SUPPORT UNITS
                                                                                                                         MARINE LIFE RESEARCH GROUP
                MARJNE BIOLOGY                                                                                                      " ltchac!'\1 :>Iulhn
                                                                  orVING OFFICER
                  N;("b~I:~      O. tloiJ;I,nd                        J;UII~ R.~vll n
                                                                                                                               LABORATORIES
          PHYSICAL OCfANOC.RAPHY                                MARINE SCIENCE
                 M~TJ     L Hl'rK!L'rshou                                                                                      MARINE PHY'iICAl
                                                               DEVElOPME.."lT AND
                                                               OIJTFJ1TJNG SHOP                                                  LABOR}..TORY
          TECHNICAL SUPPORT                                          Rlch:mJ       r     ~:1 rr vn                                 I\cmK1h 1.1           ~~-..o n



        SHIP OPERATIONS AND MARJNE                            SCRIPPS SATEllITE                                            PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
             TECHNICAL SUPPORT                             OCEANOGRAPHY FACILITY                                                 LABORATORY
                  GL"{;rgt' G. Shor, Jr                                M~I"'-~o     K :>It ... ~                              G~-orgt: ~ ~Jnit.'fO ( :lC"ling )


             NIMITZ MARINE FA<:!UTY               UC SAN DIEGO BRANCH UNITS AT SCRIPPS                                       AFFINITY GROUP
                 }]l1e~ <.r_     Wilh.1nl' III
                                                                        ARCHIVES                                             NEl; ROBIOLOGY UNIT
             SHIPBOARD TECHNlCAL                                      Odln rJ b         r.   Ll.4~                               Th ...,xIt...c ~I U·.lllotk
               SUPPORT SERVlCES
                        D;..,<..! q-·,nh
                                                                   DEVELOPMENT
                                                                     8 ;Un.1ft"1 S $trkm
             RESIDENT TECHNICIANS
                    Raben C. \)"'11-";>(1
                                                                          LIBRARY
                                                                        \l;11J1:tmJ.Goff
             SHIPBOARD COMPUTER
                    GRO,",P                                          PURCHASI:"'G
                      R(lm!dL .\Iut."                                 RlJhc-n).1 t um

                ~ GEOPHYSICAL
                                                                UC INSTITUTES
                   TEC HNlClANS
                  ~ rl"'-· ).   S Cr.:truplllri
                                                              CAL SPACE INSTITUTE
                                                                      j :tnr'li R. Arllold
             OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA
                        fACILITY
                      .I:II1:t..... 11 Swifl
                                                           IM.TITUTE OF GEOPHYSICS
                                                            AND PLANETARY PHYSICS
                                                              Joo n r\. OrC"lJlI, MS<X l'l,r.
                GEOLOGICAL DATA
                    CENTER
                     S: l.~n     M. Smith                    CECIL AND IDA GREEN
                                                           PINON FLAT OBSERVATORY
                                                                     jl.mtI L:W"I Bc:rgcr
        SCIENTIFIC COLLECTIONS
                                                        INSTITUTE OF MARINE RESOURCES
             8ENTIfJC INVERTEBRATES                            "',lIi:11O H N.'o l(";d        (~Irt;n,'l. l
                  ~1Ii:unr\. Sl."1\rllan

                                                            FOOD CHAIN RESEARCH
                    GEOLOGICAL                                    GROUP
                    "'·iJl';u)lR. Rlt.'tld                               a...··s A \x':lfd
              MA.RJNE VERTEBRATES                         MARINE NATURAL PRODUCT>
                 Rldl.Jrd H. Ro...I'>Cnbl"l                         \),.1I1,.lm II F...·nI(";l1

          PLANKTON INVERTEBRATES                              OCEAN ENGINEERING
                Edward Bnnloo (acting)
                                                                RESEARCtt GROUP
                                                                   Richard ).          s.......mou r

                                                         PHYTOPl.ANlCTON RESOURCES
                                                                   \1.·,lham H. TII<J l1l."U

                                                              SEA GRANT COLLEGE
                                                                   PROGRAM
                                                                     J ::m"l\.~J    Sullivan                   Curreotjune 30. 1988
                                                             UC MARINE              BIO~OPTICS                t Also Vice Chancellor of Marine Scieoces
                                                                       I\;!rt:n    s.   8;tkcr
                                                                                                               and Dean of Marine Science
                                                                             CHANCELLOR
                                                                           Richard C. Atkin son

                                                      DIRECTOR , VICE CHANCELLOR MARINE SCIENCES
                                                              & OEAN OF MARINE SCIENCES
                                                                      Edward A. Friem an

                   ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR , AOMINISTRATION                                            DEPUTY DIRECTOR & ASSOCIATE VICE
           f                    Tom Collins                                    I                    CHANCELLOR MARINE SCIENCES
                                                                                                            Marvin K. Moss

       SPECIAL ASSISTANT TO THE VICE CHANCELLOR                                                      ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, SHIP OPERATIONS &
   I                Eleanor tum Suden                                I                                    MARINE TECHNICAL SUPPORT
                                                                                                                 George G. Shor, Jr.

                                                                  \
                                                                         DIRECTORATE
                   POLICY COUNCIL                                                                          EXECUTIVE COUNCIL
                            13 MEMBERS                                                                                   UNIT HEADS

                  I                                        I

                                                                                      rl                                    ~
AT -LARGE MEMBERS                           CHAIR OF THE FACULTY                                  UNIT HEADS REP.
(Faculty and Principal
     Investigators)
                                        I        Miriam Kastner              I                     George Somero




                  II
               INSTRUCTION
                                                     J
                                            LABORATORIES                       SPECIAL
                                                                                                               T
                                                                                                           RESEARCH
                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                       UC INSTITUTES
                                                  MPL                      RESEARCH UNITS                  DIVISIONS                         IGPP'
          SIO Graduate Dept.
              J. F Gilbert                    K. M. Watson                          MLRG                       GRD                        J. A. Orcutt
                                                 PRL                             M. M. Mullin            J. D. Macdougall                  IMR'
                                         G. N. Somero (acting)                     CCS                       MBRD                    W H. Fenical (acting)
                                                                               C. D. Winant               G. N. Somero                    Cal Space'
                                                                                                             ORO                          J. R Arnold
                                                                                                         R Knox (acting)

                         Cal Space   Calilornia Space Institute                                   MBRD       Marine Biology Research Division
                         CCS         Center lor Coastal Studies                                   MLRG       Marine Lile Research Group
                         GAD         Geolog ical Research Division                                MPL        Marine Physical Laboratory
                         IGPP        Institute 01 GeophYSICS and Planetary Physics                ORO        Ocean Research Division
                         IMA         Institute 01 Marine Resources                                PRL        Physiological Research Laboratory

                         'Reports to the Vice Chancellor-Marine Sciences
APPENDIXES




          APPENDIX F


       FINANCIAL SUPPORT*




State and Federal Agencies
California, State of                         Hotel del Coronado                           Robert R. Hessler
    The Resources Agency of California       Incorporated Research Institutions for       Nicholas D. and Linda Z. Holland
                                                Seismology                               C. Scott Johnson
      Department o f Boating and Waterways
                                             Jet Propulsion laboratories                  Ira R. Katz
      Department of Fish and Game
      Department of \v,tter Resources        W M. Keck Foundation                         Raymond V Knowles
                                             las Patronas                                Gerald G. Kuhn
United States                                Marine Technology Society                   Werner Kurn
Commerce, Department of                      Martin-Marietta                              Peter R. la Dow
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric         Masserini Charitable Trust                   Kent H . landsberg
      Administration                         W K. Montgomery Co.                         Cynthia Scripps Leising
Defense, Department of                       Margaret T. Morris Foundation               John Lyddon
   Air Force                                 Natural Resources Defense Council            Margot W Marsh
   Army, Department of the                   Northern Telecom, Inc.                      john S. McIlhenny
      Army Corps of Engineers                Pacific Gas and Electric Company             Robert R. and Francis H. Miller
   Navy, Department of the                   Physical Dynamics, Inc.                      Farley M. and Erma T. O'Brien
      Naval Sea Systems Command              San Diego Ocean Foundation                   Robert O. Peterson
      Office of Naval Research               San Diego Underwater Photographic Society    Peter Preuss
Energy, Department of                        Shimizu                                     Douglas D. and Gere A. Schaumburg
Health and Human Services, Department of     Smith Kline & French laboratories           Walter Schirra
   National Institutes of Health             Southern California Edison                  Steven Schmid
I nterior, Department of the                 Seth Sprague Educational and Char iwble     George G. and Bett y N. Shor
   U.S. Geological Survey                       Foundation                                Edward W Scripps
National Aeronautics and Space               Texaco, Inc.                                Edythe H . Scripps
   Administration                            The Tinker Foundation                       John P Scripps
National SCience Foundation                  Tuna Industry                               William H. Scripps
                                             Unocal Corporation                          Melvin L. Selzer
                                                                                         Sam S. Stein
Foundations/Corporations/                                                                Milton and Margaret Straford
Organizations                                Major Individual Donors                     Victor and Mihoko \\!cquier
                                                                                         John E. Vondracek
American Chemical Society                     Gustaf Arrhenius                           William A. \v,tite
American Express                              Glenn A. Bailey                            Donald W Wilkie
ARCS Foundation, Inc., Los Angeles Chapter    George H. Banning                          lawrence S. Wilkinson
ARETE Associates                              Grace K. Clark                             Richard and Martha Witz
AT&T                                          Robert L. and Bettie P Cody                Mark Yorston
Stephen and Mary Birch Foundation, Inc.       Charles S. and Maryruth Cox                H. M. Zeidler
Bristol Myers                                 Harmon Craig
Capital Research and Development              Valerie K. Craig                           Fellowships
   Corporation                                William H . Disher                         Lou Brito Tuna Industry Fellowship Fund
Chesapeake Fish Company, Inc.                 Myron Eichen                               Green Scholars
The Community Foundation                     William f Emery                             Kenneth W Nelson Fellowship
Daley Corporat ion                           A. E. J. Engel                              Memorial Funds
EG&G Foundation                               Lillian Both Foley                         Kenneth Green Memorial Fund
ElectriC Power Research Institute             Leonard Friedman                           Abraham Fleminger Memorial Fund
Elsevier Science Publishers B.v               Edward Frieman                             John D. Isaacs Memorial Fund
Embassy Suites, Inc.                          Cecil H. Green
EXXON Production Research                     Florence Green                             'Anyone interested in making a donation to
Fisherman'S landing, Inc.                     Ronald E. Hahn                             the institution shou ld get in touch with the
Willis and jane Fletcher Foundation          William F. Hardy                            Director's Office, A-OIO, Scripps
Cedi H. and Ida M. Green Foundation for       Michael]. Head                             Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla,
   Earth Sciences                            james E. Hervey                             Callfornia 92093




I
        APPENDIX G
                                                  Faculty Representatives                        Vice President- Agriculture and Natural
                                                                                                   Relations, Emeritus; and Professor of Plant
     UNIVERSITY OFFICERS                          Richard W. Gable                                 Pathology, Emeritus
                                                  Fred N. Spiess                                   james B. Kendrick
                                                                                                 Vice PresIdent-Financial and Business
                                                  Officers of the Regents                           Management, Emeritus; and Professor of
          AND REGENTS                                                                               Pathology, Emeritus
                                                  President, George Deukmejian                      Baldwin G. Lamson
                                                  Chairman of the Board, Leo S. Ko lligian       Vice President-Budget Plans and Relations,
                                                  Vice Chairman of the Board, Haro ld M.            Emeritus
                                                    Williams                                        Thomas E. jenkins
                                                  General Counsel, james E. Holst                Vice President-Physical Planning and
                                                  Secretary, Bonnie M. Smotony                      Construction, Emeritus
                                                  Treasurer, Herbert M. Gordon                      Elmo R. Morgan
Regents Ex Officio                                                                               Assistant President, Emeritus
                                                  Chancellors                                       Dorothy E. Everett
Governor of California, George                                                                   University Auditor, Emeritus
   Deukmejian                                     Berkeley, Ira Michael Heyman                      Norman H. Gross
Lieutenant Governor of California, Leo T.         Davis, Theodo re L. Hullar                     Secretary of the Regents, Emeritus
   McCarthy                                       Irvine, jack W. Peltason                          Marjorie J Wool man
Speaker of the Assembly, Wi ll ie L. Brown, Jr.                              o
                                                  Los Angeles, Charles E. Y ung                  Associate Secretary of the Regents,
State Superintendent of Public                    Riverside, Rose mary S. J Schraer                 Emeritus
   Instruction, William Honig                     San Diego, Richa rd C. Atkinson                   Elizabeth 0. Hansen
President of the Alumni Assoication for           San Francisco, julius R. Krevans               Treasurer of the Regents, Emeritus
  the University of California, Richard G.        Santa Barbara, Barbara S. Uehling                 Owsley B. Hammond
  Heggie                                          Santa Cruz, Robert B. Stevens                  General Counsel of the Regents, Emeritus
Vice President of the Alumni Association                                                           Thomas J Cunn ingham
  of the University of California, S. Sue                                                        Associate Counsel of the Regents,
  jo hnso n                                       Office of the President
                                                                                                    Emeritus
President of the University, David                President, David Pierpo nt Gardne r              john E. Lando n
  Pierpont Gardner                                Senior Vice President-Academic Affairs,        Special Assistant to the President-Health
                                                    William R. Frazer                              Affairs, Emeritus
Appointed Regents                                 Senior Vice President-Administration,            Clinton C. Powell
                                                    Ronald W. Brady                              Director of University of California
 Roy T. Brophy                                    Vice President-Agriculture and Natural           Press, Emeritus
Clair W. Burgener                                   Resources, Kenneth R. Farrell                  AugUSt Fruge
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke                           Vice President-Budget and University           Coordinator Administrative PoUcy,
Glenn Campbell                                      Relations, William B. Baker                    Emeritus
 Frank W. Clark, Jr.                              Vice President-Health Affairs , Cornelius L.     Ruth E. Byrne
Tirso de lJunco                                     Ho pper                                      Executive Assistant to the President,
je remiah F. Hallisey                                                                              Emeritus
Willis W. Harman                                  Officers Emeriti                                 Gloria L. Cope land
john F. Henning                                                                                  Chancellor Emeritus; and Professor of
Meredith Khachigian                               President of the University, Emeritus; and       Animal Science, Emeritus
Leo S. Kolligian                                    Professor of Business Adminstration,           james H. Meyer
Vi lma S. Martinez                                  Emeritus                                     Chancellor Emeritus
joseph A. Moore                                            e
                                                    Clark K rr                                       o
                                                                                                   R bert L. Sinshe imer
 Robert N. Noyce                                  President of the University, Emeritus; and     Chancellor Emeritus; and Professor of
Stanley K. Sheinbaum                                Professor of Economics, Emeritus               Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
William French Smith                                Charles J Hitch             .                  Emeritus
Yori Wada                                         President of the University, Emeritus; and       Daniel G. Aldrich, jr.
Dean A. Watkins                                     Professor of Phys ics, Emeritus              Chancellor Emeritus; and Professor of
Harold M. Williams                                  David S. Saxon                                 StatisticS, Emeritus
jacques S. Yeage r                                Vice President of the University,                Albert H. Bowke r
                                                    Emeritus; Professor of Agricultural          Chancellor Emeritus; and Professor of
Student Regent                                      Economies, Emeritus; and Agricultural          Political SCience, Emeritus
                                                    Economist, Emeritus                            Ivan H. Hinderaker
Deborah Ruth Thorpe                                 Harry R. wellman                             Chancellor Emeritus; and Professor of
                                                  Vice President of the University,                Comparative Government, Emeritus
Regents-Designate                                   Emeritus; and Professor of Physics,            Dean E. McHenry
                                                    Emeritus                                     Chancellor Emeritus; University lJbrarian,
Sherri II Luke                                      William B. Fretter                             Emeritus; Professor of Anatomy, Emeritus,
Rona ld Enomoto                                   University Provost, Emeritus; Chancellor at      and Professor of History of Health
                                                    Santa Cruz, Emeritus; and Professor of         Sciences, Emeritus
                                                    Mathematics, Emeritus                         john B. de C. M. Saunders
                                                    Angus E. Taylo r




                                                                                                                                         I
                       Abraham Fleminger. January 13, 1988. Dr. Fleminger
                       was a research biologisucurator in the Marine Life Re-
                       search Group from 1960 through 1988 and was a senior
                       lecturer in the Scripps Graduate Department since 1967.
                       He was one of the world's most highly regarded authori-
                       ties on copepods, commonly known as "insects of the
                       sea."


Robert M. Garrels. March 8, 1988. Dr. Garrels was one of the leading scientists
in the field of geochemical modeling, and spent 1969 through 1971 as professor
of geology in both the Geological Research Division and the Scripps Depart-
ment.

A. Baird Hastings. September 24, 1987. A renowned biochemist, Dr. A Baird
Hastings maintained an office in the Physiological Research Laboratory from
1977 through 1987. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Lemar P. Hayes. March 27,1988. Lemar Hayes was cruise operations manager
in the Deep Sea Drilling Project from 1970 to 1974.

                       Laura Clark Hubbs. June 24, 1988. For 40 years, Laura
                       Hubbs was an unpaid, full-time assistant and keeper of
                       the records for her husband, the late Professor Carl L
                       Hubbs.




Francis (Frank) L. LaQue. January 1988. Frank LaQue worked at Scripps as a
research associate in the Marine Physical Laboratory from 1976 through 1977 and
also served several times as a senior lecturer in the Scripps Department.
                       Reuben Lasker. March 12, 1988. Dr. Lasker was a Rock-
                       efeller Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Scripps in 1956
                       and served as an adjunct professor of marine biology at
                       Scripps since 1966. He was also chief of the Coastal Fish-
                       eries Division at the Southwest Fisheries Center of the
                       National Marine Fisheries Service.



        .
Mark T McMillan. November 14, 1987. Mark McMillan wa a diving volunteer
in Antarctica from 'ept mber through November of 1987.

WUan F. Musich. July]2, 1987. LilliartMusich joined Scripp '. Deep SeaDril-
lil Proje:t inJ969, ~d remained until its closing in 1987. She was manager of
the   '1St   t   e Repo itory.

                       Hans A. Panofsky. February 28, 1988. Dr. P'anc fsky was
                                                      es
                       a r rch odar.e in (be Ocean R reb Dl i i n
                       f!'Om 1 until hi aeath. He ame to crjpps after m-
                              984
                       p1 ring 40 year as a pr til   r al Penn. ylv,lI1ja 'tate
All correspondence pertaining to this specific re-
port should be directed to: Technical Publications,
A-033B, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La
Jolla, C alifornia 92093-0233.
Editor: KIHJe Kerr Kuhns
Associate Editor: julie tOile
Dedication : Chuck Colgan
Editorial assistants: Kendyll. Goldston and Holly
Bogan Kay
Design/Production: Steven D. Cook
Photographer: Lawrence D. Ford except where
otherwise credited .
Scripps Photo Laboratory-all photo processing
and special effects: William A. Call , Susan Green




Front and back COWl'S show the'Elien BrownillO
Scripps Memorial Pier near complellon as the old
pier is being 10m down.                    I. CaU       '-

Title page: Scienlist at work during a cruise.
                                            M. Clarit
Pictures at right were taken during construction
of the naw pier. Below are archive pictures of the
first Scripps Pier under construction In 1915.




                                                     I   wi
Unmnltfllf (amornia, San Diego                           I ~

Scripps Institution of Oceanography   Non-profit Org.
A-0338                                US Postage P aid
La Jolla, California 92093              La Jolla, CA
                                      Permit No. 128
Address Correction Requested

				
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