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2A special libraries
JANUARY 1 9 8 4 VOI-UME NUMBER
75, 1 ISSN 0038-672 SPLBAN
1 Educating Speclal Librarians
M . Ev8lyn Clough and Thomas J. Galvin
Politics and Publishing in
Washington: Part I
Melvin S. Dav
Politics and Publishing in
Washington: Part II
Microcomputers: An Interlibrary
Elizabeth A. Evans
Urban Research Centers
Alva W. Stewart
Use Study of Online Cataloging
in a Special Library
The Jobline: A Valuable
Resource for Librarians
Nancy J. Emmick
On the Scene
1 9 8 4 Candidates for SLA Office
Arblisher: DAVID BENDER
R. Actions of the Board
LXrector, Information Services: Oct 27-28. 1 9 8 3
Editor: DORIS YOUDELMAN SLA's Long-Range Planning
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Spcriai Libraries is published by Special Libraries Association, 69 Information in the Electronic
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"Persons of action and vision are rare. Guy I believe that Howard Fosdick failed to
E. Marion was such a person . . ." according include an important computer language in
to Robert V. Williams and Martha Jane Zach- his article, "Microcomputer Programming in
ert in their fascinating article in your July the Information Center," which appears in the
issue which I've read with intense interest. In July 1983 issue of Special Libraries. That lan-
"Crisis and Growth, SLA, 191&1919 " I was guage is MUMPS.
particularly impressed to read all about the MUMPS is an ANSI standard language de-
pioneering activities of Guy E. Marion, for he signed to handle the kind of text processing
was one of the first specials I met when I that libraries require. MUMPS was developed
came to California in 1948. Mrs. Kathleen B. for minicomputers and has its biggest follow-
Stebbins, SLA's first paid executive secretary, ing in the medical community. However, it
had advised me to be sure to look him up. has been implemented for both 8 and 16 bit
How could I possibly have missed him for he microcomputers using either CP/M, MS DOS
was then the very special librarian at the Los or CP/M 86 operating systems. A variant of
Angeles Chamber of Commerce! Mr. Marion MUMPS, called MIIS, is used in both the Da-
was also very active in the SLA Southern Cal- taphase Systems ALIS and the ILS system de-
ifornia Chapter, which he had also help veloped at the National Library of Medicine.
found. In fact, we all kept referring to him as Both are integrated library systems. A recent
an SLA Founding Father and honored him modification of ALS by On-line Systems has
appropriately both at the grassroots and on been adopted by OCLC for its local library
the national level at SLA conferences in the system. MUMPS therefore has a large and
early '50s. He was a joy to know, always growing community of users within the li-
youthful, and full of vim, vigor and vitality, brary field.
and his personalized twang was a dead An international MUMPS Users Group
giveaway of his New England origins. I do (MUG) provides a forum for language and
thank the authors for reviving my fond mem- software development, delivers inexpensive
ories of Guy E. Marion, truly an SLA great. documentation and training, publishes a
quarterly journal and sponsors an annual con-
Sherry Terzian, Director ference. It also sponsors the MUMPS Devel-
Mental Health Information Service oment Committee which reviews suggested
Neuropsychiatric Institute language modifications and extensions. In
UCLA conformance with ANSI review procedures,
this committee has submitted a 1982 revision
Turning Problems into Opportunities of the ANSI standard. The MUG Quarterly in-
cludes articles on MUMPS software appli-
Congratulations [to Anne Mintz] and thank cations and the proceedings of the annual
you for the splendid April 1983Special Libraries, conferences as well.
the best issue I've ever read of that journal. MUMPS contains most of the string-han-
It should be submitted for an award. "The dling functions described in the Fosdick ar-
Information Industry of the Future" is an im- ticle. While it does not, intrinsically, provide
portant and engaging topic; your selection of structured program development, structure
participants is wise, and each author performs can be imposed by an exterior discipline im-
well. plemented by the programmer. MUMPS was
As president of ALA last year, I tried very developed at a time when random access
hard to get our professional colleagues to turn memory was expensive; therefore many mini-
problems into opportunities, to "connect" to computer implementations restrict program
the world around us which is increasingly size. This creates the need for lots of subrou-
recognizing information as an essential re- tine "calls" and keeps program comments to
source. There's much to do constructively, as a minimum.
you and your writers profess. The microcomputer implementations have
reduced this problem, however. While all
Carol A. Nemeyer commands and functions are very "English-
Associate Librarian for like" and many resemble BASIC counterparts,
National Programs they usually are abbreviated to one or two
Library of Congress characters. This characteristic is used to fur-
Washington, DC ther conserve memory use and speed execu-
tion time; however it makes programs more
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difficult to follow or modify. MUMPS is an most useful and complete source of
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I do not have the necessary background to
make an adequate comparison between PL/I
and MUMPS; therefore I can't say that
MUMPS is better for library applications. I
do believe, however, that MUMPS deserves
more attention in libraries and information
Thank you for your informative letter con-
cerning MUMPS. I agree with you that it is
an increasingly important programming lan-
guage for library and information science ap-
plications and, indeed, I regret that the scope
of my article precluded its mention. My own
(unfortunately meager) experience with ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
MUMPS derives from the German-vended STATISTICAL SCIENCES
version available for the Perkin-Elmer 8/32 Edited by Samuel Kotz and
and 3200 series of minicomputers. NormanL. Johnson
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Getting over the Rough Spots sive, easy-to-usereference.
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It's no secret that taking the "comps" can Over 750 eminent contributors
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Correction financial status-hardly events in the distant
past, as Moore states.
I was pleased to see in the April issue a Ellis Mount
review of my book, Ahead of Its Erne: The En- Columbia University
gineering Societies Library, 1913-80. I felt that School of Library Service
John Moore's review was fair, and I appre- New York, NY
ciated the general tone of approval he gave
the book. However, there were two factual
errors in the review which I am sure he would Scholarship Winners
not want to go uncorrected.
1) He stated that the book updated the dis- The article entitled "Whatever Happened
sertation upon which it was based "for a pe- to the Kid Who Got the Scholarship?" ( L S
riod of about one year." Perhaps he assumed 74:345-357, Oct 1983) while well done as re-
that the dissertation, having been accepted in gards intention and research documentation,
1979, covered events up to that year. How- neglected, in my opinion, to address a key
ever, as the title of the dissertation shows, it variable underlying this issue.
went no further than 1973. Therefore, the A postscript should have been appended
book version covered seven more years, not emphasizing the need to improve the calibre
one year. of all SLA Scholarship applicants. To accom-
2) He stated that the last chapter was the plish this goal, additional applicants are
only one to mention costs of library opera- needed who have improved educational back-
tions and those referring to projects under- grounds, relevant work experience and a
taken some years ago. This is also not the fact firm commitment to the profession of special
because costs are considered throughout the librarianship. As the Chairperson of the 1983-
book. For example, Chapters 5 and 6, which 1984 SLA Scholarship Committee I am, in-
discuss the experiences of the various library deed, examining all applicants with these con-
directors, do include a description of the role cepts in mind.
of costs in their terms. This includes Cabeen's Marie Gadula, Chairperson
efforts as late as 1980 to improve the library's SLA Scholarship Committee 1983184
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December. '83 andlor January, '84
20A special libraries
Toward a Meaningful
M. Evalyn Clough and Thomas J. Galvin
School of Library and Information Science, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.
N CONSIDERING education for spe- Roderer and Cooper, summarizing the re-
cial librarianship, we begin with two sults of a predictive study of supply and
general statements as a basis for the demand for librarians conducted by King
more specific observations and sugges- Research, Inc., affirm that the largest in-
tions that follow. The first general prem- crease in professional jobs, at least for
ise is that special libraries (broadly the balance of this decade, can be antic-
defined as including information centers ipated in special libraries (2).
and the provision of information prod- These observations account, at least in
ucts and services) are becoming more im- part, for efforts now being made in many
portant to library schools. Michael schools of librarianship to reorient cur-
Koenig, in a recent article in Special Li- ricula more toward the special library job
braries, offers a convincing body of data market and toward private sector em-
in support of the conclusion that "an in- ployment opportunities for new gradu-
creasing proportion of library school ates. The goal of these schools is not only
graduates is finding employment in the to enable new graduates to compete more
special library sphere" ( I ) . Van House, effectively in the special library job mar-
january 1984 Copyright o 1984 Special Libraries Association 1
ket. as that has traditionallv been de- suggested, an expanded role for practic-
fined, but to produce gaduaies who are ing special librarians in the accreditation
viable candidates for new kinds of process, both in the formulation of stand-
information-related jobs, especially ards and in the application of those
(although by no means exclusively) in standards to the evaluation of individual
the private sector. library education programs, would seem
The second general premise follows di- desirable. Such participation by no means
rectly from the first, namely, that a has to be limited to service on accredi-
greatly expanded and much more serious tation committees or on site visiting
dialogue needs to be initiated between teams. The accreditation process itself
library educators and special librarians. provides explicit opportunities for prac-
In general, neither group seems to be ad- titioner involvement in the substantial
equately informed about what the other institutional self-study activity that
is currently doing or planning to do. If should preceed an accreditation review.
schools of librarianship, either individ-
ually or collectively, are to respond Bridging the Gap
successfully to the specific needs of what
appear to be the growth sectors of the The current resurgence of interest in
professional employment market, then practicum, field experience and intern-
special librarians and related information ship as formal components of first
professionals should be asked to play a professional degree programs in librari-
larger and more meaningful role both in anship could potentially offer genuine
curriculum design and in the conduct of opportunity to link the classroom more
the academic enterprise. One objective of closely to the reality of practice and to
this paper is to suggest an initial agenda involve practicing special librarians
for the kind of enhanced practitioner- directly in the teaching process as field
educator dialogue that we consider both work site-supervisors. Several consider-
desirable and necessary to achieve the ations do, however, need to be recognized
goal of broader participation by special clearly by both educators and practition-
librarians in the educational process. ers at the outset.
A close working relationship between
Practitioner-Educator Dialogue the faculty and the practitioner site-su-
pervisor, based on mutual respect for one
It is widely believed, and frequently another and for the integrity of the prac-
reported in the professional literature, ticum as an integral and valuable part of
that a chasm of mutual ignorance and the total learning experience, is essential.
indifference separates special librarians A quality practicum or internship ordi-
and library educators from one another. narily requires a non-trivial investment
Little is to be gained by exploring the of human and dollar resources by both
merits of this assertion; what is important the school and the host organization.
is that it is generally thought to be true. These costs need to be carefully and dis-
Assuming that better and more effective passionately assessed in advance by both
communication is needed, we would ob- parties in terms of immediate and long-
serve only that the situation is certainly term benefits. A poor quality practicum
no better and possibly no worse for is unquestionably worse that no practi-
special librarians than it is for public, cum at all.
academic or school librarians. All sectors Opportunities for educator-practi-
of the community of practice regularly tioner dialogue would also be measurably
and strongly express a desire for more enhanced if members of each group were
influence over the content and character more frequently to find themselves in the
of professional education. other's working environment. Many spe-
What can be done to improve the pres- cial libraries and information centers ex-
ent situation? As Koenig and others have ist in organizations that routinely engage
consultants to address operational and library-just as medicine is learnt in
planning problems, both large and small. teaching hospitals" (4). If Line is even
Library educators, who are regularly partially correct in his assertion, then
taken to task as a class by working li- special librarians and public librarians
brarians for being "out of touch" with need to emulate academic and school li-
the current reality of practice, often do brarians in helping to create clinical
possess the expertise needed to help re- learning environments to augment and
solve these operational problems, as well extend formal classroom instruction.
as an objectivity in addressing them that Several special libraries in the same geo-
is sometimes lacking in consultants who graphic area appropriately could collab-
carry the baggage of an overt or covert orate with a neighboring library school
commercial affiliation. to develop a teaching library envi-
Conversely, the willingness of practic- ronment entirely comparable to what a
ing special librarians to accept adjunct single, large university can provide.
teaching appointments in library schools
offers a potential opportunity to influ- Recruitment and Library
ence directly both the design and the im- Education
plementation of the curriculum. As a
consequence of declining enrollments, A critical area of mutual concern and
many library schools are now obliged to mutual responsibility for special librar-
reduce the number of full-time, perma- ians and library educators is to assure that
nent faculty. The need for part-time and both the number and the quality of li-
short-term adjunct faculty can be ex- brary school students and teachers are
pected to increase. The schools would adequate for the current and future needs
benefit greatly if the most able and re- of the profession. Let us consider first the
spected members of the special library continuing problem of recruiting for the
community could be identified and en- library field.
couraged to make themselves available
for adjunct faculty positions. "Encour-
agement," in this instance, may require
more flexible approaches to class sched- It is widely believed, and
uling, especially for those schools not frequently reported in the
located in urban centers where there is a professional literature, that
concentration of special libraries.
In the longer term, both the library ed- a chasm of mutual ignorance
ucation establishment and the profession and indifference separates
as a whole would benefit if the distinc- special librarians and library
tion between the teaching role and the
practitioner role, as well as the distinction
educators from one another.
between the classroom and the library
environment, were less sharply drawn
than at present. This year, the University To the librarian who has examined the
of Michigan Library initiated a Library summary data from the recently com-
Residency Program for selected new pleted Library Human Resources study (4,
graduates which could serve as one model the suggestion that recruiting for the
for the creation of a number of "teaching profession is a problem may seem curi-
libraries," roughly analogous to the ous. To the special library manager, over-
"teaching hospital" concept (3). Maurice whelmed by 200 applications in response
Line has expressed the belief that "skills to the announcement of a single profes-
specific to library work not only can but sional vacancy, the notion that any effort
must be taught in practical situations, for is needed in recruiting is likely to appear
they are practical skills. . . . Ideally every patently absurd. Yet, it is really not that
library of any size should be a teaching simple.
Recruitment is not just a matter of bers of candidates with even modest cre-
numbers of graduates compared with dentials in science, technology or the
numbers of vacancies. In fact, it is not "harder" social sciences remains. The
even a matter of numbers, at least not opening of new career fields for women,
national numbers. Global supply- while eminently desirable from the view-
demand data are useful, but only up to point of the society at large, has had the
a point. They do not reflect regional var- negative side-effect of draining talent
iations, which remain significant in a away from the traditionally female-dom-
field in which many job applicants lack inated professions, like librarianship. Fi-
geographic mobility, even in a range as nally, the perception that the library field
relatively modest as 50 miles. Neither do is overcrowded and that jobs are impos-
they reveal much about the quality or sible for new graduates to find, rein-
the qualifications of those who are cur- forced by the reality of low entry-level
rently choosing careers in special librar- salaries, has led many of the able and
ianship. talented to seek careers elsewhere. Some
The problem of recruiting for librari- of the most talented have not had to look
anship has not been solved by the decline far afield, given the phenomenal growth
in the number of professional vacancies. of employment in the new information
Concerns about quality and qualifica- professions ( 5 ) .
The current resurgence of interest in practicum,
field experience and internship as formal com-
ponents of first professional degree programs in
librarianship could potentially offer genuine op-
portunity to link the classroom more closely to
the reality of practice and to involve practicing
special librarians directly in the teaching process
as field work site supervisors.
tions not only remain but, in the view of Librarianship has a continuing recruit-
many, are growing more serious. During ing problem-a shortage not of numbers
the past two years, both research library but of talent-that is growing more se-
directors and administrators of large pub- rious daily. If library educators are sus-
lic libraries have independently initiated pect when they utter such seemingly
formal discussions with the library ed- self-serving generalizations, they are
ucation community as a consequence of even more suspect and, consequently, not
their perceptions of the inadequacies of terribly effective as recruiters to the
current and recent graduates. profession.
These concerns are well founded. They When librarians and library educators
are even more significant for the special have engaged in extended collective ex-
library community, given the expectation amination of staffing problems, as in the
that special libraries will require some- series of conferences on education for re-
what larger numbers of well-qualified search librarianship held over the past
new entrants over the next decade. The two years under the aegis of the Council
perennial problem of inadequate num- on Library Resources' PETREL program,
it has become evident that the issues are Faculty Recruitment
complex (6). Some of the common short-
comings of recent library school gradu- At the risk of making an admittedly
ates, as these are enumerated by simple generalization to which many in-
employers, can be related directly to dividual exceptions properly could be
weaknesses in library education pro- noted, it seems to be the case that if li-
grams, such as inadequate attention to brarianship has attracted less than its fair
quantitative methods and to the devel- share of the most able young people, li-
opment of analytical problem-solving brary education has attracted less than its
skills. But to a far greater extent, the fair share of the most able people who
complaints of library employers seem to do opt for careers in the library profes-
cluster in what educators refer to as the sion. Since it is a well-documented fact
"affective," as opposed to the "cognitive" that library schools are not the leading
domain. It is not so much that new grad- centers of innovative research and de-
uates are found lacking in technical velopment in librarianship, one can as-
knowledge; rather, they often appear to sume that librarians who possess both the
their supervisors to lack imagination, en- talent and the drive for innovation often
thusiasm for solving operational prob- do not see library schools as the most
lems or the depth of personal promising arena in which to exercise that
commitment ordinarily expected of a talent. A situation in which too many
professional person. library schools continue to follow rather
Much as educators would like to claim than to lead practice is, in the long term,
otherwise, formal education in any field as damaging to practice as it is to library
and at any level can achieve only limited education.
penetration of the affective domain. The Like most complex problems, enhanc-
best schools, the best teachers, the most ing the quality of library school faculties
skillfully designed curricula will effect does not lend itself to simple solution.
only marginal changes in the attitudes The first step is to recognize that both
and the professional behavior of stu- practitioners and educators have a mu-
dents, and then only in a limited number tual, shared concern for addressing the
of students. Neither is it realistic to ex- problem of faculty quality. More active
pect library schools to be able to com- recruitment by practitioners of the most
pensate to any significant extent for lack promising younger special librarians for
of subject knowledge in those areas of careers in library education would be
special librarianship in which extensive highly desirable, as would the creation
subject background is truly essential. of opportunities for joint research and
If special library managers are coming development projects involving working
to share the concerns of their counter- partnerships between library school
parts in other types of libraries about the faculty and special librarians.
credentials and personal qualities of cur-
rent graduates, then it is necessary to Curriculum Design
raise the issue of recruiting to a much
higher place on the agenda of the special In response to the pressures of declin-
library community. It is already past time ing enrollments, and reductions in con-
to reactivate the individual and organi- stant-dollar financial support and
zational recruiting programs that were staffing, many schools of librarianship
characteristic of the 1960s. Emphasis are currently engaged in intensive, far-
should be placed not on larger numbers reaching scrutiny of their educational
but on the highest quality. The schools mission and the program of instruction
can help, but effective leadership in this which supports that mission. A few
area can come only from the community schools are closing. A number of others
of practice. are being subjected to penetrating review
by their parent institutions, as universi- brarian" as the typical product of the
ties seek to shed excess programmatic multiple-purpose ("one size fits all") cur-
weight in a time of tight institutional ricula characteristic of library schools.
budgets. Most schools do, in fact, attempt to focus
Many schools are attempting to rede- on generalized knowledge and skills that
fine their educational missions in broader are considered applicable to a11 types of
terms, so as to serve new and growing libraries in that vortion of the academic
job markets for new careers in the in- program (someti6es as much as half) that
formation professions. It is widely rec- is required of all students.
ognized that merely adding the words This practice is encouraged by the cur-
"information science" to the name of the rent Standards for Accreditation of the Amer-
school probably will not suffice to make ican Library Association which specify
graduates credible candidates for jobs as that "the programs of the school should
database administrators, systems ana- provide for the study of principles and
lysts or software design engineers. Sub- procedures common to all types of li-
stantive restructuring of the curriculum braries and library services" (7). But even
and a major course development effort if this were not the case, the economics
will be required. of library schools mitigate strongly
against the proliferation of specialized
courses and curricula. Among the 69
The opening of new career North American schools that reported
fields for women, while statistics for 1981-1982 to the Associa-
eminently desirable from tion of American Library Schools, aver-
age enrollment was 84.3 full-time-
the viewpoint of the society equivalent students; average faculty size,
a t large, has had the negative again in full-time-equivalents, was 10.23;
side-effect of draining talent and the average annual operating budget
away from the traditionally was $500,008 (8).
female-dominated profes- Library school enrollments and faculty
size, which is ordinarily a function of
sions, like librarianship. enrollments, have been decreasing for the
last several years. The schools generally
Among the central, unresolved issues have neither enough regular faculty nor
in curriculum design is one that is of par- enough dollars to hire adequate numbers
ticular importance to practicing special of adjunct faculty to allow them to offer
librarians-the issue of specialization in a larger number of specialized elective
the first professional degree program. courses, nor enough students to fill such
The choices for library schools are neither specialized courses to even minimal size
simple nor self-evident. (9). Some schools are already reducing
It is frequently and convincingly ar- the number of elective courses offered in
gued that librarians entering the field to- librarianship and are eliminating courses
day require both more extensive and that focus exclusively on a single type of
more specialized preparation. Again, library.
Koenig has presented the case for the It seems likely that the current round
extended curriculum (while acknowledg- of curriculum revision could result in a
ing that there are powerful economic wholesale retreat from traditional kinds
realities that make it an unlikely option of specialized courses and curricula in li-
for most schools in the near future) and brarianship. Because technology has be-
for revised curricula that "encourage come such a pervasive aspect of
more specialization within the existing contemporary library operations, the
master's degree programs" (I, p. 189- schools have, perforce, become tech-
190). Special librarians are not the only nology-intensive. The capital costs of
group within the profession to complain acquiring electronic information tech-
of the inadequacies of the "generic li- nology for teaching purposes, as well as
the costs of maintaining it, appear stag- be any more enthusiastic about "the ge-
gering in relation to the current operating neric information/communications spe-
budgets of most schools.* These costs can cialist?" What problems is this individual
be justified only if the schools can enlarge likely to present as a potential employee,
their constituencies and increase their en- given the diminished capacity of libraries
rollments by developing the capacity to of all types, including special libraries, to
prepare students for a broader range of impart specific skills through post-grad-
information careers than only those la- uate, on-the-job training? Conversely,
belled "librarianship." what advantages might accrue to the spe-
Strong economic, societal and peda- cial library, which in many corporate set-
gogical forces are influencing faculties to tings is becoming increasingly isolated
develop more generalized curricula and from the mainstream of information
to prepare students for a much wider va- services and activities, in having on its
riety of professional jobs in the infor- professional staff a person who can move
mation field. F. W. Lancaster has issued knowledgeably among, and command
a persuasive plea for the "deinstitution- the respect of, the firm's computer and
alization" of library education. telecommunications specialists?
A host of subsidiary questions of cur-
The substance of the librarians' curricu-
lum, then, can be nothing less than human riculum design follow from this basic is-
communication in general, with formal sue of specialization vs, generalization.
communication receiving most of the em- All of these are currently being debated
phasis. The librarian must study and be energetically in the library education
familiar with all aspects of the commu- community. Active participation in these
nication cycle. . . . To the extent that cer- discussions by practicing librarians is vi-
tain of these activities can be performed in tally important. We urge that Special Li-
or by libraries, the library as an institution braries Association initiate a formal
should receive more attention, but it practitioner-educator dialogue with the
should not dominate the entire curriculum.
The center of our attention must be the
Association for Library and Information
professional information specialist and Science Education, and that individual
how this individual can assist the com- special librarians take similar initiatives
munication process (10). to establish liaison with library school
faculties for this purpose.
Lancaster's recommendation that
schools of librarianship be converted into The Education of Special
schools of information and communica- Librarians
tions is echoed by Maurice Line, who,
while speaking strongly in favor of "the A third general premise may be stated
deschooling of librarianship," suggests which, hopefully, will help to put the
that "a good case could be made for a preceding discussion into proper per-
much broader and more basic course, spective: Education for a career in special
which would not 'train' people for any librarianship is an extended, integrated
particular profession, but would provide process of life-long learning, of which
some background suitable for a variety library school represents only a small, al-
of professions. . . A course in Commu- beit a very important, part. As our
nication Studies" (4, p. 34). positive comments about the "teaching
A basic question is: If special library library" concept, our suggestion that the
employers are not now satisfied with line between the end of education and
"the generic librarian," are they likely to the beginning of employment ought to
be less sharply and permanently drawn,
"Association of American Library Schools. and our examination of the problem of
Library Education Statistical Report, p. FIN- specialization were intended to imply, we
6 . According to this report, the average are convinced that the education of the
school budgeted only $47,975 for all non- "complete" special library professional,
salary expenses in 1 980-8 1. of necessity, extends back to the second-
ary school and undergraduate years, and Literature Cited
forward over the entire length of an ac-
tive career. 1. Koenig, Michael E.D./"Education For
That education will appropriately re- Special Librarianship." Special Libraries 74
flect an amalgam of discrete learning ex- (no. 2): 182 (April 1983).
periences in a wide variety of academic 2. Van House, Nancy A., Roderer, Nancy K.
and non-academic settings. It will en- and Cooper, Michael D./"Librarians: A
compass courses, workshops and semi- Study of Supply and Demand." American
Libraries 14 (no. 6): 361-370 (June 1983).
nars, both formal and informal, in skills 3. University of Michigan Library/"Re-
and competencies, many of which never search Library Residency Program," 1983
will and never should be within the ac- (flyer and press release).
tive purview of library schools or their 4. Line, Maurice B./"Requirements for Li-
faculties. The mix will vary and properly brary and Information Work and the Role
so, with the individual librarian, ranging of Library Education." Education for Infor-
from graduate courses in traditional ac- mation 1: 32-33 (1983).
ademic disciplines in one case, to Berlitz 5. Debons, Anthony, King, Donald W.,
or Dale Carnegie courses in another. It Mansfield, Una and Shirey, Donald L./
will appropriately include, as well, men- The Information Professional: Survey of an Emerg-
ing Field. Marcel1 Dekker, 1981.
toring and performance evaluation by su- 6. Hayes, Robert M., ed./ Universities, Infor-
pervisors and managers and substantial mation Technology, and Academic Libraries: 7he
independent, self-directed study. Next Twenty Years. Proceedings of the Ac-
These concluding comments ought not ademic Library Frontiers Conference,
to be dismissed as merely one more pious UCLA, Lake Arrowhead Conference Cen-
and tiresome panegyric on the virtues of ter. Dec. 13-17, 1981.
continuing education for special librari- 7. American Library Association, Commit-
anship. To do so would misconstrue our tee on Accreditation/Standards for Accred-
purpose and, far more serious, denigrate itation, 1972. p. 5.
8. Association of American Library Schools/
special librarianship as a profession. A Library Education Statistical Report, 1982. State
profession is distinguished from other College, Pa. July 1982. pp. xv, xvii, xix,
occupations by virtue of the fact that it FIN-6.
cannot be learned completely in any fi- 9. White, Herbert S./"Critical Mass for Li-
nite period of time, even in the totality brary Education." American Libraries 10 (no.
of a working lifetime. 8): 468-481 (Sept. 1979).
10. Lancaster, F.W./"Future Librarianship:
Preparing for an Unconventional Career."
Manuscript receiaed for reaiew A u g 18, 1983. Wilson Library Bulletin 57 (no. 9): 752-753
Accepted for publication A u g 22, 1983. (May 1983).
M. Evalyn Clough is assistant to the
dean, lecturer and coordinator of field
work and Thomas J. Galvin is dean,
School of Library and Information
Science, University of Pittsburgh.
8 special libraries
Politics and Publishing in
Washington: Are Our Needs
Being Met in the 80's?
Melvin S. Day
President, Washington Knowledge Network,
ITG, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.
Robert M . Hayes, Dean of the Graduate School of Library
and Information Science, UCLA, was the keynote speaker
of the panel presentation sponsored by the SLA Business
& Finance and Advertising & Marketing Divisions during
the Association's 74th Annual Conference in New
Orleans. Dean Hayes' speech appeared in the October
1 9 8 3 issue of Special Libraries. Remarks by two members
of the panel, Melvin S. Day and Thomas Kleis, are pre-
EAN Hayes's keynote speech to an information society. That philos-
[during the 1983 SLA Annual ophy has not changed in two hundred
Conference] set forth the two years. Let me state it in Thomas Jeffer-
primary sets of issues explicit in address- son's words: "Every government degen-
ing the proper role of the private sector erates when trusted to the rulers of the
in relation to the publishing of govern- people alone. The people themselves,
ment information: 1)what should be the therefore, are its only safe depositories.
policies of the government, and 2) what And to render even them safe, their
should be the roles of the private sector minds must be improved to a certain de-
and the government with respect to the gree."
availability and distribution of govern- That fundamental principle-that a
ment information, respectively. He ad- free society depends upon an enlightened
dressed the principle of open access, public-argues that open access is not
considered a possible leadership role for privilege but an American right. When
the government, and looked at the proper our "rulers" decide that they know what
role for government in the marketplace. is best for us, we are in trouble. Rather,
I am going to try to look at all of that the public interest should determine the
from my private enterprise perspective, policies and roles of the government and,
and with emphasis on the proper role of by exclusionary definition, the role of the
the private sector. private sector.
First, let me reach a little to the phi- We are, by design and practice, a free
losophy behind our organizational at- society. No one group "owns" the public
tempts to pass from an industrial society interest, though I think that we can all
j a n ~ a r y1984 Copyright @ 1984 Special Libraries Association 9
agree that the government is, or ought to cess. If we don't have it, we'll have to
be, the guardian of the public interest. fight for it.
We are all involved in the continuing The policies of the government should
search for a definition of the public in- be aimed toward making information
terest, in the many facets of our national available as openly as possible, and to
life. We depend upon the people of this foster the development of the informa-
nation, in the end, to reach their own tion profession in the national interest.
conclusions as to what is in the public Dean Hayes noted the "unrealistic belief
interest, and they will tell us-through that the basis of power is having infor-
the elective process, through the mar- mation and keeping others from having
ketplace, through our social institutions, it." That belief does exist, but it is a
and as individuals. small-minded one. Power comes in two
The withholding of information does forms: power over and power to. Power over is
not serve that process well. We face the a negative use of authority; power fo is the
possibility of public decisions-which, in power to do-to move, change and grow.
our system, can be binding-made on the That is the sense in which I would ask
basis of too little information. When we that the government foster and promote
begin to curtail freedom of choice by re- the development and use of our national
stricting the availability of information, information resources. It will develop
we have begun to erode our liberty and anyway; it is a matter of the government
our ability to do anything about pre- assisting and participating in that devel-
venting that erosion. opment, or being left behind.
Care must be taken to ensure that the public cost
of government information materials is reasona-
ble. There are effective mechanisms to make that
happen. I t doesn't really matter whether w e call
American citizens taxpayers, stockholders or con-
sumers; if w e overcharge them, then under each
hat they will not be fooled.
Except in cases of national security, As to leadership, the acid test is that
open access should not even be subject the leader is out in front-an easy test.
to debate. As Senator Moynihan ob- If the government intends to provide
served in the Washington Post, "Everyone leadership, it must move into that posi-
is entitled to his own opinion, but not to tion or that positive power vacuum will
his own facts." Those public opinions be filled by some other group. It is still
will be reached, and we must be sure that true that knowledge is power, but not if
the facts get out first. one tries to sit on it.
I believe, then, that the policy of the Would I welcome government as a
government with respect to the avail- competitor in the market place? Not
ability of information should be that all really! Given the extent of reductions in
government information is public infor- government budgets and personnel ceil-
mation. When, for reasons of national ings in many government agencies, as
security or privacy, information access well as further cutbacks that prevent
must be circumscribed, it must be done these agencies from accomplishing even
for sound reasons and subject to scrutiny the minimum required under the law, it
by our elected representatives. All other would appear to be a waste of national
considerations and deliberations should resources to fund directly competitive
be based upon the principle of open ac- government activities.
On the other hand, care must be taken nature of our system. We argue, even
to ensure that the public cost of govern- fight, right up to the consensus, which is
ment information materials is reasonable. victory for both sides. We must have the
There are effective mechanisms to make will and the staying power for the strug-
that happen. It doesn't really matter gle, if we are to be as responsible as we
whether we call American citizens tax- ask the government to be. The free en-
payers, stockholders or consumers; if we terprise system is the keystone of our
overcharge them, then under each hat successful industrial society, and I am
they will not be fooled. It is in the na- confident that it will still serve for the
tional interest to keep the costs of infor- information society ahead. At the same
mation brokerage as low as possible. The time, there are critically important roles
government objective should be to get its for government and government infor-
information into effective use as soon as mation programs.
possible and at reasonable prices. Each sector has its own strengths and,
I would, therefore, welcome the gov- sometimes, deficiencies. The correct so-
ernment as a partner. The management lution is to achieve an optimum balance
and use of our information resources is which capitalizes on the strengths of both
best done through a sharing of respon- the public and private sector information
sibilities between the public and the pri- capabilities. Some government informa-
vate sectors. We have many examples in tion programs may be appropriately
our history of the working partnership 100% government-operated, and others
between government and private enter- should be fully operated by the private
prise. Our agricultural, health-delivery, sector. Responsibility should be shared
transportation and communications, in still others, either through the use of
space, defense, energy, and even educa- private sector risk capital or by private
tion programs, are examples of such co- sector contractors to the government.
operative achievements. There is a place for all four method-
Our space program was an all-out national effort
which brought out the best of the technological
genius resident in both the government and pri-
vate sectors. As a matter of public policy, it was
recognized that government alone could not carry
out the President's objectives within his time
frame. The nation's scientific, technical and in-
dustrial strengths resided, massively, in the pri-
vate sector. It was simply the only sensible way
to go to the moon.
There is no one model which works ologies; both public and private systems
universally; each area and relationship is have operational roles to play.
different and dependent upon the cir- Discussions, and even arguments, are
cumstances and needs involved. The to be expected as we work toward ef-
common thread in each case is a com- fective arrangements. But I decry abso-
mitment to the public interest. It takes a lutes or uncompromising and hardened
while to get to that commitment; it is positions taken by some, both in and out
almost necessary to shoot the rapids be- of government. The results of polariza-
fore gaining clear water, but that is the tion and hard confrontation could be dis-
january 1984 11
astrous. We must work toward a same time, a comprehensive documen-
reasoned and balanced approach, ever tation and bibliographic service covering
conscious that both the public and pri- the world's aerospace literature was crit-
vate sectors are concerned about the pub- ically needed and had to be fully oper-
lic's business. ational in 60 days.
Some areas of information collabora- NASA developed a detailed informa-
tion between the government and private tion product and program plan. The
enterprise have been comfortable part- available strengths in both the private
nerships in the common pursuit of na- and government sectors were assessed.
tional goals. In these cases, policy has The flexibilitv and immediate availabil-
been clearly established at the highest ity in the private sector of know-how,
levels of the administration and with necessary equipment and trained man-
the firm endorsement and support of the power were the major factors influencing
Congress. The accomplishments of the the governments's decision to contract
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- the operational aspects of the program
istration are well-known, and the gov- with the private sector. NASA split the
ernment/private sector partnership job between a for-profit contractor to op-
which produced those accomplishments erate a bibliographic and documentation
is justly famous. facility covering unpublished report lit-
Our space program was an all-out na- erature and a not-for-profit contractor to
tional effort which brought out the best operate a bibliographic facility covering
of the technological genius resident in the world's aerospace journal literature.
both the government and private sectors. Both organizations used a common the-
As a matter of public policy, it was rec- saurus and a common indexing system.
ognized that government alone could not The computerized output of each was
carry out the President's objectives wifhin merged into a single database for NASA.
his time frame. The nation's scientific, tech- The government itself was in the best
nical and industrial strengths resided, position to acquire input from other fed-
massively, in the private sector. It was eral agencies, government contractors,
simply the only sensible way to go to the foreign governments and intergovern-
moon. mental organizations. NASA's Scientific
When, for reasons of national security or privacy,
information access must be circumscribed, it
must be done for sound reasons and subject to
scrutiny by our elected representatives. All other
considerations and deliberations should be based
upon the principle of open access. If w e don't have
it, we'll have to fight for it.
As a part of that cooperative effort, and and Technical Information Division car-
in close support of it, NASA established ried out that part of the program through
a comprehensive scientific and technical its exchange mechanisms and provided
information program, which mirrored the overall direction and planning.
joint operational style of the overall space Thus this very successful government/
program. The information job to be done private sector arrangement involved a
was not, at that time, being performed in commercial information company, a
the private sector as a private venture, professional society and a government
nor were there any plans to do so. At the technical information office, each of
which was in the best position in its own Three years ago, when I was with the
designated area of responsibility. National Technical Information Service,
Back in 1960, none of the services re- I was asked by the Bureau of Labor Sta-
quired by NASA were available as pri- tistics to provide for the public online
vate sector ventures. Few were willing to
" computer access to BLS databases. As a
assume the burden and cost for launching government official, I determined that
such an information program; if they had the job would be better performed by
been, the NASA program would not have DRI, a private sector company, and we
been set up in competition. Today, con- facilitated that link-up between BLS and
ditions are com~letelv different. The new DRI.
environment of available government Government's responsibility to act in
and private sector capabilities and re- the public interest does not lessen the
sources, both commercial and not-for- responsibility of the private sector. Our
profit, is a rich one indeed. Today's de- mutual responsibility can best be met
cisions should encompass that whole through joint action. It is absolutely es-
range of national information capabili- sential that our national information pol-
ties. icies keep pace with our national
The Securities Exchange Commission capabilities, and I for one will do all I can
(SEC) provides an excellent example of to that end.
a different type of contractual arrange- The preeminent position of the United
ment. The SEC has statutory responsi- States in the technology, content and
bility to share with the public all service aspects of our field is no accident.
company filings which it receives. The We could only have accomplished this
SEC mechanism for carrying out this through the many joint efforts of the
mandate is through a "no cost to the gov- public and private sectors. To falter now
ernment" contract with a private sector in the history of that working partnership
contractor. Here again, the government or, even worse, for government and com-
has opted to capitalize on the capabilities merce to go their separate ways, would
of the private sector and, through the be difficult to justify as being in the pub-
contract document, exercises those con- lic interest. The answer is not "either/
trols which the SEC feels are necessary or" but rather "both," and the way is
to protect the public's interest. "together."
Politics and Publishing:
Staff Director, Joint Committee on Printing,
T HE Joint Committee on Printing is
the oldest joint committee of the
Congress. It was created August
3,1846, by a Joint Resolution. Additional
oversees that program and periodically
updates the listing of governmes de-
The depository program is based upon
duties and responsibilities were added by three principles: 1) with certain specified
the Printing Act of January 12,1895. Al- exceptions, all government publications
though it is a congressional committee, it are made available to depository libraries;
serves the entire government. As the sin- 2) depository libraries are to be located
gle voice of the Senate and the House, in each state and congressional district in
the Committee is, in effect, the active order to make government publications
board of directors of the Government widely available; and 3) these govern-
Printing Office and the overseer of print- ment publications are to be made avail-
ing, binding and document distribution able for the free use of the general public.
for the government.
The authority of the Joint Committee
to carry out its responsibilities is clearly Although the Committee does
put forth under Section 103 of Title 44,
United States Code. The Section states that
not determine what is to be
"The Joint Committee on Printing may published, it has historically
use any measures it considers necessary promoted fair and widespread
to remedy neglect, delay, duplication or access to government infor-
waste in the public printing and binding
and the distribution of Government pub- mation. In fact, the laws es-
lications." To accomplish that mission, tablishing the depository li-
the Joint Committee constantly monitors brary system are among the
the printing and distribution activities of
the Government Printing Office and
oldest right-to-know statutes
those of executive agencies and the ju- passed by the U.S. Congress.
diciary. Under the authority of Title 44,
the Joint Committee publishes the Gov-
ernment Printing and Binding Regulations, as The effects of new technologies has
well as the Government Paper Specification changed the traditional concept of a pub-
Standards. lication. With that in mind, the Joint
Although the Joint Committee does Committee on Printing created this
not determine what is to be published, it spring an Ad Hoc Committee on De-
has historically promoted fair and wide- pository Library Access to Federal Au-
spread access to government information. tomated Data Bases. The purpose of the
In fact, the laws establishing the de- Ad Hoc Committee is to evaluate the fea-
pository library system are among the sibility and the desirability of providing
oldest right-to-know statutes passed by access to government information in
the U.S. Congress. The Joint Committee electronic formats to the federal de-
pository library system. The Committee on the pricing and distribution activities
is composed of members representing the of the Documents Sales Service. The Joint
library community, the private sector and Committee on Printing and the Govern-
government agencies. The Committee is ment Printing Office perceived a growing
being asked 1) to determine what and concern about the rising prices of Gov-
how much government information is in ernment publications. The principal rec-
electronic format; 2) to determine if de- ommendations of the Task Force report,
pository libraries have the technical abil- which was submitted to the Public
ity to access the new formats; and 3) to Printer on February 1, 1983, were to de-
determine the costs and benefits of pro- velop a new pricing formula for imple-
viding information in electronic format. mentation by October 1 1983, to be
The Ad Hoc Committee will also identify applied to all titles offered for sale after
major policy areas which need to be ad- that date. The new [GPO pricing] for-
dressed in order to meet the intent of mula will recognize an expanded number
Title 44 to make government information of product categories, such as small pub-
available at no cost to citizens. lications, low demand and small quantity
The new GPO pricing formula will recognize an
expanded number of product categories, such as
small publications, low demand and small publi-
cations, low demand end small quantity titles. In
addition, hard copy publications will be repro-
duced on-demand from microfiche. I t is antici-
pated that this blow-back process will
dramatically increase the public's access to gov-
The Joint Committee has also worked titles. In addition, hard copy publications
hard to guarantee that all new publica- will be reproduced on-demand from mi-
tions are included within the depository crofiche. It is anticipated that this blow-
library system. The latest success toward back process will dramatically increase
that end was a negotiated agreement with the public's access to government infor-
the U.S. Geological Survey and the De- mation. The Task Force also recom-
fense Mapping Agency to supply their mended that cost elements in the current
maps to the depository library system. In pricing formula be reduced by 10%. The
addition, the Department of Energy will Public Printer announced on April 12,
be sending an additional 20,000 titles of 1983, that he had adopted these recom-
a scientific and technical nature to the mendations, among others.
Superintendent of Documents for distri- As mentioned earlier, the Joint Com-
bution. mittee publishes the Government Printing
Another important factor which af- and Binding Regulations. The staff of the
fects public access to government infor- Joint Committee is currently concentrat-
mation is cost. On September 29, 1982, ing on revising these regulations for the
the Public Printer created a Task Force approval of the members. The intent of
to Review the GPO Pricing Formula Used the revision is to increase public access
for Pricing Publications for Sale, of which to government information and, at the
I was a member. The purpose of the Task same time, streamline the federal printing
Force was to prepare recommendations program. Recognizing the importance of
distribution activities, the new regula- created the Federal Printing Procurement
tions will be entitled, Government Printing, Program to ensure that government
Binding and Distribution Regulations. printing would be procured competi-
One of the most far-reaching changes tively from the private sector, to the
will be the requirement that agencies greatest extent possible. It was the Com-
submit annual publishing plans. These mittee's belief that procurement through
plans will contain information on all the Government Printing Office would
work which is to be ~erformedand the result in considerable savings to the
resources required to perform it. Specif- American taxpayer, and time has borne
ically, they will include the volume of this out.
production anticipated, both in depart- The Public Printer is convinced of the
mental printing environments and need to modernize the Government
through commercial procurement; the Printing Office. He plans to increase the
equipment required to meet departmen- type of services offered to agencies, to
tal needs; the new technological process adopt the newest technologies, to in-
and research and development projects crease efficiency in order that prices can
involving printing; the number and titles be kept as low as possible and to ag-
of publications for which a waiver for gressively inform the public of govern-
private publishing has or will be re- ment information available through the
quested; and the procedures used to pro- sales program and through the dep&itory
vide all required copies of publications library system.
to the Superintendent of Documents. The However, changes in technology and
intent of these provisions is to encourage agency mission requirements, as well as
government agencies to share resources agency printing requirements in the field,
and information, to avoid costly redun- indicate a need to reevaluate the role and
dancies of activities, and to increase the procedures of the Regional Printing Pro-
access to useful "zovernment information. curement Program. On June 6, 1983, the
In short, these regulations will be more Chairman of the Joint Committee created
comprehensive while at the same time a Task Force on Regional Printing Pro-
less restrictive. They will permit agencies curement. I am the Chair of that Com-
to manage their own information and mittee, with eight other members
provide the Joint Committee on Printing representing the printing industry, the
with the necessary information to better Government Printing Office and govern-
perform its oversight responsibilities. ment agencies. We anticipate concluding
Recently, the Joint Committee, the our work by the end of the year, and the
Government Printing Office and the 0 f - Committee report will make recommen-
fice of Management and Budget have be- dations that will shape the Joint Com-
gun to work together on the assessment mittee's policy and improve the regional
of the federal printing program. The re- printing procurement program.
sult of this work will help set government In conclusion, let me assure you that
information policy for the decades ahead. the Joint Committee will continue to do
A part of that printing program is the its part to encourage a cooperative frame-
commercial procurement concept. More work within the government to promote
than 15 years ago, the Joint Committee the public's access to its information.
An Interlibrary Loan Application
Elizabeth A. Evans
School of Library Science, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C.
~~icrocom~uters increasingly are being incorp<
rated into the operations of libraries and information
centers. A microcomputer-based system for local proc-
essing of interlibrary loan requests, which the author
developed in fulfillment of a master's project, is de-
scribed. Changes in the system resulted with its im-
plementation in two North Carolina libraries, and these
also are presented.
M ICROCOMPUTER USE is
growing rapidly in personal
and business environments as
the selection of available software con-
tinues to increase and the cost of hard-
apparent to librarians, administrators,
and software developers.
In the fall of 1981, the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) library in Re-
search Triangle Park, North Carolina,
ware to decrease. Libraries, for example, acquired a Northstar Horizon micro-
are already performing such diverse tasks computer and several commercial soft-
as sending out personal thank-you letters ware packages for use in the library. The
(I), producing indexes to books and EPA library, traditionally a heavy user of
newspapers (Z), keeping address lists of computer resources, had been looking for
book donors (4, and providing nonbib- a viable way of automating tasks asso-
liographic aid to the reference desk (4) ciated with the Interlibrary Loan De-
The number of possible library applica- partment. Although many libraries have
tions that can be implemented on these developed local and regional ILL net-
small computers is only beginning to be works using computer resources, there is
little evidence in the literature of local
The author was a student at the University automation of this kind of transaction
of North Carolina School of Library Science processing. EPA's new microcomputer
when the original version of the system de-
scribed here was designed. She is currently
provided the perfect opportunity to begin
employed by the Department of Psychiatry, developing an interlibrary loan system to
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, deal with the actual processing of re-
as a designer and programmer of clinical quests. DBase 11, a general purpose data-
data management systems. base management system acquired with
j a n ~ a r y 1984 Copyright @ 1984 Special Libraries Association 17
Application 1 Data File 1 Application 1 - I
Application 2 Data File 2 Application 5-
Application N Data File N [ ~ p pication NY
Traditional Application Programs Application Programs Using DBMS
Figure 1. Traditional Versus DBS Application Programs.
the microsystem, seemed a reasonable sorting a file may require only a keyword
method of automating the desired inter- ("SORT") and the name of the file to be
library loan functions and was the sub- sorted. The user command causes the
sequent basis for the ILL system. DBMS to execute a series of statements
This paper describes the original sys- which have been programmed in the sys-
tem, which was developed by the author tem's "host" or procedural language. The
as a master's paper project at the Uni- procedural statements specify exactly
versity of North Carolina School of Li- how the sort is to be accomplished with-
brary Science. Subsequent changes to the out requiring that the user understand
system and suggestions for future de- the hidden process. Most DBMS also al-
velopment are also discussed. low the host language to be used to pro-
gram functions not defined by the user
Database Management Systems language. Thus, DBMS are useful to both
experienced programmers and to novice
Database management systems computer users.
(DBMS) such as dBase I1 are used to ma- Libraries are especially appropriate for
nipulate files for application programs by DBMS use. Multiple departments require
allowing more than one application to specialized applications but often dupli-
access a single data file. This is in contrast cate data such as patrons' names and ad-
to traditional application programs which dresses. In addition, libraries which do
require a separate data file for each ap- not have a resident programmer may take
plication, thus wasting costly storage advantage of the simplified user lan-
space (see Figure 1 .) guages to automate repetitive depart-
A valuable feature of a typical DBMS mental functions.
is a simple programming language which DBMS have been developed for main-
allows nonspecialist computer users to frame computers, minicomputers, and
access the data files(5). These user lan- microcomputers. One of the major dif-
guages are usually "nonprocedural;" that ficulties in implementing a DBMS (as
is, they specify what is to be done rather well as other major programs) on a mi-
than how it is to be done(6). For example, crocomputer is the limited storage space
generally available. Large files are usually DBPlus' programs to change dBase I1 file
not suitable for the 5%" floppy disks structures. DUtil provides a mechanism
often used in businesses and libraries. for decreasing the execution time of a
However, for small libraries or special- dBase I1 command file, as well as offering
ized functions, storage space is not a se- programming utilities such as indenting
vere limitation. Moreover, as floppy lines in a command file for better read-
disks and hard disks with considerably ability and highlighting dBase I1 reserved
more storage capacity become cheaper words within command files. DGraph al-
and more available for microcomputers, lows users to produce printed graphs of
the space limitations will be less of a dBase I1 data. ABSTAT facilitates cal-
problem, even for relatively large files. culating statistics such as standard de-
Versions of dBase 11, the DBMS ac- viation, median, mode, mean, t tests, and
quired by the EPA library, can be pur- many others from dBase I1 data. Quick-
chased for either a CP/M or MS/DOS code is a program generator for dBase I1
operating system. CP/M is one of the command files. Through choices from
most widely used operating systems for menus, users are able to easily "write"
8-bit microcomputers, and can be found command files for such functions as data-
in a large variety of machines. In addi- entry, printing mailing labels, and vali-
tion, it is possible to adapt some non- dating data that has been entered into a
CP/M machines for use with CP/M database. Other add-on programs are
software by purchasing commercially rapidly becoming available to increase
available options. MS/DOS is widely the flexibility and power of dBase 11.
used on 16-bit microcomputers, includ- Data files (or databases) for dBase I1
ing the IBM Personal Computer. DBase are composed of a series of records. Each
I1 is programmed in assembly language records contains up to 32 fields which
and provides a simplified user language. hold related pieces of information. For
The power of dBase I1 includes the example, a database used as an address
availability of compatible add-on or util- file would have one record for each ad-
ity packages such as DBPlus, dUtil, dress. Each record would include a set of
dGraph, ABSTAT, and Quickcode. fields: name, street, city, state, and ZIP
DBPlus offers users the flexibility of code (see Figure 2). Database fields are
compressing their dBase I1 databases for named for easy access and retrieval. In
archival storage, sorting dBase I1 data- addition, each record may be readily ac-
bases with DBPlus' utility sort, and using cessed by a variety of methods.
S t r e e t 1 City 1
Record 2 Name2 IStreetZCity2 State 2
Record 3 Name 3 S t r e e t 3 City 3 State 3
Record N State N ZIP N J
Figure 2. Example Database Structure.
january 1984 19
Development of the ILL System and statistical calculations (e.g., COM-
PLETE). Field characteristics were deter-
The system at EPA was intended to mined by requirements for data
exvlore the votential for local automation manipulation and data formatting. For
ofsthe tasks associated with processing example, fields for titles were limited to
interlibrary loan requests. Its primary the number of characters that could be
functions are: 1) to format and ~ r i n re-
t printed across one line on the request
quest forms based on the one approved form. The same restriction was applied
by ALA; 2) to determine loans which are to the field for notes. As the system is
overdue or due within a certain time limit modified and expanded, fields may be
and to print notices regarding those loans; added, or deleted, or the characteristics
3) to update the pending and completed of fields may be changed. Thus, dBase I1
files of ILL requests; 4) to maintain an offers a great deal of flexibility in adapt-
up-to-date file of EPA mailing sites ing existing files for changing needs.
(maildrops) which is used to count the The backbone of the ILL system is the
number of requests completed per mail- set of command files which manipulates
drop each month; 5) to reduce the num- the databases. The major command files
ber of duplicate requests processed by the are BYPATRON, REQFORMS, DUES,
Interlibrary Loan Department; and 6) to and ILLMONTH, each of which is an
generate statistical reports of transac- independent program. All except one
tions. All of these functions are per- make use of smaller command files which
formed through the use of command files are dependent on their parent program.
or programs which are written in the A sample of the hierarchical structure of
dBase I1 user language. (The Appendix a command file is depicted in Figure 3.
contains an example of a command file.) BYPATRON is used to print a list of
Besides the Northstar Horizon micro- requests from any of the three transac-
computer, the ILL system hardware in- tion files. This list, automatically sorted
cludes two 5%" disk drives, a printer, and by patron name, can then be manually
a video terminal. The terminal and checked by the ILL staff to eliminate du-
printer are also used in online searching plicate requests. An example of a listing
and to access the mainframe computers generated by BYPATRON can be found
used by the library. The ILL system re- in the Appendix.
quires two disks. The first is used to store REQFORMS uses the pending file
d ~ a s 11, a word processor, the command
e of requests to print request forms.
files which control the maior svstem Two types of requests are handled by
functions, and a text file of the user man- REQFORMS: new and resubmitted.
ual for the system. The second disk is The user specifies which are ready to
used to store the data files used in the be printed. Resubmitted requests are
system. Multipart paper is used in the printed one at a time until the user in-
printer for request forms. dicates that there are no more. If the re-
The ILL system was designed primarily quests are new (i.e., have just been input
for use with requests which must be sub- to the database to be sent out for the first
mitted on ALA forms. Other requests at time), REQFORMS positions itself at the
EPA are either filled in-house or through first new record (specified by the user)
the OCLC ILL subsystem. and prints a form for each record until
The three main databases for the sys- the end of the database is reached. (Since
tem are ILLPEND (pending requests), the records are added sequentially, all
ILLFIN (requests finished during the pre- records after the first new one are also
ceding month), and ILLOLD (used to new.) The printed form is based on the
store older requests for yearly statistics). ALA-approved form. An example of the
The decision to include fields was based form is included in the Appendix.
on two criteria: 1) the item is required on The third command file, DUES, checks
the request form (e.g., VERIFIED) or 2) the pending file for two types of loans:
the item is required for file maintenance those which are overdue and those which
Figure 3. Sample Command File Hierarchy.
are due within a time limit set by the pleted, the number cancelled (indicated
user. An overdue notice is printed for by "999999" in the field for the date the
each loan that has not been returned by request was received), the number com-
its due date, and reminder notices are sent pleted per maildrop, and the number
to users whose loans are soon to be due. completed for each EPA research pro-
Both notices contain the title of the gram. The command file will print up to
loaned item for the user's reference, and four copies of each report it creates. Sam-
reminder notices include the due date of ples of this file's output are in the
the item. The Appendix contains a sam- Appendix.
ple of a revised version of each of these
The final command file in the EPA sys- Subsequent Changes to the
tem is ILLMONTH. It is activated by the System
user once a month in order to update the
request files and to generate statistics and The ILL system is still under devel-
printed reports. All requests from ILLFIN opment in the EPA library. The request
(those completed during the previous form has undergone format changes
month) are transferred to ILLOLD where which include additional sections for
they are stored until the end of the year. "Reason not sent" and "Cost". Several
("Transferred is a bit misleading. The database fields have been deleted or
structure of dBase I1 requires that the rec- added, and other changes are made as the
ords be copied from ILLFIN to ILLOLD need arises.
and then deleted from ILLFIN. This is The system implemented in September
the process necessary whenever records 1982 at the East Carolina University
are "transferred" in the system.) Records (ECU) Health Sciences Library in Green-
which have been completed during the ville, North Carolina, using a TRS-80 mi-
month are then transferred from the crocomputer with a CP/M option.
pending file (ILLPEND) to ILLFIN. Although the functions of the original
ILLMONTH counts the number of re- system were the basis for the ECU sys-
quests still pending, the number com- tem, as well, changes were necessary to
adapt it to the individual needs of the The final major change in the ECU sys-
library. For example, maildrops and re- tem causes REQFORMS to check each
search divisions were necessary at EPA; new request for copyright compliance.
at ECU, the system maintains department Only five requests per year may be sub-
statistics. A cost field was added to the mitted per journal title for photocopies
ECU system so that a sum of costs in- with a copyright code of "CCG." The
curred by each department can be cal- system warns the user the fifth time a
culated monthly, which will greatly request for a title is made. Thereafter, it
facilitate their billing functions. The EPA automatically suppresses the request
library has developed a method of as- after notifying the user. At the end of
signing unique identification numbers to each year, a command file (ILLYEAR) is
each record. A similar device is included executed which prints a list of journal
in the ECU system. titles requested more than five times.
The ILL system at ECU also incorpo- This list will be a valuable collection de-
rates some major enhancements which velopment tool. ILLYEAR also resets all
should prove to be extremely valuable. title counts (which are maintained in a
The first, turn-around time, was a separate database of journal titles) to
planned feature of the original system zero, and transfers requests from ILLOLD
design. The main task at ECU involved to a third diskette for long-term storage.
converting the existing date fields to Ju-
lian dates so they can be directly sub-
tracted to find the difference (in the Conclusions
number of days) between two dates. The
ECU system keeps track of the number The dBase I1 interlibrary loan system,
of requests in each of four time ranges: even with the enhancements of the ECU
0-7 days, 8-14 days, 15-30 days, and 30 system, is only a beginning. There are
or more days. A viable alternative for numerous possibilities for further devel-
some libraries would be to calculate the opment and improvement. Using existing
average turn-around time per month. fields, for example, the system could be
Other libraries might want to compute programmed to count the number of re-
the average turn-around time of all or quests per lending library for institutions
some of the supplying libraries-espe- with reciprocal lending agreements; it
cially in cases where filling a request could use stored addresses of potential
quickly is essential. lenders to automatically fill in the ad-
ECU also uses the date conversion and dress area of the request form; it could
subtraction for a second addition to the be used to automatically locate sources
system. Whenever DUES is executed, the for esoteric and hard-to-trace journals;
system not only checks to send out over- and it could be used to compute usage
dues and reminder notices but also levels for various time frames.
checks unfilled requests to see how long Other uses could be designed by add-
the request has been out. If a request has ing new fields or databases to those al-
been out more than 13 days with no re- ready in existence: records of requests
sponse from a potential lender, a resub- filled in-house could be input to an ab-
mitted form is automatically printed. A breviated database to calculate combined
note placed at the bottom of the form statistics, and when Version 3 of the
includes the date of the original request OCLC Interlibrary Loan Subsystem is re-
and a request for information about the leased (probably in the summer of 1983),
item. (See the sample request form in the the statistics which will be available from
Appendix.) No matter how often DUES OCLC can be input to the dBase I1 system
is executed, it resubmits a request only to calculate and store complete statistics
every 13 days. Thus, a lending library is for the interlibrary loan department.
not inundated with unnecessary re- The use of relatively inexpensive mi-
minders. crosystems will allow more libraries to
develop and implement practical systems Thorn of the EPA Library; Susan Cheadle
such as the ones described here. These Speer of the ECU Health Sciences Li-
systems will ease the time-consuming brarv; and Martin Dillon of the UNC-
tasks associated with ILL request proc- l
CH ~ c h o o of Library Science.
essing and other library activities, and
will open the way to locally designed and
programmed systems which can be read-
ily adapted and expanded to fit changing
needs of individual libraries.
DBase I1 is available from Ashton-Tate
(10150 West Jefferson Blvd., Culver City,
CA 90230) for a suggested retail price of
$700. Mail order vendors offer the pack-
age for prices ranging from $389 to
The utility packages are also widely
available from mail order vendors. Aver-
age prices for the packages mentioned in
this article follow: DBPlus ($959, dUtil
($75), dGraph ($200), ABSTAT ($400), -- -
and Quickcode ($200).As is the case with
dBase 11, if you buy directly from the
original vendor, prices will be higher. Literature Cited
The Interlibrary Loan system is avail-
able from the author on disks formatted 1. Grant, C. and T. Klevom/"Microcompu-
for the IBM Personal Computer. (Please ters and Library Automation." Show M e Li-
contact the author if you are interested braries 31: 10 (Aug 1980).
in other formats.) Price for the system is 2. Krueger, D.R./"Issues and Applications of
$200 for libraries in North Carolina and Microcomputers for Libraries." Canadian Li-
brary Journal 38: 283 (Oct 1981).
$250 for libraries outside North Carolina. 3. "County Library Uses Microcomputer." In-
The additional $50 from non-North Car- formation Retrieval and Library Automation 16: 4
olina libraries will be donated to the (Oct 1980).
COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION 4. Bivens, K.T. and R.C. Palmer/"REFLES:
MANAGEMENT Fellowship in the An Individualized Microcomputer System
School of Library Science, University of for Fact Retrieval." Online Review 4: 357-365
North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Car- (Dec 1980).
olina. For additional information about 5. Gagle, M., G.J.Koehler, and A. Whimton/
purchasing the ILL system, contact the "Data-Base Management Systems: Pow-
author at 117 E. Longview Street, Chapel erful Newcomers to Microcomputers." Byte
6: 100 (Nov 1981).
Hill, NC 27514. 6. Stamen, J. and W. Costello/"Evaluating
Database Languages." Datamation 27: 116
The author acknowledges with appre-
ciation the support and encouragement Received for review Nov. 15 1 9 8 2 . Manuscript
of John Knight, Libby Smith, and Rose accepted for publication Sept 2 1 , 1 9 8 3 .
Appendix A. Sample Command File ECU System.
* T H I S F I L E CHECKS ALL RECORDS I N THE PENDING I L L F I L E FOR LOANS WHICH *
* ARE 1 ) OVERDUE AND 2 ) DUE W I T H I N A U S E R - S P E C I F I E D LENGTH O F T I M E . *
* DEPENDING ON THE STATUS O F THE L O J A N S , I T E I T H E R CALLS 0VERDUES.CMD *
* OR PRENOTE.CMD WHICH P R I N T A P P R O P R I A T E N O T I C E S FOR THE PATRONS. *
* THE F I L E ALSO CALCULATES REQUESTS WHICH HAVE BEEN OUT OVER 1 3 DAYS AND*
* ARE U N F I L L E D . I T AUTOMATICALLY RESUBMITS A REQUEST FOR EACH. *
* SEPTEMBER 1982 * *
S E T TALK O F F
* CDATE I S THE DATE WHICH I S USED TO DETERMINE THE RECORDS WHICH ARE TO *
* HAVE P R E N O T I C E S P R I N T E D . I T I S USUALLY S E T TO APPROXIMATELY 7 DAYS *
* FROM THE CURRENT DATE. I T S FORMAT I S YYMMDD I N ORDER TO ALLOW *
* COMPUTATIONS. *
ACCEPT ' E N T E R DATE (YYMMDD) FOR COMPUTATIONS1 TO CDATE
* NDATE I S THE CURRENT DATE AND I S THE DATE WHICH I S P R I N T E D ON THE *
* N O T I C E S . I T I S USED TO DETERMINE THOSE RECORDS WHICH ARE OVERDUE BY *
* F I G U R I N G WHICH DUE:DATES ARE E A R L I E R THAN THE CURRENT DATE. *
USE B :I L L P E N D
G O T 0 TOP
DO WHILE .NOT. EOF
IF ! (COMPLETE <> ' Y .AND. DUE :DATE <> I '
I F DUE :DATE > NDATE .AND. DUE :DATE <= CDATE
E N D I F DUE :DATE > NDATE
I F DUE:DATE <= NDATE
E N D I F DUE:DATE <= NDATE
E N D I F COMPLETE <> ' Y ' AND DUE:DATE <> ' '
I F !(COMPLETE) <> ' Y I .AND. DATE:RECD = ' '
* FINDDATE RETURNS THE VALUE O F THE LAST DATE EACH REQUEST WAS S E N T :
E N D I F COMPLETE <> Y
ENDDO WHILE NOT EOF
Appendix B. Sample Request Form EPA System.
DATE OF REQUEST: REQ. ORDER NO.: 9
. . 45 - 23 .
. . - - - - - - - - -6/13/82 - - . - - - . - - . - - - 3 2 6- . 3 5. -5 . - - - . - . - - - - .
CALL NO: : ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY:
: LIBRARY SERVICES OFFICE, MD-35 :
: RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC 2 7 7 1 1 :
FOR USE OF: SHARIEF MD-8
VOLUME TITLE AND AUTHOR:
1969, VOL. 60, P. 9 1-95
ARTICLE TITLE AND AUTHOR:
CARCINOGEN INDUCED CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN HEMAT. CELLS OF MICE
KURITA, Y; ET AL
REQUESTS COMPLIES WITH CCL PROVISIONS OF COPYRIGHT LAW.
AUTHORIZED BY: LIBBY SMITH/RRT
DUKE MED RESTRICTIONS:
LOAN DATE RECD:
DATE SENT: RENEWALS:
DUE: NEW DUE DATE:
Appendix C. Sample Resubmitted Request ECU System.
DATE OF REQUEST: 8 2 1010
CALL NO: : HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY
: SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
: EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY
: GREENVILLE, NC 2 7 8 3 4
FOR USE OF: BARNETTE DEPT.: INT MED
VOLUME, TITLE, AND AUTHOR:
DEFINITIONS OF COMPETENCE IN SPECIALTIES OF MEDICINE: CONF. PROC.
CHICAGO: 1 9 7 9
(continued on next page)
january 1984 25
Appendix C. (continued)
ARTICLE TITLE AND AUTHOR:
VERIFIED IN: OCLC 6425295
REQUEST COMPLIES WlTH PROVISIONS OF COPYRIGHT LAW.
AUTHORIZED BY: SUSAN C. SPEER
SENT TO: UNC-HS
"' FIRST REQUEST FOR ITEM SENT 820920. PLEASE ADVISE. "*
DATE SENT: DATE RECD:
DUE: DATE RETD:
NOT SENT: RECORD ID = 8 2 0 9 1 8 6
RESTRICTIONS: NEW DUE DATE:
Appendix D. Sample List of Requests by Patron ECU and EPA Systems.
PATRON DEPT TITLE
ALDERMAN PEDS INFLUENCE OF STATE LEGISLATION ON LOCAL HEALTH
DEPTS: NEW JERSEY
BARNETTE INT MED DEFINITIONS OF COMPETENCE IN SPECIALTIES OF MED-
ICINE: CONF. PROC.
DURHAM NURS OIL AND GAS JOURNAL
EVANS CSO NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH BULLETIN
SMITH INT MED ENVIRONMENTAL INTERNATIONAL
SMITH MED TECH LANCET
SPEER ADM THE 36-HOUR DAY: A FAMILY GUIDE TO CARING FOR
PERSONS WlTH ALZHEIMERS DIS. .
Appendix E. Sample Reminder Notice ECU System.
HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY IN CHECKING OUT FILES, WE FIND THAT
BRODY BLDG. THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL IS CHECKED
EXT. 2 2 2 2 THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION.
RECORD ID # 8 2 0 9 0 1 5
DATE: 8 2 1 0 1 0 TITLE:
TO: ALDERMAN INFLUENCE OF STATE LEGISLATION
DEPT.: PEDS ON LOCAL HEALTH DEPTS: NEW JERSEY
Appendix F. Sample Summary Appendix G. Sample Overdue
Statistics ECU and EPA Systems. Notice ECU System.
SEPTEMBER HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY DATE: 8 2 1010
BRODY BLDG. TO: SPEER
TOTAL REQUESTS EXT. 2 2 2 2 DEPT.: ADM
COMPLETED: RECORD ID # 821007 1
PENDING: IN CHECKING OUR FILES, WE FIND THAT
TOTAL REQUESTS WE HAVE NO RECORD OF YOUR HAVING
CANCELLED: RETURNED THlS MATERIAL WHICH WAS
LOANED TO YOU THROUGH INTERLI-
THlS MATERIAL IS NOW OVERDUE. WE
WOULD APPRECIATE YOUR RETURNING
THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION.
THE 36-HOUR DAY: A FAMILY GUIDE
TO CARING FOR PERSONS WITH ALZ-
HEIMERS DIS. .
Elizabeth A. Evans designs and pro-
grams clinical data management sys-
tems in the Department of Psychiatry,
University of North Carolina, Chapel
Urban Research Centers
Their Purposes, Programs and Libraries
AIva W. Stewart
North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State
University, Greensboro, N.C.
Based upon the author's original on-site survey in
1 9 7 2 and a follow-up questionnaire survey in 1981,
purposes and programs of 1 1 selected U.S. urban re-
search centers and their libraries are described. No at-
tempt is made to analyze or evaluate these programs;
rather, the aim is to present a composite view offering
the reader some perspective on the role of these cen-
ters in our nation's increasingly urban society.
URING the past 25 years, the ac- ity of life. The quality of life enjoyed by
quisition of the knowledge and more than 165,000,000 Americans is de-
understanding necessary to pre- pendent in no small measure upon the
dict the consequences of man's activities basic and applied research being done at
in an urban environment has been a ma- these centers. Consequently, some un-
jor task of staff members at scores of derstanding of the nature of these pro-
urban research centers throughout the grams and their purposes should be
United States. At these centers, hundreds beneficial to American urban dwellers.
of trained and dedicated researchers are In the fall of 1972, the author con-
applying their skills to the analysis of ducted a survey of 16 urban research cen-
such problems as downtown deteriora- ters in the United States as a Council on
tion, duplication of urban services and Library Resources Fellow. A report of this
the shortage of open space. These indi- findings was submitted to the Council in
viduals are convinced that the vitality of 1973, and copies of this report were made
American cities is crucial to maintaining available to approximately 30 academic
our nation's economic strength and qual- libraries.
28 Copyright O 1 9 8 4 SPE!cia1 Libraries Associat~on special libraries
lame I. Genters rartlclpatmg In cluded the same centers as those sur-
the 1981 Survey.' veyed in 1972, with two centers deleted
because they are no longer extant. In the
author's judgment, had any fewer centers
1. lnstitute of Government, University been chosen, the findings would proba-
of N.C., Chapel Hill, NC-L bly not have represented a cross-section
2. lnstitute of Government, U%iversity of the nation's urban research centers.
of Georgia, Athens, GA-D, L Information sought from center direc-
3. lnstitute of Government, U z e r s i t y
of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA-
tors related to purposes of the center, size
of its staff, publications issued, sources
4. M i t u t e of Governmental Studies, of financial support, operating expendi-
University of California, Berkeley, tures, and the role of the library in sup-
CA-D, L porting the center's program.
5. S c h o f i f Public and Urban Policy, Information obtained from center li-
University of Pennsylvania, Phila- brarians included the purpose of the li-
delphia, PA-D, L brary, size of library staff and its
6. Center for U r b a n Policy Research, collection, special subject areas repre-
Rutgers University, New Bruns- sented in the collection, library expend-
7. lnstitute of Urban Studies, Univer- itures, interest of center director in
sity of Texas, Arlington, TX-D, L library development, and priority needs
8. College of Urban Affairs and P m c of the library.
Policy, University of Delaware,
Newark, DE-Q Purposes of Centers
9. Urban Observatory, University of
Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI-L In the view of most center directors,
10. Bureau of Public Administration, the primary purpose of the center is to
University of Tennessee, Knox-
ville, TN-D conduct and support basic and applied
1 1. lnstitute o f Urban and Regional research on urban problems and public
Development, University of Cali- policy issues. In the majority of instances,
fornia, Berkelev. CA-D this research is focused upon problems
and issues of concern to local and state
officials in the center's geographic area.
D-Center director completed question- In other instances, the research is broader
aire. in scope and covers issues of regional
L-Center librarian completed question- and/or national concern. Most directors
naire. recognize the importance of disseminat-
ing research findings to municipal,
In 1981, the author updated the orig- county and state officials charged with
inal survey by sending questionnaires to policymaking in areas covered by re-
directors and librarians of 14 urban re- search studies and of making available
search centers. Eight directors and nine some data, e.g., election statistics, to the
librarians responded to the author's re- citizenry at large.
quest for data concerning the programs One director believes that offering
of the centers and their libraries. Re- graduate instruction in urban studies and
spondents are shown in Table 1. public policy analysis is the center's pri-
The 16 centers in the original survey mary raison d'2re. Not surprisingly, the
were selected to represent a cross-section parent institution of this center offers a
of the approximately 300 urban research doctorate in urban affairs, a degree con-
centers in the United States. Conse- ferred by less than a dozen American uni-
quently, the purposes, programs and li- versities.
brary resources of the 16 centers differ Secondary purposes of urban affairs
widely. The 1981 follow-up survey in- centers, as perceived by their directors,
are 1) to conduct training programs for an appropriation from the parent insti-
local and state officials and agencies, both tution; three centers received at least 70%
through formal conferences and work- of their budgets from this source. Federal
shops and informal advice and consul- and state grants comprised the second
tation, and 2) to provide instruction leading funding source for centers. The
leading to undergraduate and graduate percentage of support from such grants
degrees in urban affairs and public pol- ranged from 17 to 81. Other sources of
icy. The legislature of one state, Texas, financial aid were 1) academic formula
has mandated the following requirement for book acquisitions, 2) income from
for an urban affairs center: "to offer ad- conferences and workshops coordinated
visory and consultative services regard- by centers, 3) private foundations and
ing urban problems and their solu- special funds, 4) sale of center publica-
tion . . . and to conduct training programs tions, and 5) income from contractual re-
for urban service practitioners." search. With one exception (academic
One director asserts that his center's formula), none of these sources ac-
chief mission is "to serve as a bridge be- counted for more than 10% of the cen-
tween academic scholars and public pol- ter's total budget.
icy makers." Unquestionably, this is a Diversity and quantity characterized
worthwhile goal for any center to pursue. the current projects of the centers at the
time of this survey. The following proj-
Center Staff ects illustrated the variegation of center
Both the number and kind of staff vary 0 Pilot study of elderly persons residing
widely among the eight centers. Cate- in a particular state.
gories of staff members are identified as Systems analysis of prosecution serv-
researchers, supporting professionals, ices module of a state's criminal justice
clerical employees, and other. Included in information system.
the latter category are an offset machine Staff support to a legislative committee
operator, administrators, graduate assist- on state aid to localities.
ants, and temporary employees. Training program for the state's public
The number of researchers ranges from school social science instructors.
a low of six to a high of 39.* Four of the Study of state-local fiscal policy in
centers have less than 10 full-time re- Tennessee.
searchers. Supporting professionals, a Siting of coal-fired electric power
category which includes librarians among plants.
others, range from 0 to 17, with five cen- Research on the state's water resources.
ters employing fewer than 10. The num-
ber of clerical employees varies from 2 to Center Publications
19, with three centers employing less
than 10. In the "other" category, the low Many of the projects undertaken by
is 1, as contrasted with a high of 14. Only centers result in publications which are
five centers reported any staff in this cat- distributed to libraries, as well as to state
egory. and local officials. Titles of recent center
Center directors identified seven publications are: Productivity of City Services;
sources of financial support for the cen- Guide to Public Employment in Delaware; The
ter. Undoubtedly the major source was Budgetary Process in Tennessee; CooperativeHous-
ing: A n Economic Feasibility Analysis; Jury
Reform; Energy Issues and Options; and
"This figure includes a number of faculty Some Alternative Approaches to Neighborhood
members who hold a joint appointment with Preservation. These publications take var-
the center and an academic department of ious formats-monographs, periodicals,
the parent institution. handbooks, reports, manuals, and work-
ing papers. Most centers issue a catalog nine librarians responding to this survey,
of their in-print publications to inter- seven viewed support of center staff
ested individuals and libraries at periodic members' research as the library's pri-
intervals. mary purpose. The remaining two re-
garded this support as secondary to
serving students and faculty in the uni-
The total annual expenditures of the Two librarians expressed the opinion
eight centers during the three fiscal years that service to local and state government
1977-80 ranged from $205,500 to officials, both in the form of direct librarv
$1,428,000.** With two exceptions, the use by .these officials and response tb
annual expenditure of each center ex- written and telephone inquiries by them,
ceeded $600,000. Only one center re- should not be overlooked. Others ob-
ported a decline in expenditures during served that the library served public
the three-year period. However, that de- officialsindirectly by distributingpublica-
cline was significant; namely, from tions embodying research undertaken by
$1,427,635 to $694,685 in state appro- center staff members to them.
priations. The extent to which any center library
Of the four directors responding to the achieves its purposes depends upon the
question, "What percentage of the total relationship between researchers and the
center budget has been allocated to its librarian. Researchers must k e e ~ li-
library for each of these three years?" the brarian apprised of their changing infor-
low was 0 and the high was 24%. mational needs, and the librarian, in turn,
It is encouraging to note that the center must attempt to meet these needs within
reporting the low figure for one year did fiscal and other restraints.
allocate .27% of its total budget for li-
brary materials in each of the remaining The Collection: Size and Subject
two years. Areas
In assessing the library's role in the
total program of the center, all directors Since materials in center libraries are
except one expressed the opinion that the necessarily specialized in their nature and
role of the library in supporting the cen- use of these materials is limited, the hold-
ter's research program was important. ings of these libraries are relatively small.
One director described the library's role With two exceptions, the total holdings,
as "critical," and another termed the li- including books, periodicals, pamphlets,
brary "the focal point of the center's re- government documents, and microform
search program." Still another noted the of each library are less than 50,000 items.
"vital importance of the library as a re- In the case of both exceptions, U. S., state,
source center." and local government documents com-
prised well over one-half of the total col-
The Center Libraries lection.
In almost every library, the number of
Center libraries operate primarily for periodicals (back issues) and pamphlets
one purpose-to support research being exceeds the monographs (books) in the
done by center staff members. Of the collection. One simple reason accounts
for this fact; users of center libraries,
largely center researchers, are seeking
current, up-to-date information, the kind
'"Three centers did not report expendi- of information more likely to be found
tures. Of the five centers reporting, t w o in- in pamphlets and recent journals than in
dicated that the figures reported were monographs.
exclusive of grants and contracts awarded The number of periodicals currently
t o the centers. received by center libraries ranges from
35 to 3,500.~ Many of these periodicals As might be expected, the particular
are received gratis, often on an exchange interests of the center director and his
basis. Three of the libraries reported non- associates determine the kinds of mate-
print holdings. Two of these collections rial added to library collections at any
included microform; the third, a small given time.
number of tapes. Space limitations in
several center libraries will probably dic-
tate the acquisition of microform in the Library Staff
near future, particularly for back issues
of ~eriodicals. Staffing patterns vary widely among
Although subject areas represented in the nine libraries. The number of profes-
collections vary depending upon the pur- sional librarians ranges from none in one
poses and programs of the centers, ma- library to 4.5 in another. Six libraries are
terials relating to several subjects are staffed with one full-time professional,
found in at least three of the nine li- and a single library has a part-time
braries. These subjects are state and local professional.
The financial future of urban research centers can
hardly be called encouraging. In the foreseeable
future funding from state and federal govern-
ments is more likely to diminish than expand. Eco-
nomic conditions make it improbable that
additional funds will be available from founda-
tions. Programs a t many centers may be curtailed,
government, planning, criminal justice Similarly, the size of the non-profes-
(including courts), public finance, trans- sional staff varies considerably. At one
portation, housing, and urban renewal. end of the spectrum is a library with
Other subjects represented in the collec- seven librarv assistants and three clerks,
tions include education, environment, while at the opposite end is a library with
energy, minorities, drug abuse, public a single part-time student assistant. An-
health, water resources and taxation. other library has a clerk and 1 / 4 time
In the majority of libraries, at least library aide (comparable to library as-
20% of the collection consists of material sistant). Still another employs six student
bearing directly upon the state in which assistants. One library assistant, a sec-
the library is located. Since much of the retary, and two student assistants com-
research undertaken by center staff prise the nonprofessional staff of one
members relates to municipal, county or library, while another employs three
state government in one particular state, part-time library aides. In the library
this high percentage appears plausible. without a professional librarian, one per-
son divides her time between the duties
'See Table 2 for a list of journals most fre- of a librarian and offset duplicator op-
quently received by center libraries. erator.
Table 2. Periodicals in Center Two libraries did not disclose any finan-
Libraries' cial data.
With one qualified exception, all nine
1. American Academy of Political & librarians felt that the library collections
Social Science. Annals-4 they manage reflect the changing inter-
2. American City & County-3 ests of center staff members. The sole
3 . American Political Science exception was a librarian who expressed
Review-4 the same opinion but added an important
4. American Sociological Review-3 qualifying phrase: "to a small extent."
5 . City-3
6. Journal of American Planning Since center researchers play a major role
Association (formerly Journal of in book selection for each librarv sur-
American Institute of Planners)- veyed, this finding is hardly surprising.
5 In the view of librarians, five of the
7 . Land Economics-5 center directors showed a great deal of
8 . Nation's Cities-6S interest in the library and its collection
9. National Civic Review-7 development. Two directors showed a
10. Public Administration Review-7 moderate interest, and two others dem-
1 1. Public Management-5 onstrated little interest. One of the di-
1 2 . Public Works-3
13. State Government-8
rectors in the latter category had only
14. Traffic Quarterly-4 recently assumed his position and the
1 5 . Urban Affairs Quarterly-7 center librarian expressed the hope that
16. Urban Data Service (1CMA)--5 he would indicate a greater interest in the
1 7 . Urban Education- 1 library in the future. One librarian ob-
1 8 . Urban Review-1 served that her director uses library re-
1 9 . Urban Research News- 1 sources regularly and screens all requests
2 0 . Urban Studies-3 for material to be added to the library
collection. It should be noted that the
'The number following each title denotes contact between a center librarian and
the number of libraries subscribing to that director is much more frequent than the
periodical. contact between a university library di-
'This periodical changed its name to Na- rector and the president of that institu-
tion's Cities Weekly in 1 9 7 8.
Like other types of libraries, center li-
braries can enhance the effectiveness of
library service to staff members if certain
needs are met. Priority needs, in the judg-
As might be expected, a noticeable cor- ment of center librarians, are additional
relation exists between size of the li- staff and more space. Three librarians
brary's collection and its staff size. The noted that additional staff was the chief
larger the collection, the more staff mem- need. while three others felt additional
bers. Conversely, the smaller the collec- space was a primary need. One librarian
tion, the fewer staff members. expressed the view that these two needs
Total library expenditures, including were equally important. Increased funds
salaries, range from less than $5,000 an- for library materials was considered the
nually for the three fiscal years 1976-79 top priority need by one librarian. Two
to more than $50,000 annually during the librarians saw a need for improving com-
same period. One library reported ex- munications between center staff mem-
penditures between $5,000-$10,000 an- bers, including library staff. One li-
nually; another between $10,000-$20,000 brarian expressed a desire to audit
each year. One library's budget was courses to increase her working knowl-
higher the third year than the previous edge of several subject areas in the col-
two; this library expended between lection.
$10,000-$20,000 the first two years but Seven of the librarians recognized one
spent in excess of $20,000 the third year. or more advantages accruing from work
january 7 984
in an urban research center library which faculty members and senior research staff
are not available in public, school or ac- members. Another stated that it had in-
ademic libraries. Among these advan- creased the diversity of applicants in the
tages are 1) an opportunity to work non-academic pool. Yet another noted
closely with officials of state and local that the EEO/AA program had been
government, 2) developing a knowledge "moderately successful," and added that
of a specialized field(s) and applying that the performance of individuals employed
knowledge to aid library users, 3) op- under this program "has generally been
portunity for community contact on a good to superior." The ideal staff mem-
professional level, 4) opportunity for on- ber, says one director, would be "a highly
going assistance to center researchers and qualified black woman."
elected officials, 5) the challenge of con- With one exception (no response),
ducting searches on subjects which have eight of the nine directors felt that the
received little attention from scholars. centers are making significant contribu-
One librarian did not know of any spe- tions to community, state and/or nation.
cial advantages of employment in a cen- This contribution takes myriad forms. A
ter library, and another expressed the few might be cited: 1) evaluation research
opinion that her library was an academic on governmental programs, some of
library. The overall consensus of the nine which has directly affected state legis-
librarians was that their work was re- lation, 2) providing information and op-
warding albeit frustrating at times. portunities for public officials to increase
Although most center librarians would welcome
greater freedom in the selection of materials, they
recognize that the majority of researchers are
genuinely interested in collection development
and view this interest as a healthy indicator of
the library's role in the center's overall program.
Because of the specialized character of center li-
brary collections, a concern for a well-balanced
collection is less important than is the case in a
general academic library.
All center directors have supported their skills in coping with problems of
equal employment opportunity/affirm- governance, 3) staff consultation with lo-
ative action (EEO/AA) programs de- cal and state officials, 4) in-service train-
signed to place qualified women and ing of local officials and 5) training of
blacks in responsible professional posi- students to fill important positions on the
tions. Four of the five directors who re- local, state, and national levels. Ob-
sponded believed the EEO/AA programs viously proud of his center's program,
at their institutions had been successful one director commented, "The center
in meeting this goal. One director ob- provides important services unavailable
served that the program had been suc- elsewhere to individuals and groups lack-
cessful in recruiting women and black ing their own research capabilities."
Conclusion of materials, they recognize that the ma-
jority of researchers are genuinely inter-
During the past two decades, research- ested in collection development and view
ers at scores of urban research centers in this interest as a healthy indicator of the
the U. S. have produced a sizable body library's role in the center's overall pro-
of useful data and analyses on urban is- gram. Because of the specialized char-
sues ranging from noise abatement to acter of center library collections, a
transportation systems. Although this re- concern for a well-balanced collection is
search has provided a basic understand- less important than is the case in a general
ing of the nature and complexity of urban academic library.
problems, it has not resolved these prob- The financial future of urban research
lems. Such resolution is a task for the centers can hardly be called encouraging.
professional urban practitioner, not for In the foreseeable future funding from
the researcher. However, it is obvious state and federal governments is more
that the solution of urban problems is likely to diminish than expand. Economic
facilitated when the researcher and the conditions make it improbable that ad-
practitioner work in tandem. ditional funds will be available from
Staff members at urban research cen- foundations. Programs at many centers
ters can aid in the solution of urban prob- may be curtailed, some drastically.
lems, both current and those which will Hopefully, university policy-makers
inevitably arise in the future, through will increasingly recognize the significant
competent, thorough research and wide- value of urban research centers in Amer-
spread dissemination of their findings. ican society and take the necessary action
Similarly, center librarians can contribute to furnish the human and financial re-
to the solution of these problems by im- sources which will enable these centers
proving both the quality and quantity of to achieve their purposes more effec-
library resources used as research tools tively.
and in making these tools more widely
Although most center librarians would Received for review Oct 6, 1982. Revised man-
welcome greater freedom in the selection uscript accepted for publication July 15, 1983.
Alva W. Stewart is reference librarian,
F.D. Bluford Library, North Carolina
A&T State University, Greensboro,
Use Study of Online
Cataloging in a Special Library
Chicago Municipal Reference Library, Chicago, IL
The original cataloging records of a municipal ref-
erence library are examined statistically. Findings in-
dicate that this special library's cataloging has a use
rate of 42%. compared to a systemwide average of
55%. A further breakdown shows areas of high and
low use, and presents a clearer picture of what types
of original cataloging are most unique to the institution.
The methodology may be used by other libraries to eval-
uate their own cataloging efforts.
HE OCLC online union catalog is results of the cataloging efforts of indi-
a system rich in information for vidual libraries.
member libraries. As a cataloging Once we enter new records into the
support system, it has uses beyond that online catalog, we may be reminded of
of providing shared cataloging copy or them at a later date through receipt of an
printed catalog cards. Now that many li- error report or by an inter-library loan
braries have entered the online era, request (more likely to be handled by
OCLC also provides a means of obtaining another department). Most of the records
follow-up information on cataloging ef- live on, for the originating library, only
forts. in the form of a catalog entry or as a unit
Technical services departments spend in a yearly statistical summary. The pres-
countless hours creating machine-read- ent study is an attempt to provide de-
able records for input into the OCLC on- tailed information on the use of one
line union catalog. We know, to a large library's original cataloging contributions
extent, the likelihood of finding copy for to OCLC.
a newly acquired monograph or serial. The Chicago Municipal Reference Li-
We can also guess the likelihood of the brary (MRL) is a small special library lo-
record having been input by the Library cated in City Hall. Founded at the turn
of Congress (LC) or by a member library. of the century, it currently has about
But comparatively little is known of the 46,000 volumes in its holdings. MRL is
36 Copyright @ 1984 Special Libraries Association special libraries
mandated to receive copies of all city ferent bibliographic utilities. These anal-
publications; therefore, its collection con- yses have indicated that special libraries
tains many items which are found in few, must expect to perform a somewhat
if any, other libraries. Holdings include greater percentage of original cataloging
such materials as copies of consultants' as members of the system than do most
reports, departmental newsletters, finan- other libraries. Particular criticism has
cial reports and technical studies of pro- been made of the OCLC requirement that
posed city improvement projects. In member libraries do all of their cataloging
addition, MRL receives publications of online, since this clearly places more of
governmental bodies connected with, but a burden on institutions with specialized
administratively distinct from, the city. collections ( 2 ) . Approaching the subject
Principal bodies issuing such reports are from a different point of view, Ruth Ann
the Chicago Board of Education, the Chi- Beasley has suggested that a low hit rate
cago Park District, the Chicago Transit may actually be preferable in certain
Authority, the Regional Transportation cases, for it is evidence that a special li-
Authority, the Metropolitan Sanitary brary is in a position to make a unique
District of Greater Chicago, and the var- collection available ( 3 ) .
ious governmental offices of Cook Both viewpoints are relevant and cor-
County. Through an exchange program, rectly identify concerns of OCLC mem-
documents of many other US. cities are bers regarding participation in the
also obtained. Non-documents pertain- system. However, there is a further ques-
ing to Chicago or to urban concerns form tion which should be answered: Once a
another important part of the collection. special library begins to enter its records
Finally, MRL catalogs materials for a into the OCLC system, to what extent
small branch library at the Chicago Police are its original inputs used by the cata-
Academy ( I ) . loging departments of other libraries?
The benefits of a shared cataloging system accrue
when an institution's cataloging efforts are used
by other members. Therefore, the value of a spe-
cial library to its network and to OCLC lies not
simply in making its holdings available for inter-
library loan purposes but also is reflected by the
number of times the library's records have been
used by other institutions, thereby saving them
time and cataloging effort.
Previous Studies The benefits of a shared cataloging sys-
tem accrue when an institution's cata-
MRL shares in the concerns raised by loging efforts are used by other members.
other special libraries about the practical Therefore, the value of a special library
benefits and drawbacks of belonging to to its network and to OCLC lies not sim-
OCLC. A number of studies have been ply in making its holdings available for
made of the potential "hit rate" (per- inter-library loan purposes but also is re-
centage of records searched and found) flected by the number of times the li-
for various types of libraries using dif- brary's records have been used by other
institutions, thereby saving them time All records were listed by number on a
and cataloging effort. single master list, with no effort being
Use of OCLC holdings symbols for an made to separate them by type of ma-
administrative evaluation of original cat- terial, bibliographic level or by classifi-
aloging was the focal point of a 1981 ar- cation as government documents or non-
ticle by William J. Crowe (4). He documents. Thus, there was no inherent
conducted a study of a non-random sam- bias in using the master list to draw up
ple of 120 records input at Indiana Uni- a sample. Every fourth record on the list
versity in 1977. One year later, Crowe was then examined for its holdings in-
found that 7.5% of these records had formation.
been superseded by LC MARC catalog- Survey data were tabulated on forms
ing, 15% had been duplicated by LC or which listed date of input, bibliographic
by member libraries, 22% had been used level, use or non-use by other libraries,
but not duplicated or superseded, and number of holdings symbols, percentage
56% had never been used for cataloging of Illinois users, classification type,
purposes (i.e., no other holdings symbols length and publication date. Miscella-
appeared). Crowe suggested that most of neous information, such as conversion to
the university's cataloging effort had not LC, was also noted.
been misdirected, based on the facts that Once the sample had been obtained,
LC had superseded or duplicated only various profiles of MRL original catalog-
19% of their records and no other library ing were made. The library gained an in-
or group of libraries had cataloged much sight into the extent to which its records
of the same material. had been utilized by other OCLC mem-
The current study is also an attempt bers, plus more detailed knowledge about
to "discover the fate of catalog records types of records most often used. An-
. . . input into an on-line union catalog" other benefit was to provide a more ac-
(4, p. 57). However, no attempt was made curate picture of the types of records
to replicate Crowe's procedure of search- most often cataloged at MRL. In addition
ing each record by different search keys to more general statistics, the library
in order to find if entries had been du- could now know what a "typical" cata-
plicated by other libraries. For one thing, loging product was likely to be.
the nature of material handled by MRL The sample of 619 records was taken
is such that LC seldom acquires the same in the last two weeks of October 1982.
items. The MRL study is about five times At a confidence level of 95%, the sample
the size of the Indiana study (619 records as a whole is statistically accurate to
rather than 120) and covers a six-year within plus or minus 3.88%.
period from 1976 to 1982, yet only 15 of
these records had been superseded by Findings
MARC records. Furthermore, it is not
MRL practice to do original cataloging for The resulting figures, summarized in
items with LC card numbers, and few of Table I, contained both confirmations
the inputs have ISBN numbers (these and surprises. It was found that MRL was
were two of the search keys used by somewhat more like the average OCLC
Crowe). member library than was anticipated;
85.6% of the MRL records turned out to
Methodology be for monographs, while the figure for
the entire OCLC database is 85.3% (5).
In order to carry out a study of MRL Serials accounted for the remainder
inputs, a systematic sampling technique (l3.4%, compared to 6.3% in OCLC). No
was devised. MRL had entered about other types of material appeared in the
2,500 original records between July 1976 MRL sample. The overall use rate for
and June 1982. Data on these records monographs was 42%, compared to 55%
were kept by sequential OCLC number. for all OCLC member input monographs
Table 1. Statistical Summary of MRL Records lnput in OCLC from
July 1976 through June 1982.
MRL Inputs Used by Other Libraries
Total in sample: 619 Used: 261 % Used: 42%
Monographs: 530 Used: 222 % Used: 42%
Serials: 89 Used: 3 9 % Used: 44%
Microforms: 13 Used: 0 % Used: 0 %
Converted by LC: 15 (2.4% of sample)
Total Use bv Classification Tvoes
Chicago monographs: 198 Used: 45 % Used: 23%
Illinois monographs: 37 Used: 20 % Used: 54%
Other monographs: 295 Used: 157 % Used: 53%
Chicago serials: 47 Used: 20 % Used: 43%
Illinois serials: 7 Used: 6 % Used: 86%
Other serials: 35 Used: 13 % Used: 37%
Total Use of Records by Year of lnput and Types
No. in Mono. Mono. Ser. Serials
Year Sample Used % Used Mono. Used % Used Serials -
Used % Used
1976 7 7 100% 7 7 100% - - -
1977 43 24 56% 43 24 56% - - -
1978 143 81 57% 109 58 53% 34 23 68%
1979 122 57 47% 106 53 50% 16 4 25%
1980 90 35 39% 81 31 38% 9 4 44%
198 1 144 37 26% 123 30 24% 21 7 33%
1982 70 20 29% 61 19 31% 9 1 11%
Total: 619 261 42% 530 222 42% 89 39 44%
(6). However, if one did not include Chi- For purposes of the study, the figures
cago documents, the MRL figure would were often broken down into two time
be 53% -again, very close to the OCLC periods: 1976-1979 and 1980-1982. The
norm. A brief but more detailed look at number of original cataloging records
the various use categories shows the type from each of these two periods is nearly
of contribution which MRL has made to identical. Such a breakdown showed a
the online union catalog. distinct decline in use after 1979. Total
"Chicaao" documents is a term used monographic use from 1976-1979 was
to describve more than just city materials. 54% ;from 1980-1982 it fell to 30% . The
As noted earlier, publications of other lo- serials decline was from 54% to 31 % over
cal government agencies which work the same period.
closely with the city government are also To some extent this statistical differ-
included because they represent very ence is probably due to the fact that the
similar material. Chicago monographs older records had been available for use
were used in 23 % of the cases, while 43% online for a longer period of time.
of Chicaao serials had been used. Illinois
documents, a relatively small category,
Another contributing factor may be the
September 1980 OCLC rate increase for
had a monograph use rate of 54% and a first-time updates. It is not possible to
serial use rate of 86%. The remaining tell if a holdings symbol represents full
materials, which amounted to just over cataloging or an update.
half of the total sample, had a use rate It also should be noted that actual use
of 53% for monographs and 37% for figures may be somewhat higher than the
serials. statistics indicate because of the possi-
bility that another library may have used It is not known whether the low use
a record and then later cancelled their rate for items of 10 pages or less, espe-
holdings symbol. Such instances would cially Chicago publications, is caused by
probably be too uncommon to affect the other libraries not acquiring these ma-
final statistics significantly. terials or by their not cataloging them
Another use category examined in- online. Many libraries may place such
volved length of monographs cataloged. materials, uncataloged, in vertical files.
It was felt that part of the reason that However, OCLC members should be
MRL records were used less than the aware that there is almost certain to be
OCLC average was that many city doc- full-level cataloging available for any
uments cataloged by the library were for Chicago document published since 1976,
regardless of its length.
Total number of uses by type and clas-
What makes M R L "special" in sification was also examined in the sur-
vey. As of July 1982, OCLC monographs
terms of the aggregate statis- averaged 15.6 uses (holdings symbols)
tics is that the library strives and serials 6.8 uses (5, p. 4). Both figures
toward the ideal of fully cat- included MARC records, as well as mem-
aloging all of its acquisitions ber inputs. The current study determined
that MRL inputs had a substantially
online. Even though overall lower use rate for monographs and a
use figures suffer, the result somewhat lower use rate for serials. MRL
is better access for library pa- monographs averaged 5.2 uses, serials 4.8
uses. (These figures do not include the
trons and other network 15 records superseded by LC.) In other
members. respects the statistics were predictable
based on other areas of the study. Chi-
cago documents averaged fewer holdings
items of 10 pages or less. This guess symbols per record. Total records used
turned out to be accurate. As shown by from 1976-1979 averaged considerably
Table 2, a profile of use based on length more uses (5.9) than those from 1980-
reveals that records for items of 10 pages 1982 (3.7). Details are given in Table 3.
or less are by far the least used category In addition to listing use figures, a sep-
(11%). Use for other items (in 10 page arate tabulation was made of local (i.e.,
increments) ranges from 32% to 71%. Illinois) use. While 68% of the holdings
The sample average, minus the shortest symbols on MRL serials were from Illi-
category of records, rises to 51% . nois libraries, the figure for monographs
Table 2. Use of MRL Sample Records Subdivided by Length of
Total Total % Used % Used % Used
Length Number % Used Chicago Chicago Illinois Illinois Other Other
1-10 p. 112 11% 70 7% 5 20% 37 16%
11-20 p. 78 45% 25 20% 4 75% 49 55%
21-30 p. 57 40% 18 17% 6 67% 33 48%
31-40 p. 34 71% 10 60% 2 100% 22 73%
41-50 p. 28 57% 12 33% - - 16 75%
51-60p. 26 62% 7 43% 1 100% 18 67%
61-70 p. 22 32% 8 38% 3 100% 11 9%
71-80p. 21 48% 5 40% 3 0% 13 62%
81-90p. 14 7 1% 3 100% 3 33% 8 75%
91-loop. 13 54% 4 25% 2 50% 7 71%
101+ D. 120 51% 33 27% 7 57% 80 60%
10 special libraries
Table 3. Average Number of Uses per MRL Input Arranged by Period,
Type of Record, and Classification.
No. in Average No. No. in Average No.
Class. Sample No. Uses Ill. Uses Sample No. Uses Ill. Uses
1976-79 Chicago 32 3.8 2.1 18 3.0 2.1
Illinois 8 6.0 5.4 1 22.0 21.0
Other 91 7.0 1.1 8 7.1 3.5
Total 13 1 6.2 1.6 27 4.9 3.2
Combined 158 5.9 1.9
1980-82 Chicago 12 1.8 1.3
Illinois 11 3.4 2.7
Other 53 4.1 1.1
Total 76 3.6 1.4
Combined 88 3.7 1.6
1976-82 Chicago 44 3.3 1.9 20 3.0 2.0
Illinois 19 4.5 3.8 6 8.7 8.0
Other 144 5.9 1.1 13 5.8 3.0
Total 207 5.2 1.5 39 4.8 3.2
Combined 246 5.1 1.8
was only 29% (see Table 4). This dis- input. The major factor, however, is
crepancy reflects the fact that well over length. Because a disproportionate num-
half (61%) of the serials cataloged online ber of local documents cataloged by MRL
by MRL were for either local or state are brief (ten pages or less), total use fig-
materials, while 44% of the monographs ures are skewed downwards, and it ap-
were for local or state items. Both types pears that MRL records are not
of documents were used primarily by frequently used. Yet, once these partic-
other Illinois libraries. ular items are removed from considera-
Examination of the sample also tion the remaining figures are very close
showed that the OCLC database is a to the OCLC average, despite the fact
"live" catalog experiencing constant use that MRL is a special library. What
even for older records. Sixty-five MRL makes MRL "special" in terms of the ag-
records input from 1976-1979 had been gregate statistics is that the library strives
used during 1982 (39% of the total of toward the ideal of fully cataloging all of
used records from the period), while ten its acquisitions online. Even though over-
had been used for the first time. all use figures suffer, the result is better
access for library patrons and other net-
Conclusion work members.
It has been estimated that 45% of all
Figures derived from the sample allow OCLC records have no holdings symbols
for certain generalizations. The likeli- other than that of the inputting library
hood that an original cataloging record (6, p. 6). This may be an indication that
input by MRL will be used by another many libraries face a similar situation re-
library in the OCLC system depends on garding certain materials, yet they also
length of the item cataloged, whether or have decided that it is worth the effort
not the item is a local document, and how to catalog them. The long-term effect of
much time has passed since the date of such cataloging practice on the OCLC da-
tabase is difficult to determine. Already one hand, every record is of potential
the question has been raised whether the value since it may be used by another
OCLC database is too large for efficient library at some future date for cataloging,
searching (7). The presence of a large per- interlibrary loan or for research purposes.
centage of records unique to one li- On the other hand, certain categories of
brary-records which also are likely to inputs which in all probability will never
be used less as their immediate interest be used can be isolated. A sampling pro-
The presence of a large percentage of records
unique to one library-records which also are
likely to be used less as their immediate interest
fades-poses a potential problem for the future
of OCLC. This, in turn, raises the question of
whether online cataloging of every acquisition is
desirable or affordable.
fades-poses a potential problem for the cedure such as the one used in this study
future of OCLC. This, in turn, raises the will enable a library to describe more ac-
question of whether online cataloging of curately its own cataloging efforts and to
every acquisition is desirable or afford- identify areas where records are more or
able. less likely to be of interest to other mem-
One must balance the value of unique ber libraries.
records versus their burden on both This study shows that MRL has con-
OCLC and the inputting library. On the tributed to the OCLC database on two
Table 4. Total Number of Uses per MRL Input, Arranged by Period,
Type of Record, Classification, and Illinois or Non-Illinois Users.
No. in Total 111. % 11
1. No. in Total 111. % 111.
Years Class. - -
- Sample Uses --Uses Uses Sample Uses --
-- uses uses
1976- Chicago 32 122 67 55% 18 54 37 69%
79 Illinois 8 48 43 90% 1 22 21 95%
Other 91 636 102 16% 8 57 28 49%
Total 13 1 806 212 26% 27 133 86 65%
Combined 158 939 298 32%
1980- Chicago 12 21 15 71% 2 40%
82 Illinois 11 37 30 81% 27 90%
Other 53 216 60 28% 11 61%
- Total 76
1976- Chicago 44 143 82 57% 39 66%
82 Illinois 19 85 73 86% 48 92%
Other 144 852 162 19% 39 52%
Total 207 1080 317 29% 126 68%
Combined 246 1266 443 35%
distinct levels. MRL has provided access both the value of the OCLC system and
to cataloging for materials in its area of the contributions of its member libraries.
specialization, i.e., Chicago and Chicago-
area government documents. These rec- Acknowledgments
ords have been used primarily by other
Illinois libraries. In addition, MRL has The author would like to thank the
input a wide variety of records for urban staffs of the Reference and Technical
affairs materials, and this portion of its Services Departments of the Chicago
cataloging has been used primarily by Municipal Reference Library for their
non-Illinois libraries. suggestions and encouragement during
Since its inception in 1971, OCLC's the preparation of this report.
shared cataloging system has been hailed
as a great aid in cataloging and in resource Literature Cited
sharing. The shortcomings of the system
have also been mentioned frequently. 1. Morrow, Mary Deborah/"The Chicago
What seems clear from the present study Municipal Reference Library." Rlinois Li-
is that the strength of OCLC depends on braries 62 (no. 3): 252-256 (March 1980).
the extent to which its online catalog is 2. Robinson, Barbara M./"The Role of Spe-
put to use. The frequent use of these cial Libraries in the Emerging National
records, including those input by a spe- Network: Critical Issues." Special Libraries 72
cial library, shows the vitality of the sys- (no. 1): 12-13 (Jan. 1981).
3. Beasley, Ruth Ann/"Another Look at
tem. The usefulness of an unused record OCLC's Potential for Special Libraries."
is more difficult to evaluate, but it may Journal of the American Sonety for Information
well provide the only ready means of ac- Science 31 (no. 4): 300-301 (July 1980).
cess to unique and valuable research 4. Crowe, William J./"Cataloging Contrib-
items. uted to OCLC: A Look One Year Later."
Catalogers often ask themselves Library Resources 6 Technical Services 25 (no.
whether any other library in the OCLC 1): 56-62 (Jan./March 1981).
system will ever use the records which 5. "OLUC Statistics by Format-As of
they have worked so hard to create. More 820717 (OCLC)." ILLINET Bibliographic
often than might be expected the answer Data Base Service. Information Bulletin 1254
(Sept. 28, 1982).
is yes. By extrapolating the averages ar- 6. Reynolds, Dennis/"Characteristics of the
rived at in this sample, one can estimate OCLC Data Base." Action for Libraries 7 (no.
that between 1976 and 1982 the records 4): 6 (April 1982).
contributed by the Chicago Municipal 7. Wanninger, Patricia Dwyer. "Is the OCLC
Reference Library-a small library com- Database Too Large? A Study of the Effect
pared to many OCLC members-have of Duplicate Records in the OCLC Sys-
been used about 5,300 times, 1,850 times tem." Library Resources 6 Technical Services 26
by Illinois libraries alone. Based on a five- (no. 4): 353-361 (Oct./Dec. 1982).
day work week, MRL inputs have been
used about 3.4 times per day over the Received for review M a r c h 3, 1983. Manuscript
past six years. This use pattern indicates accepted for publication A u g 16, 1983.
Gunnar Knutson is currently assistant
catalog librarian, University of
Chicago, Chicago, Ill.
the Practical Side
The Jobline: A Valuable
Resource for Librarians
Nancy J. Emmick
San Jose State University, Clark Library,
San Jose, Ca.
A well-designed and implemented jobline can be an
asset to a sponsoring professional association, to
professionals seeking career opportunities, and to pro-
spective employers seeking talented personnel. Many
activities related to initiating and operating a jobline
are discussed, including ordering the telephone lines,
selecting the recording equipment, job listing forms,
probable costs, efficient tape formats, and the respon-
sibilities of the individual who must ultimately make
the system operate.
F OR THE LAST two years (1981-
1983), I have been the jobline
chairperson for the San Andreas/
San Francisco Bay Chapters of Special
instances where no guidelines were avail-
able (since the literature is so sparse), and
because user interest in the service has
been so fervent. Based on this experience
Libraries Association. The jobline is a and the lessons learned from it, this ar-
system for advertising and learning of job ticle describes what a jobline does, why
openings by telephone. In essence, the an organization might want to establish
jobline system hardware consists of a its own jobline service, how to set up and
tape recorder and two telephone lines, operate a system, and some conclusions
one for use by employers calling to list on the value of joblines.
job openings and the second for use by
job seekers calling to hear a recording of What Does a Jobline Do?
current job openings. Behind the scenes,
the system includes volunteer personnel A jobline is a new form of liaison be-
and a sponsor who set operating policy, tween those who are seeking positions
advertise the phone numbers, prepare the and those who are offering positions.
recordings, and pay for the system's op- Usually, positions in librarianship are
eration. discovered through referrals, attendance
Operating the jobline has been chal- at national conventions, newspaper ads,
lenging because it required solutions in alumni offices, and personal promotion.
44 Copyright 1984 Special Ltbraries Association special libraries
During good economic times there will Ordering telephone lines takes longer
be more positions available than individ- than one might expect. First, arrange an
uals to fill the openings. But when the appointment with the telephone com-
economy tightens, there are more job pany to have a new, separate line in-
seekers than positions. There are always stalled for use by job seekers. Allow
a few openings; the problem is to find approximately two weeks to get this con-
out about them. Few librarian positions nection. Because it uses a tape recorder,
appear in local newspaper ads; in one re- the jobline requires no telephone instru-
cent week, a major newspaper in our area ment. If an instrument is installed, dis-
listed one such opening while the jobline connect it to avoid continuous ringing.
listed seventeen. Remember, the jobline operates 24 hours
The two Special Libraries Association a day all year; the SLA jobline receives
chapters in the San Francisco Bay Area hundreds of calls each week.
initiated the iobline in the hove that a When the phone line has been in-
selection of openings covering a rela- stalled, send the phone numbers to be
tively large geographic area would be of used by employers and by job seekers to
value to librarians. It now has become an professional organizations and journals
integral and vitally important means of for publication. We send ours to SLA
locating open positions for librarians and headquarters, ALA headquarters, Ameri-
library assistants over the entire Bay can Libraries, and The SpeciaLisL Jobline
Area. In fact, the jobline advertises open- phone numbers are also circulated
ings not only in special libraries but also through house organs and by referrals. If
in academic and public libraries. your jobline has already been functioning
The jobline serves both employees and on another line, ask the phone company
employers, whether individuals, compa- to provide a referral to the new number
nies or schools. A prospective employer when a new line starts.
calls a specified telephone number (usu-
ally the jobline chairperson's work num-
ber) or writes to the chairperson to list Jobline information should be
an opening. The job seeker calls a dif- obtained and presented in a
ferent telephone number to listen to consistent format. Callers
taped descriptions of the positions avail-
able. The advantages to both parties are find it easier to take notes
clear. The prospective employer can ad- when they know what infor-
vertise, knowing that the notice will mation is coming next. How-
reach a wide audience of prospective em- ever, the information se-
ployees with suitable education and ex-
perience. The prospective employee can quence is not as important as
match position qualifications to her or his maintaining consistency in
own abilities and apply with a much format.
more optimistic outlook.
Setting Up a Jobline System You may find, as we did, that the de-
mand for the jobline exceeds the capacity
Setting up a jobline requires someone of a single phone line. During 1981 and
to order the telephone lines, select suit- 1982, numerous complaints were re-
able recording equipment, design job de- ceived that the jobline was often busy.
scription forms, and get the proposed The solution was to install a second line
costs approved by the sponsor. It is not which operates on what the phone com-
a difficult task if one keeps certain prin- pany calls a "rotary" or "hunting" sys-
ciples in mind and plans ahead. The fol- tem. The telephone number for this
lowing guidelines are offered for each second line is not published. When some-
phase of initiating a jobline. one calls the original number and the first
line is busy, the call is transferred au- primary machine, and we use the Phone
tomatically to the second line. The caller Mate 910 as the machine on the second
gets a busy signal only when both lines line, where it seems to function ade-
are in use. This system has been func- quately.
tioning well on our SLA jobline for the The Panasonic can relay outgoing mes-
last year. sages up to 15, 30, or 45 minutes long,
The selection of recording equipment which is more than adequate for our typ-
to be used for the jobline is not trivial ical 12-minute recording. The machine
and will probably require several days of stops when an individial hangs up or
research. Most telephone answering ma- when the message ends, and then re-
chines are designed to provide outgoing winds itself. Because new positions are
announcements 10 to 30 seconds long noted and announced first, this "hang-
and, at a signal, to record short incoming up" feature had proven to be particularly
messages, such as the caller's name and valuable; callers who hang up after hear-
phone number. Although all machines ing the new additions release the machine
provide the incoming message, a jobline to immediately reset itself for the next
has no need for the incoming-message caller.
capability. Rather, it requires a machine In general, the most important require-
that can handle outgoing messages of any ments a jobline answering machine must
length. The ideal machine would play a satisfy are: 1) to provide at least a 12-
tape containing any number of open po- minute outgoing capability, and to be
sitions, detect the end of the message or able to withstand the heavy use it will
the fact that the listener has hung up, receive once the jobline becomes func-
and immediately set itself to restart for tional.
the next caller. Unfortunately, such a ca- Tobline information should be obtained
pability is not available among the less and presented in a consistent format.
expensive (under $200) answering ma- Callers find it easier to take notes when
chines, although commercial machines they know what information is coming
designed for heavy use are available at next. However, the information sequence
prices starting at about $700. Our prob- is not as important as maintaining con-
lem was to find low-cost equipment that sistency in format.
would serve our purpose and then to We have tried several formats for new
work within the limitations of the less job listings. Figure 1presents the format
expensive equipment. that has been in use for the last year.
The original machine was a Phone Since job location is an important criteria
Mate model 910. Costing about $120, it for prospective employees, it is our prac-
was equipped to send messages on a 3-, tice to list the company name and the
6- or 12-minute tape to suit the number city where the job is located at the start
of job openings. Both this machine and of each listing. Next, the title of the po-
a used one of the same model that we sition is announced. Often the chairper-
bought for our second line seemed unable son will have to help the employer
to handle the volume of calls and broke identify the name of the position, e.g.,
down frequently. We then examined a LTA or librarian.
variety of alternative answering systems, The next items of information concern
both new and used, in the $100 to $200 the educational background or experi-
range. ence required for the position and the
After a four-month period of break- specific duties involved. Many employ-
downs, repairs and replacements, we fi- ers want the full description to be read
nally concluded that none of them would as it appears advertised in newspapers or
meet our requirements for message- brochures. Keep in mind, however, that
length and heavy use. Ultimately, we a typical newspaper ad would take 2 to
purchased a Panasonic model KX-TI520 3 minutes to read aloud, while only 30
for about $300, which has become our to 45 seconds normally can be allowed
Figure 1. New Job Listings Form.
Title of Position:
Requirements (Education and experience):
Half time or full time:
Permanent or Temporary:
Deadline date for resume:
Or contact (Telephone #):
on the jobline tape to describe each po- the flood of paperwork. Still others want
sition. One of the ways to limit the de- a rbume but will accept calls for addi-
scription is to provide only limited space tional information. It is best to warn po-
on the job listing form. One can also con- tential employers who do not want to be
serve space by using standard library called that industrious librarians will ob-
terms such as reference, cataloging, in- tain telephone numbers and call anyway.
terlibrary loan, and so on. Let employers One employer complained because his
know that they can embellish the de- librarians were upset by the large number
scription when they are contacted by of incoming phone calls regarding an
prospective applicants. open position. When he insinuated that
The next few lines on the form are self- his telephone number had been adver-
explanatory. Regarding salary, many em- tised on the jobline against his explicit
ployers ask for help or may want to list instructions, he was invited to listen to
the salary as "negotiable," "commensu- the jobline himself. The fact that no tele-
rate with experience," or "competitive." phone number was given had not de-
Others may want to list a set salary range. terred the candidates.
It is best to elicit some numerical re- The current version of the form does
sponse, if possible. At one time a rec- not provide a space for recording the date
ommendation was made to restrict the the job is placed on the jobline. In prac-
job listings to positions posting salaries tice, when a form is filled out, the date
of not less than $12,000 per year. Such a the new position will go on the line is
policy is difficult to enforce because indicated. Every week the forms are re-
many employers want to advertise salary viewed, and positions that have been on
terms as "negotiable." the jobline for 30 days are removed. This
There is considerable variation regard- use of the form has proved to be very
ing employers' contact preferences. Some valuable, because it provides systematic
want only a rCsumC and cover letter and assurance that older and probably filled
do not want any phone contacts. Others positions are removed from the jobline
want a telephone call first to eliminate tapes.
There is considerable variation regarding employ-
ers' contact preferences. Some want only a re-
sum6 and cover letter and do not want any phone
contacts. Others want a telephone call first to
eliminate the flood of paperwork. Still others
want a resum4 but will accept calls for additional
information. It is best to warn potential employers
who do not want to be called that industrious
librarians will obtain telephone numbers and call
There will be significant variations in know the name of the volunteer jobline
the cost of operating a jobline system chairperson, as well as how often and
because telephone rates differ in specific when the tape was to be updated. We
regions. Nevertheless, it is possible to es- also wanted to advertise the phone num-
timate the cost of such an operation to ber potential employers should use to list
an organization. Our experience shows a new position. As a result, the SLA job-
the following initial costs: phone-line in- line recording starts off with the follow-
stallation, $77.16 each; Panasonic Model ing message:
KX-T1520, 300.00 each. The following
annual operating costs were incurred: SLA, San Andreadsan Francisco Bay Job-
two-line service with rotary ($18.00/ line. The positions will remain on the job-
mo.), $216.00 per year; maintenance, line for one month unless it is determined
$60.00. that they have been filled. Every Monday
morning new positions will be added. To
Most jobline are free to users (except list a position, call [Chairperson's name] at
for the cost of the phone call), although [phone number]. This is [date] and there
there are some that now charge employ- are [number] positions available.
ers for each new listing. SLA's head-
quarters initiated a system of charges in To be sure that the positions offered
1982; the rates were $25.00 for the first were kept current, we decided to limit
60 words and $5.00 for each 10 words the term a listing would remain on the
thereafter. We considered charging but jobline. After much debate we decided
have decided to remain a free service to that 30 days was adequate. Although we
maximize the number of positions listed. ask employers to inform us when a po-
sition has been filled, the job listing is
Recording the Job Listings removed after the set period-or earlier
if we are notified.
It is essential that some consideration The high degree of interest exhibited
be given to decisions regarding jobline bv librarians in the San Francisco Bav
tape-recording policies. These will in- &ea encouraged us to update the jobline
clude such items as tape formats, tape weekly, usually late Sunday evening or
updating frequency, the term of job early Monday morning. On the average,
listings, presentation sequence, and de- about two to five new listings are added
scriptive content. The following is a dis- and as many old listings are removed
cussion of decisions we made regarding each week.
the recording of the SLA jobline. Some The sequence in which one announces
may be of use to you in formulating your the categories of positions available can
own operations. have a significant impact on how often
We wanted the listener to be aware of the system can be accessed, because job
SLA as the sponsor of the tapes and to seekers who are familiar with the se-
quence can hang up once they have lis- to find a backup person who will pe-
tened to those positions which interest riodically check the answering machine,
them. The ~anasonicsystem detects a call the employers, prepare the listings
hang-up and immediately resets itself for and do the recording for the vacation
the next caller. To minimize calling times, period.
we chose the following order of priority: A good jobline chairperson is always
1) the introductory announcement; 2) aware of public relations responsibilities.
new librarian positions; 3) older librarian These become critical when there are dis-
positions; 4) new library staff positions; ruptions in the service caused by me-
5) older library staff positions; and 6 ) chanical failure or personnel problems.
"The E n d statement. Good public relations are particularly
Our experience indicates that active needed during the transition from one
searchers tend to hang up after the sec- chairperson to another. It is at such times
ond item is completed. We also have that simple announcements on answering
added a "This is the end of the [date] machine tapes or on the jobline itself can
jobline" statement to encourage listeners be of tremendous value in avoiding con-
to hang up promptly. fusion. For example, when both of our
In informal surveys, people who have machines failed, we got one on loan with
used the system reported the need to lis- only a 20-second tape which was used
ten to the tapes repeatedly in order to get to make the humorous apology, "Sorry,
all the information needed for their re- our machine ate the tape!" for the service
sponses. Therefore, we have found it use- interruption. It is also our practice to re-
ful to repeat several types of information: cord an announcement giving the name
names of companies (with the names and phone number of the new chairper-
spelled out); addresses; names of the
company contacts (spelled out); and
son. These actions do a areat deal to
maintain an image of operational relia-
phone numbers. bility.
The descriptive material is limited to The jobline is a terrible taskmaster, but
what is presented in the job listing format it can offer a great amount of personal
(see Figure I), when necessary, is short- satisfaction. Often, while attending
ened to allow 40 seconds or less for each shops or seminars, I have been told, "Oh,
job listing. This enables us to include you're the voice" when introduced to
about 25 active listings on a 15-minute someone. I have been thanked personally
tape. by dozens of individuals for helping them
find a position. At one workshop alone,
seven of fifteen attendees had obtained
Jobline Chairperson their positions by responding to our job-
The position of jobline chairperson is
a public one and should not be under-
taken unless one is willing to devote the Conclusions
considerable time required. Since a suc-
cessful jobline must always be accessible Joblines are a vital link for librarians
to both potential employers and employ- and library technicians to locate openings
ees, the jobline chairperson must be in the field. As many as 250 positions
available to employers during normal have been announced through the Bay
working hours; however, it may be val- Area jobline in one year. Most of the
uable to have a third answering machine positions are local, but some are out of
to take messages from employers so that state; some are even out of the country,
their calls can be returned at more con- including such places as Saudi Arabia and
venient times. Such an arrangement New Caledonia. Positions are also avail-
proved to be quite satisfactory for our able from different sectors, including
jobline in cases of short absences and ill- school, public and corporate libraries. In
ness. During vacation, however, it is best June 1983, the jobline even listed five
new positions in various California library community. Members of SLA
prison libraries. gain by knowing they can easily learn
The most important factor in operating about new positions. Some members who
a successful jobline is achieving consist- are not actively in the job market call just
ency-in terms of availability, updating, to determine whether a "quality" open-
and format-to allow users to know what ing might be available, or to stay aware
to expect and rely on. Our jobline is used of current salary ranges. Thus, the SLA
constantly. Calls often come in as late as jobline has become a barometer of the
2:OO-4:00 a.m. Considering the volume of entire field of librarianship, as well as a
usage, it is apparent that the jobline is highly effective way of linking job seek-
important to librarians. The more than ers and employers.
250 new library positions placed on the
system in 1982 also attests to the service's
value to employers. The jobline provides
employers a free and highly effective ad- Received for review Aug 9, 1983. Manuscript
vertisement, reaching a wide audience of accepted for publication Oct 12, 1983.
professional librarians and library assist-
ants who are well qualified to meet their
Sponsoring organizations, such as Spe- Nancy J. Emmick is reference librar-
cial Libraries Association, also benefit ian at San Jose State University, Clark
from such a service. The name of the Library, San Jose, CA, and the propri-
sponsor is linked continuously with a etor of EBG Library Consultants, Los
service that has proven to be vital to the Altos, Ca.
On the Scene
1984 Candidates for SLA Office
Ballots and voting instructions will
be mailed from the Association
Office in early April.
H. ROBERT MALINOWSKY general man-
is SLA Chapter Activities. In the Colorado
ager of Libraries Unlimited, Inc., Littleton, Chapter, he was bulletin editor (1964/66). In
Colo. He attended Midland College, received the Heart of America Chapter he served as
a BS in geological engineering from the Uni- vice-president (1968/69), president (1969/
versity of Kansas (1955), did graduate work 70), and as a member of the chapter's Board
in geology at the University of Kansas, and of Directors (1970/71).
received an MA in librarianship from the Uni-
versity of Denver (1963). SLA Division Activities. He was chairman-
elect of the Sci-Tech Division (1982/83) and
Before entering the library profession he chairman (1983/84).
was production engineer, Gulf Oil Corp. He
went to the University of Kansas as assistant Association-Level Activities. He was a
science and engineering librarian (1963/64). member of the Education Committee (1967-
He then became science librarian and instruc- 70), serving as chairman (1971/74); Chapter
tor, Graduate School of Librarianship, Uni- Relations Committee (1970/71); SLA Repre-
versity of Denver (1964/67) before returning sentative to the American Association of Li-
to the University of Kansas as science librar- brary Schools-Continuing Library Education
ian (1967/69). He was appointed assistant di- Network (1972/74); chairman, Chapter Cab-
rector of libraries for public services (1969/ inet (1974/75); member, Board of Directors
76) and associate dean of libraries (1976/83). (1975/78); Finance Committee (1979-81). A
He assumed his present position in 1983. member of SLA since 1963.
Other Professional Activities. He has been H.
EDWINA (DIDI) PANCAKEdirector, Sci-
a member of Geoscience Information Society ence/Technology Information Center, Uni-
and has served as president (1970) and on the versity of Virginia Library, Charlottesville,
GIs Geoscience Serials Committee. He was a Va. She began her service at the library as
member of ASIS serving as president of the science information specialist (1969/73), be-
Frontier Chapter (1972). He is a member of came acting director (1973) and was promoted
Mountain Plains Library Association and has to her present position the following year. She
served as president-elect and program chair- received a BS in biology from Baylor Uni-
man (1976/77); president (1977/78); and versity (1967) and an MLS from the Univer-
member, Professional Development and sity of Texas at Austin, GSLS.
Grants Committee (1980/82).
He is a member of American Library As- SLA Chapter Activities. As a member of
sociation, serving on the Reference and Sub- the Virginia Chapter, she has served as chair-
scription Books Review committee, and as a man, Public Relations Committee (1970/71);
member of Library and Information Tech- editor, V A S L A Bulletin (1971/73 and 1975/76);
nology Association and Association of College president-elect (1973/74); president (1975/
and Research Libraries. He is life member of 76); and chairman, Nominating Committee
the honorary engineering fraternity, Tau Beta (1978/79).
Pi. He has served on the graduate faculty of
the University of Denver Graduate School of SLA Division Activities. She is a member
Librarianship, School of Pharmacy at the Uni- of both the Publishing and the Science Tech-
versity of Kansas, and Department of Librar- nology Divisions. In the latter, she has served
ianship at Emporia State University where he as chairman, Membership Committee (1976/
taught administration of special libraries. 77); chairman-elect (1977/78); and chairman
He was appointed to the Kansas State Li-
brary advisory commission (1974/79). He was Association-Level Activities. Since joining
on the Advisory Board of a Continuing Li- SLA in 1968, she has been a member of the
brary and Information Science Education Agenda Committee, SLA Advisory Council
Project conducted by Catholic University of (1974/75); chairman, Joint Cabinets Study
America and funded by NCLIS and was on Committee on Subject-Oriented Groups
the board of directors of SALINET, a project (1979/80); chairman-elect, Chapter Cabinet
to use an earth satellite for library purposes. (1980/81) and chairman (1981/83); chairman,
He was keynote speaker at Iowa University 1983 New Orleans Conference Program Com-
(1973) for a seminar on trends in science in- mittee (1983/84); and chairman, Chapter
formation; Alberta L. Brown Lecturer in spe- Cabinet (1983/84).
cial librarianship at Western Michigan
University (1976); keynote speaker at the Other Professional Activities. She has held
Mid-Continental Regional Group meeting of membership in the Virginia Microfilm As-
the Medical Library Association (1979 and sociation, serving as secretary/treasurer
1982). He is co-author of Science and Engineering (1970/71) and member, Executive Board
Literahre, 3rd ed. (Libraries Unlimited, Inc., (1971/73). She has also been a member of the
1980); he also reviews reference books for Virginia Library Association (1970/79). Her
American Library Association and American publications include a paper in Special Libraries
Reference Books Annual (Libraries Unlimited, and many articles in chapter and division bul-
For Chapter Cabinet Chairman-Elect
EMILY MOBLEYlibrary director, GMI En-
gineering & Management Institute, Flint,
Mich. She received her AB (1964) and AMLS
(1967) from the University of Michigan. She
was engineering librarian, Chrysler Corpo-
ration (1965/69); science librarian, Wayne
State University (1969/75); staff assistant,
General Motors Research Laboratories (1976/
78), and supervisor, Reader Services (1978/
ANDERSON MOBLEY 81). She assumed her present position in 1982.
SLA Chapter Activities. In the Michigan
VIRGINIA ANDERSONlibrarian, Aeronau-
is Chapter she was bulletin editor (1972/73), a
tics and Energy Research Libraries, California member of the Education Committee (1974/
Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Ca. She 76), a member of the Program Committee
majored in business administration at UCLA (1976/79), president-elect and chairman of
and has taken additional extension classes and the Program Committee (1979/80), president
workshops in records management, computer (1980/81), chairman of the Long-Range Plan-
data processing for managers, and other in- ning Committee (1981/82), and chairman of
formation handling functions. the Nominating Committee (1982/83).
Before assuming her present position in
SLA Division Activities. In the Engineering
1971, she was librarian, Space General Corp.,
Division she was chairman of the Member-
and librarian, SES Division, Aerojet General
ship Division (1971/73). In the Library Man-
Corp., El Monte, Ca. (1962-71).
agement Division she handled local
SLA Chapter Activities. In the Southern arrangements for the 1982 Detroit Conference
California Chapter she has served as member and is currently secretary (1983/85). She is
of the Executive Board (1976/77 and 1979/ also a member of the Information Technology
82); membership chairman (1976/77); editor, Division.
Membership Directory (1977); member, Program
Committee (1977/79); president-elect/pro-
Association-Level Activities. She has
served as member, Resolutions Committee
gram chairman (1979/80) and president
(1969/71) and chairman (1969/70); member,
Committee on Positive Action (1972/74); Re-
SLA Division Activities. As member of the search Committee (1977/80). A member of
Aerospace Division, she was chairman, Nom- SLA since 1968.
inating Committee, and is currently interna-
tional treasurer (1983/84). Other Professional Activities. She is ad-
junct lecturer at the University of Michigan
Association-Level Activities. She has been and is a member of ALA, National Association
a member of SLA since 1967. for Female Executives, and Women's National
Book Association. She has served on various
Other Professional Activities. She has task forces and committees for the State of
served as consultant for the Pasadena All Michigan Library.
Saint's Church (1976), the Pasadena Public She is the co-author of Special Libraries at
LIbrary (1979), and Unitek, a subsidiary of Work (Shoe String Press, scheduled for pub-
Bristol Myers (1981/82). She is a member of lication in late 1983). Her article "Library Op-
the Southern California Online Users Group erations within a Decentralized Corporate
and has appeared as speaker for the SLA/ Organization," appeared in Issues and Involve-
NMA Microform Workshop (1975). In ad- ment, pp. 86-94 (SLA, 1983). The paper had
dition, she has published a journal article and originally been presented as an Alberta L.
numerous pieces in her chapter's bulletin and Brown Lecture in Special Librarianship at
newsletter. A publication titled, GALCIT's Western Michigan University in 1980. She
Aero Library: Serendipitous Fruit of a Timely Invest- has also published articles in Michigan Librarian
ment; Special Collections, appeared in fall 1983. and Michigan Alumnus.
For Division Cabinet Chairman-Elect
man, Division Cabinet Committee on Annual
Meetings (1976/77) and member of the Di-
vision Cabinet Committee on the Formation
and Scope of Divisions (1978/79).
SLA Association-Level Activities. She was
John Cotton Dana Lecturer (1963); SLA Pro-
gram Coordinator, American Federation of In-
-- formation Processing Societies' Fall Joint
CLIFTON KELLEY Computer Conferences (1969/73); represen-
tative, World Simulation Organization (1971/
JOE ANN CLIFTON manager, Information She was a member of the following com-
Services, Litton Industries, Inc., Woodland mittees: Recruitment (1968/69); Government
Hills, Ca. She attended Santa Monica City Information Services (1968/69,1971/74) Pub-
College and the University of California, Los lisher Relations (1969/71); 75th Anniversary
Angeles. At Litton Industries, she previously Committee (1982/84). A member of SLA since
was chief librarian, Information Services. 1956.
SLA Chapter Activities. In the Southern Other Professional Activities. As a mem-
California Chapter, she was advertising man- ber of ASIS, she has served on the Board of
ager (1965/69); program chairman (1974/75); Directors and was director of both the Special
president-elect (1975/76); president (1976/ Interest Group (1974/77) and the Chapter As-
77); area luncheon coordinator (1977/78); rep- sembly (1979/84); she was chairman, Los An-
resentative for the three SLA California Chap- geles Chapter (1971); deputy chairman, 1973
ters to the Governor's Planning Committee for Annual Meeting; chairman, SIG on Infor-
the White House Conference. She was chair- mation Analysis and Evaluation; cabinet rep-
man of the following committees: Nomina- resentative for the SIG on Management. She
tions (1972/73); Scholarship Event (1974); has chaired the following national commit-
Management Seminar (1975/76); Speakers tees: Watson Davis Award Jury; Chapter of
Bureau (1968/70); Consultation (1979/80); the Year Jury; SIG of the Year Jury; Award
Chapter 75th Anniversary Committee (1983/ of Merit Jury and Membership Committee.
84); and a member of numerous committees. She has been a member of the Executive,
Budget and Finance, Conferences and Meet-
SLA Division Activities. In the Aerospace ings, Awards and Honors, Nomination,
Division she was chairman-elect, (1973/74); Professional Leadership Committees and the
chairman (1974/75); Nominations and Elec- Organizational Structure Task Force.
tions Committee chairman (1968/69, 1976/ In addition, she is a member of the Society
77); and auditor (1977). In the Information for Information Display (National Archivist
Technology Division (Formerly Documenta- and Board member, 1972/80); Los Angeles
tion Division): chairman-elect (1977/78); Regional Technical Information Users' Coun-
chairman (1978/79); division liaison, Annual cil (founder and chairman); AFIPS History of
Meeting (1968). She was chairman of the fol- Computing Committee (1978/83); ACM; Na-
lowing committees: Public Relations (1967/ tional Classification Management Society;
68); Membership (1968/69); Nomination American Management Association; and on
(1970/71); Name and Scope (1977). In the Li- the Advisory Board of the Institute of Cost
brary Management Division: chairman-elect Analysis.
(1981/82); chairman (1982/83); chairman, Re- A recipient of the ASIS Watson Davis
gional Meetings Committee (1983/84); chair- Award i n 1978 for continuous dedicated ser-
man, Long-Range Planning Committee vice to the membership; "Outstanding Mem-
(1981/82); auditor (1977). In the Sci-Tech Di- ber A w a r d from the Los Angeles Chapter of
vision: chairman, Nomination and Election ASIS (1976); Honorable Mention (for editor-
Committee (1973/74); chairman, Student Sti- ship) ASIS Best Chapter Newsletter. She has
pend Committee (1974/75). She was chair- been listed in W h o ' s W h o of American Women,
Who's W h o in the West, Who's W h o in /he Library SLA Chapter Activities. As a member of
Field, Who's W h o of Women in Communication, and the Virginia Chapter, she has served as Special
International Dictionary of Who's Who. She is the Programs chairman; member, Nominating
author of one book and 8 research reports, Committee and Employment Committee;
and has published 5 journal articles and 10 chapter president-elect (1977/78) and presi-
submissions to chapter/division bulletins. dent (1978/79).
Association-Level Activities. Since joining
SLA in 1975, she has served on the Publisher
Relations Committee and the AAP/SLA Joint
Committee (1978/79), as well as on two Di-
CORNELIA (CONNIE) is
KELLEY acquisi- vision Cabinet Committees-Division For-
tions librarian, University of Virginia, Char- mation and Division Cooperation.
lottesville, Va. She received her BA from
Rollins College, an MS from Louisiana State SLA Division Activities. In the Publishing
University, and a Library Administrators De- Division she has served as member, Hospi-
velopment Program Certificate from the Uni- tality and Nominating Committees; chairman,
versity of Maryland at College Park. Awards Committee; chairman-elect (1980/
She has held numerous positions at the 81); and chairman (1981/82). She is also a
University of Virginia Library prior to her member of the Library Management Division.
present one. These include cataloger; peri-
odicals librarian; acting director, Serials De- Other Professional Activities. She is a
partment; and acting director, Eastern Shore member of the Virginia Library Association,
Branch, University of Virginia Library (joint the Southeastern Library Association and the
UVa/NASA facility). Association of Scholarly Publishing.
For Directors ( 1 984/87)
RICHARD FUNKHOUSER science librar-
L. is Committee (1963/64); treasurer (1967/69); di-
ian, Purdue University Libraries, West Lafay- rector-at-large (1971/72); president-elect
ette, Ind. He received a BS Ed degree (1956) (1972/73); president (1973/74); chairman,
and an MA in library science (1957) from Chapter Bylaws & Manual Revision Com-
Indiana University. mittee (1974/75); and chairman, Awards
His career at Purdue began as assistant, Ref- Committee (1982/83).
erence Department (1957/58); thereafter, he
served as engineering librarian (1958/59) and SLA Division Activities. While a member
mathematical sciences and geosciences librar- of the Engineering Division, he was chairman,
ian (1969/75). He assumed his present posi- Nominating Committee (1963/64). He is a
tion in 1975. founding member of the Physics Astronomy-
Mathematics Division in which he served as
SLA Chapter Activities. In the Indiana treasurer (1974/76), chairman-elect (1976/
Chapter he has been chairman, Membership 77), chairman (1977/78) and past-chairman
(1978/79); chairman, Nominating Committee viewer, Sci-Tech News (1975/1977). He was also
(1980/81); and chairman, Bylaws Revision chairman, Information-Technology Division
Committee (1983/84). He is currently a mem- (1980/1981) and chairman, Human Resources
ber of the Science-Technology Division. Section, Library Management Division (1983/
Association-Level Activities. He was a
member of the Scholarship Committee (1975/ Association-Level Activities. A member of
76, 1977/78) and served as committee chair- SLA since 1952, he was the President's ad hoc
man (1977/78); member, Nominating Com- Representative to the Committee on Special-
mittee (1980/82) and chairman (1980/81); ized Cataloging, Council on National Library
member, Education Committee (1983/84, and Information Associations (1979/1980);
1985/86); SLA Representative to ANSI 239, member, Education Committee, 1981-.
Library/Information Science and Related
Publishing Practices (1978/79, 1982/83); ad- Other Professional Memberships. He is
visor, Career Advisory Service (1981/83). A member, American Society for Information
member of SLA since 1960. Science (1955-); consulting editor, Journal of fhe
American Sociefy for Information Science (1975-
Other Professional Activities. He is cur- 1977); member, Public Affairs Committee
rently a member of ALA. While serving as a (1979/1981); member, Education Committee
library consultant to the U.S. Agency for In- (1982-).
ternational Development, he was visiting li- He is the author of "Unlocking the Library's
brarian, Indian Institute of Technology, Market-Seven Keys," in Special Librarianship-
Kanpur, India (1964/66). He has published 10 A New Reader, edited by Eugene B. Jackson
articles in chapter & division bulletins, has (Scarecrow Press, 1980). He has received hon-
contributed to one book and has worked as ors from the National Academy of Sciences.
senior compiler on another.
Lou B. PARRISis supervisor, Information
JAMESL. OLSEN, is librarian, National Center, Exxon Production Research Com-
Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. He pany, Houston, Tex. She was formerly infor-
received a BA from the University of Mary- mation specialist at Southern Methodist
land (1951). Before assuming his current po- University, Industrial Information Service
sition in 1962, he was preparations librarian, (1966/67) and Collins Radio Company (1968/
Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics
Laboratory (1951/1953); head, Document 70). She graduated with a BA from South-
western University (1956) and received an
Services Unit, Science Information Dept.,
Smith, Kline and French Labs. (1953/1961); MLS degree from The University of Texas at
and resident consultant, Herner & Co. (1961/ Austin (1967).
1962). SLA Chapter Activities. A member of the
Texas Chapter, she has served as 2nd vice-
SLA Chapter Activities. As member of the president and bulletin editor (1970/71); 1st
Washington D.C. Chapter he was 2nd vice vice-president and program chairman (1971/
president (1963/1964); associate editor, Chap- 72); president (1972/73); and member, Long-
fer Notes (1964/1965); Recruitment Committee
Range Planning Committee (1980/82).
chairman (1964/1965); director (1966/1968);
business manager, Chapter Direcfory and Hand- SLA Division Activities. In the Petroleum
book (1966); chapter auditor (1970); chairman, and Energy Resources Division she was chair-
Committee on Interlibrary Cooperation man-elect (1976/77); chairman (1977/78); and
(1971); chairman, Elections Committee (1972); member, Nominating Committee (1978/79).
director (1975/1977); and president (1978/ In the Information Technology Division she
1979). was member, Nominating Committee (1982/
83). She is also a member of the Library Man-
SLA Division Activities. He was chairman, agement Division.
Pharmaceutical Section, now Division (1957/
1958). In the Sci-Tech Division, he was chair- Association-Level Activities. Since joining
man, Elections Committee (1956); chairman, SLA in 1966, she has participated in the work
Nominations Committee (1973); member, of the Nominating Committee (1976/77) and
Committee on Projects Evaluation and De- the Conference Program Committee (1981/
velopment (1974/1975); contributing re- 82).
Other Professional Activities. She holds chairman, Aerospace Section (1968/69); di-
memberships in the Association of Records rector, Public Relations (1969/70); corre-
Managers and Administrators, Geoscience In- sponding secretary and director, Membership
formation Society; Petroleum Abstracts Serv- (1972/73); president-elect, president, past-
ice and Georef Advisory Committees. He is president (1973/76); member, Nominating
also a member of Alpha Chi. Committee (1976/77); chairman, Awards
Committee (1980/81); member, California
Master Plan Committee (1981/82).
SLA Division Activities. She is a member
LAURA RAINEYis manager, Technical In- of the Information Technology, Science Tech-
formation Center, Rockwell International nology and Library Management Divisions.
Corporation, Rocketdyne Division, Canoga She was business manager, Sci-Tech News
Park, Ca. She received her BA, MA and MLS (1968/70); treasurer, Library Management Di-
degrees from the University of California, Los vision (1976/78); member, Nominating Com-
Angeles. mittee, Sci-Tech Division (1979/80); and
She was formerly employed as librarian at secretary, Sci-Tech Division (1981/83).
Foote, Cone & Belding Advertising, Los An-
geles, Ca. (1958/60); as research assistant, Association-Level Activities. She was
Dept. of Psychiatry, UCLA (1965/66); and as chairman, Local Arrangements, SLA Annual
cataloger, The Rand Corporation (1965/66). Conference (1968); member, Government In-
She joined Rockwell International in 1966 as formation Services Committee (1968/70); co-
catalog librarian, Science Center before be- ordinator, SLA/NCC (1978); SLA appointed
coming technical processes librarian, Power member, Depository Library Advisory Coun-
Systems Division (1969/70) and head librar- cil to the Public Printer (1976/79). An As-
ian, Rocketdyne Division (1970/74). She as- sociation member since 1957.
sumed her present position in 1974.
Other Professional Activities. She is active
SLA Chapter Activities. As a member of in the Southern California Technical Proc-
the Southern California Chapter, she served esses Group, Los Angeles Regional Technical
as advertising manager, chapLr in (1958/ Information Users Council, UCLA Alumni
60); chairman. Business and Finance Section Association, Phi Gamma Mu, and National
(1963/196 ); ;ecording secretary (1966-67); Social Science Honor Society.
Officers and Directors who will con-
tinue to serve on SLA's Board of Directors
in 1984/85 are: Vivian Arterbery who au-
tomatically succeeds to the office of Pres-
ident: Pat Molholt who will serve as Past
President; Muriel Regan who will con-
tinue as Treasurer; James M. Matarazzo
who automatically succeeds to the office
of Chairman, Chapter Cabinet; and James
B. Tchobanoff who will serve as Chair-
man, Division Cabinet. Elisabeth S.
Knauff and JoAn Segal will serve the sec-
ond year of their three-year terms (1983/
86) as Directors. Frank Spaulding and
Mary Lou Stursa will serve the third year
of their three-year terms (1982/85) as Di-
Actions of the Board of Directors
October 27-28, 1 9 8 3
the final decision on selection of a new system
n e Fall Meeting of the SLA Board of Directors is and specified that the decision be made no
primarily a budgetary meeting in which the draft budget later than January 2, 1984. A ceiling of
for the next fiscal year is discussed, amended, and finally $125,000 was set as the total amount that can
adopted. In 1983 the Board met October 27-28 at the be expended from the Computer Fund for the
Vista International Hotel in New York City. n2e fol- new system.
lowing actions and discussions took place. The Board approved $3,250 for the pur-
chase of replacement typewriters, a desk
Finances-The Executive Director reported chair, and a report binding system.
on the status of Association Finances for fiscal The Association Office Operations Com-
year 1983. The 1983 Annual Conference, the mittee and the Finance Committee recom-
continuing education program and the Special mended to the Board a 6% cost-of-living
Libraries program are among the several profit salary increase for Association staff members,
centers that are expected to generate a healthy effective January 1, 1984. Since the previous
surplus in the General Fund budget for 1983. such increase (1980), the cost of living in the
The Board voted to appoint Weber, Lipshie New York area has increased by 21% ac-
& Company, as the Associaton's auditors for cording to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The
the 1983 fiscal year. Weber Lipshie has served Board approved the increase to assist staff in
the Association in this capacity since 1979. recovering some of its lost purchasing power.
In other actions relating to Association op-
Budget for FY 1984-The Board approved a erations, the Board approved a policy for non-
General Fund budget for FY 1984 after a care- job-related staff activities and adopted a new
ful review of the draft budget. Budgets for performance evaluation form for the Associ-
the Subsidiary Funds were also approved. ation's non-exempt employees.
The approved budget for the General Fund
projects $1,200 surplus income for FY 1984 Loan Requests of SLA Units-The Board
($1,170,800 income less $1,169,600 expenses). considered and approved requests of three
Several board actions of interest to the general Association units for interest-free loans:
membership are reflected in the approved
budget. These are highlighted in the remain- 1) Eastern Canada Chapter-$2,000 US for
der of this report. publication expenses for a revised union list
Chapter and Division Allotments-No 2) Geography & Map Division-$725 for
change in chapter or division allotments was printing costs for a directory of map cata-
recommended by the officers of the Chapter logers.
and Division Cabinets. Hence, the 1984 an- 3) Physics-Astronomy-Mathematics Di-
nual allotment for each chapter will be $5.25 vision-$4,000 for printing costs for a union
per member; chapters with less than 117 list of astronomy serials.
members will receive $500 plus $1.00 for each
member. Divisions will receive $4.50 per Funding Requests of SLA Units-Several
member or $500, whichever is greater. The SLA units requested funds from the Associ-
annual allotment is based on total chapter and ation to support special projects or activities.
Division membership as of December 31, The following were approved as outright
Association Office Operations-The Board 1) Cataloging and Access Committee-
authorized Association staff to seek bids from $400 for anticipated travel and per diem costs
vendors on a new computer system to replace of a speaker at the Committee's 1984 confer-
SLA's now obsolete IBM System/3 computer. ence program.
The Board further authorized staff to make 2) Consultation Service Committee-$250
for revision of the Consultation Service bro- braries (Boulder, Colorado, February 28-
chure. March 1, 1984).
2) Positive Action for Minority Groups The concept of an International Library
Committee-$500 for brochure revision, con- Year, as proposed by IFLA and the American
ference Program, and incidental expenses. Library Association, was considered and en-
4) Seventy-Fifth Anniversary (Special) dorsed. IFLA and ALA have already contacted
Committee-$250 for administrative ex- UNESCO to make the necessary arrange-
penses relating to the committee's charge. ments.
5) Scholarship Committee-$130 for inci- The Board reconsidered and decided not to
dental expenses related to selection of schol- endorse a recommendation in the NCLIS/SLA
arship winners. Task Force report on special library involve-
6) Division Cabinet-$300 for expenses ment in networks. The recommendation ( # l 2
related to the Cabinet's leadership program at in the report), concerning the undertaking by
the 1984 annual conference. NCLIS and SLA of a legal review of the im-
6) Representative to the Networking Ad- plications of the antitrust laws as they relate
visor~ Committee-$330 for travel expenses to future subject-oriented library network
to attend Committee meetings in ~ a s h k g t o n , configurations, was deemed not to be in the
D.C. purview of SLA.
The Board heard with interest the prelim-
The Copyright Law Implementation Com- inary plans for the Library Education Cen-
mittee requested $14,000 for legal fees, meet- tennial to commemorate the opening of the
ing travel, and other expenses arising out of first library school in January 1887. The Ex-
the committee's charge. Since the amount re- ecutive Director will act as the Association's
quested nearly matched the unspent balance liaison with ALA's Standing Committee on
($13,550) of the Committee's 1983 allotment, Library Education (SCOLE), keep the Board
the Board instructed staff to carry-over the informed of centennial developments as they
balance for the Committee's use in 1984. occur, involve the Education Committee and
The Board referred back to the Networking the Education Division as necessary, and ad-
Committee a request for $2,905 to fund an vise the Board of actions it should take to
update of the 1981 NCLIS/SLA survey on insure the Association's inclusion in the cel-
special library participation in networks. The ebration.
Board felt that it needs more information on
which to act-specifically, a plan of action Annual Conferences-The Board heard a
for implementing the survey and an indication progress report on program plans for the 1984
of the survey universe. annual conference. The conference, to be held
in New York City, June 9-14, will be the
Inter-Association Activities-There were culmination of SLA's 75th Anniversary
two items of business in this category with celebration and will include several spe-
financial implications: cial events in honor of the occasion. The
conference theme is "Information in the
1) The Board agreed to a two-year commit- Electronic Revolution."
ment for SLA's participation in a proposed Fred Roper, chairman of the 1984 Confer-
coalition to monitor developments in telecom- ence Program Committee, described plans for
munications that are affecting the transmis- the conference fund-raising event, an elec-
sion of data used in education, research, and tronic fair. The Board approved the Commit-
the provision of library services. The com- tee's recommendation for designation of the
mitment obligates SLA to annual dues of Building Fund as beneficiary of the proceeds
$2,000 in both 1984 and 1985. from the fair.
2) Travel funds amounting to $1,800 were The Board also considered a report from
approved to send SLA president, Pat Molholt, Jane Dysart, chairperson of the 1985 Confer-
as the Association's representative to six plan- ence Program Committee. The committee's
ning meetings for the 1985 conference of the request for adoption of a theme was approved:
International Association of Library Associ- "The Information Specialist: A Bridge to the
ations and Institutions (IFLA), which will be New Communications."
held in Chicago. The six planning meetings A definition of the Conference Program
will be split between New York and Chicago. Committee, as proposed by the Committee on
The Board approved designation of SLA as Committees, was approved.
a co-sponsor of the Conference on Contem- The Board referred to the next joint meeting
porary Issues in Academic and Research Li- of the Assocation's Chapter and Division
Cabinets a request from the Western Michi- Public Relations Policy Proposal-The
gan Chapter for inclusion of reports on di- Board considered a recommendation from an
vision conference programs in Special Libraries. informal task force on public communications
for the establishment of an SLA public rela-
Bylaws-The Board discussed the need for tions policy. The concensus of Board opinion
amending certain sections of the Association's was that the establishment of such a policy
bylaws. However, in light of the failure of the was premature at the present stage in the de-
last two attempts to amend the bylaws and veopment of both SLA's public relations
the considerable cost involved in undertaking program and a long-range plan. The rec-
a bylaws revision, the Board took no action ommendation and supporting documentation
to proceed with steps to amend the bylaws. was referred as resource material to the As-
sociation's Information Services Department
Special Program Fund Grants Awarded- and the Long-Range Planning Committee.
The Board evaluated sixteen project proposals Continuing Education Matters-The Board
for Special Programs Fund grants. Four pro- referred to the Education Committee a pro-
posals received after the September 1, 1983 posal from the Graduate School of Library and
deadline were not eligible for consideration. Information Science at the University of Cal-
A total of $5,000 was available for funding ifornia-Los Angeles for the establishment of
of worthy submissions. a senior fellows program for special librarians.
The funding of three project proposals was The proposal is modeled on a similar suc-
approved: 1) Competencies of Special Library M a n - cessful program at UCLA for top-level man-
agers: A Pilot Project, submitted by Marcy Mur- agers of academic research libraries.
phy; 2) Company Library Eicellence: Case Studies in The Scholarship Committee responded fa-
Management Support, submitted by James Ma- vorably to a proposal for establishing a mid-
tarrazzo; and 3) Presentations for Business Leaders, career study grant program for special librar-
submitted by the Boston Chapter. ians on the condition that the present Schol-
arship Program for MLS candidates not be
Legislation and Government Relations-A abandoned. The Board referred the proposal
statement drafted by the Government Infor- to the Education Committee for consideration
mation Services Committee was approved in with other aspects of Association education
concept as a response to a request for public program planning that will be forthcoming in
comment on the development of an OMB pol- the Association's long range plan.
icy circular on Federal information manage-
ment. The Board also accepted in principle Winter Meeting-The next meetings of the
the Copyright Committee's draft position SLA Board of Directors will be held in con-
statement on the Register of Copyrights Re- junction with the Association's 1984 winter
port to Congress on Library Reproduction of meeting in Colorado Springs, January 25-27,
Copyrighted Works. 1984.
This is the third in a series of four con-
secutive, specially commissioned papers
celebrating the Association's 75th An-
niversary. The final installment, in the
April issue of SL, will be by Joe Dagnese.
Bob Krupp, Chairman
75th Anniversary Committee
SLA's Long-Range Planning
Vision for the Future
Vivian J. Arterbery
Special Libraries Association has ac- when Guy Marion, then president of the
complished many worthwhile achieve- Association, established a committee to
ments but today, the Association's future address a crisis in the Association. Later,
depends more than ever on dynamic in the 1940s, a Committee of Three was
planning that considers the Association's established to study the Association's ac-
long-term future, has an effective mech- tivities. In the early 1960s, a Goals of
anism for the implementation of goals 1970 Committee was established; in
and allows for greater adaptability to ever 1963, the Goals for 1970 were approved
more rapid changes. by the Board (I).
Beginning in late 1979, the Association In 1967, the Board of Directors ap-
affirmed its commitment to long-range proved a recommendation of the Com-
planning and in 1981 established a Spe- mittee on Committees to establish a
cial Committee on Long-Range Planning Planning Committee. The purpose of the
with the charter to develop the Associ- Committee was to develop a flexible
ation's planning concept. Using this long-range plan for the Association. Al-
committee's "Plan to Plan" as a base, a though the Planning Committee did not
three-person Board Committee was ap- draft a long-range plan, it did propose
pointed in 1982 by President Janet M. the Goals for 1975 (2). While the goals
Rigney to lead the Association in the de- were valid, no effective implementation
velopment of a Strategy Plan. This article mechanism was devised. In 1971, Alleen
chronicles the Association's long-range Thompson wrote in the Planning Com-
planning process. mittee's annual report:
However, during the past year, it has be-
come increasingly clear that although the
SLA's Plannina Retros~ective goals for the most part seem valid, the
ways and means to implement them are
Since its founding in 1909, Special Li- causing all kinds of problems. As a result,
braries Association has always planned the Committee feels that it should review
and considered the future. The first evi- the goals in order of priority and then take
dence of long-range planning was in 1918 one at a time to see what can be done to
implement each one (3).
In 1973, after five board planning ses-
Vivian J. Arterbery is library director, Rand sions, a tentative decision was reached
Corporation, Santa Monica, CA 90406. that the Association's planning activities
j a n ~ a r y 1984 Copyright @ 1984 Special Libraries Association 61
were really a board responsibility. Over quest were to address concerns relating
the next year, a new role for the Planning to:
Committee evolved with responsibility services to the membership;
to address professional issues. In 1974,
the Association Planning Committee was increasing membership;
dissolved. external relations with professional as-
sociations, governmental agencies and
The Need for Long-Range other appropriate organizations;
By 1979, the information profession sources of funding;
and the Association had begun to ex-
staff relations with association units.
perience dramatic changes in both the ex-
ternal and internal environments. It was The responses resulted in a 29-page
evident that in both the short-term and report documenting issues and concerns
long-term future, technology would have (5). Concurrently, the Association staff
an accelerated impact on special librar- developed the document "Priorities for
ians/information professionals. Special the 80's" which identified the following
librarians were beginning to recognize nine priorities (6):
that the information profession, as well 1) Improve and establish communica-
as their role in their organizations, would tions with and among the membership,
change in the transition. Members were their client groups, allied associations/
also questioning whether the Associa- organizations, and other appropriate
tion's name-"Special Libraries Associ- groups.
ation''-reflected their current and 2) Secure new funding (government and
anticipated roles. The complexities of the foundation) for Special Libraries Asso-
Information Society were beginning to ciation.
emerge. 3) Develop a more efficient and effective
The Board and the Association staff internal management system.
recognized that SLA could no longer 4) Improve and extend the Continuing
merely react to issues as they emerged; Education Program.
continued effective management of the 5) Develop a publication program to
Association would require strategic plan- meet the expectations and needs of the
ning. That planning would address the special libraries community.
long-term objectives of the Association, 6 ) Develop a comprehensive, profes-
identify broad constraints and policies sional information dissemination pro-
that currently restrict Association activ- gram useful to persons working in the
ities and operate from a current set of special libraries field.
plans and near-term goals that contribute 7) Provide during the Annual Confer-
to achieving the Association's objectives ence enriched professional growth op-
(4). A long-range or strategic plan would portunities for all persons concerned
allow the Association to move toward about special libraries and their programs.
systematic, proactive, synopic and mis- 8) Provide additional membership serv-
sion-oriented decision-making. ices as required.
Setting the Stage 9) Develop, in cooperation with other
appropriate library and information as-
sociations, a global library program to
In August 1979, Executive Director improve the dissemination and use of re-
David R. Bender sent a "request for as- sources and information.
sistance in a planning venture" to the
Board of Directors, chapter presidents/ At the 1981 Winter Meeting, President
presidents-elect, division chairmen/ Jim Dodd called an informal session on
chairmen-elect, committee chairmen and long-range planning. Participants in this
SLA representatives. Replies to this re- session included chapter and division
officers with board members serving as Figure 1. SLA's Long-Range
facilitators and recorders. The topics dis- Planning Model.
cussed at these sessions spotlighted: con- I. Development Process
tinuing education, professional growth 0 Develop the "Plan to Plan"
and development of members, fiscal Accept planning concept ("Plan to
planning for the Association, directions Plan")
of membership and relationship of SLA's 0 Identify issues and problems
with other organizations. A wealth of Develop mission and goal state-
concerns and ideas on the topics were ments
generated and incorporated into the dis- 0 Develop specific strategic programs
cussions during the long-range planning 0 Accept the Association Strategy
process. These sessions also identified Plan
0 Distribute the Strategy Plan
strengths and weaknesses of the Asso-
ciation (7). I I . Implementation Process
In December 1981, President George H. Review and revise the Strategy Plan
Ginader assigned to each Board member annually
a discussion topic from "Priorities for the Initiate new planning process
80's" for consideration at a planning ses- Systematically review plan
sion prior to the January 1982 Board
Meeting. The purpose of this meeting The model addresses the importance of
was to stimulate the Board's thinking on developing a planning climate and the
goals and priorities for the Association. need for a commitment to the long-range
planning process. It also recognizes that
The Special Committee on Long- a strategy plan is not one plan but a set
Range Planning of plans.
Following the 1981 Winter Meeting, a
Special Committee on Long-Range Plan- The Work of the Board Long-
ning was appointed by President James Range Planning Committee
B. Dodd. This Committee, chaired by
Marjorie Hlava, included John Kane, Following the 1982 conference, a Board
John Borbely, Nancy Bush, Joe Jensen, Long-Range Planning Committee was
Enid Slivka and Maureen Roe. At the appointed by President Janet M. Rigney.
June 1982 Board Meeting, the Special The committee included Chapter-Cabi-
Committee on Long-Range Planning net Chairman Vivian Arterbery as Chair-
presented its Final Report. This report man; Division Cabinet Chairman Valerie
recommended the long-range planning Noble; and Past-President George
approach for the Association. Ginader.
The committee defined long-range The Long-Range Planning Committee
planning as a tool for organizing the pres- conducted a Delphi Inquiry of the Board
ent on the basis of the projection of the to identify issues and problems. The Del-
future; that is, a long-range plan is a road phi technique was selected because it is
map to lead an organization from where a widely used method for collecting in-
it is now to where it would like to be in formation from a group and serves as an
five or ten years. The committee called effective tool for idea generation. Since
for an association plan to include both it requires participation, it also increases
long-range and strategic elements (8). commitment to planning. Further, the
Additionally, a detailed, long-range plan- Delphi technique tends to elicit responses
ning model was developed which was on the most important issues without
modified by the Board and has served as making the subtler distinction between
a basis for the Association's long-range impact on the organization and the abil-
planning process. Figure 1outlines SLA's ity of the organization to change present
long-range planning model. conditions (9).
The Delphi Study was structured to round allowed the Board to review the
consist of four rounds: three conducted priority rankings and to make changes.
by mail and one at a meeting of the During the 1982 Fall Board Meeting, the
Board. The first round began with a free- Board reviewed the rankings and iden-
form request to each member of the tified the six highest priority issues using
Board to identify the major or critical the Nominal Group Technique.
issues facing the ~ssociation the next
three to five years. Board members were Association Priorities
- -- - -
reauested to submit no more than 12 is-
sues. This round generated 94 issues During the June 1982 Long-Range
which were collapsed into 26 statements Planning Meeting, the Board carefully
or priority issues. considered the question of how to "mo-
The second round of the Delphi Study bilize" broad membership involvement
required the Board to rank priority issue in the long-range planning process and
statements. Figure 2 summarizes the developed a plan to involve the mem-
Board's rankings of the issues. The third bership through chapter meetings which
Figure 2. SLA Delphi Inquiry Statements Ranked in Priority Order.
Ranking Index Abbreviated Statement Group Mean
1 Very Hi( Priority Reevaluate and improve continu- 4.91
ing education programs.
2 Develop a strong public relations 4.75
3 Examine the finances of the Asso- 4.75
4 High .iority Strengthen relationships with 4.0
other information-related organi-
Participation of SLA in graduate li- 3.58
brary education accreditation/
Establish task force to rethink and 3.5
redefine the library/information
Develop a campaign to increase 3.45
Reappraise membership services. 3.33
Encourage greater membership 3.33
Revamp conferences to allow 3.25
wider membership participation.
Develop curriculum objectives for 3.17
Develop a plan for the improve- 3.08
ment of chapter and division pro-
Figure 2 (Continued)
Ranking Index Abbreviated Statement Group Mean
13 Promote the concept of "equal pay
for comparable work."
14 Explore new technologies that
could make possible more effec-
tive and efficient services.
15 Examine the role of the Board
16 Re-evaluate the Association's Pub-
17 Establish a mechanism to effec-
tively address technical issues.
18 Ma nal Examine the Association's govern-
ment relations activities.
19 Provide direction toward an even-
tual "Federation of Information So-
20 Re-structure the Association.
21 Develop a means for providing
new information quickly to mem-
22 Develop a body of statistics.
23 Address the issue of professional
24 Work toward a name change by a
25 Not at al nportant Update or develop standards for li-
26 Develop services which can be
marketed for a fee.
would rank the priorities. Using the and 5) develop or improve management
Nominal Group Technique, 66% of the skills.
chapters participated in the long-range Priority 2-Develop a strong public re-
planning process. Figure 3 summarizes lations program for image creation, pro-
the chapter rankings. The Association's motion and interpretation of the special
priorities as ranked by the Chapters are: librarian and the information profession
Priorify I-Reinforce and expand the to the general public and to specific cor-
continuing education programs to: 1)re- porate, business and government leaders.
flect the need and desires of members; Priority 3-Reappraise membership
2) assist members in developing skills services with the specific goal of en-
to handle technological and economic couraging greater membership involve-
changes occurring in library and infor- ment. Also identify and evaluate con-
mation management; 3) train members to ference alternatives that would permit
market information services; 4) provide wider membership participation.
mid-career upgrading and re-training; Priority 4-Review the finances of the
Continuing Public Membership Association Curriculum/ Chapter/Division
Chapter Education Relations Services Finances Accreditation Programming
Heart of America
New York City
St. Louis Metropolitan
San Francisco Bay Region
Upstate New York
N = 36 Mean
LEGEND: 1 = Highest
Association and its constituent parts and ity of the librarian/information profes-
develop a plan for maintaining a strong sional will be redefined.
financial base, e.g., anticipating dues 3) The perception of the librariadin-
increases, developing alternatives to sup- formation professional will undergo a
plement conference revenue and in- positive change.
vestigating other outside support. 4) The objectives of the Association, be-
Priority 5-Develop curriculum objec- cause of the expanded interests of its
tives for graduate library and information membership, will further broaden be-
management education and become a full yond the scope of the present librarian/
participant in the graduate library/in- information professionals.
formation management education ac- 5) Although the economy will improve,
creditation process. the Association cannot initiate any sig-
Priorify 6-Develop a plan and mech- nificant changes or introduce new pro-
anism with full chapter and division in- grams without additional revenue.
volvement to improve chapter and 6) There will be appropriate staff, sup-
division programming. port systems and the organizational
structure to facilitate the accomplishment
of the goals of the Association.
The Strategy Plan Emerges 7) Membership will increase as the As-
sociation meets the challenges and inter-
At the June 1983 Board Meeting, Pres- ests of a broader range of information
ident Pat Molholt appointed a new Long- ~rofessionals.
Range Planning Committee to continue 8) Individual members will become more
the long-range planning process and, active and involved in the Association.
specifically, to draft the Association's 9) Association members will increas-
Strategy Plan. The committee members ingly participate in networking and elec-
are: Vivian Arterbery, chairman, Valerie tronic communications activities.
Noble, Jim Matarazzo, Frank Spaulding 10) Professional and continuing educa-
and Jim Tchobanoff. The committee's tion will have for librarians/information
charge also includes developing the stra- professionals a very high priority and will
tegic programs for each of the Associa- change in content, emphasis and deliv-
tion's priority areas. A draft of the ery.
Association Strategy Plan was presented 11) Conferences will continue in their
to the Board at its October 1983 meeting. present form but will be augmented by
The schedule calls for a completed plan new technologies.
at the 1984 Annual Conference. 12) The Association will play an increas-
During meetings at the 1983 Annual ing role in the development of national
Conference, the Board also developed the information policies.
Mission Statement and identified the As- 13) The Association has an important
sumptions for the Future for the Asso- role in the transfer of information in the
ciation's Strategy Plan. The Mission international forum.
Statement adopted by the Board is as fol- 14) Information will become increas-
lows: "The mission of the Special Li- ingly accepted as a commodity.
braries Association is to advance the
leadership role of its members in putting Summarv
knowledge to work in the information
society.'I The Association's long-range planning
The Assumptions for the Future de- process has been evolutionary and has
veloped for inclusion in the Association involved all components of the Associ-
Strategy Plans are: ation-staff, board members, chapter
1) The Association's Strategy Document and division officers and all members
is a five-year plan. who chose to participate in the chapter
2) The role, responsibilities and author- meetings where the priorities were
ranked. Implicit in SLA's long-range needs and professional concerns, an as-
planning process was the requirement sessment of the Association's strengths and
to bring about changes within the weaknesses, and the Board's perception of
Association, in the attitudes toward the opportunities. In accomplishing this mis-
sion, SLA is building a stronger future for
profession, and in the image of spe-
the library/information profession.
cial librarians/information professionals.
The Board's long-range planning sessions
were very productive, provided a frame- Literature Cited
work for discussion of what has already
been achieved and highlighted areas McKenna, Frank E./"Special Libraries
needing new resources and new initia- and the Special Libraries Association." In
tives. In the process, the Board addressed f
Encyclopedia o Library and Information Science
these questions: 28:386-443. New York, Marcel Dekker,
What are the Association's goals Special Libraries AssociatiodPlanning
and objectives? Committee Archives. 1964-1975.
Thompson, Alleen/"Report of the Planning
What principal factors influence Committee" Special Libraries 62 (no. 9) 388
the achievement of these goals and (Sept, 1971).
objectives? Lorange, Peter and Richard Vancil/S/ra-
tegic Planning Systems. New York, Prentice-
How may they change in the fu- Hall, 1977.
ture? Bender, David/Memoranda re Request
What choices do we have? for Assistance. Aug 7,1979/0ct 23,1979.
Special Libraries AssociatiodPriorities for
How should we best allocate our the 80's. Document developed by the As-
resources? sociation staff. Sept 17, 1979.
Bender, David/Memorandum to the
Naisbitt has stated that short-term think- Board of Directors re Planning Documents
ing is being replaced by long-term plan- from the 1981 Winter Meeting. Mar 26,
ning and operations. This makes it 1981.
particularly important for organizations to f
Hlava, Marjorie/Enal Report o the Special
decide what business they are in. However, Committee on Long-Range Planning. Special Li-
he also cautions that strategic planning is braries Association, June 18, 1982.
worthless unless there is also strategic vi- Huff, Anne Sigismund and Joyce M. Ran-
sion (10). ney/"Assessing the Environment for an
Throughout the long-range planning proc- Educational Institution." Long Range Plan-
ess, the Association's leaders-elected, ning 14 (no. 3) 107-115 (June 1981).
staff and members-have evidenced stra- Naisbitt, John/Megafrends: Ten New Direc-
tegic vision. The resulting Association tions Transforming Our Lives. New York,
Strategy Plan will be based on membership Warner Books, 1982.
Information in the
One of the highlights of the year is the of planning have gone into the devel-
SLA Annual Conference, which is de- opment of this conference to insure that
signed to help promote growth and ad- it properly commemorates this milestone
vancement in the special library field. in SLA's history.
Each year between 3,000 and 4,000 spe- The conference will be filled with cel-
cial librarians and information managers ebrations, special events, expanded pro-
gather at the conference to learn and to gramming, valuable continuing edu-
exchange valuable information. For many cation seminars, and numerous division
it is an event not to be missed. activities. If you have never attended an
This year SLA is celebrating the 75th SLA conference, this is a great starting
Anniversary of its founding in 1909. The point. If you periodically attend, do not
grand finale of this year-long celebration miss New York '84. And if you attend
will be the SLA 75th Anniversary Con- all SLA conferences, we will see you
ference in New York City. Many years there.
january 1984 69
Ten Good Reasons Why You Wouldn't Want to Miss
the SLA Conference
Professional Development Pro- General Sessions. These sessions fea-
grams. The SLA Conference features ture well-known experts who will speak
over 40 professional development pro- about the "Electronic Revolution," how
grams. These programs are designed to it will affect you professional1y, politi-
meet the needs of both new and expe- cally, economically, and how it will
rienced special librarians and information change your future.
The programs include 22 continuing SLA's 75th Anniversary. Help cele-
education courses that offer something brate this milestone by joining your col-
for everyone. They cover topics such as leagues at SLA's birthday party, Sunday,
"Stress Management," "Marketing Your June 10, 1984.
Services," "Information Managers as
Leaders and Communicators," and "Da-
tabases: Their Construction, Editing and Meeting Your Peers. It has been said
Use." These courses provide the tools many times that people are our greatest
that will help you to break down the resource. Many excellent and practical
information barriers in your organization. ideas can be learned by talking with your
In addition to continuing education peers. At the SLA Conference you will
courses, the conference program includes have the opportunity to meet and discuss
workshops, management films, and professional matters with thousands of
SLA's Middle Management Certificate the best teachers in your field-your
Division Programs: Business and Employment Clearinghouse and Career
Learning. All SLA divisions will hold Advisory Service. The SLA Employ-
business meetings during the conference. ment Clearinghouse is a free service
This will give you the opportunity to find available to allconference registrants and
out what is happening within your di- employers. Through this service, pro-
vision and to voice your opinion on fu- spective employees and employers are
ture decisions. Many divisions will also brought together to discuss future em-
sponsor educational sessions that will be ployment.
technical in nature and cover areas of - 1f you have any questions about the
special interest to the division. special librarianship and information
management field in general, or your ca-
Product Knowledge: The Product and reer in particular, take advantage of the
Service Exhibits. Like many others, SLA Career Advisorv Service. Exveri-
your profession has changed dramatically enced SLA members kill serve as cbun-
over the past 10 years, and it probably selors to help you find the answers you
will continue to change at an increasing need. Both services are confidential.
rate in the future. To a large extent, these
changes are due to the development of Field Trips. Over 15 field trips spon-
new products and services. sored by SLA and many of the divisions
The ~ r o d u c tand service exhibits are have been scheduled for this year's con-
an integral part of the SLA Conference. ference. Some will allow you to visit a
Over 200 organizations will be repre- place of special interest to your division.
sented. These exhibits will help you to Others will allow you to learn about the
look ahead and to see a bit of what the geographic area and its history. And some
future may bring. are just for your pleasure and enjoyment.
Cost. SLA works hard to help its mem- low prices on hotels and airfares. Take
bers get the best value for their money. advantage of this service by staying in a
Seminars, field trips, and special events designated conference hotel and by using
are planned so that attendees receive the SLA's official travel coordinator.
most for each dollar spent. SLA has used
its group-buying power to arrange special New York. It has EVERYTHING!
What Is New York?
New York is the greatest collection New York is 25,000 restaurants and
of Museums in the World-the Met- just about every cuisine imaginable-
ropolitan Museum of Art, the Mu- something for every taste and budget.
seum of Modern Art, the American
Museum of Natural History, the Gug- New York is Wall Street, Fifth Av-
genheim, Whitney, Brooklyn, and enue, Madison, Park and Broadway.
more than 100 others. New York is easy to get to from any
place in the World. It has the very best
rapid transportation system plus
New York is the Statute of Liberty, 11,000 taxis. You don't need a car to
the United Nations, the Empire State get to or around New York.
Building, and 100 skyscrapers.
New York is your choice of more
New York is the World Trade Cen- than 350 theaters on Broadway, Off-
ter, Rockefeller Center, Radio City Broadway, and Off-Off-Broadway. It
Music Hall, and Lincoln Center. has sporting events at Yankee Sta-
dium, Shea Stadium, Madison Square
Garden, Belmont, and Aqueduct Race
New York is the Bronx Zoo and Bo- Tracks.
tanical Garden, the Brooklyn Botanic
Garden, the Richmondtown Restora- New York Is Everything! That's
tion, Coney Island and Rockaway why New York City is the number
beaches. New York is a vast assort- one visitors' destination in the world.
ment of treasures in an array of major That is one reason why you won't
department stores and thousands of want to miss the 75th Anniversary
shops and boutiques. New York is 400 Conference of Special Libraries As-
art galleries and 90 night spots. sociation.
Continuing Education Courses brary automation techniques. Knowl-
edgeable specialists have been chosen to
SLA Continuing Education Courses lead the seminars, basing their instruc-
have been instrumental in providing spe- tion on expertise they have acquired
cial librarians and information managers through personal experience and aca-
with a wealth of knowledge. SLA's Con- demic credentials.
tinuing Education Program is designed to This year's conference will feature over
meet the changing needs of information 20 continuing education courses.
specialists by preparing them for new du- Throughout their existence they have
ties and responsibilities in such areas as earned an excellent reputation, and have
management, communication, and li- become a highly respected resource in the
information management profession. Visit the Exhibits
Participants will earn 0.6 Continuing Ed-
ucation Units and a certificate upon com- Over 200 exhibits will be displayed at
pletion of each course. SLA Conference this year's annual conference. These ex-
registration is required for enrollment in hibits will be staffed by knowledgeable
people representing the manufacturers
and suppliers you should know about.
Each exhibit is a rich resource not only
Middle Management Institute for you but for those of your colleagues
The Middle Management Institute or managers who are unable to come to
Certificate Program is the second phase New York themselves. Exhibitor repre-
of SLA's Continuing Education Program. sentatives will be there to answer any
The objectives of the Middle Manage- questions you may have about their
ment Institute Certificate Program in- products or services.
clude: The exhibits will provide you with in-
Developing the skills and tools of formation on such products as:
management; data processing equipment and software
Sharpening decision-making skills; microforms and microform equipment
Providing practical training in spe- library furniture
cific areas of management; information storage and retrieval
Helping participants to understand equipment
organizational behavior, including the office furniture and equipment
audiovisual materials and equipment
relationships of various departments copying and duplicating equipment
to one another and their relationship specialized books and periodicals
to the corporate entity; films
Stimulating new ideas through in-
teraction among participants repre-
You will also learn about such services
senting a variety of organizational
The Certificate Program is a 75-hour government information services
program divided into 5 units. Each unit library binders
is a 15-hour, 2Z-day session. The partic- subscription agencies
ipants will earn an SLA Management book jobbers
Certificate and 7.5 CEUs. In order to ob- indexing and abstracting services
tain a certificate, each participant must alerting and &arch services
complete the 5 units within the alloted database search services
The framework for the 5 units is: 1)
managemenf skills; 2) analytical tools; 3) human In New York this year the Exhibit Area
resources; 4) marketing and public relations; 5) will be on the 2nd floor of the New York
materials and machines. Each of these units Hilton. The Exhibits will be open Sunday
will consist of a number of related topics. through Wednesday. Special events also
Units 1 & 5 will be offered during the are planned for the Exhibit Area, includ-
New York Conference. ing an opening Reception. Make plans to
For further details on all Conference come.
Professional Development Activities,
refer to your Conference Registration Remember! The products and services
Packet which will be mailed to all SLA displayed at the Annual Conference can
members in March 1984, or contact: enrich your educational experience ten
Professional Development Department, ways. Here's how:
Special Libraries Association, 235 Park 1. You can keep abreast of newly re-
Avenue South, New York, NY 10003 leased information, products, and
You can increase your professional goods and services for well below their
competencies and that of your staff. actual selling price. Some of the prod-
You can improve your purchasing ucts/services available in the last Silent
management and budget develop- Auction were conference airfare, com-
ment puters, database, consulting service, li-
You can learn of developments on brary furniture and much more. Look for
the horizon. information on the SLA Silent Auction
You can compare products and ser- in the 'SpeciaList '.
vices of various exhibitors more ef-
fectively. New York Hotels
You can develop a list of exhibitors The New York Hilton and the Sheraton
(personal contacts are better than a Centre Hotel will be co-headquarters for
letter) who supply information prod- the SLA Conference Meeting and social
ucts in your area of specialization. events will be held in both hotels.
You can influence new applications SLA has negotiated special rates with
of information technology by in- the co-headquarters hotels as well as the
forming appropriate exhibitors of the Sheraton City Square, and Park Central
needs of your clientele. (formerly the New York Sheraton). All
You can save enormous amounts of of the hotels are a short walk from each
time by not having to arrange ap- other, and are located in Midtown Man-
pointments with each vendor want- hattan. For room rate information please
ing to visit your library. refer to the January issue of the 'SpPciaList'.
You can talk to exhibitors about their
products and make suggestions for Registration
improvements or alternate uses.
You can help SLA keep present ex- Advance registration for the SLA con-
hibitors happy and attract future ex- ference is strongly encouraged. Thou-
hibitors by filling the exhibit hall- sands of people will be attending.
that's good for you and good for your Registering in advance will help you
Association. avoid long, time-consuming lines and
save vou money.
Do not forget to express your thanks to ~esstration kill be held in the New
those who support your Association. York Hilton. Registration fees for the
If you are unable to register for the pro- Conference only will be:
Advance-before May 5, 1983:
gram sessions of the Conference, but are
$95 Members of SLA, ASIS, ARLIS,
interested in examining the various prod-
ucts and services, write for a compli- AALL; $110 Non-members
mentary exhibit hall pass and specify the On-Site or after May 5, 1983:
number of persons attending. Send a self- $125 Members of SLA, ASIS, ARLIS,
addressed, stamped envelope to the: AALL; $145 Non-members
Conference & Exhibits Department, Spe- $65 Members of SLA, ASIS, ARLIS,
cial Libraries Association, 235 Park Av- AALL; $75 Non-members.
enue South, New York, NY 10003. Students, retired members, and guests
pay $45 for registration.
Silent Auction All SLA members will receive full reg-
As part of the Exhibit Hall SLA will istration and ticket information in the
conduct a Silent Auction again this year. Preliminary Program which will be
This is your opportunity to purchase mailed to you in March.
SO JOIN US IN NEW YORK FOR SLA'S 75TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE
january 1984 73
IFLA Conference-1 983
Pat Molholt, SLA President
74 special libraries
Chosen as the main focus for the con- Technology, Biological and Medical Sci-
ference and reflected in meetings on some ence Libraries and Social Science Li-
80 different topics was the theme, "Li- braries. With the overarching title, "The
braries in a Technological World." In the Impact of Technology on Libraries",
words of Else Granheim, president of these sessions began with an introduction
IFLA, during her opening address to the by Henriette Avram, chairperson of the
delegates, this theme "is central to all Professional Board of IFLA. She stated
libraries and also to the institutions that "technology per se is not the primary
which educate librarians to serve in a topic of the program but rather its impact
global community which is constantly on the library environment." Thus, topics
changing in character." covered in the program included library
buildings, economic, political and social
implications, managing change, and li-
Opening Assembly Commenting on the future, Avram
The official opening assembly was held stated:
in the handsome Hercules Hall, in the It appears to some of us that to consider a
Residential Palace. The four speakers at future society that is 'paperless' is ignoring
the session were W. Knopp from Berlin, the heritage of our past. Libraries have al-
Federal Republic of Germany; N. Kar- ways been responsible, where it is possible
tashov from Moscow; D. Varloot from to do so, for collecting and making avail-
Paris; and Thomas Galvin, University of able information from every era of man-
Pittsburgh. Galvin's presentation, titled kind and, regardless of the possibility of
recording this information in optical and/
"The Significance of Information Science or video disc storage, we would most likely
for the Theory and Practice of Librari- want to preserve a good part of what we
anship," called for an international re- have inherited in its original form. Thus,
search agenda that would systematically library buildings of the future will prob-
advance the future growth of knowledge ably be more complex than ever and in-
in the information field. He urged li- clude traditional equipment such as book
brarians and information scientists to de- stacks and reading tables as well as ter-
velop such an agenda by working minals with access to computer-based and
together and accepting this as a mutual optical and video disc files.
responsibility. Galvin pointed out that
"information science has developed as a Facilitators of Change
new field of inquiry and research which
brings together scholars trained in dis-
An idea common among the presen-
ciplines as diverse as sociology, cognitive tations was the necessity for library per-
psychology and computer science, united sonnel to be flexible, or as George K.
by a common research interest in the na-
Thompson, officer-in-charge of the Ad-
ture of information and in the informa-
visory Committee for the Coordination
tion transfer process."
of Information Systems (ACCISS) in Ge-
Four sessions that drew high overall neva, Switzerland said, we must "prepare
attendance were those prepared as a joint ourselves for becoming facilitators of
program by the Division of Special Li- change." He stated that one of the major
braries and the Sections of Information functions of the library of tomorrow will
be to facilitate communications-"put-
ting people in touch with people."
An excellent report on the IFLA Conference
also appears in Chapter Notes, The Wash- The conclusion that Maurice B. Line,
ington, DC, Chapter Bulletin, vol. 4 3 (no. 2) director general, British Library Lending
Nov/Dec 1983. The article is written by Dr. Division, Boston Spa, UK offered as the
Elizabeth Stone former Dean of the School final statement in this series of four
of Library and Information Science, Catholic meetings is a realistic summary of ideas
University of America. presented throughout the conference:
It is possible to fantasize about the future tional Museum. In addition, it was re-
at any length, and much literature on the ported that 1,000 delegates attended the
so-called paperless society should be re- party hosted by the K. G. Saur Company
garded as interesting speculation-library (official publishers for IFLA) at the
science fiction, perhaps-rather than ac- Hirschgarten on Wednesday evening.
curate prediction. It is easy to construct in
imagination an Information Armageddon
as an Information Paradise. Most worrying Valued Publications
are those writers who believe that because
something can be done it will be done and Three prized publicatons were distrib-
should be d o n e . . . We should get our uted at no cost to all attendees: "Libraries
priorities right. By all means let us consider in the Federal Republic of Germany";
what technology can do, but let us consider "THESAURUS LIBRORUM: 425 Years
also what we want done, whether tech- of the Bavarian State Library," the im-
nology can help us to do it, and what other pressive exhibition catalog of the Bavar-
consequences might follow from the ap- ian State Library; and "The White Rose,"
plication of technology to an apparently a publication on the student resistance
good end. movement during the Third Reich.
IFLA Shows Steady Growth
Some of the recently published IFLA
statistics are impressive. There are now This was an election year within IFLA,
1,101 members of IFLA, which is a 10% but since there were only six nominations
increase over the 1980 figure. Of this for the six vacant seats on the Executive
number, 392 persons have direct respon- Board, the election was a pro forma matter.
sibilities within IFLA (officers and stand- Those nominated and elected were: Hen-
ing committee members). IFLA is riette D. Avram, director, Processing Sys-
growing steadily in membership, espe- tems, Networks and Automation
cially in personal affiliates which showed Planning, Library of Congress, Washing-
an increase of 35% in the last two years. ton, D.C; Marie-Louise Bossaut, direc-
IFLA is proud of its geographical spread. teur, Department des Livres Imprimes da
At present, 119 countries are represented la Biblioteque Nationale, Paris, France;
by IFLA membership. The final count of Anthony J. Evans, director, University
those attending the Munich meeting was Library, Loughborough University of
just over 1,200. During the Conference, Technology, Loughborough, UK; Engel-
250 meetings were held and a total of 341 sina V. Tereslegina, deputy director, All-
papers were presented. Over 660,000 Union State Library of Foreign Literature,
sheets of paper were distributed during Moscow, USSR. Gotthard Ruckl, direc-
the conference! tor, Central Institute of Librarianship,
Berlin, German Democratric Republic;
Social Events and Joseph S. Soosai, chief librarian,
At the official opening of the confer- Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia,
ence, Dr. Kaltwasser commented that the Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
local organizing committee had made the Else Granheim, director, Norwegian
decision to spend more money on pub- Directorate for Public and School Li-
lications and less on elaborate entertain- braries, Oslo, Norway, was unanimously
ment than was often the custom at IFLA reelected president for a two-year term.
meetings. In spite of this statement, the The local organizing committee of the
delegates found the entertainment pro- Munich IFLA Conference was headed by
vided most satisfying. A particularly im-
Dr. Franz Georg Kaltwasser, director, Ba-
pressive reception was hosted on varian State Library, Munich. The group
Monday evening, August 22, by the Li- can be justly proud of a well-planned and
brary Associations of the Federal Repub- organized meeting. Those planning the
lic of Germany and the Bibliothekarische meetings for Nairobi, Chicago and Tokyo
Auslandsstelle at the Bayerisches Na- have an excellent model to consider.
Career Profiles and Sex Discrimination in twice as likely to say they had limits to their
the Library Profession, by Kathleen M. Heim mobility.
and Leigh S. Estabrook. Chicago, American The group surveyed was highly educated
Library Association, 1983. vi, 82 pages, tables. with 93.1% holding the master's degree in
$15.00, paper. ISBN 0-8389-3282-7. library science and 10.5% having pursued
work beyond the master's, resulting in 7%
Prepared for the Committee on the Status having received a doctorate. More men than
of Women in Librarianship for the American women held the MLS degree-90.3% com-
Library Association, this study represents a pared to 86.9% of the women-and men were
major research effort funded by the Bailey K. twice as likely to hold a doctorate, according
Howard-World Book Encyclopedia ALA Goal to the study. During library school, more men
Award. The authors define the purpose of the were found to have worked in positions that
study as providing data for evaluating the sta- provided some access to future job opportu-
tus of women in librarianship. They state that nities.
the methodology is important to the overall In determining career patterns, respondents
reception the study will receive. If the results were asked two questions: 1) have you ever
are to be taken seriously, the methodology worked in similar or different positions in
must be sound. The reviewer finds both the similar or different organizations, and 2) have
methodology and the report of results to be you experienced any career interruptions and,
outstanding. if so, why. A slightly higher number of
Some 3,000 questionnaires were sent to women have held similar positions in differ-
members of ALA with almost 2,000 responses. ent organizations, while more men than
ALA's membership is 78.3% female as com- women indicated they have held different po-
pared with SLA's female membership of sitions within different organizations. In other
85%.* Respondents' median age was 44.7, words, women made more lateral career
with 54.5% being married and only 29.7% moves. Not surprisingly, women reported
reporting never having been married. An ad- more career interruptions. Nearly 30% of the
ditional category relating to marital status was women reported a career interruption while
included, that of "part of a committed, long- men reported less. The reasons for career in-
term relationship" which 2.3% reported. This terruptions also were sex-based. Women most
question was asked because of its relevancy frequently mentioned educational reasons,
to questions about mobility and financial op- pregnancy, childbirth, childcare or moving as
portunity. the reasons for career interruptions. Men re-
The differences in career patterns, salary ported career interruptions for education and
and personal characteristics in male and fe- military service.
male librarians are interesting but not sur- The salary data reported parallel the find-
prising. For example, women were less likely ings of the SLA Triennial Salary Survey. Women
to be married or involved in a committed, lag behind men both in salary and in total
long-term relationship than men. Less than family income. The type of library organi-
one-half of the women were married while zation in which one is employed also affected
66% of the men had spouses. Only 2.6% of salary. Almost one-half of the men were em-
the women indicated involvement in a com- ployed in academic libraries where salaries
mitted, long-term relationship as opposed to traditionally are higher but only 29.6% of
3.2% of the men surveyed. Accordingly, women work in academia. By contrast, 17%
fewer women reported children for whom of the women respondents are employed in
they are currently responsible or for whom school libraries while only 3.4% of the men
they have had responsibility in the past. In- reported working in a school library. Like-
terestingly, despite the greater personal and wise, men were found to have greater super-
family responsibilities of men, women were visory responsibility and to occupy higher
Men also reported greater access to financial
'This figure is based on questionnaires re- support for professional activities. The same
turned for the SLA 1982 Triennial Salary is true for release time for attending profes-
Survey. sional meetings. The authors conclude that
the greater administrative achievements of universities, volunteer groups and arts orga-
men may be directly related to their increased nizations. Although not one of the most active
access to financial support and release time areas of investigation, the marketing of library
for professional activities. Concomitantly, and information services has also received
men are twice as likely as women to have considerable attention. This reader, edited by
held a national office or chaired a committee Blaise Cronin of the Aslib Research and Con-
in library associations. Also, men publish sultancy Division, places much of the best and
nearly twice as many conference papers, most relevant library-oriented marketing lit-
books and articles as similarly situated erature within an operationally useful frame-
women. Both professional association work work.
and publications relate to status in the profes- Thirty-seven readings, ranging in length
sion. from one to twenty pages, are grouped under
Salary differences are evident for all types six section headings. Each section is intro-
of libraries. Although much salary variance duced by a relatively brief editorial comment
can be explained by age and date of receiving stressing the relevance and relationship of the
the MLS degree, these factors do not account material that follows. The first section con-
for all of the difference. When these plus tains four landmark articles, including the one
other factors, such as number of people su- by Kotler and Levy, which stresses the im-
pervised, years of experience, etc., are held portance of a marketing mind set, both gen-
constant, sex still is an important determinant erally and with particular relevance to
of salary. 1
nonprofit organizations. Units I1 and 1 1focus,
This very useful research report contains a in turn, on the relevance of marketing prin-
lengthy bibliography of books and articles ciples to the management of library and in-
germane to the entire area of career profiles formation services and on how those
for librarians. The booklet is indexed and con- principles have actually been put into prac-
tains an appendix with a copy of the ques- tice. Unit IV deals with marketing research in
tionnaire used. the broader and more correct sense of the
The book is well done, both in terms of the term. User surveys and market segmentation
research techniques used and the style in are discussed but so are other analytical tech-
which the material is presented. It is a useful niques equally likely to improve the effec-
addition to professional literature collections tiveness of any marketing program. Unit V
and makes interesting reading for anyone stresses the need for and provides examples
with an interest in the differences in career of effective library promotional campaigns.
patterns and salaries between male and female The concluding unit focusses on an admit-
librarians. tedly important but relatively specialized
topic-the promise and the problems asso-
Laura N. Gasaway ciated with joint efforts at library-oriented
Director of the Law Library marketing research and promotion.
and Professor of Law The editor has carefully sequenced a selec-
University of Oklahoma tion of the very best marketing literature pub-
lished to date in this area. In addition,
reference is made, either by the editor or by
The Marketing of Library and Information individual contributors, to almost all the other
Services, Blaise Cronin, ed. London, Aslib, marketing material of value to information
1981. 360 p. professionals. The volume also benefits from
Mr. Cronin's United Kingdom base and his
Some fifteen years have passed since Kotler European perspective. One is spared the eth-
and Levy wrote their seminal article advo- nocentric emphasis on matters American so
cating the use of a marketing approach and characteristic of readers compiled by US. ac-
marketing techniques within nonprofit set- ademics.
tings. Was the social activism of the 1960s Differences in perspective, experience and
the reason why their call to "broaden the con- primary areas of interest all but guarantee that
cept of marketing" was so well-received by a a reviewer will find errors of both commission
discipline that previously focussed almost ex- and omission in any collection of articles. Un-
c l u s ~ e l y corporate for-profit marketing?
on due emphasis appears, in this case, to have
Whatever the original cause, continuous and been placed on cooperative research and pro-
growing interest has since been expressed in motional efforts. As for omissions, the inclu-
how marketing can be utilized by such non- sion of articles on such crucial concepts as
profit organizations as churches, hospitals, environmental analysis, consumer behavior,
the marketing planning process, the devel- It is comprehensive and error-free. What is
opment of the product mix and the conduct more, it keeps publishers honest by diplo-
of the marketing audit would have further matically exposing those who are slow to live
strengthened an already solid collection. up to their commitments. Whenever a pub-
Marketing expertise is an acquirable skill lisher fails to live up to the asserted frequency
and library marketers therefore, are made of publication, Ms. Stem inserts under the
rather than born that way. However, the de- space for annual cost of supplementation, "no
velopmental process requires a far broader supplementation yet1'-in one case 15 years
knowledge of marketing than this special pur- after an original date of publication.
pose volume is intended to provide. Recog- The only area that might stand some im-
nizing such a limitation does not make The provement in future editions is the listing by
Marketing of Library and Information Seroices any subject matter. There is no indication that the
less useful or any less deserving of its place Media Law Reporter, for example, and the Goo-
in a core collection on library marketing. ernment Disrlosure Seroice cover privacy areas per
Rather, recognizing the context in which it is se, let alone that they happen to focus on
best employed should make this publication different privacy areas. However, the only no-
even more valuable to any information spe- ticeable subject classification omissions occur
cialist turned would-be marketer. in cases where the subject matter at issue may
be in a secondary area covered by a publi-
Stanley J. Shapiro cation that expounds upon more than one
Simon Fraser University subject in depth. This reviewer's rec-
Burnaby, BC ommendation: find room in your collection to
squeeze in Legal Looseleafs in Print on an annual
Legal Looseleafs in Print, by Arlene L. Stern,
Infosources Publishing, New York, 1983. 289 Aaron I. Reichel, Esq.
p. $25.00. LC81-4873; ISBN 0-939486-04-0. Member, New York and
New Jersey Bars
Although the looseleaf format was intro-
duced in legal publishing at the beginning of
this century and has developed into an in- Financial Planning for Libraries, by Ann E.
tegral, increasingly popular part of contem- Prentice. Library Administration Series, No.
porary legal literature, it has been relatively 8. Metuchen, N. J. Scarecrow Press, 1983. 236
neglected in the bibliographic treatment of the p. $14.50. LC 82-7330; ISBN 0-8108-0565-6.
law and omitted entirely from standard legal
bibliographies. The neglect is now a lapse of This book is an excellent addition to the
the past. professional library or information center
The third annual edition of Arlene Stem's manager's library. It is a good general discus-
Legal Looseleafs in Print is more than a mere up- sion of the budgeting and financial planning
date of the earlier editions, which have al- process, with a fair amount of useful, practical
ready won wide critical acclaim. The 1983 information, both for the tyro and for the
edition has increased in size by 50% since the experienced manager or planner. The book
first edition was published about two years contains a number of useful insights, for ex-
ago. The latest edition gives complete infor- ample it specifically examines the aspect of
mation on about 2,100 legal looseleafs, ar- the financial planner as change agent. One of
ranged alphabetically by titles and by the strengths of the book is that it emphasizes
subjects. In addition, the book provides a the interrelationship among budgeting, plan-
comprehensive list of publishers (with ad- ning and decision making. The orientation of
dresses and phone numbers) and of publish- the book, and clearly the author's experience,
ers' abbreviations. is in the not-for-profit environment, although
Each looseleaf service is identified by 1) this work does not so limit itself and fre-
title, 2) author or editor, 3) publisher, 4) year quently draws contrasts between the for-
of original publication, 5) number of volumes, profit and the not-for-profit sectors.
6) price and whether the price includes future The book is not without its faults. The
supplementation, 7) frequency of supplemen- chapter on data gathering methodologies,
tation, 8) annual cost of supplementation, and which includes a large section on cost data
9) LC card number. and cost analysis, should, particularly for the
It should come as no surprise to users of novice, be supplemented by a more in-depth
this compilation that it was nominated for the treatment of cost analysis. Although the book
AALL Joseph Andrews Bibliographic Award. does make the distinction between fixed costs
and variable costs, it does not discuss the par- Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, by
allel and extremely important distinction be- Philip Kotler. Prentice-Hall, 1982. 517 p.
tween full costing and incremental or $27.95. LC 81-19952; ISBN 0-13-556142-6.
marginal costing-a distinction that is crucial
to economic decision making and to an ap- In his second edition, Philip Kotler has ex-
propriate analysis of your own or anyone panded an innovative concept into a serious
else's cost data. treatment of marketing management tech-
Another area for improvement would be an niques for nonprofit organizations. Library
expanded discussion of the process cost al- managers who are investigating approaches to
location. It is perhaps significant that none of marketing services and products will find this
the terms-allocation, apportionment, or at- volume full of examples and useful infor-
tribution-appear in the index. Allocation is mation. Several new chapters of interest to
discussed only in reference to the assembling librarians have been added, including "The
of unit cost. The complexities, the vagaries, Adaptive Organization: Developing Strategic
and most important, the ramifications of cost Plans"; "Marketing Programming and Budg-
allocation deserve more treatment than that. eting"; and "Public Relations Decisions." All
A general criticism of the book is its failure other chapters have been updated, revised and
to adequately prepare the reader for the jargon expanded from the first edition.
and the terminology used in the field. An The text is divided into six sections begin-
example is the discussion of inflation ac- ning with an introduction to marketing man-
counting, a clear and well-written discussion, agement and concluding with examples of
but one that nowhere uses the closely related how marketing principles and techniques can
terminology of present value or uses the very be adapted to ihe marketing of anything. The
fundamental term "discounting." Instead, the
reader is introduced to both notions with such
rest of the book is devoted to describing and
discussing major marketing concepts and in-
phrases as "reports stated in terms of current struments. Sections on analyzing marketing
dollars" and "adjustments are made in ac- opportunities and planning the marketing mix
cordance with an index." are valuable to librarians who want to expand
The discussion of capital budgeting, as op- information services and products to their
posed to the operating budget, contains sage user communities. The chapter on sales force
political advice, as well as details of imple- decisions identifies service personnel but fails
mentation. This chapter is recommended and to develop the sales implication beyond per-
is particularly pertinent for those in a not- sonnel being "client oriented." The last sec-
for-profit environment. The book also con- tion on adapting marketing includes a brief
tains a somewhat spotty but on the whole chapter on marketing services. It offers an
useful selected bibliography. interesting and systematic discussion of mar-
In summary, the book is useful and easy to keting intangible services and products such
use for someone who does not have an ex- as information services.
tensive financial vocabulary. It is not, how- The author delivers a thorough, progressive
ever, valuable only to novices; this well- treatment of marketing functions applied to
written discussion of the financial planning nonprofit service environments. The book is
process can be read profitably at almost any directed primarily toward public administra-
level of sophistication. It does not, however, tors of social services but presents material
function as a complete handbook, providing that is directly applicable to special library
neither the necessary vocabulary nor the tech- environments. Like its predecessor, this edi-
niques for many of the concepts discussed. In tion is must reading and belongs on the book-
this regard, it must be supplemented with shelf of every library administator.
more technical pragmatic offerings.
Michael E. D. Koenig Christine A. Olson
Columbia University Consultant/Information Scientist
School of Library Service, NY Arnold, MD
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