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					                                                 A.S.C.
                                                 NEWS
 Issue No. 217           Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut                   March 2008


PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE                     of technical testing. Please see the     for me in two years. This is where
                                        announcement of this award               we need your help. As in the past, I
Dear Members,                           elsewhere in this issue.        The      am asking for your active
                                        deadline for application is August       involvement in the ASC. We need
May 3rd is the culmination of our       1st, and we hope to announce the         new blood and new thinking on the
work with the Massachusetts             first reward recipient at our fall       board and as usual we are looking
Archaeological Society to put           meeting, in October. An application      especially for representation from
together another joint meeting; this    form is included in this issue and       the eastern part of the state.
year in Connecticut at UConn.           Lee West will have copies available
Dawn Brown has been working with        at our coming May meeting.               The work of a board member is not
Frederica Dimmick in Massachu-                                                   arduous. We meet three times a
setts to put together a unique          I would also like to remind you          year face to face and then
program which will focus on the         about the new Society Web site.          communicate using e-mail to
collectors      and     avocational     Jay McMahon has done an                  develop the ideas that come from
archaeologists who were largely         incredible job of bring together         the live get-together meetings. The
responsible for the formation of        pages of information on the ASC as       Board is a great one to work with as
both societies. This program will       well as links to other vital and         I can attest to in my last decade of
also focus on the collections that      informative sites of archaeological      membership, and I think that you
they amassed and what we are still      interest. This site will be a central    will find working with them to be a
learning from the analysis of their     focus for ASC activities where           rewarding experience. You will
contents. These topics have been        meeting and program notices will be      also have the satisfaction of being
rarely touched on in past programs      readily accessible as will the           on the leading edge of Archaeology
so we are looking forward to some       contents of our Bulletins and articles   in Connecticut. Please feel free to
new material on some old                from our newsletters. This will also     contact me for more information or
archaeology. (See details elsewhere     become a digital archive for the         to accept my offer to join us. I will
in this issue.)                         ASC. Beyond that, however, it will       also be at the May meeting and will
                                        serve as an entry to the many worlds     look forward to exchanging ideas on
With this newsletter we are kicking     of archaeology, with a concentration     the future and direction of the
off our first Lyent Russell Award.      on the latest events and research        Society, even if you do not choose
The endowment for this award has        here in the Northeast.                   to serve.
been built up through the donations     On a more personal note, I have
of many ASC members along with          been serving as acting president
the accumulation of interest over the   since Harold Juli’s tragic illness and                         Dan Cruson
past several years. We are now able     death. Consulting with the Board, I                        Acting President
to make small awards to individuals     have agreed to serve another term as
and programs to help fund the hiring    president with the understanding
of specialists and the performance      that they must find a replacement

                                                          1
                                           crafts were generously loaned and         accepting applications from Society
                                           given to state and tribal institutions    members for an award of from $500
  ASC Announces                            to enhance their displays and             to $800 to be awarded at the fall
                                           exhibits. In 1962, he generously          meeting of the Society.           It is
                                           endowed the Mr. and Mrs. Berne A.         expected that the funds will be
  THE LYENT                                Russell Award in memory of his            utilized within a year of the award.
                                           parents.     This award is still          Preference will be given to those
RUSSELL AWARD                              bestowed by the ASC on those who          practicing archaeology as an
                                           have contributed materially to the        avocation         and/or        without
  Lyent Russell (1904 -1998)               Society       and        Connecticut      institutional affiliation, although no
                                           Archaeology.                              one who applies will be rejected for
                                                                                     not meeting these criteria. Selection
                                                                                     will also be based upon immediacy
                                                      THE AWARD                      of need; i.e. the degree that a site is
                                                                                     threatened and the shortness of the
                                           Subsequent to Lyent’s death in            time frame within which research
                                           1998, the Board of the Society felt       must be finished. It is also expected
                                           that it would be fitting to set up an     that once the research is finished the
                                           award that would supply some              results will be shared with the
                                           funding for archaeologists working        Society in the form of a Bulletin or
                                           in Connecticut. There are many            newsletter article.
                                           who work without institutional
                                           affiliation, making it difficult for
                                           them to secure grants that are            An application for the Lyent Russell
                                           largely confined to the academic          Award is included in this newsletter.
                                           community. Thus, there is a special       Copies will be also available at
                                           need for funds to hire specialists and    ASC Meetings or from the ASC web
                                           utilize some of the technologies          site at www.connarchaeology.org.
                                           such as radiocarbon dating that are
                                           becoming       essential    to    local
                                           archaeology but the costs of which
Lyent joined the Archaeological
                                           make it almost prohibitive for the                 IN THIS ISSUE
Society of Connecticut just after it
                                           unaffiliated individual to utilize.       President’s Message                 1
was founded and became one of its
                                                                                     ASC Announces the Lyent             2
most dedicated members.               In                                             Russell Award
                                           Accordingly, in 1999, the Society
addition to serving as the Society’s                                                 News from the Office of State       3
                                           solicited contributions which would
President in the 1940s, he organized                                                 Archaeology
                                           constitute an endowment from
digs at Grannis Island and other                                                     Focus on Field Schools              3
                                           which such funds could be drawn
sites in southern Connecticut which                                                  Mohegan/Eastern CT State            3
                                           and awarded. The response was             Eastern Pequot/UMass                4
served as a training ground for
                                           gratifying and was a true tribute to      NH-SCRAP                            4
generations of local archaeologists.
                                           Lyent’s devotion and contributions        Deerfield/UMass                     5
He was an indefatigable lecturer at
                                           to archaeology. It had been hoped         Adirondack CC/Ft. Edward            5
local schools and in his home where
                                           that these donated funds could be         Norwalk Community College           6
he inspired so many to pursue
                                           left to grow to the point where the       FOSA                                7
archaeology even if it was just as an
                                           interest they generated would supply      Connecticut Archaeology             8
avocation or hobby.             He was                                               Center
                                           the awards without drawing down
responsible for the shift in local                                                   State Historic Preservation         9
                                           the endowment. The interest rates
archaeology from mere collecting of                                                  Office
                                           of the early 2000s made that growth
artifacts to their scientific study, and                                             CRM Reports                        10
                                           slower than anticipated, but by this
his constant experimenting with                                                      Institute for American Indian      11
                                           year, the ninth anniversary of the        Studies
aboriginal crafts and processes
                                           formation of the fund, it has grown       Current Research:                  12
added       considerably       to    our
                                           through further donations and             Hicock Benson Palmer Late
knowledge of Indian lifeways. His
                                           interest to the point where the dream     Woodland Site
respect for Connecticut’s aboriginal
                                           of a Russell Award has become a           Calendar                           15
population led him to be accepted                                                    ASC Officers                       15
                                           reality.
by them as few others have and                                                       Membership form                    15
earned him his Indian name Saumpi-                                                   Spring Meeting Program             16
                                           Beginning in March 2008, a
Cauguat (Straight Arrow).            His                                             Directions to Meeting              20
                                           committee of the Society will be
collections of Indian artifacts and
                                                             2
 NEWS FROM THE OFFICE                                                                  Mohegan/Eastern
OF STATE ARCHAEOLOGY
                                                                                       Connecticut State
The latest issue of Connecticut                                                           University
History (vol. 46, no. 2, Fall 2007)
has just been published by The                                                    The        2008      Mohegan/ECSU
Association for the Study of                                                      Archaeological Field School is set
Connecticut History. This is a                                                    to enter its 14th consecutive summer
special issue devoted to historical                                               making it one of the oldest and most
archaeology in the state. The issue                                               successful field collaborations with
represents an important opportunity                                               a     Native       American     tribal
for archaeologists to present their                                               government. Our mission is to
work to the state’s historians and                                                investigate both pre- and post
develop the common ground                                                         European contact historic resources
between our two communities.                                                      in and around the historic Mohegan
Connecticut archaeologists contri-                                                reservation which was founded in
buted greatly to this issue, including                                            the mid 17th century.           These
Roger Thompson, Lucianne Lavin,                                                   resources consist of many known
Warren Perry, Janet Woodruff,                                                     and undiscovered archaeological
Jerry Sawyer, Ken Feder, Dave            Fall 2007 Issue of Connecticut History   sites set in a rich historical
Poirier, Dave Cooke, Cindy                                                        landscape which includes tribal
Trayling, Mike Raber, Kristina                                                    burial        grounds,      Mohegan
Lammi Thompson, Brain Jones,             Since 1975 ASCH has published            homesteads, fortified village sites
Dan Forest, and myself are among         Connecticut History, currently the       and numerous other historic sites
the authors of various articles.         only professional journal devoted to     both      ancient    and     modern.
                                         the history of Connecticut, provided     Archeological survey and large-
Last year OSA reviewed over 250          as a benefit to members. Back            scale excavations contribute to the
development projects for local           issues of the journal are available      tribe’s efforts to better understand
municipalities, conducted over 100       for $10 per issue, and $2.50             historic Mohegan life-ways, trade,
field reviews and gave over 65           shipping      and    handling,    by     warfare, belief systems, subsistence,
public presentations around the state    contacting the editor, Dr. Matthew       and economics.
creating awareness of archaeology        Warshauer Associate Professor of
in Connecticut.                          History Central Connecticut State        The Mohegan/ECSU field school is
                                         University 1615 Stanley St. New          a rare opportunity to work directly
Finally, this year I was elected         Britain, CT 06050, (860) 832-2803.       with members of the Mohegan tribe
President      of    the     National    The Association maintains a web          and its tribal government as well as
Association of State Archaeologists      site at asch.ccsu.edu                    members of other tribal nations.
(NASA), which represents all 50                                                   Each project is authorized directly
States and 5 United States                                                        by the Mohegan Council of Elders
Territories. I will be presiding over                                             and operates under the supervision
NASA’s annual meeting this March         Focus On                                 of the tribe’s Cultural and
in Vancouver, Canada. (I am told                                                  Community Programs Department.
that I was the only elected official       FIELD SCHOOLS                          Besides       learning     excavation
that demanded a re-count!!)                                                       techniques and the broad expanse of
Anyhow, I am proud to represent          Some of the most important               Mohegan history, the program
other state archaeologists around the    archaeological research being done       concentrates on exploring the
country and assist them in national      in Connecticut and surrounding           relationship between archaeologists
issues.                                  states today is in the form of           and Native Americans, both past
                                         summer field schools sponsored by        and present, through a Native
                     Nick Bellantoni     several     universities,    Native      American          lecture      series.
                 State Archaeologist     American tribal governments and          Professionals,       scholars     and
                                         other      organizations,     while      dignitaries from mostly local tribes
Editors Note: The Association for        additionally training the next           speak to the students about their
the Study of Connecticut History         generation of archaeologists. In the     various areas of expertise. In recent
(ASCH) was incorporated in 1970          following column, a feature in each      years, there has been a good mix of
as a tax exempt, non-profit              March issue of ASC News, the field       Native and Non-Native students
organization which promotes the          school directors describe their          which has helped to enhance the
study of the history of our state.       programs for the coming year.            experience for both. Together we

                                                            3
are building a new basis for            undertake its sixth year of intensive    will entail expanding systematic
cooperation and partnership as we       study of tribal lands to identify and    investigations in order to evaluate
explore the past for future             document archaeological sites,           site    boundaries,    content    and
generations.                            particularly those dating to the 17th,   significance.     Preliminary finds
                                        18th, and 19th centuries in an effort    strongly suggest the presence of a
Contact: Dr. Jeffrey C. Bendremer,      to study indigenous responses to         quarry and associated workshop in
Staff Archaeologist                     colonialism. Students will have the      close context with other Paleoindian
Mohegan Tribe Museum Authority          unique opportunity to participate in     sites. This area will be recorded and
5 Crow Hill Road                        a collaborative and engaged              potential research parameters will be
Uncasville, CT 06382                    archaeology      alongside      Native   defined and evaluated. In addition,
(860) 862-6394 (phone)                  American leaders, elders, adults,        previously unexplored areas will be
(860) 862-6395 (fax)                    and youth in a joint effort to recover   selected for systematic survey to test
jbendremer@moheganmail.com              aspects of Pequot history in             predictions for the location of
                                        southern New England.                    additional Paleoindian sites.

Eastern Pequot/UMass                    Early application is recommended         Participants in the field school will
                                        since the spaces are competitive and     be instructed in the fundamentals of
Deadline: March 31, 2008                tend to fill quickly. Application        archaeological survey excavation
Location: Connecticut, Session          review will begin before the             techniques.       The principal field
Dates: July 6 - August 2, 2008          deadline and will continue weekly        methodology will entail excavation
Website:http://www.archaeological.      until the class is filled. One $1,000    of 50 cm shovel test pits and
org/webinfo.php?page=10037&entr         "Indigenous Archaeology Scholar-         excavation of one meter square test
ynumber=176                             ship" is available. See application      pits, with the objective of obtaining
                                        for details.                             stratigraphic as well as horizontal
The Department of Anthropology at                                                contextual data. The students will be
the University of Massachusetts,                                                 taught artifact recognition skills, field
Boston, is offering a five-week, six-   NH SCRAP Field School                    data recording techniques and basic
credit archaeological field course on                                            laboratory methods. Completion of
                                         Jefferson & Randolph, NH                the field school will provide a solid
the Eastern Pequot reservation,
located in southeastern Connecticut.                                             introduction to field methodology
                                        The     2008      SCRAP       (State
The Eastern Pequot community has                                                 equivalent to that employed in
                                        Conservation and Rescue Archae-
occupied this historic reservation                                               cultural     resource       management
                                        ology Program) field school will
since 1683. In close collaboration                                               evaluation projects. Fieldwork will
                                        explore new areas of known
with the Eastern Pequot Tribal                                                   be supplemented with lectures by
                                        Paleoindian sites and to survey and
Nation, the field school will                                                    specialists in related fields.
                                        record newly discovered sites. This




                                                          4
The field school is co-sponsored by     Deerfield, Massachusetts. The field      experience in excavating military
the NH Division of Historical           school will focus on at least one        sites of the 18th century.
Resources under the SCRAP program       archaeological site in the Deerfield
and Plymouth State University. All      area, in order to learn more about       Two-week sessions of three credits
fieldwork and instruction will be       pre- and post-Contact Native             each are being offered, and students
directed by Dr. Richard Boisvert, NH    American lifeways and history. At        may take a maximum of six credits.
State Archaeologist, and conforms to    present, we plan to survey and           Classes will meet at Fort Edward
the standards for archaeology set by    excavate portions of a 17th century      from July 7 through July 18, July 21
the National Park Service. The field    Native American site as part of an       through August 1, and August 4
school will take place from June 23rd   on-going community-based archae-         through August 15.
through July 18 and will be             ology and stewardship project. The
conducted in two sessions, each two     five-week field school will include      Tuition for New York state residents
weeks long, beginning June 23, and      intensive training in New England        is $131 per credit hour. Tuition for
July 7.      Investigations will be     Native     history,   archaeological     out-of-state residents is $262 per
conducted Monday through Friday         survey techniques, excavation,           credit hour.
from 8 AM to 4:00 PM, with              laboratory      methods,      artifact
occasional evening lectures and         analysis, and archaeological inter-      Construction on Fort Edward began
workshops.                              pretation. Students will also learn      in 1755, at which time it was one of
                                        about other kinds of evidence that       the first well-made British forts in
Additional information on housing,      are integral to archaeological           North America. By the late 1750s,
meals volunteer participation or        interpretations of the past, such as     it was the centerpiece of a complex
university     undergraduate     or     geology, oral history, and written       of huts, barracks and hospitals
graduate credits can be obtained by     records. The opportunity to              occupied by 16,000 British and
contacting Richard Boisvert at the      participate in our public education      Provincial soldiers including the
Division of Historical Resources at     program will be a critical               famous Major Robert Rogers and
603-271-6433 or by email at             component of this field school.          his Rangers.
richard.a.boisvert@dcr.nh.gov. For
more information about NH SCRAP         Admission is based on the field          Adirondack Community College has
go to www.nhscrap.org.                  school application, recommendation       conducted excavations in Fort
                                        letters, a current transcript, and a     Edward since 1991.
                                        statement of interest, all of which
Deerfield/UMass                         are due by April 15, 2008.               Excavations in 2008 will continue
                                                                                 work in the sutlers’ (merchants’)
                                        For details, contact Siobhan Hart,       area of the encampment on the east
                                        Department of Anthropology, 240          bank of the Hudson River, and
                                        Hicks Way, University of                 students will also search for earlier
                                        Massachusetts, Amherst, MA               British settlements that flanked the
                                        01003, fax: 413-545-9494,                Hudson River in the 1730s.
                                        smhart@anthro.umass.edu.                 Photographs        chronicling      the
                                                                                 previous      digs    and     artifacts
                                                                                 recovered at that time are on display
                                        Adirondack Community                     at the Rogers Island Visitors Center
                                                                                 in Fort Edward.
The     Connecticut      Valley    of
                                        College/Ft. Edward
Massachusetts      has    been the                                               For more information, please call
                                        Adirondack Community College
homeland of Native American                                                      ACC’s Office of the Vice President
                                        will once again offer students the
communities for thousands of years,                                              for Academic and Student Affairs at
                                        opportunity to uncover more history
since well before Euro-American                                                  518-743-2236.
                                        this summer at Fort Edward, which
colonization in the 17th century.
                                        was used as a main base of
Archaeologists     have identified
                                        encampment      by    the   British
traces    of     Native    American
                                        throughout the French and Indian
occupation in the region dating back
                                        War.
to at least 12,000 years ago, but                                                NEWS FROM OTHER
much of this pre- and early Contact
period history is poorly understood.
                                        ACC will host an Archaeology Field        ORGANIZATIONS
                                        School from July 7 through August
                                        15, 2008 at Fort Edward, NY. The
The 2008 UMass Archaeological
                                        dig will be supervised by Dr. David
Field School will be located in
                                        Starbuck, who has extensive
                                                          5
Archaeology                              archaeology, but to make countless       The manor house has many
                                         contributions to the field not only in   wonderful features and the estate
Club of                                  Fairfield County but throughout the      includes a formal garden, tea house
Norwalk                                  country.                                 and a carriage house.
Community College                        Many have discovered and studied         Research on the prehistory and
                                         local prehistoric and historic sites.    history of the park was exhibited on
                                         Others have shared their knowledge       May 20, 2007 and was sponsored by
   Archaeology as an                     through classroom presentations at       Norwalk Recreation and Parks
  Avocation Graduation                   local elementary and secondary           Department. This research served
                                         schools. Several have gone on to         to educate visitors on the present
                                         graduate studies at such institutions    use of the park, the features of the
                                         as Yale University, the University of    Gallaher Manor House and its
On Thursday May 22, three students
                                         Connecticut, Central Connecticut         earlier history.
in the Archaeology as an Avocation
                                         State University, Hunter College
program        will    receive   their
                                         and the City University of New           Quartz bifaces and fractured
certificates: Linda Fallon, Jim Orser
                                         York.       Please join us in            projectile points recovered from the
and Joanna Valez.            In 1974,
                                         congratulating the Class of '08!         trails in the park suggest that this
Professor Olivia Vlahos was asked
                                                                                  may have been a prehistoric
by several of her anthropology
                                                                                  habitation site. The numerous stone
students      if    there    was   an
                                           Thursday, May 8th 7:30 pm—             walls that demarcate the fields today
archaeological dig on which they
                                           Culinary Arts Dining Room –            are a testament to the early settlers
could volunteer via an independent
                                            Certificate Graduation and            who farmed this land.
study course.        Professor Vlahos
                                               Project Presentation
quickly made their wishes a reality
                                                                                  While we know a great deal about
when she contacted Ernie Wiegand,
                                         Please join us on May 8th for the        the life of Mr. Edward Gallaher, we
who was conducting a dig at the
                                         project presentations from two of        know very little about a well-known
Athena site in Pound Ridge, New
                                         our program graduates, Linda Fallon      sanitarium     that   was    located
York. Their work at the site, which
                                         and Jim Orser. Jim Orser’s talk is       somewhere in the park. In 1917,
dated to the Late Archaic and
                                         titled “The Saw Mill at Spectacle        Gallaher purchased the estate of Dr.
Woodland periods, was vital in
                                         Brook". It will include a brief          Edwin Everett Smith. Dr. Smith, a
completing the project.
                                         history of the water wheel, a review     “Dartmouth       Medical      School
                                         of Wilton as an early industrial         Graduate,” ran his well known
The experience so enthralled student
                                         center with 20 saw mills, excerpts       establishment "for the treatment of
Barbara Smith-Reid that she worked
                                         from recorded oral history, news         patients with nervous diseases,
with Olivia and Ernie to form the
                                         paper articles and maritime reports,     mental alienation, alcoholic and
NCC Archaeology Club. In a short
                                         and the history of the saw mill’s        narcotic     addictions."       The
period, there was an interest in
                                         ownership. and a look at what            “Kensett,” the name of Dr. Smith’s
offering      more     courses      in
                                         remains of the saw mill and grist        establishment, operated from c1886
anthropology and archaeology,
                                         mill still on site.                      to c 1912 at the Cranbury location
which prompted Professor Vlahos to
                                                                                  (fig. 1). In 1912, city directories
apply for a grant from the National
                                                                                  indicate that Dr. Smith moved his
Endowment for the Humanities to
                                          Looking for Dr. Edwin                   establishment to 65 East Avenue, on
establish a certificate program,
                                                                                  the Norwalk Green, where it
Archaeology as an Avocation. The          Smith’s Sanitarium at                   remained in operation until 1914.
grant was awarded in 1975 and the
program was off to a roaring start.
                                             Cranbury Park
The grant team was headed by                     by Holly Cuzzone
Professor Vlahos and included
program consultant Dr. Michael D.        Cranbury Park is approximately 200
Coe       of    Yale     University's    acres of public parkland in the
Anthropology Department, Barbara         northeastern corner of Norwalk and
Smith-Reid (as a project assistant)      borders on the north and northeast
and Ernie Wiegand as an instructor.      side with Wilton, Connecticut. The
Over the last 33 years, hundreds of      park area includes a three story
students have joined the program.        English fieldstone manor house of
                                         Indiana limestone and granite, built       Figure 1 –Postcard showing the
Their experiences both in class and                                                       Kensett Sanitarium
in the field served not only to allow    by Edward B. Gallaher and his wife
them to not only learn about             Inez as a private residence in c1929.

                                                           6
The demise and disappearance of         1896, on a Dolph and Stewart map,       location     of    the  sanitarium.
the “Kensett” at the South Wilton       the sanitarium is located at the end    Connecticut’s State Archaeologist,
location, and the relocation of         of the road off of Field Street.        Nick Bellantoni, will do GPR
Smith’s establishment was the result                                            (Ground Penetrating Radar) in April
of disastrous fire that burned both                                             to determine the size and extent of
the sanitarium and Dr. Smith’s                                                  this buried feature.
private cottage. At the time of the
fire, Dr. Smith moved his patients or                                           I just want to thank Ernie Wiegand
inmates as they were called then, to                                            and members of the NCC
the stable, bowling alley and second                                            Archaeology Club for their time,
cottage on his estate. A 1912 Hour                                              equipment and expertise. The first
Newspaper article called the                                                    timers from the Friends of Cranbury
“Kensett,” “a Bon-Ton of its day,                                               Park approached this excavation
catering      to    a     well-to-do,                                           with enthusiasm and told me how
sophisticated clientele”.                                                       much they enjoyed themselves and
                                                                                look forward to more excavations.




                                        Ernie Wiegand and Dawn Brown at
                                                 Cranbury Park

                                        Every year as the grass dies off on
                                        the great lawn, linear features          Marcia Kibbe, Holly Cuzzone and
                                        appear suggesting that there is a          Sue Beagley screening soil.
                                        subsurface feature such as the
                                        foundation of the sanitarium. In        Joel Cipes, a Friend of Cranbury
                                        October of 2007, the City of            Park and photographer for the day
                                        Norwalk granted me permission to        had this to say:
                                        do a small scale excavation with the    “Thanks for taking the time
                                        primary objective of determining if     yesterday to share your knowledge
   Figure 2 –Access road to the
                                        there is a subsurface feature buried    and experience with us. I don't think
    Kensett, off of Field Street
                                        below the great lawn, and ultimately    we've ever been so thrilled by a
                                        to determine if this was the site of    rusty nail or piece of busted glass
Today there is no trace of the
                                        the famous sanitarium.                  before!”
sanitarium at Cranbury Park.
Exactly where did Dr. Smith’s
                                        On November 11th Ernie Wiegand
Sanitarium stand? The name Dr.
                                        and the Norwalk Archaeology Club
Smith's gave his establishment, "The
                                        helped The Friends of Cranbury
Kensett," may suggest that Kensett
                                        Park excavate this site. Results of
Avenue might have been the access
                                        our excavation uncovered two units
road leading to it. However, at the
                                        with fieldstone walls with adjoining
time the sanitarium was established,
                                        clay brickwork features indicating a
Kensett Road did not exist and
                                        rather large foundation buried only
patients entered the sanitarium from
                                        10 cm below the surface.
Field Street off of Chestnut Hill                                               FOSA President Cynthia Redman
                                        Recovered artifacts from the fill
Road. Census records and city                                                   writes that it might be of interest to
                                        layer includes numerous cut nails
directories list Smith's address as                                             the ASC membership to know
                                        (more nails than Home Depot),
"Field Street, Norwalk," despite the                                            where FOSA has been asked to have
                                        window glass, melted glass, coal
South Wilton address (South Wilton                                              a table. This is part of our outreach
                                        and charred wood. The absence of
was park of Norwalk at that time).                                              program and Ken and Bonnie
                                        coal ash suggests that the melted
The Field Street extension, a                                                   Beatrice put in untold hours creating
                                        glass was the result of a fire,
partially brick and fieldstone road                                             exhibits for these events. They are
                                        suggesting that this was the location
(Figure 2) runs along the eastern                                               chairmen      of    the    Education
                                        of the sanitarium that burnt down in
edge of the park and joins a major                                              Committee.          The      currently
                                        1912. Of course, more research is
cobble road that bisects the park. In                                           scheduled dates and locations are:
                                        needed to confirm that this was the
                                                         7
April 5th: CT Gravestone Network        Connecticut Landmarks Staff               the World Atlatl Association and
Symposium, 9:00 - 4:00, South           Saturday, June 7, 10 am to 1 pm           atlatl maker. He will bring examples
Senior Ctr., East Hartford              Suffield location (Map will be            of both traditional-style and modern
                                        mailed to participants.)                  atlatls and darts. Nolf is a nationally
April 24-26 CPTV Family Science         Advance registration required: $10        acclaimed competitor in sanctioned
Expo. ~ No specific info. on hours,     per member, $15 per nonmember             atlatl contests and has appeared on
etc. yet                                                                          the David Letterman Show. Bring
                                        The Museum of Natural History and         your own atlatl and dart or use one
June 5th East Granby's 150              Connecticut Landmarks invite you          of ours, and learn to throw it like a
Anniversary (tentative)                 to experience the luxurious lifestyle     pro! Adults and children ages 8 and
                                        enjoyed by two eighteenth-century         up. Children must be accompanied
June 14&15 Ft. Nathan Hale              Connecticut Valley families - until       by an adult.
"Native American Culture &              their fortunes collapsed - at the
Festival” 10-5 and 11-4, Woodward       Phelps-Hatheway House in Suffield.        State Archaeologist Lectures
Ave., New Haven (tentative)             The house was built in 1761 by
                                        wealthy      businessman         Shem     The Norris L. Bull Collection
October 5th Audubon Family Field        Burbank, a Tory sympathizer who           Saturday, May 3, 10 am
Day 8:00-4:00, Northwest Park, 145      suffered a reversal of fortunes           Konover Auditorium, Thomas J.
Lang Road, Windsor                      during the American Revolution.           Dodd Research Center
                                        The house was bought and lavishly         Joint Meeting of the Archaeological
                                        renovated by Oliver Phelps in 1788.       Society of Connecticut and
    Connecticut                         Eight years later, Phelps left            Massachusetts Archaeological
                                        Suffield, bankrupted by his failed        Society, $8 per member (Museum,
 Archaeology Center                     land speculation schemes. The             ASC, or MAS), $10 per
                                        Hatheway family owned the house           nonmember, $5 students with ID
                                        throughout the 19th century,              860-486-4460
Programs                                accumulating an attic full of artifacts   www.cac.uconn.edu
                                        that document life during that
Three Centuries on a New England        century.
Farm, Sandy Staebner, Director,                                                   From the Files of the State
Blue Slope Farm                         Connecticut Landmarks staff will          Archaeologist, Conference Center at
Saturday, June 14, 10 am to 12          lead a tour of the house, which is        Fort Trumbull State Park
noon, Franklin location (Map will       still furnished with the Hatheway         90 Walbach Street, New London
be mailed to participants.)             family’s 19th century belongings,         Thursday, May 29, 7 pm
Advance registration required: $10      and the formal flower gardens. After      New London
per member, $15 per nonmember           a lunch break, tour Suffield’s 18th       860-447-2020
                                        and 19th century Main Street              hanrame@sbcglobal.net
At this southern Connecticut dairy      Historic District. Bring a picnic
farm, learn not just where milk         lunch and step back in time in this       Archaeology Field School
comes from, but see “who” it comes      beautiful historic setting. Adults and
                                        children ages 8 and up. Children
                                                                                  for Adults
from! You will step back in time at
the Blue Slope Museum, with its         must be accompanied by an adult.
                                                                                  Archaeology Field School
collection    of     artifacts    and                                             Dr. Nicholas Bellantoni, State
implements representing 200 years       Everything You Want to Know
                                                                                  Archaeologist, MNH/CAC
of farming. Everyone will have an       About Atlatls! Gary Nolf, World
                                                                                  Monday, August 11 through
opportunity to try some of these        Atlatl Association
                                                                                  Friday, August 15, 9 am to 3 pm
tools and learn what the daily lives    Saturday, July 12, 10 am to 12
                                                                                  Central Connecticut location (Map
of the people who lived here in the     noon, UConn location (Map will be
                                                                                  will be mailed to participants.)
18th and 19th centuries were like.      mailed to participants.)
                                                                                  Advance registration required: $300
You’ll end your visit with a drive-by   Advance registration required: $10
                                                                                  per member, $400 per nonmember
tour of Blue Slope’s modern dairy       per member, $15 per nonmember
operation and learn how milk comes                                                Spend an entire week with State
to us from the farm to the store and    Experience the thrill of learning to
                                                                                  Archaeologist      Dr.    Nicholas
then to your refrigerator! Bring a      use the atlatl, an ancient spear-
                                                                                  Bellantoni at the Museum of Natural
picnic lunch! Adults and children       throwing tool that pre-dates the bow
                                                                                  History        and     Connecticut
ages 6 and up. Children must be         and arrow. The history and secrets
                                                                                  Archaeology Center’s Field School!
accompanied by an adult.                of this ice-age invention will be
                                                                                  This intensive field school will
                                        revealed by Gary Nolf, member of
                                                                                  cover the governmental, legal, and
                                                          8
cultural aspects of archaeology, as      completed      Archaeology    Field     that, where are the cemeteries
well as proper archaeological            School for Kids, join us for more       boundaries and unmarked burials?
techniques. As a member of this          hands-on investigation with an in-
program, you will have the               depth look at several specialties       "Stone Conservation Talk"
opportunity to participate in a “dig”    within archaeology presented by         10:45- Irving Slavid, of MCC -
at an historic property as part of the   professional archaeologists. Learn      Monumental Conservators
official team of investigators under     how to analyze and interpret            Collaborative, long time experts in
the Office of State Archaeology.         artifacts like the ones you have        the conservation field that have in
Your findings will add important         found at our dig site! This camp is     recent years been active with the
information to our understanding of      offered through UConn's Kids Are        National Parks Cemetery Training
Connecticut’s rich historic past!        Scientists Too program. Call            Programs will speak with us about
Adults and older teens ages 16 and       K.A.S.T. at 860-486-9219 or visit       Cleaning and Repair techniques and
up.                                      www.kast.uconn.edu for registration     help sort out some questions about
                                         information.                            the various methods, techniques and
Summer Camps for Kids                                                            products available to us today.
                                          To register for a program or for
Archaeology Field School for Kids!         more information, contact the          "The Beauty of White Bronze"
K.A.S.T. - Kids Are Scientists Too!      Connecticut Archaeology Center at       1:15 pm.- Robert Young, President
Monday, July 21 through Friday,             860-486-4460 or E-mail to            of the Danbury Historical Society
July 25, 9 am to 12 noon                       www.cac.uconn.edu                 and AGS Board Member will
For children entering grades 5                                                   explain the history of the
through 10                                                                       Monumental Bronze Co. of
Advance registration required: $180           STATE HISTORIC                     Bridgeport, CT, showing many
per student, $200 after June 2             PRESERVATION OFFICE                   versions of these metal grave
                                                                                 markers; which can be found all
Spend an exciting week exploring                                                 over the country (but started right
                                         The following news items from
the world of field archaeology. You                                              here in CT) and tell us why they are
                                         various organizations are being
will learn about the science of                                                  no longer available.
                                         shared with us courtesy of Dave
archaeology and what practicing          Poirier,    Staff     Archaeologist,
archaeologists really do. Then, you                                              "Introduction to Some Connecticut
                                         Historic Preservation and Museum
will be part of a real archaeological                                            Carvers"
                                         Division, Connecticut Commission
field    crew,     doing    hands-on                                              2:30 pm. - Ruth Shapleigh-Brown,
                                         on Arts, Tourism, Culture, History
fieldwork and laboratory research at                                             Exec. CGN Director, Who carved
                                         and Film, (also known as the
a real, ongoing archaeological dig.                                              what in your town? We will take a
                                         Connecticut       State      Historic
Every      session    we     uncover                                             short tour around the state visiting
                                         Preservation Office or “SHPO”).
something new! This camp is                                                      various historic burying grounds
                                         Dave sends out e-mail updates
offered through UConn's Kids Are                                                 showing examples of many local
                                         regularly, and you can contact him
Scientists Too program. Call                                                     carver styles. .
                                         at Dave.poirier@ct.gov about
K.A.S.T. at 860-486-9219 or visit        being placed on his mailing list.
www.kast.uconn.edu for registration                                              Lunch-snacks & beverages will be
information.                                                                     available. Admission: Pay at the
                                                                                 door, $10 to the public, $5 for CGN
                                         Connecticut Gravestone                  members
Further Adventures in Field
Archaeology, Prerequisite: Field         Network Symposium
Archaeology 101 or Archaeology           Saturday - April 5, 2008
Field School for Kids, K.A.S.T. -        9 a.m. to 4 p.m.                           Yale University Exhibit
Kids Are Scientists Too!
Monday, July 28 through Friday,          South Senior Center                     A New World: England's First View
August 1, 9 am to 12 noon                70 Canterbury St.                       of America
For children entering grades 5           East Hartford, CT                       Saturday, April 5, 2008, 10:00 AM
through 10                                                                       - 5:00 PM
Advance registration required: $180      Lecture Topics                          Exhibition features nearly 100
per student, $200 after June 2                                                   watercolors by the Elizabethan
                                         Welcome for First Time visitors -       artist, John White, which constitute
This week learn even more about          "Assessing an Old Burying Ground"       the only surviving visual record of
the science of archaeology and how       9:30 am - Ruth Shapleigh-Brown,         England's first settlement in North
archaeologists make important            Exec. CGN Director. What's really       America. (On view March 6-June 1)
discoveries. After you have              old, what are footstones, who carved

                                                          9
Yale Center for British Art                                                             Ethics & Values in Archaeology
1080 Chapel St., New Haven                  Richard Turnbull's doctorate is from        (Green 1984)
                                            the Institute of Fine Arts at NYU.
For more info: (203) 432-2800               Since 1991 he has served as tenured         Port & Market: Archeology of the
                                            assistant professor as well as Chair        Central Waterfront, Newburyport,
                                            of the Department of Art History at         Mass. (Faulkner et al 1978)
AAG LECTURE APRIL 17 WILL                   the Fashion Institute of Technology
FOCUS ON THE ANCIENT                        in New York City. Also, he is an            The Archaeological Survey:
ASSYRIANS                                   Education Department lecturer at            Methods & Uses (King 1978)
                                            the Metropolitan Museum of Art. A
Giants Reborn: The European                 few years ago he was the Met's              The Techniques of Industrial
Rediscovery of Assyria in the 19th          curator for "Flowers and Leaves:            Archaeology (Pannell 1974)
Century, will be the subject of Dr.         The Ottoman Pottery of Iznik."
Richard H. Turnbull on Thursday,            Somehow he finds time to give               Historical Archaeology: A Guide to
April 17, 2008, at 8pm, at the              gallery talks and group tours on a          Substantive & Theoretical
Bruce Museum, 1 Museum Drive,               wide variety of topics in 19th and          Contributions (Schuyler 1978)
Greenwich, CT. The program,                 20th century painting, photography
sponsored by the Archaeological             and architecture at the Museum of           The Ohio Historic Bridge Inventory,
Associates of Greenwich, is free to         Modern Art in New York. He has              Evaluation & Preservation Plan
AAG       and   Bruce     Museum            also    participated    in   Access         (Allen et al. 1983)
members and $10 to the public at            Programs for blind and partially
the door.                                   sighted museum visitors at MOMA.            Connecticut Archaeology: Past,
                                                                                        Present & Future (Dewar, Feder &
At the height of their power in the                                                     Poirier 1983)
eighth century BC, the Assyrians            Publications transferred to OSA
ruled an empire to rival that of the        Library:
ancient Egyptians and Archaemenid                                                       Change of Contact Info:
Persians. Yet their status even             National Register of Historic Places
today in contemporary popular               Eligibility (Klein & Cushman 2007)          Dr. David A. Poirier
culture is microscopic compared to                                                      Staff Archaeologist
the Egyptians and Persians. This            Identifying & Evaluating Minnesota          Commission on Culture & Tourism
was not always so and in this               Farmstead Archaeology Sites                 State Historic Preservation Office
lecture, Dr. Turnbull will not only         (Terrell 2006)                              One Constitution Plaza, Second
discuss the excavations that led to                                                     Floor
the "discovery" of this civilization        Northeast Historical Archaeology            Hartford, CT 06103
in the 19th century but also the            Vol. 34 – Dutch in the Old & New            Phone: 860-256-2761
reactions to that discovery. In doing       Worlds thematic issue                       Fax: 860-256-2763
so, he will focus on the impact that
Assyrian artifacts and monuments            Vol. 36 – Sylvester Manor thematic
had on European Orientalist                 issue
painting and literature in the mid
19th century.

                                                     CRM Reports
The following table is a sample of Cultural Resource Management (CRM) activity in Connecticut. This is a list of CRM reports
transferred from State Historic Preservation Office to the public archive at UConn.

                              CRM Reports Transferred to UConn's Dodd Center
  Rep #     Author(s)                  Year Subject
  1620      Heritage Consultants       2007 Town Farm Road cell tower, Farmington
  1621      Walwer & Walwer            2007 Renewable power plant, Watertown
  1622      Mair                       2007 Forbes Street- Silver Lane Intersection, East Hartford
  1623      Mair                       2007 Routes 67 & 63 Intersection, Woodbridge
  1624      Walwer & Walwer            2008 I-84 Exits 1 & 2 Improvements, Danbury
  1625      Jones & McBride            2001 Lake of Isles, Ledyard, Preston & North Stonington
  1626      Heritage Consultants       2007 Lake Street cell tower, Manchester
  1627      Raber                      2008 Bitgood Road Bridge, Griswold
  1628      Raber                      2007 Greater Springfield Reliability Project, Bloomfield, East
                                                    10
                                               Granby, Enfield & Suffield
 1629     Mair                         2007    Eastern Connecticut Excavation assessment, Plainfield
 1630     Forrest                      2007    Seaside Regional Center, Waterford
 1631     Heritage Consultants         2008    Walnut Hill Chase subdivision, East Lyme
 1632     Clouette                     2007    Jillson Cotton Mill, Windham
 1633     Banister & Heitert           2007    Weir Farm National Historic Site, Ridgefield & Wilton
 1634     Mair                         2007    Route 4, Farmington
 1635     Heritage Consultants         2008    Maennercher Avenue cell tower, Norwich
 1636     Wiegand & Raber              2008    CL&P substation, Wilton
 1637     Calogero                     2007    Noah Webster House, West Hartford
 1638     Mair                         2008    Route 72 & Memorial Boulevard, Bristol
 1639     Centola & Clouette           2008    Bolton Lakes sewer, Bolton, Manchester & Vernon
 1640     Lesniak                      2008    Iroquois Gas expansion, Newtown & Southbury
 1641     Raber                        2008    Stone Mill Road Bridge, Mansfield
 1642     Penney & Brodeur             2008    Route 7 Bypass, Brookfield
 1643     Heritage Consultants         2008    Newtown Technology Park, Newtown
                                                                    th
 1644     Witt                         2007    Eastern Pequot 18 Century Economies, North Stonington
                                               (M.A. thesis, UMASS-Boston)
 1645     Graves & Mair                2008    I-84 Interchange 17, Middlebury & Waterbury
                                                                        th
 1646     Patton                       2007    Eastern Pequot 18th-19 Century Clothing, North Stonington
                                               (M.A. thesis, UMASS-Boston)
 XXX      Clouette                     2007    Camp Columbia, Morris, documentation
 XXX      Raber & Gordon               2007    Ansonia Copper & Brass Inc. Plant, Waterbury, documentation
 XXX      Photographic documentation           Hartford Clamp Co., East Hartford
 XXX      Fields & Stuart              2007    Frederick P. Swanston Store documentation, Farmington
 XXX      Fields & Stuart              2007    Jonesville Complex documentation, Farmington
 XXX      Severson                     2007    Jonesville outdoor sculpture assessment, Farmington
 XXX      Foltz & Orzack-Moore         2008    St. Ronan-Edgehill Historic District Study Report, New Haven
 XXX      Clouette                     2008    Forster Pond Houses documentation, Killingworth



                      The Institute for American Indian Studies
                                              Washington, CT
                                               860-868-0518

                          Litchfield Hills Archaeology Club Lecture
                                 Sunday, April 13, 2008          3:00 pm
“A Village of Outcasts: Archaeology at the Lighthouse Site”     presented by Dr. Kenneth Feder of
Central Connecticut State University. Professor Feder will discuss his exciting findings from cultural
remains of a community of Native Americans, African American slaves and European outcasts that once
thrived in the northwestern hills of early Connecticut.
Fee: Free to Club Members/ $5 General Public

                                       Artifact Identification Day
                  Sunday, May 18, 2008                          12:00 pm - 2:00 pm
Spring cleaning uncover some mysterious items?! Bring those unidentified Indian stones and cultural
items to IAIS for identification. Director of Research & Collections Dr. Lucianne Lavin will be
available to offer her expertise acquired from 20+ years experience in the field of archaeology. A limit of
12 items per visitor please. Fee: Included in regular museum admission.



                                                    11
                             Litchfield Hills Archaeology Club Lecture
                                  Sunday, May 18, 2008                       3:00 pm
“Military Archaeology & Why the Revolutionary War is Important to 21st Century Americans” presented
by Dr. Laurie Weinstein of Western Connecticut State University. (rescheduled from January 2008).
Dr. Weinstein will present new and important information discovered during her investigation of a
Revolutionary War encampment in western Connecticut aided by Dr. Bethany Morrison, her co-director.
Fee: Free to Club Members/ $5 General Public

                                          Primitive Skills Day
                     Saturday, May 24, 2008                             11:00 am - 2:00 pm
Ever wonder how indigenous peoples of Connecticut hunted, created fire and crafted tools from stone?
Stop by IAIS for a fun afternoon of Primitive Skills! Jeff Kalin of Primitive Technologies Inc. will
demonstrate various flint knapping techniques used for making projectile points, awls, and scrapers and
discuss the various types of stone materials used. Outside in our Algonkian village Judy Kalin will show
how Native Peoples cooked using clay pottery and the seasonal foods available; Survivalist Jamie Leffler
will teach visitors how to use bow and twist drills to create fire, as well as the process of making glue for
bows, knife handles, etc. Test out your throwing arm with anthropologist and IAIS educator Kimberly
Parent as she demonstrates how to throw a spear using an atlatl. Fee: $10 Adults / $6 Children


                                         activities for house construction        began to realize how important the
  CURRENT RESEARCH                       near Transylvania Brook.        The      site was to the history of western
                                         salvage archaeology was an effort to     Connecticut. Except for a small
                                         recover as much information as           Terminal Archaic Broad Spear
Note: The following article was          possible before the site was             component (1750-750 BC) and an
previously published in IAIS's           destroyed.       SVAS members            even more ephemeral Middle
newsletter, The Birdstone, and is        excavated over 100 five-foot             Woodland component (ca. AD 1-
being republished courtesy of IAIS       squares totaling 2625 square feet.       500), the site represents a 14th
and its executive director, Elizabeth    They recovered thousands of              century Late Woodland multi-
McCormick.                               artifacts and many cultural features     seasonal camp/hamlet. Furthermore,
                                         representing Indian cooking hearths      the Late Woodland occupations
                                         and trash pits with the remains of       were concentrated within a thick
The Hicock-Benson-                       ancient meals and other interesting      black, charcoal-laden living floor
                                         items.                                   and virtually all of the cultural
Palmer Site:                                                                      features extended from the black
                                                                                  lens into the orange subsoil. HBP
A Significant Late                                                                site has the most extensive
Woodland Living Site                                                              assemblage of primarily unmixed
                                                                                  Late Woodland cultural remains in
in South Britain                                                                  interior western Connecticut of
                                          Incised and notched pottery with        which I am aware.
                                            extruded rims, reminiscent of
    Lucianne Lavin, Ph.D.
                                           Otstungo Notched, a New York           This single component context is
    Director of Research &                          pottery type.                 important because we can associate
          Collections                                                             the cultural features and other, non-
                                         Dr. Swigart went on to found the         diagnostic items within it with the
The HBP site (6NH109)1 was                                                        Late Woodland people who made
                                         Institute with Sidney Hessel,
excavated in 1973-74 by the                                                       and used the ca. 375 diagnostic
                                         becoming its first director and
Shepaug Valley Archaeological                                                     triangular Levanna arrow points
                                         incorporating the SVAS dig finds
Society under the direction of Ned                                                recovered from the site.2 Those
                                         into our collections. While perusing
Swigart.    The site had been                                                     items included knives, choppers and
                                         his notes and other documents I
discovered during land clearing                                                   clay cooking pot fragments that
                                                         12
indicate food preparation activities;        meaning during times of war,
drills, scrapers, and a possible adz         mourning, and various social
that indicate woodworking; a                 festivities).
possible sinew      stone that may
suggest the processing of deer               Dr. Swigart reported nut shell
tendon, strands of which make a              fragments, seeds of polygonum sp5
                                             (which can be ground into meal) and
                                             sumac (used as a tea and a              Uncollared incised pottery sherds;
                                             medicinal tonic), a cherry pit, a            some with punctations.
                                             berry seed, and faunal remains
                                             (mainly white-tailed deer but also      Only one post mold6 was discovered
                                             elk or moose, bear, turkey, squirrel,   on site. However, much of the area
                                             hawk/eagle, clam shell and one fish     had been bulldozed prior to
                                             vertebra), which also demonstrate       excavation – including adjacent
                                             food prep and consumption. A            areas and the ridge above the site. It
                                             canine tooth may indicate the           is possible that house structures had
                                             presence of dogs onsite.                been located in one or more of those
                                                                                     areas, or that the occupants slept in
                                                                                     a structure built over the rock
                                                                                     shelter, which was later excavated
                                                                                     by SVAS members and found to
                                                                                     contain artifacts similar to those
                                                                                     recovered from the open air site.
                                                                                     During my direction of phase 3
                                                                                     excavations in the northwest portion
                                               Owasco Corded Horizontal & Owasco     of the new New Milford High
                                                   Herringbone pottery sherds
                                                                                     School, we found an extensive site
                                                                                     with several Archaic period
                                             The large number of artifacts and       occupations whose pole frame
 An adz or digging tool/hoe; ground with a   the variety of human activities they    houses were located at the base of
  polished bit exhibiting heavy use wear.    represent, the relatively large         the hill forming the western
                                             number of hearth features, and the      boundary of the school property.
tough fiber for stringing bows,              various styles of pottery suggest a     The hearths and majority of the
hafting stone artifacts to wooden or         multi-family hamlet type of             artifacts were concentrated east of
bone or antler handles, or using in          settlement that was repeatedly          the     dwellings,   suggesting      a
any way one would employ string or           occupied over a number of years.        separation of sleeping quarters from
cordage.3 Stone cores, hammer                Two hearths from the site and one       daily economic activities. This may
stones used to knap them, anvil              from a nearby rock shelter provided     have been true for the HBP
stones on which the cores were               the following radiocarbon dates: AD     community as well, with the hill to
placed for knapping, unfinished              1320 +/- 150 years; AD 1380 +/-         its west protecting the houses and
tools in various stages of                   100 years for the open air camp and     their occupants from the wind on
manufacture, and thousands of stone          AD 1410 +/- 110 years from the          cold autumn nights.
flakes and shatter (called debitage)         Hicock-Hensel Cave 1.
demonstrate that tool manufacture
and maintenance was a major                  The floral remains suggest the site
activity at the HBP. The near                was inhabited in the summer and
absence of cobble cortex suggests            early fall.     Wild cherries are
occupants were quarrying the ledge           available in late June-July, hickory
quartz located on the hillside above         and butternut/walnut ripen in
the site.4 The site also contained           September-November,           sumac
pieces of red ochre, whose red iron          berries and seeds from the various
oxides were mixed with animal fats           species of polygonum are available
or plant oils to make pigment for            in late summer-early fall. The toe      Thumbnail scrapers, chert and quartz.
painting items or possibly even as           bone of a fawn in the assemblage        Far right: spokeshave scraper used for
body paint (17th century Europeans           supports this assumption; since deer         scraping cylindrical objects.
reported that local Indians painted          give birth April-June the fawn must
and tattooed their bodies to enhance         have been procured during the late
their beauty, to acknowledge clan            summer or autumn.                       One of the most fascinating finds is
membership, and to impart symbolic                                                   the pottery. Some exhibit charred
                                                              13
food remains on their interiors,                                                  distinctions evident in the post-
indicating their use as cooking pots.                                             contact period.
But their main allure is the
interesting mixture of styles they                                                Of course, these preliminary
represent.     Rims decorated with                                                findings remain theories until we
scallop or ark shell impressions or                                               have studied the site much more
brushing (supposedly with one of                                                  intensely, which we fully intend to
                                         Five Levanna style points made
those shells)        signify coastal                                              do in the near future.
                                         from quartz & chert. Far right:
connections, particularly with the
                                         chert Snook kill point (a Terminal
Windsor ceramic tradition of south-
                                         Archaic Broad Spear)
central Connecticut.       Others are
decorated with the impressions of a
cordwrapped stick or paddle edge.        To summarize, Ned Swigart’s notes
This decorative technique was            and my cursory perusal of the
commonly used by contemporary            cultural remains suggest this is a
Hudson Valley Indian communities         very important site because it
west and southwest of the site, as
well as those living in southwestern      Is the first excavated multi-          Oak hill corded collar.
Connecticut. Incised and punctated       seasonal Late Woodland hamlet
                                                                                  1
pottery is similar to some found on      from the region.                           This is the site number given by the Office
                                                                                  of State Archaeology under the old trinomial
Hudson and Mohawk Valley sites.7                                                  system; 6=Connecticut, the sixth state in the
Some of the pottery is decorated          Demonstrates             community     union, NH= New Haven County, and 109=
with a trailed/combed technique that     relationships with Indian peoples to     it was the 109th reported archaeology site
suggests the Hudson Valley type          the west and southwest in the            in that county.
                                                                                  2
                                         Hudson       Valley,     southwestern      A diagnostic artifact is one whose style was
Black Rock Trailed. At least one of                                               produced during a specific time period
these pots exhibits zoned decoration     Connecticut, and coastal south-          and/or by a specific culture. An example is
typical of incised pottery styles        central Connecticut.        The chert    the Levanna projectile point style, which
found in the Hudson Valley,              items and pottery styles suggest         was manufactured by southern New England
                                         these relations likely involved trade,   peoples from about AD 900 till European
southwestern Connecticut, western                                                 settlement, ca. AD 1650-1750.
Long Island, and northern New            bride exchange, and kin visits/social    3
                                                                                     One primitive technologist informed me
Jersey. Some researchers, including      gatherings.                              that he believed the true function of a
myself, believe that the incised                                                  “sinew stone” was stone tool manufacture;
zoned ware signified a population         Supports previous findings by          rubbing the preform in the “sinew” groove
                                                                                  strengthened its striking platform and
movement of Munsee-speaking              Dr. Daniel Cassedy and myself8 that      allowed the knapper to remove flakes to
peoples from the Mid-Atlantic into       stone tools and clay pots from the       form the tool.
                                                                                  4
those areas ca. AD 1000-1300.            middle Housatonic Valley of                Ernie Wiegand informed the author of the
                                         Connecticut (Newtown/Brookfield          existence of this prehistoric quarry site.
Indeed some linguists believe that                                                5
                                                                                    The specimen was unidentified as to
the early contact tribal peoples of      area) indicated strong cultural
                                                                                  species. Polygonum is a genus of the
western Connecticut spoke a type of      associations with Hudson Valley          buckwheat family; knotweed, knotgrass and
eastern Munsee. These connections        Point Peninsula/Owasco cultural          smartweed are examples.
                                                                                  6
are reminiscent of those of the          groups, while those from the lower         A post mold is a dark circle in the ground
                                         Valley (Milford) showed strong           produced by the rotting of a wooden post. A
Schaghticoke        tribal    peoples                                             pattern of post molds often identifies the
documented by missionaries at the        affiliations with the Windsor            location of an Indian dwelling known as a
Moravian mission located at the          tradition     of       south-central     wigwam or weetoo, domed houses of pole
village of Schaghticoke in present       Connecticut and Long Island.             frame constructions.
                                                                                  7
                                                                                    For example, see Robert Funk’s 1976
Kent, CT ca. 1742-1770. They                                                      Recent Contributions to Hudson Valley
describe frequent visits to kith, kin,    Is seemingly different from            Prehistory (NYS Museum Memoir 20,
and political allies up and down the     contemporary 14th century Late           Albany) and Donald Lenig’s 1965 The Oak
Housatonic drainage to Stockbridge,      Woodland sites in the Connecticut        Hill Horizon and its relation to the
                                         River Valley as well, in that there      Development of Five Nations Iroquois
Long Island Sound, into eastern                                                   Culture (NYS Archaeological Association,
New York and as far away as              was no evidence for the relatively       Buffalo).
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Moravian        extensive use of cultigens (maize,       8
                                                                                    The Moravian Archives are located in
records       show       Schaghticoke    beans, sunflower) and wild plants        Bethlehem, PA. They are on microfilm and
                                         found at the latter sites. The pottery   available in many university libraries,
occupants      sometimes      married                                             including UCONN, Yale, and WESTCONN.
outside their group, such as with        styles at those sites also appear very   9
                                                                                    For example, see Cassedy and Lavin’s 2007
Pootatuck and Mahican.8                  different.     These cultural and        Prehistoric Interaction between Eastern
                                         economic distinctions may be the         New York and Southern New England
                                         root of the socio-political/tribal       (Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of
                                                                                  CT, volume

                                                          14
                                       Don Malcarne - Treasurer &         2008 DUES NOW PAYABLE
          CALENDAR                     Membership
                                       10 South Cove Lane                 It’s time to renew your membership
To help members plan their             Essex, CT 06426                    for 2008. Check your mailing label
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contact the editor with any meetings   Lucianne Lavin - Bulletin Editor
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April 4-6, 2008, Society for                                              vation and service. Enclosed are my
Pennsylvania Archaeology, Clarion,     Ernie Wiegand II - E.S.A.F. Rep.   dues for the membership category:
PA                                     152 Silver Spring Road             (circle one)
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                                       Home Phone 203-762-1972               Individual         $25.00
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Archaeological Association, North
                                       E-Mail:EWiegand@ncc.commnet.edu       Life              $300.00
Syracuse, NY
                                       Nick Bellantoni - State
May 3, 2008, ASC Spring Meeting,                                          Name: ______________________
                                       Archaeologist
Storrs, CT                                                                Address: ____________________
                                       Office of State Archaeology
                                                                          ____________________________
                                       2019 Hillside Ave, U-1023
October 11, 2008, ASC Fall                                                Phone: (___) _________________
                                       University of Connecticut
Meeting, Fairfield, CT                                                    E-Mail: _____________________
                                       Storrs, CT 06269-1023
                                       Home Phone 860-666-9648
October 24-26, 2008, Council for                                          Send to Don Malcarne, ASC
                                       Work Phone 860-486-5248
Northeast Historical Archaeology,                                         Treasurer, 10 South Cove Lane,
                                       E-Mail:
St. Mary’s City, MD                                                       Essex, CT 06426-1422
                                       nbell@uconnvm.uconn.edu

November 6-9, 2008, Eastern            Dawn Brown – Director at Large          Have you seen our
States Archaeological Federation       1714 Capitol Ave.                        website lately?
(EASF), Lockport, NY                   Bridgeport, CT 06604
                                       Home Phone 203-335-8745            Log on to the ASC website to view
                                       E-Mail: dawnlb@juno.com            current and past newsletters, buy
                                                                          books and other merchandise at the
                                       Rob Wallace - Director at Large    new ASC Bookstore, and download
       ASC OFFICERS                    33 Frank St.                       the new application for the Lyent
                                       Trumbull, CT 06611                 Russell Award. Visit us at
Dan Cruson – Acting President          Home Phone 203-452-1948
                                                                          www.connarchaeology.org
174 Hanover Road                       E-Mail: trowel4fun@aol.com
Newtown, CT 06470
Home Phone 203-426-6021                Lee West - Newsletter Editor
                                                                          Editor’s Note:       ASC News is
E-Mail: dcruson@charter.net            366 Main Street
                                                                          published three times a year, in
                                       Wethersfield, CT 06109
                                                                          September, January and March.
                                       Home Phone 860-721-1185
Robyn Swan Filippone – Secretary                                          Please address inquiries and
                                       E-Mail: lfwest@sbcglobal.net
985 Bronson Rd.                                                           contributions to future issues to ASC
Fairfield, CT 06824                                                       News, Lee West - Editor, 366 Main
Home Phone 203-259-8440                                                   St., Wethersfield, CT 06109
Work Phone 203-259-0346                                                   E-Mail: lfwest@sbcglobal.net
Cell 203-566-7740
E-Mail: rlsf99@optonline.net




                                                       15
              ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CONNECTICUT
              MASSACHUSETTS ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
                            SPRING MEETING
              Theme: Amateur Collectors and Current Research
                                   Saturday, May 3, 2008

              The Thomas J. Dodd Research Center – UConn, Storrs

9:00-9:50     Registration, Coffee & Doughnuts - Admission: $10 for general public, $8 for
              ASC/MAS and museum members, $5 for students with ID

9:50-10:00    Opening Remarks: Dan Cruson (ASC) and Tonya Largy (MAS)

10:00-10:30   Nick Bellantoni (ASC) "The Norris L. Bull Collection: The Connecticut
              Archaeological Survey"

              ABSTRACT: Norris L. Bull began collecting Native American stone artifacts in the
              early 1900s. He was a well-to-do business executive who could afford to purchase
              artifacts from farmers and other collectors. His goal was to collect from every town in
              the state of Connecticut in order to tell the complete history of the state's Native
              Americans. He amassed a collection of over 6,000 items. His collection was donated to
              UConn in the early 1960s and was the impetuous for the position of state archaeologist.

              SPEAKER: Nicholas F. Bellantoni serves as the state archaeologist with the
              Connecticut State Museum of Natural History and Archaeology Center at the University
              of Connecticut. He received his doctorate in anthropology from UConn in 1987 and was
              shortly thereafter appointed state archaeologist. His duties are many, but primarily
              include the preservation of archaeological sites in the state. His research background is
              the analysis of skeletal remains from eastern North America. He has been excavating in
              Connecticut for over 30 years.


10:30-11:00   Candace Meader (ASC) “Trumbull Flatlands – Indian Ledge Park Collection”

              ABSTRACT: This study represents a large (550+) collection of projectile points
              obtained from Dan Cruson, Town Historian of Newtown, CT and President of the
              Archaeological Society of Connecticut. It was utilized for an independent site survey
              project as part of the Norwalk Community College Advanced Techniques in
              Archaeology course. The collection included materials dug in Trumbull, CT by a
              pothunter, “Gene” plus test pits dug by Dan’s Joel Barlow High School students during
              summer field schools. The site appears to have been well occupied through much of
              prehistoric time as evidenced by artifacts from multiple time periods.

              SPEAKER: Candace Meader was recently a student of Ernie Wiegand in the
              Archaeology for Avocation Certificate Program at Norwalk Community College. She

                                              16
              was also involved with volunteer work at the Gallows Hill site in Redding, CT plus CRM
              work during summers with Ernie Wiegand 2006-2007.

11:00-11:30   Lucianne Lavin (ASC) "The Research Potential of Early Archaeology
              Collections at IAIS: The Edward Rogers Collection"

              ABSTRACT: Edward Rogers was a teacher/school administrator and an avid collector
              of Native American artifacts throughout the early and mid-20th century. His collection
              includes items from states as far away as California. He excavated as well as surface-
              collected on a number of Native American sites, mainly in Connecticut and
              Massachusetts (he was a Native Cape Codder who removed to Connecticut after
              graduating from New York University in 1914). He arranged that his collection would
              go to the American Indian Archaeological Institute (now the Institute for American
              Indian Studies) in Washington, CT after his death in 1972. The collection consists of
              over 7,000 interesting and unusual specimens whose study can still provide important
              information on indigenous lifeways and aesthetics. This talk will feature a number of
              them.

              SPEAKER: Lucianne Lavin is Director of Research and Collections at the Institute for
              American Indian Studies, a research museum and educational center in Washington, CT.
              She is also a member of the CT Native American Heritage Advisory Council and Editor
              of the bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut. An anthropological
              archaeologist with over 25 years of research and field experience in Northeastern
              archaeology and anthropology, she received her MA and Ph.D. in anthropology from
              New York University. During her term as a Research Associate at the Peabody Museum
              of Natural History at Yale University, she co-directed the museum’s present Connecticut
              Prehistory exhibit with the late Professor Ben Rouse and wrote the accompanying
              teacher’s manual. Dr. Lavin has written over 100 professional publications and technical
              reports on the archaeology and ethnohistory of the Northeast. She was twice awarded
              the Russell Award by the Archaeological Society of Connecticut and elected Fellow of
              the New York State Archaeological Association for outstanding work in the archaeology
              of their respective states.


11:30-12:00   Eugene Winter (MAS) “Massachusetts Archaeology: A Short History”

              ABSTRACT: The founding of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society in 1939 was
              the work of a special committee and interested individuals who met in Andover.
              Professional archaeologists and amateurs elected officers and set up committees to
              establish by-laws and certain procedures. Eventually the Society developed a museum
              and headquarters in Attleborough and later moved to a larger facility in Middleborough,
              the Robbins Museum. This illustrated talk will present some of the individuals and their
              contributions to archaeology as it developed in Massachusetts.

              SPEAKER: An educator by profession and by inclination, Eugene Winter has been a
              spokesman on archaeology for public schools, adult education programs, historical
              societies, and avocational archaeologists in the Northeast. He was twice president of the
              Massachusetts Archaeological Society, president of the New Hampshire Archaeological
              Society, and helped to establish the Maine Archaeological Society. He was named
              honorary curator at the R.S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology for his work during a
              10-year period when there was no director. Gene has been in charge of many
              archaeological field projects and has published copiously. He enjoys being a mentor,
              and an advocate for education, site protection, and cooperation between avocational and
              professional archaeologists.
                                              17
12:00-1:30    Lunch

1:30 –2:00    Business Meeting (ASC and MAS)

2:00-2:30     Rob Wallace (ASC) “The Cyrus Sherwood Bradley Collection Revisited”

              ABSTRACT: The subject of Rob’s lecture will be about a large collection of Native
              American artifacts that were found around the Town of Fairfield in the late 1800’s by
              Cyrus Sherwood Bradley, a local collector. This collection is currently at the Fairfield
              Museum and History Center and it was analyzed in 1992 by Sally Strazdins, a member of
              the Archaeological Club of Norwalk Community College. Her findings were published
              in the Archaeological Society of Connecticut Bulletin. Rob’s talk will feature a
              biography of Cyrus Sherwood Bradley with photos of some of the collection and the
              importance of these artifacts has against the ever changing landscape of the Town of
              Fairfield.

              SPEAKER: Rob Wallace is a graduate of the Norwalk Community College’s
              Archaeology as an Avocation program. He is currently continuing his Bachelor’s degree
              studies at Charter Oak State College and is also a Director at Large for the
              Archaeological Society of Connecticut. He has been involved with several excavations
              in the Fairfield area with the Fairfield Museum and Research Center.


2:30-3:00     John Pretola (MAS) “Amateur Collections from Springfield Science Museum”

              ABSTRACT: Nineteenth and early twentieth century collectors-what were they
              thinking? In this paper John Pretola will explore some theoretical underpinnings that
              drove a number of artifact collectors, local historians, and early archaeologists (those
              who kept notes) to compile important local collections in the Springfield, Massachusetts
              area. Understanding the collector’s mindset is crucial to evaluating the potentials and
              limitations of these collections. In most cases, these collections preserve artifact
              assemblages from sites that have been destroyed by more than one-hundred years of
              urban growth. In others, these collections provide important supplements to
              systematically acquired data. The fact that they preserve, or augment elements of a lost
              dataset makes these collections worthy of continued study.

              SPEAKER: John Pretola retired as Curator of Anthropology from the Springfield
              Science Museum in 2002 after 27 years service. After several years of adjunct teaching,
              he is currently a Senior Principal Investigator in Gray & Pape’s Providence Office.
              Although he is presently working in the Wallkill Valley, Orange County, New York, his
              interests remain in Connecticut Valley and southern New England prehistoric
              archaeology, ceramic analysis, and petrographic analysis of artifacts.


             Current Research: Defining Domestic Life of Past Peoples
3:00-3:30     Susan Jacobucci (MAS) “A Micro/Macro Analysis of the Middleborough
              Little League Site”

              ABSTRACT: Archaeological fieldwork resumed during 2006-2007 at the
              Middleborough Little League site, a prehistoric multi-component Native American site
                                              18
            composed of various occupations dated from the Middle Archaic to Middle Woodland
            periods. In addition to material culture, soil samples were collected for microbotanical
            and macrobotanical analyses. This paper presents an insightful dataset of
            archaeobiological artifacts, which includes an analysis of pollen, macrobotanical, and
            faunal remains, and couples this with the results of a low-power use-wear examination of
            stone edge artifacts that were recovered over several field seasons. These data address
            questions related to defining domestic lifeways of past peoples that could not be
            ascertained by an examination of the recovered material culture alone. This paper
            reveals some of the implications of Environmental archaeology and shows how it can be
            used to supplement, complement, and validate the material culture.

            SPEAKER: Susan A. Jacobucci is a Pollen Laboratory Analyst for the Andrew Fiske
            Memorial Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Massachusetts,
            Boston and the Clerk for the Massachusetts Archaeological Society. She has earned a
            MA in Historical Archaeology and also holds undergraduate degrees in Sociology and
            Anthropology. Susan has participated in the archaeological excavations of both
            prehistoric and historic period sites located in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, and
            New Mexico.


3:30-4:00   Craig Chartier (MAS) “Home and Homelot Archaeology at the Lot Harding
            House, Truro, Massachusetts: What Can Be Learned from Focused, Low Impact
            Testing in Disturbed Areas”

            ABSTRACT: Testing around the foundation of the extant (18th century) Lot Harding
            house foundation in preparation for stabilization and modern footing preservation work
            in 2005, revealed extensive artifactual deposits associated with all periods of habitation
            at this site. Recent attempts to stabilize the rotting sills and reconstruct the bulkhead
            entrance have resulted in extensive disturbance of the subsoil adjacent to the house but
            evidence of the use of yard space and the disposal patterns of domestic refuse by the
            households remained intact and temporally distinct. Evidence was found that may
            indicate that the house could be older than the accepted date of construction, possibly
            extending back into the late seventeenth century, or that portions of an older house were
            reused during an eighteenth century construction. Analysis of faunal and ceramic
            remains indicates that the household probably raised a portion of their own meat and
            purchased imported as well as domestic ceramics for different purposes.

            SPEAKER: Craig S. Chartier is a native of southeastern Massachusetts who is currently
            in his 20th year of being involved in the business of archaeology. He received his
            Bachelor of Arts from the University of Rhode Island and his Master's degree in
            Historical Archaeology from the University of Massachusetts, Boston. He has worked on
            archaeological projects in New England and Virginia and currently runs his own
            archaeology cultural resource management and education firm (Massachusetts
            Archaeological Professionals and the Plymouth Archaeological Rediscovery Project),
            headquartered in New Bedford, Massachusetts.


4:00-5:00   Reception




                                            19
DIRECTIONS TO THE SPRING MEETING




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