Sports Psychology

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					Sports Psychology

      Unit 9
2. Athletes Reaction to Injury
Treatment of injury requires attending both ______
and ____________________needs
Athletes depend on the ability of their bodies to
perform at optimal levels
Performance can be the cornerstone of social and
economic success
Performance is important to ____________
An injury is any physical challenge that interferes
with performance and can be devastating
3. Psychological Reactions
Reactions depend on:
  Athletes ________________of the injuries severity
  How injury interferes with peak performance
  Athlete themselves- reactions vary considerably from
  athlete to athlete
Emotional reactions are caused by:
  __________associated with tissue damage
  Amount of_______________ focused on injury
4. Psychological Components
All physical injuries have a psychological
Responses may include:
  Anxiety about the loss of motor skills and _________
  Anxiety about _______________
  Anxiety about ________________
  Anxiety about their return to play
5. Psychological Phases
5 phases have been identified which individuals
progress through when confronted with grief or loss
Phases can occur in different ______________
Phases can occur with varying degrees of ______
In some cases one or more phases may be omitted
These reactions are normal and athlete must be
allowed to_____________________
Five Psychological Phases
7. Denial Phase
After a sudden injury the athlete will commonly
deny the _____________of the condition
“Nothing is really wrong”
Irrational thinking indicates denial of the true
seriousness of the injury
Athlete needs to reshape their perception of the
Either the athlete will change perception and leave
denial phase or seek second and third opinions-
prolonging the phase
8. Anger Phase
Once athlete can no longer deny an injury they
often become angry
Anger is toward themselves, those around them,
Challenging anger only makes it worse
“Why me” “What did I do wrong” Why am I being
punished” “It’s not fair”
Athlete may lose interest in rehabilitation
9. Bargaining Phase
After anger subsides – reality and severity set in
they begin to have doubts and fears about injury
Athlete is trying to establish _________________
Bargaining may be reflected by pressure put on
therapy staff to “work miracles” and get them back
to participation.
10. Depression Phase
As athlete becomes aware of the length of time
necessary for healing then depression sets in.
In cases of an athlete’s first severe injury
depression may be very severe.
________________and lose of desire for food may
Patience is critical
11. Acceptance Phase
Gradually athlete begins to feel less depressed and
isolated and becomes resigned to the situation.
Athlete will apply _____________to rehabilitate.
Athlete will accept limitation and focus on getting
back to participation.
12.Pain denial or Loss of function
Athletes who deny pain or loss of function
  Ignore pain signals or deny loss of function from injury
  Tolerate high____________
  Apparently believe it is to their advantage not to
  acknowledge discomfort
  Watch athletes carefully to try to ___________of injury
  Pay close attention to those athletes who have hidden
  injuries in the past
13. Injury as a relief
Athletes who view injury as a source of relief
  Some athletes would rather be injured than compete
  Injury can provide a ____________________reason to
  avoid the pressure to succeed
  Discussing athletes perception of situation and reaction
  to pressure may be helpful
  Athlete may need help learning to perceive the
  competitive situation as ____________and more of an
14. Intervention Skills
Maintaining Team Associations
Visual Imagery
Positive Self-Talk
15. Communication
Be honest and complete with the athlete about
needs, expectations and progress
Evaluate often
Do not neglect their __________________by trying
to cheer them up or ignoring their feelings
_________ feelings are normal and should receive
support as they work through them
16. Encourage Cooperation
Building cooperation and patience with athletes
is essential for success rehab
Remember athletes are the ones who must
dedicate the time, effort and endure the pain
Give clear__________________
Outline _____________used in the treatment
Make responsible predictions of athletes
prognosis and return to competition to improve
17. Goal Setting
Is critical to establish a program that will be
motivational and achieve success
Break programs into small sub goals so that
improvement is more________
Set both short and long term goals
   Include _______________about what will be achieved,
   specifically what must be done, and time frame
   Build rewards into reaching goals
18. Maintain Team Association
Athlete’s social status and rewards often
dramatically decrease with an injury
___________based on team membership become
Team Association keeps injured athletes ________
to return from fading
Must keep involved with team
  Light workouts
  Assist with coaching or managerial tasks
19.Relaxation Skills
________blood flow
Help work through ______
3 techniques
  Focused relaxed breathing
  Progressive muscle relaxation
20. Focused, relaxed breathing
Lessen pain
Reduce muscular resistance in range of motion
21. Progressive Muscle
Most extensively used technique for relaxation
Can be practiced in a reclining position or while
seated in a chair
Each muscle group in tensed from 5-7
seconds, then relaxed for 20-30 seconds
One repetition of the procedure is sufficient
If tension remains in the area- repeat in that
22. Progressive Muscle
The sequence of tensing and releasing is
systematically applied to the body
  Starting hands-arms-head-chest-lower body
Throughout the session a number of expressions
for relaxing may be used
  “Let the tension dissolve”
  “Let go on the tension”
23. Progressive Muscle
After the athlete has become highly aware of the
tension in the body the contraction is gradually
decreased until little remains
The athlete focuses on one area and mentally wills
the tension to decrease to zero or complete
A short progressive program can be developed- not
as satisfactory, does help the person to become
aware of the body
24. Meditation
Technique used in culture dating back nearly 3000
Many consider meditation to be an________ rather
than a process
Not only relaxation, but individual’s capacity for
Can reduce mental anxiety, muscular tension, and
create a climate for___________________
25. Effects of Meditation

  Use up to _______oxygen
  Produce less____________
  Slower respiratory rate
  Decreased resting heart rate
  Decreased blood pressure
  Brain waves that are associated with the relaxed
  mental state increase
26. Meditation Techniques
Focus on a constant mental stimulus such as:
  _______________repeated silently or audibly,
  A sound or a_____________
  Perhaps a gaze steadily at some object
_______________________as they come into
consciousness and return to focus of attention
27. Meditation Techniques
Position in a comfortable position
Normally, the eyes are closed unless the meditator
is focused on some external object
A ____________is essential
Once fully physically relaxed, the process can
28.Meditation Techniques
With each exhalation the athlete emits self-talk of a
short word
Word is repeated over and over for 10-20 minutes
  Words such as peace, relaxed or one are excellent
After repeating the word, athlete comes back to
physical reality slowly and gently
As awareness increases, physical activity should
also increase
Moving too quickly or standing up suddenly may
produce light headedness or dizziness
29. Visual Imagery
Imagination rules the world!!!!
The imagination can greatly influence their
response to an injury
Athletes can be taught to control:
  _____________to direct tem productively
  Aid in ____________and healing
Athletes should imagine the healing in the tissues
and actually breath air out through the injured area
Visual Imagery
Athletes should mentally practice returning to
activity and the _________________________and
regaining full movement
It is not unusual for athletes to have __________to
the original injury movement
Reassure that this is normal and that they should
replace that image with one of what it will be like to
return to action
31. Positive Self-Talk
Helpful in moving through the grieving process and
focusing on recovery
Use _____________________and have athletes
verbally encourage and reward themselves for their
efforts and progress
32. Overtraining, Staleness
               and Burnout
Stress refers to a change
Stress is not all bad, nor is it all good
Sports participation serves as a_____________
Training too ________________without proper rest
is overtraining
Athletes who undergo ____________can become
stale and burnt out
33. Overtraining Signs
Coaches, therapeutic staff, and athletes should be
aware of the following:
  Changes in an athlete’s_______________
  Changes in an athletes_______________________
  Psychosomatic complaints and decrease in intensity
  ________in the practice climate of the team- increased
  small overuse injuries
Loss of___________________, and successful
Attributed to a variety of influences
  _________________or extended seasons
  _____________in practice and program structure
  _______________________and physical or controlling
  High and constant levels of_________________
  Poor eating habits
Staleness may be the beginning of_________
Often a result of________________
Athletes are more prone to staleness if rewards of
their efforts are minimal, like a losing season
36. Symptoms to Staleness
____________in          Inability to sleep
performance             Irritability and
Chronic fatigue         restlessness
__________              ___________and
Loss of appetite        Has to force self to
Indigestion             practice
______________          ________of boredom
High BP/Pulse at rest   Difficulty concentrating
and at exercise
37.Prevent Staleness
__________________breaks in routine
Allow athletes to have more _____________of
decisions that affect them
Decrease ___________and stressful demands
Provide a supportive and caring environment
Sufficient attention to complaints and small
______________skills- goal setting, relaxation,
mental practices, positive self talk
38. Burnout
State of physical, mental and emotional
Ability to cope with minor daily frustrations
_________and ability to cope with major problems
Loss of _____________and interest
Can become extremely dangerous in terms of
_______and ___________in terms of performance
39. Symptoms of Burnout
Emotional detachment
Psychosomatic complaints
40.Treatment for Burnout
Takes more drastic steps than staleness
Should be ______________________________or
clinical counselor
___________from activity and environment
The End
Any questions???

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