THE CERION _MOLLUSCA GASTROPODA PULMONATA CERIONIDAE_ TAXA OF

Document Sample
THE CERION _MOLLUSCA GASTROPODA PULMONATA CERIONIDAE_ TAXA OF Powered By Docstoc
					THE CERION (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA: PULMONATA:
CERIONIDAE) TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD AND
THEIR TYPE SPECIMENS

M. G. HARASEWYCH,1 ADAM J. BALDINGER,2 YOLANDA VILLACAMPA,1 AND PAUL GREENHALL1

ABSTRACT. Charles Johnson Maynard (1845–1929)              INTRODUCTION
was a self-educated naturalist, teacher, and dealer in
natural history specimens and materials who con-              The family Cerionidae comprises a
ducted extensive field work throughout Florida, the         group of terrestrial pulmonate gastropods
Bahamas, and the Cayman Islands. He published
prolifically on the fauna, flora, and anthropology of
                                                           that are endemic to the tropical western
these areas. His publications included descriptions of     Atlantic, ranging from southern Florida
248 of the 587 validly proposed species-level taxa         throughout the Bahamas, Greater Antilles,
within Cerionidae, a family of terrestrial gastropods      Cayman Islands, western Virgin Islands,
endemic to the islands of the tropical western Atlan-      and the Dutch Antilles, but are absent in
tic. After his death, his collection of Cerionidae was
purchased jointly by the Museum of Comparative Zo-
                                                           Jamaica, the Lesser Antilles, and coastal
ology (MCZ) and the United States National Muse-           Central and South America. These snails
um, with the presumed primary types remaining at           are halophilic, occurring on terrestrial veg-
the MCZ and the remainder of the collection divided        etation, generally within 100 m of the
between these two museums and a few other insti-           shore, but occasionally 1 km or more from
tutions. In this work, we provide 1) a revised collation
of Maynard’s publications dealing with Cerionidae, 2)
                                                           the sea, presumably in areas where salt
a chronological listing of species-level taxa proposed     spray can reach them from one or more
in these works, 3) a determination of the number and       directions (Clench, 1957: 121). Cerionid
status of name-bearing type specimens for each taxon       snails generally occur in dense but patchy
within the context of the most recent edition of the       populations, often with 10,000 or more in-
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, and
4) when necessary, the selection of a lectotype (for       dividuals. They can be conspicuously
185 taxa) or the designation of a neotype (for eight       abundant when living on open vegetation
taxa) from among specimens in these museums to             and less so when living in leaf litter. Al-
restrict the name-bearing type for each taxon to a         though individual populations tend to be
single specimen, which is illustrated. Type material       fairly uniform in the size and morphology
could not be located for three of the 248 species-level
taxa proposed by Maynard. In these instances, neo-         of their shells, size, shape, color, and in-
types are proposed to make these three taxa objective      ternal as well as external sculpture of the
junior synonyms of other taxa. Strict application of       shell vary enormously among populations.
the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature          Such variation is evident not only through-
contradicts the authorship, publication date, and type
status of name-bearing types for a significant number
                                                           out the range of Cerionidae, but even
of Maynard’s taxa that had been previously reported        among neighboring populations separated
in the literature.                                         by less than 100 m. This lavish yet geo-
                                                           graphically circumscribed diversity has led
                                                           to an extensive body of literature dealing
  1
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, MRC 163,           with cerionids. Much of the early work was
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian            primarily taxonomic and focused on pars-
Institution, Washington, DC 20560.
  2
    Curatorial Associate, Malacology, Museum of
                                                           ing the various phenotypes among roughly
Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford         600 nominal species and nearly two dozen
Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138-2902.               genus-level taxa. More recent research,

                                  Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 158(7): 367–528, September, 2007          367
368    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



particularly the work of Mayr, Gould,            ies.’’ Maynard’s writings on the Cerionidae
Woodruff, and Goodfriend, as well as their       were confined to eight publications, sev-
students and collaborators (see Woodruff,        eral of which appeared in multiple parts
1978, for an overview), addressed more           (Table 1). Six of these publications contain
basic biological questions: among them,          descriptions of new taxa, and a seventh
the origins as well as the geographic and        contains a nomen nudum. One is an ad-
temporal stability of morphological and ge-      vertisement.
netic diversity and the dynamics of hybrid          Although Maynard’s publications are
zones and biogeographic patterns, both           rare, specimens of the majority of his taxa
Holocene and Recent. Yet, as noted by            are not. In his undated sales catalog, May-
Woodruff (1978: 224), ‘‘the evolutionary         nard (1924b?) mentioned having 200,000
importance of these remarkable animals           specimens of Cerion, whereas the supple-
has been buried under an all but impen-          ment to this catalog noted that an addi-
etrable taxonomic thicket.’’                     tional 44,000 specimens, representing 30
   Much of the breadth and a substantial         species, were collected in 1924. Nearly all
amount of the impenetrability of this ‘‘tax-     of Maynard’s species descriptions mention
onomic thicket’’ can be attributed to the        the number of specimens examined. In his
work of Charles Johnson Maynard (1845–           description of Strophia extensa, as an ex-
1929), who published 248 of the 587 val-         treme example, Maynard (1924c: 2–3)
idly proposed species-level taxa (excluding      commented that 23,000 specimens were
obvious typographical errors), and seven of      collected, of which only about 3,000 were
the 23 genus-level taxa within Cerionidae.       living.
Maynard was a self-educated naturalist              Shortly after Maynard’s death (October
and teacher who conducted extensive field         15, 1929), his daughter offered his large
work throughout Florida, the Bahamas,            collection of Cerion for sale to the Muse-
and the Cayman Islands (Abele, 2002;             um of Collective Zoology (MCZ). Turner
French, 1930; Johnson, 1930; Townsend,           (1957: 151) reported that, ‘‘As the collec-
1930; Turner, 1957). His bibliography con-       tion was so large, and the specimens so
sists of 277 publications (Batchelder,           numerous, it was decided to buy it jointly
1951), the overwhelming majority on              with the United States National Museum
birds, but includes works on butterflies,         [USNM, now the National Museum of
sponges, land snails, and many other areas       Natural History, Smithsonian Institution]
of natural history and anthropology. Batch-      for $500. The collection was divided
elder (1951: 227) pointed out that many of       equally between the two institutions, with
Maynard’s publications, including all of his     the holotypes being retained at the MCZ.
work on Cerionidae, were ‘‘not only the          A few duplicate sets of the larger series of
work of his active mind but of his own           Maynard’s types were sold to various insti-
hands. He took pride in setting the type,        tutions, so that much of Maynard’s type
making wood-cuts, drawing lithographs,           material is now well distributed.’’ Records
and doing the press work.’’                      at the MCZ (Mollusk Department Acces-
   Maynard’s publications were printed in        sion file 766) indicate that 475 lots of
limited numbers and most are very rare.          ‘‘mostly cerions from the Maynard collec-
For example, the prospectus on the inside        tion, including all of his species’’ were pur-
front covers of each of the 12 parts of his      chased by Dr. T. Barbour for the Museum
Contributions to the History of the Cer-         and were received in the Mollusk Depart-
ionidae with Descriptions of Many New            ment in October 1931. These were as-
Species and Notes on Evolution in Birds          signed catalog numbers ranging from
and Plants (1919–26; hereafter Contribu-         MCZ 76001 to 76475. Specimens with
tions to the History of the Cerionidae)          these catalog numbers were in Maynard’s
states, ‘‘The edition will consist of 150 cop-   collection at the time of his death. Com-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              369



menting on the condition of the collection,    contradicted. By way of example, the orig-
Turner (1957: 151) wrote ‘‘the collection,     inal description of Strophia scripta May-
at the time it was sold, was in rather sad     nard, 1896 (p. 4), provided a detailed de-
shape, for the cabinet drawers had warped      scription that lists ‘‘size of type, 1.30 by
and once pulled open could not be closed.      .47’’ and identifies the illustration of a sin-
The top drawers of the cabinets became a       gle specimen as ‘‘fig. 3, front, fig. 4, side
parade ground for pigeons, and their drop-     view of type.’’ According to Article 73.1.1
pings cemented the shells together in a        (ICZN, 1999: 79), this specimen would be
solid mass! After transferring the collec-     the holotype. However, earlier in the same
tion in its original drawers to the MCZ,       publication, Maynard (1896: 1) states,
each lot was sorted, cleaned and properly      ‘‘The first portion of the present install-
labeled—a truly gigantic task.’’               ment of this monograph is based upon
   Because Maynard was a dealer and col-       specimens belonging to the MCZ which I
lector who for decades sold or exchanged       have been permitted to examine. . . . I
specimens to support his research and ex-      have returned the types figured to the Mu-
peditions, an unquantified amount of type       seum, but have retained a set of co-types
material was also distributed during his       in my own collection.’’ This indicates that
lifetime. A series of cerions was donated      the figured specimen returned to the MCZ
by Maynard to the MCZ in 1895 and was          and the specimen retained by Maynard for
catalogued with the numbers MCZ 10242          his own collection are syntypes because
to 10360. Correspondence and invoices in       they can be considered expressly designat-
the Smithsonian Archives indicate that Dr.     ed as such in the original publication (Ar-
Paul Bartsch purchased for the National        ticle 73.2.1, ICZN, 1999: 81).
Museum of Natural History specimens               Most of the taxon descriptions pub-
representing 121 of Maynard’s species          lished in Maynard’s first work on the Cer-
‘‘from their type localities’’ in 1923         ionidae, the Monograph of the Genus Stro-
(USNM 359387–359518), and an addition-         phia, a Group of Tropical and Sub-Tropi-
al 57 specimens in 1925. Another series of     cal Land Shells that appeared in seven is-
Maynard’s cerion specimens, originally in      sues of the Contributions to Science
the collections of the Boston Society of       (1889–96), were exemplary for the period.
Natural History, was transferred to the        Each included a detailed description and
MCZ in February 1930 and bear the cat-         illustrations (usually with two views), pro-
alog numbers MCZ 39713–39719. Al-              vided dimensions of the ‘‘type’’ or ‘‘types,’’
though many of Maynard’s taxa are rep-         as well as of the largest and smallest spec-
resented in museum collections, particu-       imens, and had sections with observations
larly in the eastern United States, the type   on variation within the taxon and on its
status of many, if not most, of these spec-    distribution and habitats.
imens was undetermined or incorrectly la-         In contrast, taxonomic descriptions in
beled at the time of this writing.             most subsequent publications (e.g., May-
   Although Turner (1957: 151) reported        nard, 1913a,b,c, 1919–26 [Contributions
that the holotypes of Maynard’s taxa were      to the History of the Cerionidae],
retained at the MCZ, it is far from clear      1924b?,c; Maynard and Clapp, 1914,
how many and which of Maynard’s taxa are       1915) were very brief and written in tele-
based on holotypes and which on syntypes.      graphic style. Some were later supple-
If application of the International Code of    mented with more detailed descriptions of
Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is re-          the shell and anatomy (Maynard, 1924a,
stricted to the descriptions of individual     1925, 1926). Each intended taxonomic de-
species, one conclusion can be reached. If     scription typically included a measurement
other portions of the original publication     and gave the number of specimens exam-
are considered, this conclusion could be       ined but did not contain any version of the
370      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



      TABLE 1. PUBLICATIONS BY CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD CONTAINING ARTICLES ON CERIONIDAE.

Maynard, C. J. 1889–96. Monograph of the Genus Strophia, a group of tropical and sub-tropical land shells.
 Contributions to Science, 1(1, April 1889): 1–29, pls. 1–2; 1(2, July 1889): 68–79, pl. 7; 1(3, October 1889):
 125–135, pl. 16; 1(4, January 1890 [dated ‘‘January, 1889’’ on page 1]): 188–197; 2(1 [July 1893 on cover,
 November 1893 on page 1]): 1–48; 2(2 [November 1894 on cover]): 49–104; 2(3 [December 1894 on
 cover]): 105–152; 2(4 [December 1894 on cover]): 153–200; 3(1, March 1896): 1–40, pls. 1–7. (Privately
 published, Newtonville, Massachusetts)
Maynard, C. J. 1913. Descriptions of some species of the family Cerionidae. Records of Walks and Talks with
 Nature. Appendix to Volume 5: 177–200 (illustrations on paper covers; pp. 177–182 are dated January 1913;
 pp. 183–200, February 1913. Footnote on p. 186: ‘‘Pages 183–186 were issued Feb. 1, 1913.’’ Footnote on
 p. 199: ‘‘Pages 187–199 were issued Feb. 9, 1913.’’ Text is complete on p. 199. Page 200 contains figures
 of three species reproduced from Contributions to Science). (Privately published, West Newton, Massa-
 chusetts)
Maynard, C. J. 1914. A species of land shell of the family Cerionidae redescribed. Records of Walks and
 Talks with Nature. Appendix to Volume 6: 177–179 [illustrations on paper covers]. [Dated May 1914 at top
 of each page, but footnote on p. 179 states ‘‘Actual date of publication of this sheet, Aug 18, 1914.’’]
 (Privately published, Newtonville, Massachusetts)
Maynard, C. J., and N. A. Clapp. 1914–15. Descriptions of new Strophias. Records of Walks and Talks with
 Nature. Appendix to Volume 6: 180 [August 18, 1914], 179 bis, 180 bis, 181, 182 [February 8, 1915]. [Page
 180 has same date as Maynard, 1914; footnote on p. 182 states, ‘‘Actual date of publication, Feb. 8, 1915.’’]
 (Privately published, Newtonville, Massachusetts)
Maynard, C. J. 1919. A New Book on Evolution. Contributions to the History of Cerionidae. 4 unnumbered
 pp. (Privately published, Newtonville, Massachusetts)
 Note: This is a four-page advertisement for the Contributions to the History of the Cerionidae [see below]
 that provided a brief description of the intended work, which was to contain ‘‘upward of 400 pages, and
 over 20 plates of shells, birds, etc’’ and be limited to 150 copies. Versions with either plain or hand-colored
 plates were advertised. This advertisement was bound within the covers of Number 1 of Contributions to
 the History of the Cerionidae in the ANSP copy, with a Library Stamp dated October 22, 1919. Batchelder
 (1951: 256) noted, ‘‘Issued first perhaps in 1921, reprinted, most of it verbatim, but with some changes, in
 1924.’’
Maynard, C. J. 1919–26. Contributions to the history of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many new species
 and notes on evolution in birds and plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature. Appendix to Volume
 10. 1[October 16, 1919]: 1–24, pls. 5, 6 [illustrations on paper covers]; 2[November 6, 1919]: 25–52, pls.
 7, 8 [illustrations on paper covers]; 3[December 31, 1919]: 53–68, pls. 9, 10 [illustrations of paper covers];
 4[February 29, 1920]: 69–80, pls. 10∗, 11 [illustrations on paper covers]; 5[April 8, 1920]: 81–92, pls. 12,
 13 [illustrations on paper covers]; 6[July 10, 1920]: 93–110, pls. 14–19 [illustrations on paper covers];
 7[September 30, 1920]: 111–126, pls. 1–4, 20–25 [illustrations on paper covers]; 8[May 2, 1921]: 127–138,
 pls. 26–33 [illustrations on paper covers]; 9[July 15, 1921]: 139–154, pls. 34–37 [illustrations on paper
 covers]; 10[October 25, 1924]: 155–170, pls. 38–39 [illustrations on paper covers]; 11[July 18, 1925]: 171–
 194, pls. 40–41 [illustrations on paper covers]; 12[March (10 printed, overwritten in ink to 24) 1926]: 195–
 218, pls. 42–43 [illustrations on paper covers]. (Privately published, Newtonville, Massachusetts)
  Note: Collations and dates of individual parts of this work are based on copies in the libraries of the
  Smithsonian Institution and the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, which were bound as issued.
  The dates and the apportionment of pages, especially of plates to the individual numbers, differ considerably
  from the collation given in Batchelder (1951: 254–256), which, like the copies in the libraries of the MCZ
  and Mr. Richard Goldberg, have the plates in numerical order. The collation of this work in the library of
  the Field Museum of Natural history differs in that 1) pages 49–52 are bound with number 3 instead of
  number 2; 2) number 3 is dated (in pencil) December 4 instead of December 31; 3) plates 40 and 41 are
  bound between the back cover of number 10 and the front cover of number 11, rather than within the
  covers of number 11.
Publication dates are based on:
    ‘‘Number 1 Published Oct. 6 1919’’ printed on front cover.
  ∗ ‘‘Number 2 Published Nov. 6 1919’’ printed on front cover.
  ∗ ‘‘Number 3 Published Dec. 31 1919’’ printed on front cover but numbers in bold handwritten in ink.
                THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                              371



                                            TABLE 1. CONTINUED.

   ‘‘Number 4 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 80, ‘‘No. 4. Pages 69–80,
      inclusive. issued Feb. 29, 1920.’’
   ‘‘Number 5 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 92, ‘‘No. 5. Pages 81–92,
      inclusive. issued April 8, 1920.’’
   ‘‘Number 6 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 110, ‘‘No. 6. Pages 93–
      110, inclusive. issued July 10, 1920.’’
   ‘‘Number 7 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 126, ‘‘No. 7. Pages 111–
      126, inclusive. issued Sept. 30, 1920.’’
   ‘‘Number 8 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 138, ‘‘No. 8. Pages 127–
      138, inclusive. Issued May 2, 1921.’’
   ‘‘Number 9 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 154, ‘‘No. 9. Pages 139–
      154, inclusive. issued July 15, 1921.’’
   ‘‘Number 10 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 170, ‘‘No. 10. Pages 155–
      170, inclusive. issued Oct. 25, 1924.’’
   ‘‘Number 11 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 194, ‘‘No. 11. Pages 171–
      194, inclusive. Issued July 18, 1925.’’
   ‘‘Number 12 Date of issue on last page.’’ printed on front cover. Footnote on p. 218, ‘‘No. 12. Pages 195–
      218, inclusive. Issued March 10 [overwritten in ink to 24], 1926.’’
Maynard, C. J. [Undated, referred to herein as 1924b?]. Catalogue of Specimens of the Family Cerionidae
 for Sale by Charles J. Maynard Containing Many New Species. Paper cover and 8 unnumbered pages.
 (Privately published, Newtonville, Massachusetts)
 Note: Batchelder (1951: 256) listed 1920 as the date for this work, whereas Clench (1957: 169) cited a six-
 page catalog with identical title as published in 1924. Maynard began advertising specimens and publications
 in The Nautilus, beginning in July 1920 and continued until October 1929 (volume 34, number 1, through
 volume 43, number 2), the advertisements appearing at the top of the inside front cover. Beginning July
 1921 and continuing until Maynard’s death (October 15, 1929), these advertisements offered a ‘‘Catalog of
 Cerion for sale now ready, over 100 species.’’ The inside front paper cover of the Catalog in the Smithsonian
 Institution’s library lists ‘‘Appendix to Records Vol. X, 1921,’’ and several taxa described in 1921 are offered
 for sale in this catalogue. Also listed [page 3] is Strophiops albicostata, the description of which appears in
 the supplement to this catalog (dated December 10, 1924). These data suggest that the catalog first ap-
 peared on or before July 1921 but that it might have undergone periodic revision and updating, the last
 appearing on or before December 10, 1924. The copy in the Academy of Natural Sciences Library is hand
 dated ‘‘1921,’’ but the Library Stamp reads January 31, 1929.
Maynard, C. J. 1924 [10 December]. Supplement to Sale Catalogue of Cerionidae with Descriptions of New
 Species Collected in the Bahama Islands in Summer of 1924. pp. 1–6. [Footnote on p. 6 ‘‘Issued December
 10, 1924] (Privately published, Newtonville, Massachusetts)
 ∗ Asterisk denotes a date different from that cited by Batchelder (1951: 254).


word ‘‘type’’ in the description or in figure              tions published in Contributions to the
captions for those taxa that were illustrat-              History of the Cerionidae under the head-
ed. International Code of Zoological No-                  ing ‘‘Typical Specimens,’’ Maynard wrote,
menclature Article 73.2 (1999: 81) states                   It has long been the custom with naturalists when
that, ‘‘for a nominal species-group taxon                   describing new species to select some individual
established before 2000 all specimens of                    specimen that as nearly as possible combines all of
the type series are automatically syntypes                  the characters which are possessed by the species
if neither a holotype nor a lectotype has                   of which it is a member. This specimen is called a
                                                            type. As will be seen, however, by the previous re-
been fixed.’’ Thus, most of Maynard’s taxa                   marks and the matter which follows, that groups
published after 1896, including the taxa of                 occur in all species composed of members which
Maynard and Clapp, can be considered as                     have similar characters. From some one of these
being typified by multiple syntypes (23,000                  groups the type must be selected. This is usually
                                                            selected in the species described in this volume,
syntypes in the case of Strophia extensa                    from the group that has the largest number of spec-
Maynard, 1924; see above).                                  imens. This group I have called typical. (Maynard,
   In the preamble to the species descrip-                  1919b: 43–44)
372    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



    This indicates that Maynard understood       tion at the time of Maynard’s death (see
the concept of type specimen and defined          above; Turner, 1957: 151), it is entirely
it explicitly. Maynard based his taxonomic       possible that specimens or labels moved
descriptions on characteristics of popula-       within the drawers. When such specimens,
tions, then selected as ‘‘type’’ an individual   or one of such specimens, can be reason-
that ‘‘as nearly as possible combines all of     ably construed as approximating the pub-
the characters possessed by the species of       lished measurements or, for taxa that are
which it is a member.’’ This differs con-        illustrated, the original illustration, even
ceptually from the definition of Holotype,        though neither are associated with the
which is ‘‘the single specimen upon which        term ‘‘type’’ within the publication, these
a new nominal species group taxon is             specimens are designated as the lectotypes
based’’ (Article 73.1, ICZN, 1999: 79).          for their respective species-level taxa here-
    Maynard’s statement that ‘‘this [the         in.
type] is usually selected in the species de-        Many researchers have conjectured that
scribed in this volume’’ not only excludes       perhaps only 10–20% of the species-level
species not described in that volume (i.e.,      taxa within Cerionidae will eventually be
Maynard, 1913a, b, c, 1924b, c; Maynard          found to represent valid species (e.g.,
and Clapp, 1914, 1915) but does not spec-        Clench, 1957: 121; Turner, 1957: 152;
ify for which of the species in Maynard          Woodruff, 1978: 235). The determination
(1919–26) such specimens were selected.          of whether the nomina proposed by May-
    Even with no mention of the term             nard represent valid species, subspecies,
‘‘type’’ in the original descriptions, many of   demes, or distinctive combinations of al-
the specimens now in the collections of          leles is beyond the scope of this work.
the MCZ that are derived from the May-           Rather, our objective here is to enumerate
nard collection are labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and     chronologically and in order of publication
are accompanied by a slip of paper, appar-       all of the species-level taxa within the fam-
ently in Maynard’s handwriting, that in-         ily Cerionidae that were validly proposed
cludes the term ‘‘type.’’ These labels also      by Maynard, either individually or in col-
contain the plate and figure numbers for          laboration with Clapp; to determine the
the illustrations of the taxon in Maynard        dates on which each of these taxa became
(1919–26) in the same handwriting and            available; and to locate and to restrict the
the same ink, suggesting that the slips          name-bearing type for each taxon to a sin-
were written at the time of preparation of       gle specimen, when necessary by the se-
the plates for this work. Such labels can be     lection of a lectotype or designation of a
construed as evidence that Maynard con-          neotype. As noted in ICZN Article 61.1
sidered these specimens to be the types of       (1999: 63), ‘‘The fixation of a name-bear-
their respective taxa, some of which had         ing type of a nominal taxon provides the
been published years or decades earlier          objective standard of reference for the ap-
than their illustrations. However, it is not     plication of the name it bears.’’ Providing
possible to interpret them as holotype des-      objective standards for all of Maynard’s
ignations within the Code, which states          taxa is a necessary first step toward prun-
that ‘‘the holotype of a new nominal spe-        ing the ‘‘all but impenetrable taxonomic
cies-group taxon can only be fixed in the         thicket’’ that has been a hallmark of, and
original publication by the original author’’    an impediment to, studies of the Cerioni-
(Article 73.1.3, ICZN, 1999: 79).                dae.
    In the vast majority of cases, these
‘‘type’’ labels accompany a single speci-        MATERIALS AND METHODS
men, but in over a dozen cases, they ac-            The publications listed in Table 1 were
company a lot containing multiple speci-         surveyed for descriptions of species-level
mens. Given the condition of the collec-         taxa. The species-level taxa are listed chro-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                373



nologically according to the date the taxa        Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP), the
became available and in order of publica-         Field Museum of Natural History
tion to the extent possible. For cases in         (FMNH), Florida Museum of Natural
which a taxon name appeared only on a             History (FLMNH), and Museum of Bio-
plate caption but not in the text, it is listed   logical Diversity, The Ohio State Univer-
at the end of the taxa published in the           sity (OSU). When necessary, a lectotype is
same issue or on the same date. This list         selected or a neotype is designated from
was compared with similar compilations in         among specimens in these museums to re-
Batchelder (1951) and in Clench’s (1957)          strict the name-bearing type for each taxon
catalog of the Cerionidae. We do not in-          to a single specimen. This is followed by
clude misspellings of Maynard’s taxa by           measurements of the single name-bearing
subsequent authors (e.g., Batchelder,             type, the type locality for the taxon, and
1951; Clench, 1957; Pilsbry, 1901–02) or          remarks pertaining to the taxon. Images of
Maynard’s uses or misspellings of other au-       the apertural and right lateral views are
thors’ taxa. Maynard’s not infrequent mis-        also included.
spellings of his own taxa, likely introduced         Comparisons with published measure-
when he set the type, are reconciled, usu-        ments and figures have been made when
ally with the accepted spelling of the taxon      selecting or verifying primary type speci-
(see however, S. nivia, taxa 26 and 72), and      mens (Recommendation 74B, ICZN,
are also included in the alphabetical index       1999: 83). It should be noted from the on-
of Maynard’s taxa.                                set that some variation is to be expected
   Each validly introduced taxon is num-          in measurements of length and far more
bered sequentially and is followed by one         in measurements of width, as these de-
or more citations, including the valid taxon      pend not only on the accuracy of the in-
description (in bold), which for several          strument used (ruler vs. digital caliper),
taxa differs from the intended taxon de-          but also on how the measurements were
scription. Also included are details of spec-     made (length measured parallel to the axis
imens associated with the term ‘‘type’’           of coiling vs. maximum length; width of
within the intended taxon description,            the cylindrical portion of the shell vs. max-
published measurements, and the number            imum width including flaring aperture).
of specimens examined.                            Even the best of Maynard’s illustrations,
   The number and the status of name-             while generally adequate for distinguishing
bearing type specimens for each taxon are         taxa, are rarely precise enough to differ-
determined within the context of the most         entiate among the often numerous speci-
recent edition of the ICZN (1999). This           mens in the type series. Turner (1957:
determination is based on information in          140) quoted from Maynard’s unpublished
the original description, other portions of       autobiography, ‘‘When I was a child I took
the same publication, subsequent publi-           a great liking to the art of wood engraving.
cations, and works of other authors, as well      Not because I had ever seen any of the
as on specimens traceable to Maynard’s            work done, for I had not, but with the idea
collection now in the collections of the          in mind that I should like the work, I con-
MCZ. Several of Maynard’s taxa were not           sulted a neighbor who was a wood engrav-
represented in his collection when it             er. After questioning me as to my ability
reached the Museum, as confirmed by an             to make drawings and after not finding me
examination of the MCZ catalog. For these         at all proficient in that art, he said em-
taxa, efforts were made to locate speci-          phatically that I would not succeed as an
mens traceable to Maynard in the collec-          engraver, so I abandoned that project.’’
tions of the MCZ and the National Mu-             Turner went on to write ‘‘It is interesting
seum of Natural History, Smithsonian In-          to see that in later years he made all of his
stitution (USNM), Academy of Natural              own illustrations and wood engravings, as
374    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



well as hand coloring many of his plates.       nard (1920d: 113) again confirmed that
These illustrations are remarkably well         new species ‘‘should be credited to May-
done considering his complete lack of           nard and Clapp.’’ However, it is clear that
training.’’                                     Maynard retained authorship of the work
   Contributions to the History of the Cer-     in the preface (Maynard, 1919a: 1). He
ionidae, published in 12 numbers between        subsequently (Maynard, 1924c: 1) referred
1919 and 1926, presents a variety of no-        to this work as ‘‘my Contributions to the
menclatural complexities for several of the     History of the Cerionidae began in 1919.’’
taxa proposed within its pages. Most in-        Thus, the authorship of taxa proposed in
volve the consequences of unintended no-        Part Two should be cited as Maynard and
menclatural acts upon the authorship of         Clapp in Maynard, 1920–25. Taxa inadver-
the taxa, the dates on which names be-          tently introduced in other portions of this
came available, and the determination of        work are attributed to Maynard, unless
their primary types. Strict interpretation      there was an indication to the contrary
within the context of the International         (e.g., taxon name followed by ‘‘M. & C.’’
Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN,          in the figure caption).
1999) clearly contradicts the authors’ in-         The first six issues of Contributions to
tentions in most of these cases.                the History of the Cerionidae and a por-
   In the preface to this work, Maynard         tion of the seventh (Maynard, 1919a–
(1919a: 1) stated that he had ‘‘written Parts   1920d) comprise Part One and contain ex-
One and Three and the descriptions of the       tensive notes on Cerionidae, including
animals and their habitats in Part Two, but     comments on the age and ecology of living
that the descriptions of the shells in this     and fossil Cerions, postulated laws govern-
part have been written with the collabo-        ing the evolution of the family, and a list
ration of Mrs. William F. [Nellie A.]           of characteristics deemed useful for differ-
Clapp, and the names of new species             entiating groups or species. Unfortunately,
should be credited to us jointly.’’ Part One    Maynard used the names of several of the
is explicitly delimited as spanning pages 3–    taxa intended to be described in Part Two
112, but also included figures 1–89, and         of this work to illustrate particular mor-
was published with plates 5–10, 10*, and        phological features. These names often ap-
                                                peared in figure captions or in conjunction
11–19. Part Two is labeled as beginning on
                                                with references to illustrations that would
page 113 and would appear, on the basis
                                                be published later, but still before the in-
of content and style, to end on page 153.
                                                tended taxon descriptions. In some cases,
It contains one map and no figures and
                                                this resulted in the creation of nomina
includes plates 1–4 and 20–37 but also re-      nuda, in others, to inadvertent but nomen-
fers to illustrations on plates 38–48. Plates   claturally valid species descriptions. Al-
38–43 were published later, together with       though these inadvertent species descrip-
the text portions of Part Three, whereas        tions rarely alter the intended concept of
plates 44–48 were never published. What         the taxon, they do affect the date, author-
appear, on the basis of content and style,      ship, and type designations for these taxa.
to be continuations of Part One span pages         Supplemental information for each of
154–163 and 178–180. A more detailed            Maynard’s Cerion taxa, including the text of
‘‘Description of Species’’ that begins on       the original description and images of the
page 164 and, except for pp. 178–180,           primary types in color, can be found on the
continues until the last page (p. 218), is      Cerion website (http://invertebrates.si.edu/
presumed to be Part Three, although it is       cerion).
nowhere identified as such. It would ap-
pear that Maynard intended to publish ad-       ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ditional text and plates.                         We are grateful to Paul Callomon at the
   In the introduction to Part Two, May-        Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                  375



phia and to Jochen Gerber of the Field            not been corrected. Type localities are also
Museum of Natural History for loan of             provided as originally published, with sup-
specimens from the collections in their           plemental information included in square
care and for research into the collations of      brackets.
Maynard’s publications housed in the li-
braries of their institutions. We thank           Taxon 1. Strophia pannosa Maynard,
Richard Goldberg for information on the             1889a [April]: 10–11, pl. 1, figs. 2,
collation of his copy of Maynard’s Contri-          13, pl. 2, figs. 1, 1B, 1C, 1D. Exam-
butions to the History of the Cerionidae.           ined 400 specimens. Original descrip-
Richard E. Petit, Philippe Bouchet, and             tion lists sizes of two ‘‘types’’ given as
Stephen Cairns kindly provided helpful              1.27 by .57 and 1.23 by .50 [inches; 32.3
discussions and opinions on the interpre-           by 14.5 and 31.2 by 12.7 mm]. Caption
tation of the International Code of Zoo-            to plate 2, figure 1 states ‘‘Strophia pan-
logical Nomenclature in numerous in-                nosa, front view of type shell.’’
stances. We are grateful to the editor and           Type Material. The original description
especially to the referees, Richard E. Petit,     provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’
                     ¨
Alan Kabat, and Rudiger Bieler, for their         specimens, which are thus syntypes. One
considerable efforts and for the many im-         of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-
provements that they have suggested. This         maining 398 specimens are, according to
research was supported in part by NSF             Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly
Grant EAR 0106936 to Goodfriend,                  excluded from the type series. Therefore,
Gould, and Harasewych.                            there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
THE CERION TAXA OF                                mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD                           Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 1) designat-
                                                  ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 246343,
   All species-level taxa within the family       noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to
Cerionidae that were validly proposed by          select a holotype, so lectotypes have been
Maynard, either individually or in collab-        selected here which agree as closely as can
oration with Clapp, are listed chronologi-        be determined with his descriptions and
cally according to the date the taxa became       measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This
available and in order of publication to the      lectotype approximates the measurements
extent possible. In cases in which a taxon        of the smaller of the two syntypes. The re-
name appeared only on a plate caption but         maining syntype became the paralecto-
not in the text, it is listed at the end of the   type.
taxa published in the same issue or on the           Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.0
same date. An alphabetical listing of the         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.1 mm; ap-
taxa (as well as their misspellings) is pro-      erture height (including lip) 11.6 mm, ap-
vided in the index at the end of this work.       erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Each validly introduced taxon is num-          10.1 mm.
bered sequentially and is followed by one            Type Locality. West end of Little Cay-
or more citations, including the valid taxon      man, Cayman Islands.
description (in bold), which for several             Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
taxa differs from the intended taxon de-          this taxon as a valid species and provided
scription. Also included are details of spec-     an extensive synonymy.
imens associated with the term ‘‘type’’
within the intended taxon description,            Taxon 2. Strophia levigata Maynard,
published measurements, and the number              1889a [April]: 12–13, pl. 2, figs. 2,
of specimens examined. These details are            2B. Examined 150 specimens. Original
provided as they appeared in the original           description lists sizes of two ‘‘types’’ giv-
publications and typographical errors have          en as 1.25 by .52 and 1.15 by .48 [inch-
376      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   es; 31.8 by 13.2 and 29.2 by 12.2 mm].                    provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’
   Caption to plate 2, figure 2, ‘‘Strophia                   specimens, which are thus syntypes. One
   levigata, front view of type shell.’’                     of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-
                                                             maining 2,998 specimens are, according to
   Type Material. The original description
                                                             Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly
provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’
                                                             excluded from the type series. Therefore,
specimens, which are thus syntypes. One
                                                             there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-
                                                             mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
maining 148 specimens are, according to
                                                             Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 3) listed and
Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly
                                                             figured as Holotype MCZ 76067. This
excluded from the type series. Therefore,
                                                             specimen, which is closer to the larger syn-
there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
                                                             type in length and to the smaller syntype
mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
                                                             in width, cannot be the holotype, as two
Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 2) designat-
                                                             syntypes had been listed. Clench’s listing
ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 247021,
                                                             cannot be accepted as a lectotype desig-
noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to
                                                             nation. Article 74.5 (ICZN, 1999: 83)
select a holotype, so lectotypes have been
                                                             states, ‘‘When the original work reveals
selected here which agree as closely as can
                                                             that the taxon had been based on more
be determined with his descriptions and
                                                             than one specimen, a subsequent use of
measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This
                                                             the term ‘holotype’ does not constitute a
specimen is within 5% of the length of ei-
                                                             valid lectotype designation unless the au-
ther of the syntypes but closer to the larger
                                                             thor, when wrongly using that term, ex-
syntype in width. The remaining syntype
                                                             plicitly indicated that he or she was se-
became the paralectotype.
                                                             lecting from the type series that particular
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.9
                                                             specimen to serve as the name-bearing
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.3 mm; ap-
                                                             type.’’ This specimen (MCZ 76067) is here
erture height (including lip) 13.1 mm, ap-
                                                             selected as the lectotype. The remaining
erture width (including lip and peristome)
                                                             syntype becomes the paralectotype.
11.4 mm.
                                                                Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.8
   Type Locality. West end of Little Cay-
                                                             mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.0 mm; ap-
man, Cayman Islands.
                                                             erture height (including lip) 10.1 mm, ap-
   Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
                                                             erture width (including lip and peristome)
this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
                                                             8.8 mm.
um (Maynard, 1889).
                                                                Type Locality. Coast along the south
Taxon 3. Strophia intermedia Maynard,                        side of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands.
  1889a [April]: 13–15, pl. 2, figs. 3,                          Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
  3B. Examined 3,000 specimens. Origi-                       this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
  nal description lists sizes of two ‘‘types’’               um (Maynard, 1889).
  given as .90 by .40 and .88 by .48 [inch-
                                                             Taxon 4. Strophia acuta Maynard, 1889a
  es; 22.9 by 10.2 and 22.4 by 12.2 mm].
                                                               [April]: 15–17, pl. 2, figs. 4, 4B. Ex-
  Caption to plate 2, figure 3, ‘‘Strophia
                                                               amined 500 specimens. Sizes of two
  intermedia, front view of type shell.’’
                                                               ‘‘types’’ given as .94 by .40 and .94 by
   Type Material. The original description                     .38 [inches; 23.9 by 10.2 and 23.9 by 9.7


                                                                                                                    →

Figures 1–12. Taxon 1. Strophia pannosa Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 246343. West end of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands.
Taxon 2. Strophia levigata Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 247021. West end of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon 3.
Strophia intermedia Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 76067. South side of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon 4. Strophia
acuta Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 247022. Field inland from the south coast of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon 5.
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                        377




Strophia festiva Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 247023. Fields along path, near center of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon
6. Strophia picta Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 247019. West end of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon 7. Strophia lineota
Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 246346. South side of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon 8. Strophia copia Maynard, 1889.
Lectotype MCZ 76065. West end of Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands. Taxon 9. Strophia parva Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ
246423. West end of Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands. Taxon 10. Strophia glaber Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 246344. West
end of Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands. Taxon 11. Strophia nana Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 246737. West end of Little
Cayman, Cayman Islands, near intersection of two paths. Taxon 12. Strophia nuda Maynard, 1889. Lectotype MCZ 356977.
Near Clarence Harbor, Long Island, Bahamas.
378    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



  mm]. Caption to plate 2, figure 4, ‘‘Stro-    mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
  phia acuta, front view of type shell.’’      Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 5) designat-
                                               ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 247023,
   Type Material. The original description     noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to
provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’         select a holotype, so lectotypes have been
specimens, which are thus syntypes. One        selected here which agree as closely as can
of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-     be determined with his descriptions and
maining 498 specimens are, according to        measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This
Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly     specimen approximates the smaller of the
excluded from the type series. Therefore,      two syntypes in length. The remaining syn-
there can be no paratypes, and any speci-      type became the paralectotype.
mens labeled as such are mislabeled.              Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.7
Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 4) designat-    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.3 mm; ap-
ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 247022,         erture height (including lip) 12.1 mm, ap-
noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to   erture width (including lip and peristome)
select a holotype, so lectotypes have been     10.2 mm.
selected here which agree as closely as can       Type Locality. Fields along path, near
be determined with his descriptions and
                                               center of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands.
measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This
                                                  Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
specimen approximates the narrower of
                                               this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
the two syntypes in width. The remaining
                                               um (Maynard, 1889).
syntype became the paralectotype.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.2         Taxon 6. Strophia picta Maynard, 1889a
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.2 mm; ap-         [April]: 18–20, pl. 2, figs. 6, 6B. Ex-
erture height (including lip) 8.6 mm, ap-        amined 75 specimens. Sizes of two
erture width (including lip and peristome)       ‘‘types’’ given as .96 by .40 and .86 by
7.2 mm.                                          .39 [inches; 24.4 by 10.2 and 21.8 by 9.9
   Type Locality. Field inland from the          mm]. Caption to plate 2, figure 6, ‘‘Stro-
south coast of Little Cayman, Cayman Is-
                                                 phia picta, front view of type shell.’’
lands.
   Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded           Type Material. The original description
this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-      provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’
um (Maynard, 1889).                            specimens, which are thus syntypes. One
                                               of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-
Taxon 5. Strophia festiva Maynard,
                                               maining 73 specimens are, according to
  1889a [April]: 17–18, pl. 2, figs. 5,
                                               Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly
  5B, C. Examined 22 specimens. Sizes
                                               excluded from the type series. Therefore,
  of two ‘‘types’’ given as 1.20 by .50 and
                                               there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
  1.18 by .48 [inches; 30.5 by 12.7 and
                                               mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
  30.0 by 12.2 mm]. Caption to plate 2,
                                               Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 6) designat-
  figure 5, ‘‘Strophia festiva, front view of
                                               ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 247019,
  type shell.’’
                                               noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to
  Type Material. The original description      select a holotype, so lectotypes have been
provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’         selected here which agree as closely as can
specimens, which are thus syntypes. One        be determined with his descriptions and
of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-     measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This
maining 20 specimens are, according to         specimen approximates the larger of the
Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly     two syntypes in length. The remaining syn-
excluded from the type series. Therefore,      type became the paralectotype.
there can be no paratypes, and any speci-         Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.4
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.            379



mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.9 mm; ap-       ties. The label accompanying the lectotype
erture height (including lip) 9.3 mm, ap-      gives the locality as ‘‘S.E. side of Little
erture width (including lip and peristome)     Cayman Id., Cayman Ids.’’
7.8 mm.                                           Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
   Type Locality. West end of Little Cay-      this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
man, Cayman Islands.                           um (Maynard, 1889).
   Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-      Taxon 8. Strophia copia Maynard, 1889a
um (Maynard, 1889).                              [April]: 22–24, pl. 1, figs. 1, 3, 7–12,
                                                 pl. 2, figs. 8, 8B. Examined 10,000
Taxon 7. Strophia lineota Maynard,               specimens. Sizes of two ‘‘types’’ given as
  1889a [April]: 20–22, pl. 2, figs. 7,           .90 by .40 and .95 by .40 [inches; 22.9
  7B. Examined 1,000 specimens. Sizes of         by 10.2 and 24.1 by 10.2 mm]. Caption
  two ‘‘types’’ given as 1.04 by .40 and .98     to plate 2, figure 8, ‘‘Strophia copia,
  by .42 [inches; 26.4 by 10.2 and 24.9 by       front view of type shell.’’
  10.7 mm]. Caption to plate 2, figure 7,          Type Material. The original description
  ‘‘Strophia lineota, front view of type       provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’
  shell.’’                                     specimens, which are thus syntypes. One
                                               of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-
   Type Material. The original description
                                               maining 9,998 specimens are, according to
provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’
                                               Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly
specimens, which are thus syntypes. One
                                               excluded from the type series. Therefore,
of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-
                                               there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
maining 998 specimens are, according to
                                               mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly
                                               Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 8) designat-
excluded from the type series. Therefore,
                                               ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 76065,
there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
                                               noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to
mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
                                               select a holotype, so lectotypes have been
Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 7) designat-    selected here which agree as closely as can
ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 246346,         be determined with his descriptions and
noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to   measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This
select a holotype, so lectotypes have been     specimen approximates the smaller of the
selected here which agree as closely as can    two syntypes in length. The remaining syn-
be determined with his descriptions and        type became the paralectotype.
measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This          Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.2
specimen approximates the larger of the        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.6 mm; ap-
two syntypes in length. The remaining syn-     erture height (including lip) 9.0 mm, ap-
type became the paralectotype.                 erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.1         7.6 mm.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-         Type Locality. West end of Cayman
erture height (including lip) 11.0 mm, ap-     Brac, Cayman Islands.
erture width (including lip and peristome)        Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
9.0 mm.                                        this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
   Type Locality. Coconut grove, south         um (Maynard, 1889). Hummelinck (1980:
side of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands.         59) recognized it as a distinct species.
Maynard (1889a: 21) noted that this taxon
was also found near the boat landing on        Taxon 9. Strophia parva Maynard, 1889a
Cayman Brac, but was probably intro-             [April]: 24–25, pl. 2, figs. 9, 9B. Ex-
duced there from Little Cayman. Clench           amined about 1,000 specimens. Sizes of
(1957: 151, 1964: 368) listed both locali-       two ‘‘types’’ given as .60 by .30 and .63
380    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



  by .32 [inches; 15.2 by 7.6 and 16.0 by      there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
  8.1 mm]. Caption to plate 2, figure 9,        mens labeled as such are mislabeled.
  ‘‘Strophia parva, front view of type         Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 10) desig-
  shell.’’                                     nated and figured as lectotype MCZ
                                               246344, noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard
   Type Material. The original description     failed to select a holotype, so lectotypes
provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’         have been selected here which agree as
specimens, which are thus syntypes. One        closely as can be determined with his de-
of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-     scriptions and measurements’’ (Clench,
maining 998 specimens are, according to        1964: 370). This specimen approximates
Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly     the larger of the two syntypes in length.
excluded from the type series. Therefore,      The remaining syntype, MCZ 39715, be-
there can be no paratypes, and any speci-      came the paralectotype.
mens labeled as such are mislabeled.              Lectotype Measurements. Length 17.6
Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig. 9) designat-    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 7.7 mm; ap-
ed and figured as lectotype MCZ 246423,         erture height (including lip) 6.3 mm, ap-
noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard failed to   erture width (including lip and peristome)
select a holotype, so lectotypes have been
                                               5.9 mm.
selected here which agree as closely as can
                                                  Type Locality. West end of Cayman
be determined with his descriptions and
                                               Brac, Cayman Islands.
measurements’’ (Clench, 1964: 370). This
                                                  Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
specimen approximates the larger of the
                                               this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
two syntypes in length. The remaining syn-
                                               um (Maynard, 1889).
type became the paralectotype.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.1         Taxon 11. Strophia nana Maynard,
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.0 mm; ap-         1889a [April]: 27–29, pl. 2, figs. 11A,
erture height (including lip) 7.8 mm, ap-        B, C, D. Examined 2,000 specimens.
erture width (including lip and peristome)       Sizes of two ‘‘types’’ given as .62 by .25
6.6 mm.
                                                 and .60 by .18 [inches; 15.7 by 6.4 and
   Type Locality. West end of Cayman
                                                 15.2 by 4.6 mm]. Caption to plate 2, fig-
Brac, Cayman Islands.
                                                 ure 11, ‘‘Strophia nana, A, front view of
   Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
                                                 type shell.’’
this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
um (Maynard, 1889).                               Type Material. The original description
                                               provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’
Taxon 10. Strophia glaber Maynard,
                                               specimens, which are thus syntypes. One
  1889a [April]: 25–26, pl. 2, figs. 10,
                                               of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-
  10B. Examined 16 specimens. Sizes of
                                               maining 1,998 specimens are, according to
  two ‘‘types’’ given as .62 by .33 and .65
                                               Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly
  by .30 [inches; 15.7 by 8.4 and 16.5 by
                                               excluded from the type series. Therefore,
  7.6 mm]. Caption to plate 2, figure 10,
                                               there can be no paratypes, and any speci-
  ‘‘Strophia glaber, front view of type
                                               mens labeled as such are mislabeled (e.g.,
  shell.’’
                                               Hummelinck, 1980, pl. 11, figs. g–k).
  Type Material. The original description      Clench (1964: 373, pl. 63, fig. 14) desig-
provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’         nated and figured as lectotype MCZ
specimens, which are thus syntypes. One        246737, noting, ‘‘In several cases Maynard
of these syntypes was illustrated. The re-     failed to select a holotype, so lectotypes
maining 14 specimens are, according to         have been selected here which agree as
Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly     closely as can be determined with his de-
excluded from the type series. Therefore,      scriptions and measurements’’ (Clench,
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.               381



1964: 370). This specimen approximates           of the lots matched Maynard’s published
the smaller of the two syntypes in length.       measurements exactly, although the largest
The remaining syntype became the para-           specimen [24.9 by 9.7 mm] came closest
lectotype.                                       to the measurements of the larger of the
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 14.4           two syntypes listed by Maynard. When the
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 5.4 mm; ap-         ratios of length to width were computed
erture height (including lip) 5.2 mm, ap-        and compared with ratios of published
erture width (including lip and peristome)       type measurements, this same specimen
4.1 mm.                                          matched to within 1%.
   Type Locality. West end of Little Cay-           None of the remaining specimens came
man, Cayman Islands, near intersection of        as close to matching either the linear mea-
two paths. Maynard (1889a: 28) noted ‘‘the       surements or the length to width ratio of
Dwarf Strophias [Strophia nana] occur in         the other type, although the single speci-
a space which is only five or six yards wide      men in MCZ 39713 came within 5%. A
by twenty long . . . I consider that this spe-   specimen in MCZ 76267 sectioned to ex-
cies has the most restricted range of any        pose the columellar axis comes closest to
animal with which I am acquainted.’’             the measurements given for the ‘‘other
   Remarks. Clench (1964: 373) regarded          specimen.’’ The largest specimen (24.9
this taxon to be a valid species.                mm) from MCZ 76267 was therefore se-
                                                 lected as the lectotype and recatalogued as
Taxon 12. Strophia nuda Maynard,                 MCZ 356977. The specimen in MCZ
  1889a [April]: 29, pl. 2, figs. 12, 12B.        39713 becomes the paralectotype. The re-
  Examined three specimens. Sizes of two         maining specimen is, according to Article
  ‘‘types’’ given as 1.00 by .39 and .82 by      72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly exclud-
  .32 [inches; 25.4 by 9.9 and 20.8 by 8.1       ed from the type series. Therefore, there
  mm]; other specimen .89 by .38 [inches;        can be no paratypes and any specimens la-
  22.6 by 9.6 mm]. Caption to plate 2, fig-       beled as such are mislabeled.
  ure 12, ‘‘Strophia nuda, front view of            Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.9
  type shell.’’                                  mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.7 mm; ap-
                                                 erture height (including lip) 8.7 mm, ap-
   Type Material. The original description       erture width (including lip and peristome)
provided measurements for two ‘‘type’’           7.3 mm.
specimens, which are thus syntypes. One             Type Locality. Near Clarence Harbor,
of these syntypes was illustrated. Of the        Long Island, Bahamas.
three lots at the MCZ that were possible
types [MCZ 39713, MCZ 76267, MCZ,                Taxon 13. Strophia ianthina Maynard,
87985], one, MCZ 76267, contained six              1889a [April], pl. 2, figs. 13, 13B. Cap-
specimens, the other two lots have one             tion to plate 2, figure 13, ‘‘Strophia ian-
specimen each. Maynard (1889a: 29)                 thina, front view of type shell’’; Maynard,
wrote, ‘‘. . . I have only three of this sin-      1889b [July]: 69–70. Text noted 300 spec-
gular Strophia . . .’’ Nevertheless, MCZ           imens examined. Sizes of two ‘‘types’’ giv-
76267 contains Maynard’s label with the            en as 1.15 by .37 and 1.00 by .36 [inches;
term ‘‘type,’’ and a later MCZ label that is       29.2 by 9.4 and 25.4 by 9.1 mm].
annotated on the back, ‘‘Only three spec-
imens in original series given by May-              Nomenclatural Remarks. The illustra-
nard—He has apparently added to                  tions (Maynard, 1889a, pl. 2, figs. 13, 13B)
them!!!’’                                        and caption were published prior to the
   The length and width of each of the           text. The taxon thus dates from the pub-
specimens in each of these three lots were       lication of the name in the caption accom-
measured. None of the specimens in any           panying the illustrations, not from the sub-
382      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



sequently published text (Article 12.2.7,                       palida, front view of type shell.’’ Stro-
ICZN, 1999: 17).                                                phia pallida Maynard, 1889b [July]: 70–
   Type Material. The specimen represent-                       71. Text noted 25 specimens examined
ed in the figure was identified as the ‘‘type                     and mentioned the sizes of two ‘‘types’’
shell’’ and is therefore the holotype (Arti-                    given as 1.03 by .36 and 1.03 by .33
cle 73.1.4, ICZN, 1999: 80). Although                           [inches; 26.2 by 9.1 and 26.2 by 8.4
there was no mention of other specimens                         mm].
in the plate caption, the remaining 299
specimens enumerated in the text portion                         Nomenclatural Remarks. The illustra-
published 3 months later were likely avail-                  tions [pl. 2, figs. 14, 14B] and caption were
able to Maynard at the time the plate was                    published prior to the text. The taxon thus
prepared and are thus part of the type se-                   dates from the publication of the name in
ries [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76],                     the caption accompanying the illustrations,
serving as paratypes of Strophia ianthina.                   not from the subsequently published text
There was no specimen labeled ‘‘Holo-                        (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17).
type’’ at the MCZ. Lot number MCZ                                Type Material. The specimen represent-
39714 contains one specimen labeled                          ed in the figure is identified as the ‘‘type
‘‘paratype,’’ and MCZ 10317 contained two                    shell’’ and is therefore the holotype (Arti-
adult specimens, also labeled ‘‘paratypes.’’                 cle 73.1.4, ICZN, 1999: 80). Although
The larger of these two specimens closely                    there was no mention of other specimens
approximates the figured specimen in size                     in the plate caption, the remaining 24
and proportions. This is here considered                     specimens enumerated in the text portion
to be the figured specimen and therefore                      published 3 months later were likely avail-
the holotype.                                                able to Maynard at the time the plate was
   Holotype Measurements. Length 27.6                        prepared and are thus part of the type se-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-                    ries [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76],
erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-                    serving as paratypes of Strophia palida.
erture width (including lip and peristome)                   Lot number MCZ 76250 contained two
8.1 mm.                                                      specimens, one adult and the other juve-
   Type Locality. Between southern shore                     nile, as well as multiple labels that state
of Inagua [Bahamas] and the extensive salt                   ‘‘type,’’ ‘‘Holotype,’’ and ‘‘paratype.’’ The
lake about 25 miles from Mathewstown.                        adult specimen is a close approximation to
   Remarks. Application of Article 12.2.7                    the illustration and is here considered to
(ICZN, 1999: 17) does not alter the au-                      be the figured specimen and therefore the
thorship of this taxon, but accelerates its                  holotype. The juvenile specimen is a para-
publication by 3 months. Clench (1959:                       type.
45) listed this taxon as a synonym of Cer-                       Holotype Measurements. Length 26.1
ion (Diacerion) rubicundum (Menke,                           mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.8 mm; ap-
1829).                                                       erture height (including lip) 8.7 mm, ap-
                                                             erture width (including lip and peristome)
Taxon 14. Strophia palida Maynard,                           6.9 mm.
  1889a [April], pl. 2 figs. 14, 14B.                             Type Locality. In cultivated fields on
  Caption to plate 2, figure 14, ‘‘Strophia                   slopes of hills bordering the southern


                                                                                                                    →

Figures 13–24. Taxon 13. Strophia ianthina Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 10317. Between southern shore of Inagua [Baha-
mas] and the extensive salt lake about 25 miles from Mathewstown. Taxon 14. Strophia palida Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ
76250. Hills bordering the southern shore of Inagua, Bahamas, 15–20 miles from Mathewstown. Taxon 15. Strophia perplexa
Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 246345. About 2 miles from the western end of Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands. Taxon 16.
Strophia nitela Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 247020. Path, west end of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon 17. Strophia
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                       383




alba Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 76150. West coast of Rum Cay, Bahamas, near salt pond. Taxon 18. Strophia lentiginosa
Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 83132. Interior of Rum Cay, Bahamas. Taxon 19. Strophia fusca Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ
76069. West end of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Taxon 20. Strophia inflata Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 76400. Salina
Point, Auklin Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 21. Strophia dallii Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 76294. Inagua. Taxon 22. Strophia
brownei Maynard, 1889. Neotype USNM 58085. Rum Key, Bahamas, near the north side. Taxon 23. Strophia viola Maynard,
1889. Holotype MCZ 76407. Type locality not published, but Inagua, Bahamas, on the original label. Taxon 24. Strophia orbi-
cularia Maynard, 1889. Holotype MCZ 76408. Inagua, Bahamas.
384    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



shore of Inagua [Bahamas], 15–20 miles              Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
from Mathewstown.                                this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
     Remarks. Application of Article 12.2.7      um (Maynard, 1889).
(ICZN, 1999: 17) does not alter the au-
thorship of this taxon but accelerates its       Taxon 16. Strophia nitela Maynard, 1889b
publication by 3 months. The publication           [July]: 73–74, pl. 7, figs. 16, 16A, text
of the plate and its caption, on which the         figs. 8A, B [plate colored and text fig-
taxon name is spelled palida (one ‘‘l’’) pre-      ures uncolored, otherwise identical].
ceded the publication of the text, in which        Examined 300 specimens. Size of type
the taxon name is spelled pallida (two             given as 1.10 by .50 [inches; 27.9 by 12.7
‘‘l’’s).                                           mm]. Caption to plate 7, figure 16,
     Although it seems clear that Maynard          ‘‘Strophia nitela, front view of type shell;
intended the taxon to be known as pallida,         16A, left side of same individual.’’
it is not possible to consider palida as an
                                                    Type Material. The original description
‘‘incorrect original spelling’’ within the
                                                 provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
confines of Article 32.5.1 (ICZN, 1999: 39)
                                                 specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
because there is no clear evidence to sug-
                                                 trated. The remaining 299 specimens are
gest an alternative spelling within the orig-
                                                 paratypes. Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig.
inal publication itself. This taxon was listed
                                                 12) designated and figured as lectotype
as S. pallida by Clench (1957: 156).
                                                 MCZ 247020. This specimen is here con-
Clench (1959: 45) included this taxon [as
                                                 sidered to be the originally designated ho-
pallida] in the synonymy of Cerion (Di-
                                                 lotype.
acerion) rubicundum (Menke, 1829).
                                                    Holotype Measurements. Length 27.5
Taxon 15. Strophia perplexa Maynard,             mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.8 mm; ap-
   1889b [July]: 71–72, pl. 7, figs. 15,          erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-
   1Aa, text figs. 7A, B [plate and text fig-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
   ures identical]. Examined 300 speci-          9.2 mm.
   mens. Size of type given as .90 by .40           Type Locality. Margins of path, west
   [inches; 22.9 by 10.2 mm]. Caption to         end of Little Cayman, Cayman Islands.
   plate 7, figure 15, ‘‘Strophia perplexa,          Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
   front view of type shell.’’                   this taxon as a synonym of Cerion pannos-
                                                 um (Maynard, 1889).
   Type Material. The original description
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’      Taxon 17. Strophia alba Maynard, 1889b
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-           [July]: 74–75, pl. 7, figs. 17, 17A, B,
trated. The remaining 299 specimens are            text figs. 9A, B, text fig. 11 (sic) (11
paratypes. Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig.          in caption, 10 on figure) [plate and
11) designated and figured as lectotype             text figures identical]. Examined 250
MCZ 246345. This specimen is here con-             specimens. Size of ‘‘type’’ given as 1.42
sidered to be the originally designated ho-        by .55 [inches; 36.1 by 14.0 mm]. Cap-
lotype.                                            tion to plate 7, figure 17, ‘‘Strophia alba,
   Holotype Measurements. Length 23.7              front view of type shell; 17a, left side of
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.2 mm; ap-          same individual.’’
erture height (including lip) 9.2 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)          Type Material. The original description
7.9 mm.                                          provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
   Type Locality. Cayman Brac, [Cayman           specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
Islands] barren rocky section about 2 miles      trated. The remaining 249 specimens are
from the western end of the key ¼ mile           paratypes. There was no specimen labeled
from the south shore.                            ‘‘Holotype’’ at the MCZ. Lot MCZ 76150
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                 385



was labeled ‘‘Paratypes’’ and contained              Holotype Measurements. Length 30.9
four specimens: two intact adults, a sec-         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.2 mm; ap-
tioned adult, and a juvenile. The largest         erture height (including lip) 13.4 mm, ap-
intact shell is 33.0 by 14.0 mm. Although         erture width (including lip and peristome)
this is shorter than the published length of      10.4 mm.
the type, it does match closely the size and         Type Locality. Interior of Rum Cay [Ba-
proportions of the figured specimen,               hamas].
which the caption identifies as the type.             Remarks. Clench (1934: 208) regarded
This specimen (MCZ 76150) is here con-            S. lentiginosa to be the senior synonym of
sidered to be the originally designated ho-       S. alba Maynard, 1889 (Taxon 17), and of
lotype. Paratypes include MCZ 356978              S. brownei Maynard, 1890 (Taxon 22).
(three remaining specimens from MCZ
76150), MCZ 39718 (one specimen), MCZ             Taxon 19. Strophia fusca Maynard,
10243 (two specimens), and USNM                     1889b [July]: 77–78, pl. 7, figs. 19,
420067 (nine specimens).                            19a, text figs. 12A, B [plate colored
   Holotype Measurements. Length 33.0               and text figures uncolored, otherwise
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.0 mm; ap-           identical]. Examined 46 specimens. Size
erture height (including lip) 12.6 mm, ap-          of type given as 1.25 by .45 [inches; 31.8
erture width (including lip and peristome)          by 11.4 mm]. Caption to plate 7, figure
10.2 mm.                                            19, ‘‘Strophia fusca, front view of type
   Type Locality. West coast of Rum Cay             shell; 18a, left side of same individual.’’
[Bahamas], near salt pond.
   Remarks. Clench (1934: 208) listed this           Type Material. The original description
taxon as a junior synonym of Cerion len-          provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
tiginosum (Maynard, 1889).                        specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
                                                  trated. The remaining 45 specimens are
Taxon 18. Strophia lentiginosa Maynard,           paratypes. Clench (1964: 368, pl. 63, fig.
  1889b [July]: 75–76, pl. 7, figs. 18,            13) listed and illustrated MCZ 76069 as
  18a, text figs. 11a, b [plate colored,           the holotype. This specimen is the origi-
  text figures uncolored, otherwise iden-          nally designated holotype.
  tical]. Examined 150 specimens. Size of            Holotype Measurements. Length 28.48
  types [sic] given as 1.23 by .54 [inches;       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.51 mm;
  31.2 by 17.7 mm]. Caption to pl. 7, fig.         aperture height (including lip) 10.41 mm,
  18, ‘‘Strophia lentiginosa, front view of       aperture width (including lip and peri-
  type shell; 18a, left side of the same in-      stome) 8.97 mm.
  dividual.’’                                        Type Locality. West end of Little Cay-
                                                  man, Cayman Islands.
   Type Material. The original description           Remarks. Clench (1964: 368) regarded
provided a single set of measurements, but        this taxon to be a synonym of Cerion pan-
states ‘‘types’’ rather than type. This is pre-   nosum (Maynard, 1889).
sumed to be a typographical error, with
the measurements applying to a single             Taxon 20. Strophia inflata Maynard,
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-            1889b [July], pl. 7, figs. 21, 21a. Cap-
trated. The remaining 149 specimens are             tion to plate 7, figure 21 ‘‘Strophia infla-
paratypes. Clench (1934: 209, pl. 2, fig. D)         ta, front view of type shell; 21a, left side
listed and illustrated MCZ 83132 as the             of same individual’’; Maynard, 1889c
holotype. This specimen is the originally           [October]: 126–127, text fig. 30A, B
designated holotype. Paratypes include:             [plate colored and text figures unco-
MCZ 10294, one paratype; MCZ 86701,                 lored, otherwise identical]. Text noted
one paratype; MCZ 76073, 13 paratypes.              25 specimens examined. Size of ‘‘types’’
386    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



  [sic] given as .90 by .35 [inches; 22.9 by      by 10.7 mm]. Caption to plate 16, figure
  8.9 mm].                                        1b∗, ‘‘Strophia dalli, right hand figure,
                                                  front view of type; left, right view of
   Type Material. The specimen represent-         same.’’
ed in the figure is identified as the ‘‘type
shell’’ and is therefore the holotype (Arti-       Type Material. The original description
cle 73.1.4, ICZN, 1999: 80). Although           provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
there was no mention of other specimens         specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
in the plate caption, the remaining 24          trated. The remaining 24 specimens are
specimens enumerated in the text portion        paratypes. No specimen labeled as the ho-
published 3 months later were likely avail-     lotype was found at the MCZ. Lot MCZ
able to Maynard at the time the plate was       76294 was labeled ‘‘Paratype’’ and con-
prepared and are thus part of the type se-      tained three adult specimens together with
ries [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76],        a note in Maynard’s hand containing the
serving as paratypes of Strophia inflata.        term ‘‘type.’’ Of the three specimens only
Lot MCZ 76400, labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’ con-       one closely approximates both the mea-
taining a single specimen that closely ap-      surements (including proportions) and the
proximates the original figure, and accom-       figures. This specimen is here considered
panied by a note in Maynard’s handwrit-         to be the originally designated holotype.
ing, is here recognized as the holotype.        The remaining two specimens (now MCZ
   Holotype Measurements. Length 22.9           356979) and a single specimen (MCZ
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.2 mm; ap-        39707) are paratypes.
erture height (including lip) 8.5 mm, ap-          Holotype Measurements. Length 30.0
erture width (including lip and peristome)      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.7 mm; ap-
7.5 mm.                                         erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-
   Type Locality. Salina Point, Auklin          erture width (including lip and peristome)
[Acklins] Islands, Bahamas.                     8.6 mm.
   Remarks. Application of Article 12.2.7          Type Locality. Maynard (1889c: 135)
(ICZN, 1999: 17) does not alter the au-         wrote, ‘‘The first specimen of Dall’s Stro-
thorship of this taxon but accelerates its      phia that I ever saw, I found in my Baham-
publication by 3 months. Maynard (1889c:        ian collection of shells, but unfortunately
127) noted that the specimens on which          labeled so that it was uncertain whether it
he based this taxon were from the collec-       came from Inagua or not. Later I found a
tion of the Boston Society of Natural His-      few of this species in the collection of Mr.
tory. Maynard (1919b, pl. 8, figs. 5, 6) reil-   James A. Southwick, but again I was un-
lustrated the holotype. Clench (1963: 408)      fortunate in not getting the locality. It was
included this taxon in the synonymy of          only upon receiving a series of the Smith-
Cerion (Multistrophia) marmoratum               sonian Strophias, kindly forwarded to me
(Pfeiffer, 1847).                               by Dr. Dall, that I found this species la-
                                                beled as coming from Inagua.’’
Taxon 21. Strophia dallii Maynard,                 Remarks. Clench (1934: 217) reported
  1889c [October]: 128–135, pl. 13,             on specimens from Sheep Cay, western
  figs. 23, 23a [plate labeled as pl. 16,        Great Inagua, but commented that these
  but there are no plates 13–15, two            differed from Maynard’s types. Clench
  figs. each 1B∗ on plate], text figs. 32,        (1959: 46) recognized this taxon as Cerion
  A, o, e, fig. 33 [plate colored, text fig-      (Diacerion) dalli (Maynard, 1889).
  ures uncolored, otherwise identical ex-
  cept that text figure has b and d la-          Taxon 22. Strophia brownei Maynard,
  beled]. Examined 25 specimens. Size of          1889c [October], pl. 16, figs. 4A, B.
  type given as 1.20 by .42 [inches; 30.5         Caption to plate 16, figure 4A, ‘‘Strophia
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             387



  brownei, front view of type shell; 4B,       identification or verification. A survey of
  right side of same’’; Maynard, 1890 [Jan-    the collections at the Academy of Natural
  uary]: 196–197, text fig. 53c, d [text fig-    Sciences in Philadelphia revealed that they
  ures uncolored, otherwise identical to       did not contain any specimens of Cerion
  figures on pl. 16]. Text noted 25 speci-      brownei nor any specimens from Rum Cay
  mens examined. Size of type given as         that came from Browne.
  1.10 by .50 [inches; 27.9 by 12.7 mm].          Two specimens in the USNM collec-
                                               tions (USNM 58085) are annotated ‘‘S.
   Type Material. The illustrations and        brownei Maynard fide Maynard.’’ These
caption were published prior to the text.      specimens were collected by Rawson on
The taxon thus dates from the publication      Rum Key and catalogued [as Pupa mumia
of the name in the caption accompanying        Brug.] on February 4, 1886, well before S.
the illustrations, not from the subsequent-    brownei was published. However, a sub-
ly published text (Article 12.2.7, ICZN,       sequent annotation on the label indicated
1999: 17). The specimen represented in         that Maynard had identified one of these
the figure is identified as the ‘‘type shell’’   specimens as Strophia brownei. This spec-
and is therefore the holotype (Article         imen (USNM 58085) is here designated as
73.1.4, ICZN, 1999: 80). Although there        the neotype of Strophia brownei to pro-
was no mention of other specimens in the       vide an objective standard of reference for
plate caption, the remaining 24 specimens      this species-group taxon that is consistent
enumerated in the text portion published       with Maynard’s concept of it. The remain-
3 months later were likely available to        ing specimen (now USNM 1093788) is not
Maynard at the time the plate was pre-         S. brownei and is not a type.
pared and are thus part of the type series        Neotype Measurements. Length 27.8
[Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76] serving     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.8 mm; ap-
as paratypes of Strophia brownei. Maynard      erture height (including lip) 11.5 mm, ap-
noted (1890: 197) that the specimens were      erture width (including lip and peristome)
from the collection of Mr. Frank C. Browne     8.9 mm.
and commented that he [Maynard] saw a             Type Locality. Rum Key [Bahamas]
number of specimens as he rode along the       near the north side.
road and ‘‘fully intended to collect them as      Remarks. Application of Article 12.2.7
I returned, but when I passed the place in     (ICZN, 1999: 17) does not alter the au-
the evening, darkness prevented me from        thorship of this taxon but accelerates its
securing any, and I did not have the op-       publication by 3 months (from 1890 to
portunity of visiting the locality again.’’    1889). Clench (1934: 208) listed this taxon
This species was not listed for sale in May-   as a synonym of Cerion lentiginosum
nard’s catalog.                                (Maynard, 1889).
   The MCZ Mollusk catalog shows that
two ‘‘paratypes’’ of Strophia brownei were     Taxon 23. Strophia viola Maynard, 1889c
present in Maynard’s collection at the time      [October], pl. 16, figs. 5A, B [no de-
of his death and that these specimens had        scription or mention in text]. Caption to
been catalogued as MCZ 76288. These              plate 16, figure 5A, ‘‘Strophia viola, front
specimens could not be located in the            view of type; 5B, right side of same.’’
MCZ collection, despite repeated search-         Type Material. The caption to the fig-
es. It is possible that most of the speci-     ures identified a single type specimen, the
mens on which Maynard based his de-            holotype. Because no other specimens
scription were returned to Browne. In an       were mentioned, there are no paratypes.
unsigned obituary of Francis C. Browne,        Clench (1959, pl. 1, fig. 2) illustrated this
Pilsbry (1901: 132) commented that Browne      holotype, MCZ 76407, as Cerion rubicun-
had frequently sent him specimens for          dum viola (Maynard, 1889).
388       Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   Holotype Measurements. Length 16.6                              Holotype Measurements. Length 22.7
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 7.1 mm; ap-                        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.1 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 6.4 mm, ap-                       erture height (including lip) 8.1 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)                      erture width (including lip and peristome)
5.2 mm.                                                         6.2 mm.
   Type Locality. Clench (1957: 168) noted                         Type Locality. Clench (1957: 155) noted
‘‘no locality given, but Inagua, Bahamas on                     ‘‘Inagua, Bahamas, label on type speci-
original label.’’                                               mens.’’
   Remarks. Pilsbry and Vanatta (1896:                             Remarks. Pilsbry and Vanatta (1896:
328) listed this taxon as an undescribed                        328) listed this taxon as an undescribed
species, whereas Pilsbry (1902: 281) re-                        species. Clench (1933: 99) listed this taxon
garded this as an unrecognizable form.                          as a synonym of Cerion bryanti Pfeiffer
Clench (1933: 99) considered this to be a                       and later (Clench, 1959: 45) of C. (Di-
valid species related to Cerion bryanti                         acerion) rubicundum (Menke, 1829).
Pfeiffer. Later, Clench (1959, pl. 1, fig. 2)
reduced this taxon to a subspecies, C. rub-                     Taxon 25. Strophia curtissii Maynard,
icundum viola (Maynard, 1889).                                    1894a [December]: 107–112, text
                                                                  figs. 33A, B, C, D, fig. 40a (map). Ex-
Taxon 24. Strophia orbicularia Maynard,                           amined 2,000 specimens. Size of type
  1889c [October], pl. 16, figs. 6A, B                             .98 by .40 [inches; 24.9 by 10.2 mm].
  [no description or mention in text].                            Caption to text figure 33, ‘‘Strophia cur-
  Caption to plate 16, figure 6A, ‘‘Strophia                       tissii. . . . B, side view of type; C, front
  orbicularia, front view of type; 6B, right                      view of same.’’
  side of same.’’
                                                                   Type Material. The original description
   Type Material. The caption to the fig-                        provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
ures identified a single type specimen, the                      specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
holotype. Because no other specimens                            trated. No specimen was labeled ‘‘Holo-
were mentioned, there are no paratypes.                         type’’ at the MCZ. Lot number MCZ
Clench (1959: 45) listed MCZ 76408 and                          10274 was labeled ‘‘Paratype’’ and con-
MCZ 76409 as ‘‘type specimens.’’ Lot                            tained two specimens. The smaller of
MCZ 76408 is labeled ‘‘holotype,’’ closely                      these specimens approximates the pub-
approximates the illustration, and contains                     lished measurements within 3% and more
a note in Maynard’s hand containing the                         closely resembles figure 33C than 33B.
term ‘‘type.’’ This specimen is recognized                      Unlike the remaining specimen (now
as the originally designated holotype. The                      MCZ 356980), it has a minute lower tooth
remaining specimen MCZ 76409 is not a                           and lacks an upper tooth, as specified in
paratype because it was not mentioned in                        the description (p. 108). This specimen
the original description.                                       (MCZ 10274) is here considered to be the


                                                                                                                          →

Figures 25–36. Taxon 25. Strophia curtissii Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 10274, cemetery east of Nassau, New Providence
Island, Bahamas. Taxon 26. Strophia curtissii nivia Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 010279. Banyan tree near ruin in the cemetery
where S. curtissii is found [large cemetery east of Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas]. Taxon 27. Strophia thorndikei
Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76086. West of main path in cemetery east of Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon
28. Strophia cinerea Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76254. Hog Island [Paradise Island], along the shore of Middle Bay, on the
south side of the Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 29. Strophia cinerea robusta Maynard, 1894. Neotype MCZ
356982. North side of Hog Island [Paradise Island], directly back of the beach, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 30.
Strophia cinerea tracta Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76081. Field near the extreme eastern point of Hog Island [Paradise
Island], New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 31. Strophia cinerea mutata Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76279. Northern
shore of the western half of Long Key, about 1 mile east of Hog Island [Paradise Island], New Providence Island, Bahamas.
Taxon 32. Strophia albea Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 10242. South side of Spruce Key, due north of Long Key, about 1 mile
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                      389




east of Hog Island [Paradise Island], New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 33. Strophia coryi Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ
76079. Along bay on the extreme west end of New Providence Island, Bahamas, also on Spruce Key, N of Long Key, 1 mile
east of Hog Island [Paradise Island], New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 34. Strophia ritchiei Maynard, 1894. Holotype
MCZ 76077. Highburn Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 35. Strophia grayi Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 118169. Hill at
northern end of Highburn Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 36. Strophia grayi gigantea Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ
10290, Hillside, middle part of Highburn Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
390    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



originally designated holotype. How many         [catalogued as MCZ 76097 ‘‘Paratypes’’]
of the remaining 1,999 specimens are             that contained in excess of 200 specimens,
paratypes is uncertain (see Remarks).            as well as handwritten labels dated 1891
   Holotype Measurements. Length 25.2            and 1897. These labels indicate that the
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.9 mm; ap-         majority of the specimens were added af-
erture height (including lip) 9.4 mm, ap-        ter the taxon was described. There was no
erture width (including lip and peristome)       single, segregated specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
7.6 mm.                                          lotype’’ either in the collection or the cat-
   Type Locality. ‘‘The type form occurs in      alog. Lot MCZ 10279 contained two spec-
the large cemetery to the eastward of Nas-       imens labeled ‘‘paratype’’ and had been
sau, [New Providence Island, Bahamas] on         purchased from Maynard in 1895. One of
the western side of a path which crosses         these specimens matches the figure of the
the grounds [map, fig. 40a]’’ (Maynard,           holotype in having a columellar tooth,
1894a: 109).                                     which is not evident in the remaining
   Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 109) distin-         specimen. This specimen is considered to
guished five forms [Nos. 1–5] without             be the holotype. Lot number USNM
naming them. The type series is defined           420034 contains 100 specimens. Lot num-
(Article 72.4.1, ICZN, 1999: 76) as ‘‘all the    ber MCZ 10280 contained two specimens
specimens included by the author in the          labeled ‘‘paratype’’ and are accompanied
new nominal taxon, except any that the au-       by a label indicating ‘‘Form No. 2,’’ which
thor expressly excludes from the type se-        excludes these specimens from the type
ries, or refers to as distinct variants (e.g.,   series (see Remarks).
by name, letter, or number).’’ Thus, spec-          Holotype Measurements. Length 23.7
imens representing forms No. 1–5 are not         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.5 mm; ap-
paratypes of Strophia curtissii. Clench          erture height (including lip) 8.6 mm, ap-
(1957: 142) followed Pilsbry (1902: 256) in      erture width (including lip and peristome)
listing this taxon as a synonym of Cerion        7.0 mm.
varium (Bonnet, 1864). Gould and Wood-              Type Locality. Banyan tree near ruin in
ruff (1986: 476) regarded this taxon to be       the cemetery where S. curtissii is found
‘‘intermediate’’ between Cerion glans            [large cemetery eastward of Nassau, New
(Ku ster, 1844) and C. gubernatorium
    ¨                                            Providence Island, Bahamas].
(Crosse, 1869).                                     Remarks. The taxon name originally ap-
                                                 peared as Strophia curtissii nivea in the
Taxon 26. Strophia curtissii nivia May-          heading of the original description, but as
  nard, 1894a [December]: 112–116                S. curtissii nivia in the caption to the fig-
  [nivea in text], fig. 34A [nivia in cap-        ure within the body of the description.
  tion]. Examined 40 specimens. Size of          Maynard (1913b: 186) described S. varia-
  type .90 by .37 [inches; 22.9 by 9.4 mm].      nivia as ‘‘Intermediate between varia and
  Caption to text figure 34A, ‘‘Strophia          nivia.’’ With this use of nivia, Maynard
  curtissii nivia, front view of type.’’         (1913b: 186) acted as the First Revisor of
                                                 spellings [Article 24.2.4, ICZN, 1999: 30–
   Type Material. The original description       31] and fixed the spelling of this species as
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’      nivia. Strophiops nivia again appeared in
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-         Maynard (1921b: 148) and in Maynard’s
trated. How many of the remaining 39             [1924b?] sales catalog. The spelling ‘‘ni-
specimens are paratypes is uncertain (see        vea’’ appeared with a citation to the orig-
Remarks). An examination of the collec-          inal description in Maynard (1920a: 79).
tions and catalog at the MCZ revealed            Oddly, Maynard (1913b: 186) described S.
that, at the time of his death, Maynard’s        nivia as a new taxon while incorrectly list-
collection contained one lot of this taxon       ing the preceding taxon, S. varia-nivia as
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              391



previously described. This is almost cer-        type. Lot number USNM 419958 contains
tainly an error in typesetting. Strophiops       200 paratypes. How many of the remain-
nivia Maynard (1913) is a junior secondary       ing 1,799 specimens, are paratypes is un-
homonym of Strophia curtissii nivia May-         certain (see Remarks).
nard (1894) as well as an objective junior          Holotype Measurements. Length 18.9
synonym because they have the same type          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.1 mm; ap-
specimen [see Taxon 72].                         erture height (including lip) 7.9 mm, ap-
   Maynard (1894a: 113) distinguished two        erture width (including lip and peristome)
forms [Nos. 1 and 2] without naming              6.2 mm.
them. The type series is defined in Article          Type Locality. West of main path in
72.4 (ICZN, 1999: 76) as ‘‘all the speci-        cemetery eastward of Nassau (map, fig.
mens included by the author in the new           40t) [New Providence Island, Bahamas].
nominal taxon, . . . except any that the au-        Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 117–118)
thor expressly excludes from the type se-        distinguished five forms [Nos. 1–5] with-
ries, or refers to as distinct variants (e.g.,   out naming them. He illustrated form No.
by name, letter, or number).’’ Thus, spec-       3 (fig. 34B) and form No. 4 (fig. 34C).
imens representing forms No. 1 or 2 are          Specimens representing forms No. 1–5 are
not paratypes of Strophia curtissii nivia. In    not paratypes of Strophia thorndikei [Ar-
his discussion of S. nivia, Maynard (1921b:      ticle 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76]. This taxon was
148) provided larger measurements (1.00          figured by Manard (1919b: 47, fig. 8 as S.
by .40 [inches; 25.4 by 10.2 mm]), listed        thorndikeii Mayn.). Maynard (1921b: 146)
829 specimens rather than the 40 in the          provided descriptive notes, including ref-
original description, and included citations     erence to a color illustration (plate 8, fig.
to illustrations (plate 44, figs. 3, 4) that      10) published in 1919, and commented
were never issued.                               that the taxon was represented by 2,500
   Clench (1957: 155) listed this taxon as       specimens, at least 500 of which presum-
nivea and considered nivia an error for ni-      ably were collected after the taxon was de-
vea. Gould and Woodruff (1986: 476) re-          scribed. Maynard (1924c: 6) listed S.
garded this taxon to be ‘‘intermediate’’ be-     thorndikei as extinct in 1913 because of
                         ¨
tween Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844) and C.         burning of vegetation prior to cultivation.
gubernatorium (Crosse, 1869).                    Gould and Woodruff (1986: 476) regarded
                                                 this taxon to be ‘‘intermediate’’ between
Taxon 27. Strophia thorndikei Maynard,                            ¨
                                                 Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844) and C. gub-
  1894a [December]: 116–119, text                ernatorium (Crosse, 1869).
  figs. 34B, C, D, fig. 40t (map). Ex-
  amined 2,000 specimens. Size of type           Taxon 28. Strophia cinerea Maynard,
  .70 by .30 [inches; 17.8 by 7.6 mm].             1894a [December]: 119–121, text
  Caption to text fig. 34D, ‘‘Strophia              figs. 35A, B, fig. 40e (map). Examined
  thorndikei, front view of type.’’                2,000 specimens. Size of type 1.15 by
                                                   .45 [inches; 29.2 by 11.4 mm]. Caption
   Type Material. The original description         to text figure 35, ‘‘B, front view of type.
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’        A, side view of same.’’
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
trated. Lot number MCZ 76086 contains               Type Material. The original description
a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’          provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
which is 6% larger than Maynard’s pub-           specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
lished length but otherwise approximates         trated. Lot number MCZ 76254 contains
the figure of the type and includes May-          a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’
nard’s original label annotated ‘‘type.’’ This   which is within 5% of the published mea-
specimen is here recognized as the Holo-         surements and includes Maynard’s original
392    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



label annotated ‘‘type.’’ This specimen is    the neotype. How many of the remaining
here recognized as the Holotype. Lot          74 specimens are paratypes is uncertain
number USNM 420076 contains 200 para-         (see Remarks).
types. How many of the remaining 1,799           Neotype Measurements. Length 29.0
specimens are paratypes is uncertain (see     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.0 mm; ap-
Remarks).                                     erture height (including lip) 11.3 mm, ap-
   Holotype Measurements. Length 28.0         erture width (including lip and peristome)
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-     8.4 mm.
erture height (including lip) 9.4 mm, ap-        Type Locality. North side of Hog Island
erture width (including lip and peristome)    [Paradise Island], directly back of the
7.6 mm.                                       beach (map, fig. 40f) [New Providence Is-
   Type Locality. Hog Island [Paradise Is-    land, Bahamas].
land], along the shore of Middle Bay, on         Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 123) distin-
the south side of the key (map, fig. 40e)      guished a small form [No. 1] without nam-
[New Providence Island, Bahamas].             ing it. Lot MCZ 10260 contained two
   Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 120–121)          specimens labeled form No. 1. Specimens
distinguished three forms [Nos. 1–3] with-    representing this form are not paratypes of
out naming them. Specimens representing       Strophia cinerea robusta [Article 72.4,
forms No. 1–3 are not paratypes of Stro-      ICZN, 1999: 76]. Gould and Woodruff
phia cinerea [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999:       (1986: 475) regarded this taxon to be a
76]. Maynard (1921b: 144; 1925, pl. 40,                                     ¨
                                              synonym of Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).
figs. 3, 4) noted 2,500 specimens, which
must have included subsequent collec-         Taxon 30. Strophia cinerea tracta May-
tions, and provided new, colored illustra-      nard, 1894a [December]: 123–125,
tions for this taxon.                           text fig. 37A, fig. 40g (map). Examined
                                                300 specimens. Size of type 1.05 by .45
Taxon 29. Strophia cinerea robusta May-         [inches; 26.7 by 11.4 mm]. Caption to
  nard, 1894a [December]: 121–123,              text figure 37A, ‘‘Strophia cinerea tracta,
  text figs. 36 A, B, fig. 40f (map). Ex-         front view of type.’’
  amined 75 specimens. Size of type 1.12
  by .55 [inches; 28.4 by 14.0 mm]. Cap-         Type Material. The original description
  tion to text figure 36, ‘‘Strophia cinerea   provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
  robusta. A, front view, B, side view, of    specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
  type.’’                                     trated. Lot number MCZ 76081 contains
                                              a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’
   Type Material. The original description    closely matches Maynard’s published
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’   length and figure of the type, and includes
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-      Maynard’s original label annotated ‘‘type.’’
trated. There is no specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-    This specimen is here recognized as the
lotype’’ at the MCZ. An examination of the    Holotype. Lot number USNM 420042
MCZ catalog showed that no representa-        contains paratypes. How many of the re-
tives of this taxon were present in May-      maining specimens are paratypes is uncer-
nard’s collection when purchased from his     tain (see Remarks).
daughter. Lot number MCZ 10259 was la-           Holotype Measurements. Length 26.9
beled ‘‘Paratype’’ and contained two spec-    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.0 mm; ap-
imens that were acquired from Maynard         erture height (including lip) 9.6 mm, ap-
in 1895. The specimen in MCZ 10259 that       erture width (including lip and peristome)
more closely matches the published fig-        8.4 mm.
ures and measurements was recatalogued           Type Locality. Field near the extreme
as MCZ 356982 and is here designated as       eastern point of Hog Island [Paradise Is-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             393



land] (map, fig. 40g) [New Providence Is-        guished a single form [No. 1] without
land, Bahamas].                                 naming it. Specimens representing this
   Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 124–125)            form are not paratypes of Strophia cinerea
distinguished five forms [Nos. 1–5] with-        mutata [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76].
out naming them. Specimens representing         Maynard (1921b: 146) listed this taxon as
forms No. 1–5 are not paratypes of Stro-        a full species and referred to a previously
phia cinerea tracta [Article 72.4, ICZN,        published [1920a, pl. 10∗, fig. 4] colored
1999: 76]. Maynard (1921b: 144–145) list-       illustration but noted a different locality
ed this taxon as a full species, and provided   (Atoll Island) and a higher number of
new, colored illustrations (Maynard, 1925,      specimens (200).
pls. 40, figs. 7, 8). Clench (1957: 165) fol-
lowed Pilsbry (1902: 253) in synonymizing       Taxon 32. Strophia albea Maynard,
this taxon under Cerion varium (Bonnet,           1894a [December]: 128–129, text
1864), whereas Gould and Woodruff                 figs. 38A, B. Examined 40 specimens
(1986: 475) considered it to be a synonym         [only three living specimens]. Size of
of C. glans (Kuster, 1844).
                ¨                                 type 1.00 by .36 [inches; 25.4 by 9.1
                                                  mm]. Caption to text figure 38, ‘‘Stro-
Taxon 31. Strophia cinerea mutata May-            phia albea. A, front view, B, side view,
  nard, 1894a [December]: 125–128,                of type.’’
  text fig. 37B, fig. 40h (map). Exam-
  ined 100 specimens. Size of type 1.15            Type Material. The original description
  by .40 [inches; 29.2 by 10.2 mm]. Cap-        provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
  tion to text figure 37B, ‘‘Strophia cinerea    specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
  mutata, front view of type.’’                 trated. The remaining 39 specimens are
                                                paratypes. No specimen was labeled ‘‘Ho-
    Type Material. The original description     lotype’’ at the MCZ. An examination of the
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’     MCZ catalog showed that no representa-
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-        tives of this taxon were present in May-
trated. Lot number MCZ 76279 contains           nard’s collection when purchased from his
a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’         daughter. Lot MCZ 10242 was labeled
which is 11% shorter than Maynard’s pub-        ‘‘Paratype’’ and contained two specimens
lished length and slightly wider but ap-        that were acquired from Maynard in 1895.
proximates the figure of the type and con-       One of these specimens approximates the
tains Maynard’s original label annotated        length in the original description to within
‘‘type.’’ This specimen is here recognized      3% and agrees with the generalized illus-
as the Holotype. Lot number USNM                tration (more fig. 38B than 38A). This
420132 contains paratypes. How many of          specimen is considered to be the Holo-
the remaining specimens are paratypes is        type. The remaining specimen has been
uncertain (see Remarks).                        recatalogued as MCZ 356983. Maynard
    Holotype Measurements. Length 26.0          (1921b: 139) listed 590 specimens, indi-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.0 mm; ap-       cating that 550 specimens had been add-
erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-       ed. Some of the 100 specimens of USNM
erture width (including lip and peristome)      420097 may be paratypes.
8.0 mm.                                            Holotype Measurements. Length 26.0
    Type Locality. Northern shore of the        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-
western half of Long Key, about 1 mile          erture height (including lip) 9.0 mm, ap-
east of Hog Island [Paradise Island] (map,      erture width (including lip and peristome)
fig. 40h) [New Providence Island, Baha-          6.8 mm.
mas].                                              Type Locality. South side of Spruce Key,
    Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 126) distin-       due north of Long Key, about 1 mile E of
394    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



Hog Island [Paradise Island] [New Provi-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
dence Island, Bahamas].                       7.9 mm.
   Remarks. The identical illustration ap-       Type Locality. Along bay on the extreme
pears in Maynard (1913c: 200) as Stro-        west end of New Providence Island, Ba-
phiops albea Mayn. and again in a colored     hamas, also on Spruce Key, N of Long
version (Maynard, 1919c, pl. 10, figs. 1, 2    Key, 1 mile E of Hog Island [Paradise Is-
[lower row]). The taxon was redescribed in    land] [New Providence Island, Bahamas].
Maynard (1921b: 139) on the basis of ex-         Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 131–132)
amination of 590 specimens. It appeared       distinguished five forms [Nos. 1–5] with-
twice in the sales catalog (Maynard, 1924b:   out naming them. Specimens representing
[6] and [7]), the first time correctly (from   forms No. 1–5 are not paratypes of Stro-
Spruce Key), the second time from Rum         phia coryi [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76].
Key, an error for alba. Clench (1957: 165)    This taxon was subsequently reillustrated
followed Pilsbry (1902: 253) in synonymiz-    (Maynard, 1919b, fig. 18, pl. 7, figs. 9, 10).
ing this taxon under Ceron varium Bon-        Clench (1934: 214, 1952: 108) listed this
net, 1864. Gould and Woodruff (1986:                                                ¨
                                              taxon as a form of Cerion glans (Kuster,
474) had examined ‘‘paratypes’’ (presum-      1844).
ably MCZ 10242) and synonymized this
taxon with C. glans (Kuster, 1844).
                         ¨                    Taxon 34. Strophia ritchiei Maynard,
                                                1894a [December]: 135–138, text
Taxon 33. Strophia coryi Maynard,               figs. 41A, B. Examined 1,000 speci-
  1894a [December]: 129–135, text               mens. Size of type 1.37 by .57 [inches;
  figs. 39A, B. Examined 2,000 speci-            34.5 by 14.5 mm]. Caption to text figure
  mens. Size of type 1.00 by .40 [inches;       41, ‘‘Strophia ritchiei, A, front; B, side
  25.4 by 10.2 mm]. Caption to text figure       view of type.’’ [Illustration repeated on
  39, ‘‘Strophia coryi, A, front view, B,       back cover of Maynard (1913) and the
  side view, of type.’’ The same figures ap-     front covers of Maynard (1920a–1924a)
  pear (Maynard, 1913c: 200) as Stro-           as Strophiops ritchiei Mayn.]
  phiops coryi Mayn.
                                                 Type Material. The original description
   Type Material. The original description    provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’   specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-      trated. Lot number MCZ 76077 contains
trated. Clench (1934: 214) mentioned ex-      a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’
amining type specimens but did not fur-       which is within 0.1 mm of Maynard’s pub-
ther identify them. Lot number MCZ            lished measurements, approximates the
76079 contains a single specimen labeled      figure of the type, and contains Maynard’s
‘‘Holotype,’’ which is 6% shorter and         original label annotated ‘‘type.’’ This spec-
slightly wider than Maynard’s published       imen is here recognized as the Holotype.
measurements but approximates the figure       Lot number USNM 419967 contains 500
of the type and contains Maynard’s original   paratypes. How many of the remaining
label annotated ‘‘type.’’ This specimen is    499 specimens are paratypes is uncertain
here recognized as the Holotype. Lot          (see Remarks).
number USNM 419983 contains 100 para-            Holotype Measurements. Length 34.6
types. How many of the remaining 1,899        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.6 mm; ap-
specimens are paratypes is uncertain (see     erture height (including lip) 13.17 mm, ap-
Remarks).                                     erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Holotype Measurements. Length 23.9         10.12 mm.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.4 mm; ap-        Type Locality. Highburn Key [Exuma
erture height (including lip) 9.2 mm, ap-     Group, Bahamas].
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.            395



   Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 136–137)              14.0 mm]. Caption to text figure 44A,
distinguished four forms [Nos. 1–4] with-         ‘‘Strophia grayi gigantea.’’
out naming them. Specimens representing
forms No. 1–4 are not paratypes of Stro-           Type Material. The original description
phia ritchiei [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999:        provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
76]. The name was misspelled as S. ritchei      specimen, but the illustrated specimen was
(Maynard, 1920a: 75).                           not referred to as type. The measurements
                                                are considered to designate a holotype. No
Taxon 35. Strophia grayi Maynard,               specimen labeled holotype could be found
  1894a [December]: 138–141, text               at the MCZ. Two specimens of MCZ
  figs. 42A, B. Examined 700 specimens.          10290 were labeled ‘‘paratype.’’ The larger
  Size of type 1.25 by .47 [inches; 31.8 by     of these specimens approximates the
  17.8 mm]. Caption to text figure 42,           length and width in the original descrip-
  ‘‘Strophia grayi, A, front; B, side view of   tion to within 4%. This specimen is con-
  type.’’                                       sidered to be the Holotype. The remaining
                                                specimen (now MCZ 356984) is a para-
   Type Material. The original description      type. How many of the remaining 48 spec-
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’     imens are paratypes is uncertain (see Re-
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-        marks).
trated. Lot number MCZ 118169 contains             Holotype Measurements. Length 38.1
a single specimen labeled ‘‘co-type.’’ This     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.4 mm; ap-
specimen approximates the published             erture height (including lip) 12.6 mm, ap-
length (within 5%) and is a reasonable ap-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
proximation of the original illustration. It    9.9 mm.
is accompanied by a label identifying it as        Type Locality. Hillside, middle part of
a co-type, initialed by Maynard and dated       Highburn Key [Exuma Group], Bahamas.
‘‘12/14/15,’’ indicating that the label was        Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 139–141)
added after the description of the species.     distinguished a single form [No. 1] without
This specimen is here recognized as the         naming it. Two specimens of MCZ 10291
Holotype. Lot number USNM 420101                were labeled ‘‘paratype.’’ However, May-
contains 100 paratypes. How many of the         nard’s printed label, which accompanies
remaining 599 specimens are paratypes is        these two specimens, identifies them as
uncertain (see Remarks).                        form No. 1. Specimens representing this
   Holotype Measurements. Length 30.5           form are not paratypes of Strophia grayi
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.0 mm; ap-       gigantea [Article 72.4.1, ICZN, 1999: 76].
erture height (including lip) 11.0 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      Taxon 37. Strophia grayi pumilia May-
9.1 mm.                                           nard, 1894a [December]: 143–144,
   Type Locality. Hill at northern end of         text fig. 44B. Examined 50 specimens.
Highburn Key [Exuma Group], Bahamas.              Size of type .90 by .42 [inches; 22.9 by
   Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 139–141)              10.7 mm]. Caption to text figure 44B,
distinguished three forms [Nos. 1–3] with-        ‘‘Strophia grayi pumilia.’’
out naming them and illustrated form No.
3 (fig. 43A). Specimens representing forms          Type Material. The original description
No. 1–3 are not paratypes of Strophia gra-      provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
yi [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76].              specimen, but the illustrated specimen was
                                                not referred to as a type. The measure-
Taxon 36. Strophia grayi gigantea May-          ments are sufficient to designate a holo-
  nard, 1894a [December]: 141–143,              type. No specimen was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’
  text fig. 44A. Examined 50 specimens.          at the MCZ. The MCZ collections contain
  Size of type 1.56 by .55 [inches; 39.6 by     two lots of Strophia grayi pumilia, both
396       Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



labeled ‘‘paratype.’’ One, MCZ 76325,                         tated ‘‘type.’’ One specimen is gray, has a
contains 12 specimens, the other, MCZ                         red ‘‘Holotype’’ label affixed to it, and con-
10292, contains two specimens. Although                       forms to the published figure as well as the
none match the measurements precisely,                        measurements given for ‘‘the type.’’ The
the larger of the two specimens in MCZ                        original catalog entry at the MCZ listed
10292 comes closest to approximating the                      only one specimen and referred to it as the
size (within 5%) and proportions (within                      ‘‘holotype.’’ The gray, labeled specimen is
1%) of the measurements as well as the                        here recognized as the holotype. The other
illustration. This specimen is regarded as                    dark brown specimen is a paratype and has
the originally designated Holotype, the re-                   been recatalogued as MCZ 356986. Lot
maining specimen (now MCZ 356985) is                          USNM 420021 contains 30 paratypes.
a paratype. The remaining 48 specimens                           Holotype Measurements. Length 29.0
are paratypes.                                                mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-
   Holotype Measurements. Length 23.7                         erture height (including lip) 9.9 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.1 mm; ap-                     erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 8.9 mm, ap-                     8.3 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)                       Type Locality. U Key [Exuma Group],
7.9 mm.                                                       Bahamas, single specimen tentatively
   Type Locality. South of deep gorge,                        identified as this species on Pimlico Key.
middle part of Highburn Key [Exuma                               Remarks. This taxon was misspelled as
Group], Bahamas.                                              S. eburnea (Maynard, 1920a: 74, 78).
   Remarks. The taxon appeared as ‘‘Stro-
phia gray! pumilia’’ in the original descrip-                 Taxon 39. Strophia elongata Maynard,
tion and as Strophia grayi pumilia in the                       1894a [December]: 148–150 [pages
figure caption but as pumilla in the index.                      printed out of order], text figs. 46A, B.
                                                                Examined 25 specimens. Size of type
Taxon 38. Strophia eburnia Maynard,                             1.33 by .50 [inches; 33.8 by 12.7 mm].
  1894a [December]: 144–148 [pages                              Caption to text figure 46, ‘‘Strophia
  printed out of order], text figs. 45A, B.                      elongata, A, front B, side view.’’
  Examined 100 specimens [12 collected
  living, p. 147]. Size of type 1.15 by .45                      Type Material. The original description
  [inches; 29.2 by 11.4 mm]. Caption to                       provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
  text figure 45, ‘‘Strophia eburnia, A,                       specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
  front view, B, side view of type.’’                         trated. The remaining 24 specimens are
                                                              paratypes. There are no specimens of S.
   Type Material. The original description                    elongata in the collections of the MCZ,
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’                   nor were there any entries corresponding
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-                      to this taxon in the MCZ catalog either
trated. The remaining 99 specimens are                        during Maynard’s life or among the spec-
paratypes. Lot MCZ 76224 was labeled                          imens purchased from his estate. Although
‘‘syntypes’’ and contained two specimens,                     it seems probable that Maynard retained
as well as Maynard’s original label anno-                     the holotype in his collection, it might not


                                                                                                                       →

Figures 37–48. Taxon 37. Strophia grayi pumilia Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 10292. South of deep gorge, middle part of
Highburn Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 38. Strophia eburnia Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76224. U Key, Exuma
Group, Bahamas. Taxon 39. Strophia elongata Maynard, 1894. Neotype FMNH 42208. Key, 1 mile north of U Key at Allen’s
Harbor, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 40. Strophia neglecta Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76376. One mile west of Fort
Charlotte, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 41. Strophia neglecta agava Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76103. Sisal
fields west of Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 42. Strophia carlotta Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 10249. At
the foot of the hill (north side) on which stands Fort Charlotte, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 43. Strophia glans
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                      397




grisea Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 356674. Fields north of Fresh Creek, about 1 mile from the settlement, Andros, Bahamas.
Taxon 44. Strophia regula Maynard, 1894. Neotype MCZ 10299. Fields on both sides of Fresh Creek, near the settlement,
Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 45. Strophia bimarginata Maynard, 1894. Neotype USNM 420095. Green Key, east coast of Andros,
Bahamas. Taxon 46. Strophia bimarginata cera Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76379. Green Key, east coast of Andros, Ba-
hamas. Taxon 47. Strophia pilsbryi Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 10297. Eastern half of Goat Key, Middle Bight, Andros,
Bahamas. Taxon 48. Strophia pilsbryi evolva Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76383. Western end of Goat Key, Middle Bight,
Andros, Bahamas.
398    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



have been labeled prominently. At least        were abundant and that ‘‘all gathered in
some specimens of this taxon would have        this locality were typical.’’ MCZ 76376
been retained at the MCZ had they been         contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
recognizably labeled in Maynard’s collec-      lotype’’ that approximates the measure-
tion. Nor was this taxon present among the     ments and illustration of this taxon and is
material sent to USNM after the acquisi-       accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
tion of Maynard’s collection. The Field        with the term ‘‘type’’ that includes refer-
Museum of Natural History has two spec-        ences to figures published after this spe-
imens (FMNH 42208) that were collected         cies was described. This specimen is here
by Maynard in 1893 and are paratypes.          recognized as the holotype.
Because the holotype is clearly lost, the         Holotype Measurements. Length 22.60
better preserved FMNH specimen, which          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-
also more closely approximates the mea-        erture height (including lip) 9.32 mm, ap-
surements and illustration, is designated as   erture width (including lip and peristome)
the neotype to provide an objective stan-      8.44 mm.
dard of reference for this species-group          Type Locality. One mile west of Fort
taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s        Charlotte, New Providence Island, Baha-
original concept of it. This neotype retains   mas.
FMNH 42208, whereas the remaining                 Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 151–152)
specimen, a paratype, was recatalogued as      commented that the field had been con-
FMNH 303191.                                   verted to agave cultivation and that after 9
   Neotype Measurements. Length 34.3           years, S. neglecta ‘‘no longer exists,’’ having
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-      been replaced by S. neglecta agava. This
erture height (including lip) 11.2 mm, ap-     taxon was illustrated as Strophiops neglec-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     ta (Maynard, 1913a: 177, 1919a: 4, fig. 3,
8.7 mm.                                        pl. 5, figs. 4, 5). Maynard (1921b: 142)
   Type Locality. Key, 1 mile north of U       gave the number of specimens as 500 and
Key at Allen’s Harbor [Exuma Group], Ba-       commented that it was probably extinct.
hamas.                                         Maynard (1924c: 6) listed S. neglecta as
   Remarks. Maynard (1894a: 149) noted         extinct in 1913 from the burning of vege-
that no living specimens were found, and       tation prior to cultivation.
commented that the site had been inhab-
ited by Lucayan Indians.                       Taxon 41. Strophia neglecta agava May-
                                                 nard, 1894a [December]: 152,
Taxon 40. Strophia neglecta Maynard,             1894b [December]: 153–154, text
  1894a [December]: 148–150 [pages               figs. 48A, B. Examined 500 specimens.
  printed out of order], text figs. 46A, B.       Size of type as 1.21 by .47 [inches; 30.7
  Number of examined specimens not               by 17.8 mm]. Caption to text figure 48,
  provided. Size of type .92 by .45 [inches;     ‘‘Strophia neglecta agava, A, front, B,
  23.4 by 11.4 mm]. Caption to text figure        side view of type.’’
  45, ‘‘Strophia neglecta, A, front view, B,
  side view of type.’’                            Type Material. The original description
                                               provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
   Type Material. The original description     specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’    trated. Lot MCZ 76103, which is labeled
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-       ‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single specimen
trated. Although the number of specimens       accompanied by a note in Maynard’s hand-
examined was not mentioned in the de-          writing with the term ‘‘type,’’ is here rec-
scription, Maynard (1894a: 151) discussed      ognized as the Holotype (despite the 5%
variation in this taxon and noted that they    difference in length). The remaining 499
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.            399



specimens, including MCZ 76104 and             erture height (including lip) 8.7 mm, ap-
MCZ 10296, are paratypes.                      erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Holotype Measurements. Length 29.2          7.6 mm.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.6 mm; ap-         Type Locality. At the foot of the hill
erture height (including lip) 11.7 mm, ap-     (north side) on which stands Fort Char-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     lotte, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
9.6 mm.                                           Remarks. Maynard (1894b: 156) distin-
   Type Locality. Sisal fields west of Nas-     guished two forms [Nos. 1 and 2] without
sau, New Providence Island, Bahamas.           naming them. Two specimens of MCZ
   Remarks. Originally proposed as a sub-      10250 are labeled form No. 1, whereas
species, this taxon was elevated to a full     MCZ 10251 contains four specimens la-
species by Maynard (1913c: 191). The           beled form No. 2. Specimens representing
original illustration was subsequently re-     forms No. 1 and 2 are not paratypes of
published as Strophiops agava (Maynard,        Strophia carlotta [Article 72.4, ICZN,
1913c: 200, 1919c, fig. 24, 1920c: 104, fig.     1999: 76]. Maynard (1913c: 192) recog-
87, pl. 19, fig. 20 [apertural view only]).     nized that this is a synonym of S. glans
Clench (1957: 136) considered this taxon          ¨
                                               (Kuster, 1844), as did Gould and Woodruff
to be a synonym of Cerion coryi (Maynard,      (1986: 474).
1894). Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474)
had examined the holotype and synony-          Taxon 43. Strophia glans grisea Maynard,
mized it with C. glans (Kuster, 1844).
                           ¨                     1894b [December]: 159–161, text
                                                 figs. 51A, B. Examined 200 specimens.
Taxon 42. Strophia carlotta Maynard,             Size of type 1.10 by .45 [inches; 27.9 by
  1894b [December]: 154–156, text                11.4 mm]. Caption to text figure 48,
  figs. 49A, B. Examined 1,000 speci-             ‘‘Strophia glans grisea, A, front view of
  mens. Size of type .85 by .40 [inches;         type, B, margin of same.’’
  21.6 by 10.2 mm]. Caption to text figure
  49, ‘‘Strophia carlotta, A, front, B, side      Type Material. The original description
  view of type.’’                              provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
                                               specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
   Type Material. The original description     trated. A search of the MCZ catalog indi-
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’    cated that only one lot containing 222
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-       specimens was present in Maynard’s col-
trated. How many of the remaining 999          lection at the time it was acquired from
specimens are paratypes is uncertain (see      his daughter. This lot, MCZ 76085, was
Remarks). Lot MCZ 10249 was labeled            catalogued as ‘‘paratypes’’ and did not con-
‘‘paratype’’ and contained two specimens       tain a label in Maynard’s handwriting.
that were acquired from Maynard in 1895.       These specimens were compared against
One of these specimens closely resembles       the published measurements and illustra-
the illustration, but both length and width    tion. Although none matched exactly, a
are exactly 1 mm longer than the pub-          single specimen was identified that most
lished measurements. This specimen is          closely approximated the figures and mea-
considered to be the figured specimen and       surements. This specimen is considered to
the originally designated holotype. The re-    be the originally designated holotype and
maining specimen, a paratype, was reca-        has been recatalogued as MCZ 356674.
talogued as MCZ 356987. There were no             Holotype Measurements. Length 27.3
MCZ catalog entries for this taxon in the      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
material from Maynard’s estate.                erture height (including lip) 11.2 mm, ap-
   Holotype Measurements. Length 22.6          erture width (including lip and peristome)
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-      9.6 mm.
400    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   Type Locality. Fields north of Fresh            Type Locality. Fields on both sides of
Creek, about 1 mile from the settlement          Fresh Creek, near the settlement Andros,
Andros, Bahamas.                                 Bahamas.
   Remarks. Maynard (1894b: 161) noted             Remarks. Maynard (1894b: 162) report-
that this taxon was also found south of the      ed that this taxon is known only from shells
creek and that these specimens ‘‘were un-        inhabited by hermit crabs and suggested
doubtedly transplanted from the north            that the species is extinct. Maynard
side through the agency of the inhabitants,      (1919c: 68, caption to fig. 30∗, 1921a: 131,
who pass from one set of fields to the oth-       1924?: [7]) referred to this taxon as S. reg-
er, carrying with them the plants of the         ular.
casava on which the Strophias frequently
occur.’’                                         Taxon 45. Strophia bimarginata Maynard,
                                                    1894b [December]: 164–168, text
Taxon 44. Strophia regula Maynard,                  figs. 53A, B, C, D. Examined 2,000
   1894b [December]: 161–164, text                  specimens. Size of type 1.50 by .60
   figs. 52A, B. Examined 50 specimens.              [inches; 38.1 by 15.2 mm]. Caption to
   Size of type 1.50 by .60 [inches; 38.1 by        text figure 53, ‘‘Strophia bimarginata. A,
   15.2 mm]. Caption to text figure 52,              front view; B, side view of type.’’
   ‘‘Regular Strophia. A, side, B, front view       Type Material. The original description
   of type.’’                                    provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
   Type Material. The original description       specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’      trated. How many of the remaining 1,999
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-         specimens are paratypes is uncertain (see
trated. The remaining 49 specimens are           Remarks). No specimen labeled holotype
paratypes. A review of the MCZ catalog           could be found at the MCZ. Lot MCZ
revealed that Maynard’s collection con-          10246 contains two specimens labeled
tained one lot of 25 specimens [MCZ              ‘‘paratype.’’ Neither of these specimens
76381] that had been catalogued as ‘‘para-       matches the measurements nor has the
types.’’ Neither this lot nor any single spec-   ‘‘double margin’’ evident in figure 53B.
imen identified as the holotype could be          The holotype is presumed to be lost. Lot
found at the MCZ. Lot MCZ 10299 con-             USNM 420095 contains over 200 para-
tained two specimens labeled ‘‘paratype’’        types. A specimen that closely approxi-
that had been purchased from Maynard in          mates the measurements and the pub-
1895. Both specimens have damage, indi-          lished figures is here designated as neo-
cating they had been occupied by hermit          type to provide an objective standard of
crabs, but neither closely matched the fig-       reference for this species-group taxon that
ure or published measurements of the ho-         is consistent with Maynard’s concept of
lotype. The less damaged specimen retains        this taxon. This specimen retains USNM
MCZ 10299 and is here designated as the          420095. The remaining paratypes have
neotype of Strophia regula to provide an         been recatalogued under USNM 1093843.
objective standard of reference for this         Other paratypes include MCZ 76105 (202
species-group taxon that is consistent with      specimens), MCZ 10244 (two specimens),
Maynard’s concept of it. The remaining           and MCZ 10245 (two specimens).
specimen, a paratype, has been recata-              Neotype Measurements. Length 27.5
logued as MCZ 356988.                            mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.4 mm; ap-
   Neotype Measurements. Length 33.3             erture height (including lip) 8.9 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.4 mm; ap-        erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 12.5 mm, ap-       7.4 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)          Type Locality. Green Key, east coast of
10.5 mm.                                         Andros, Bahamas.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.           401



   Remarks. Maynard (1894b: 167) distin-       Maynard in 1895. One of these specimens
guished two forms [Nos. 1 and 2] without       very closely matches the published mea-
naming them. He reported that form No.         surements and figures of the holotype.
1 also occurs on Little Galden Key. Spec-      This specimen is considered to be the
imens representing forms No. 1 and 2 are       originally designated holotype. The other
not paratypes of Strophia bimarginata [Ar-     specimen has been recatalogued as MCZ
ticle 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76].                   356989.
                                                  Holotype Measurements. Length 27.3
Taxon 46. Strophia bimarginata cera May-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.4 mm; ap-
  nard, 1894b [December]: 168–170,             erture height (including lip) 10.1 mm, ap-
  text figs. 54A, B. Examined nine spec-        erture width (including lip and peristome)
  imens. Size of type 1.00 by .40 [inches;     8.8 mm.
  25.4 by 10.2 mm]. Caption to text figure         Type Locality. Eastern half of Goat Key,
  54, ‘‘Strophia bimarginata cera. A, front    Middle Bight, Andros, Bahamas (map, fig.
  [sic, margin]; B, margin [sic, front] of     56, †).
  type.’’                                         Remarks. Maynard (1894b: 171) dis-
   Type Material. The original description     cussed a single form but did not distin-
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’    guish it with either a name or number.
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
trated. Lot MCZ 76379, which is labeled        Taxon 48. Strophia pilsbryi evolva May-
‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single specimen      nard, 1894b [December]: 173–175,
accompanied by a note in Maynard’s hand-         text figs. 57A, B, C. Examined 70 spec-
writing with the term ‘‘type,’’ is here rec-     imens. Size of type 1.12 by .43 [inches;
ognized as the holotype. The remaining           28.4 by 10.9 mm]. Caption to text figure
eight specimens, including MCZ 76380             5, ‘‘Strophia pilsbryi evolva. A, front
and MCZ 10248, are paratypes.                    view, B, side view of type.’’
   Holotype Measurements. Length 24.8             Type Material. The original description
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.5 mm; ap-      provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
erture height (including lip) 9.1 mm, ap-      specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     trated. Lot MCZ 76383 contains a single
7.0 mm.                                        specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that closely
   Type Locality. Green Key, east coast of     approximates the illustration and the mea-
Andros, Bahamas.                               surements of this taxon. This specimen is
Taxon 47. Strophia pilsbryi Maynard,           recognized as the holotype. The remaining
  1894b [December]: 170–172, text              69 specimens are paratypes.
  figs. 55A, B, text fig. 56 (map). Ex-             Holotype Measurements. Length 28.4
  amined 125 specimens. Size of type as        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-
  1.07 by .45 [inches; 27.2 by 11.4 mm].       erture height (including lip) 10.7 mm, ap-
  Caption to text figure 55, ‘‘Strophia pils-   erture width (including lip and peristome)
  bryi. A, front, B, side view, of type.’’     9.0 mm.
                                                  Type Locality. Western end of Goat
   Type Material. The original description     Key, Middle Bight, Andros, Bahamas
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’    (map, fig. 56,∗).
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
trated. The remaining 124 specimens are        Taxon 49. Strophia restricta Maynard,
paratypes. No specimen labeled holotype          1894b [December]: 175–177, text
could be found at the MCZ. Lot MCZ               figs. 58A, B (map, p. 172, fig. 56). Ex-
10297 contained two specimens labeled            amined 75 specimens. Size of type .75
‘‘paratypes’’ that had been obtained from        by .32 [inches; 19.1 by 8.1 mm]. Caption
402      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   to text figure 58, ‘‘Strophia restricta. A,                  [inches; 28.5 by 12.8 mm]. Caption to
   front, B, side view.’’                                      text figure 59, ‘‘Strophia eximia. A, front,
                                                               B, side view of type.’’
   Type Material. The original description
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’                     Type Material. The original description
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-                    provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
trated. There is no specimen at the MCZ                     specimen, the holotype, which was illus-
labeled ‘‘holotype.’’ MCZ 76384 contained                   trated. Lot MCZ 76243 contains a single
33 specimens and labels stating ‘‘para-                     specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and closely
type,’’ as well as six handwritten labels,                  approximates the published measurements
seemingly by Maynard. All bear the taxon                    and figure. A scrap of cardboard labeled
name, one contains the term ‘‘types,’’ the                  ‘‘type’’ by Maynard accompanies this spec-
remainder are numbered 1, 3, 4, 5, 7.                       imen, which is here recognized as the ho-
None of the specimens match the pub-                        lotype. Lot USNM 420038 contains 15
lished measurements. However, neither do                    paratypes. How many of the remaining
the published illustrations. The specimen                   984 specimens are paratypes is uncertain
most closely resembling the measure-                        (see Remarks).
ments, figures, and proportions is consid-                       Holotype Measurements. Length 28.8
ered to be the Holotype. The remaining                      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-
32 specimens have been recatalogued as                      erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-
MCZ 356990.                                                 erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Holotype Measurements. Length 20.2                       8.9 mm.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.3 mm; ap-                        Type Locality. ‘‘Procured by Mr. Curtiss
erture height (including lip) 7.4 mm, ap-                   in Nassau, from a creole who brought
erture width (including lip and peristome)                  them from Cat Island.’’
6.6 mm.                                                         Remarks. Maynard (1894b: 179) distin-
   Type Locality. Western end of Goat                       guished a single form [No. 1] without
Key, Middle Bight, Andros, Bahamas                          naming it. Specimens representing this
(Maynard, 1894b, fig. 56, ‡).                                form [No. 1] are not paratypes of Strophia
   Remarks. Maynard (1894b: 177) report-                    eximea [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76].
ed that this taxon was ‘‘confined to a single                This taxon serves as the type species of the
tree and the bushes that come in contact                    genus Multistrophia Maynard, (1894b:
with it.’’ Maynard (1894b: 176) distin-                     179) and is later (Maynard, 1920a: 69,
guished a single form [No. 1] without                       1920d: 126) included within Multicostata
naming it. Specimens representing this                      (likely errors for Multistrophia).
form [No. 1] are not paratypes of Strophia
restricta [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76].                   Taxon 51. Strophia agrestina Maynard,
Two specimens of MCZ 10301 are labeled                        1894b [December]: 179–182, text
form No. 1 and therefore are not para-                        figs. 60A, B, C. Examined 1,000 spec-
types.                                                        imens. Size of type .87 by .35 [inches;
                                                              22.1 by 8.9 mm]. Caption to text figure
Taxon 50. Strophia eximea Maynard,                            60, ‘‘Strophia agristina. A, front, B, side
  1894b [December]: 177–179, text                             view of type.’’
  figs. 59A, B, 61A, B. Examined 1,000
  specimens. Size of type as 1.12 by .45                       Type Material. The original description


                                                                                                                  →

Figures 49–60. Taxon 49. Strophia restricta Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76384. Western end of Goat Key, Middle Bight,
Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 50. Strophia eximea Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76243. Cat Island, Bahamas. Taxon 51. Strophia
agrestina Maynard, 1894. Holotype MCZ 76083. South side of New Providence Island, Bahamas, opposite Nassau. Taxon 52.
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                     403




Strophia scripta Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 10332. Cardenas, Cuba. Taxon 53. Strophia scripta obliterata Maynard, 1896.
Lectotype 10335. Matanzas, Cuba, rocks close to the sea. Taxon 54. Strophia fastigata Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 10314.
Matanzas, Cuba. Taxon 55. Strophia eurystoma Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 10312. Havana, Cuba. Taxon 56. Strophia
eurystoma ignota Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 10313. Havana, Cuba. Taxon 57. Strophia marmorata polita Maynard, 1896.
Lectotype MCZ 189792. Cabo Cruz, Cuba. Taxon 58. Strophia media Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 10323. Cuba. Taxon 59.
Strophia ferruginea Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 76230. Washed up by the tide near Jeremie, southwestern Haiti. Taxon 60.
Strophia obscura Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 76411. Cayo Birde del Norte, Cuba.
404    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’      Examined 29 specimens. Size of type
specimen, the holotype, which was illus-         1.30 by .47 [inches; 33.0 by 11.9 mm].
trated. Lot number MCZ 76083 contains            Description noted, ‘‘Plate 1, fig. 3, front,
a single specimen labeled ‘‘holotype,’’ as       fig. 4, side view of type.’’
well as a label with the term ‘‘Type’’ in
Maynard’s hand. It approximates the orig-         Type Material. The original description
inal measurements and illustration and is      provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
here recognized as the Holotype. Lot           specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard
number USNM 420134 contains 200 para-          (1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-
types. How many of the remaining 799           ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-
specimens are paratypes is uncertain (see      tained a co-type in his collection. Thus,
Remarks).                                      these two specimens comprise the syntype
   Holotype Measurements. Length 22.8          series. Lot number MCZ 10332 contained
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.2 mm; ap-       two specimens labeled ‘‘holotype.’’ The
erture height (including lip) 8.9 mm, ap-      larger of the two specimens very closely
erture width (including lip and peristome)     approximates the originally published
7.2 mm.                                        measurements and illustrations and is the
   Type Locality. South side of New Prov-      figured specimen Maynard returned to the
idence Island, Bahamas, opposite Nassau.       MCZ. This specimen is here designated as
   Remarks. The taxon name originally ap-      the lectotype to provide an objective stan-
peared as Strophia agrestina in the head-      dard of reference for this species-group
ing of the original description, but as S.     taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s
agristina in the caption to the figure within   original concept of it. It is unclear whether
the body of the description. The name ap-      the smaller specimen [25.8 by 9.2 mm] is
peared as S. agrestina in Maynard (1919b:      the syntype retained by Maynard and re-
50, figs. 17, 17a, 1921b: 150, 1924c: 6) but    acquired by the MCZ after his death or
as S. agsestina in Maynard (1919b, pl. 7,      one of the 27 remaining, originally men-
figs. 11–13).                                   tioned specimens, which, according to Ar-
   Maynard (1919b: 50) acted as the First      ticle 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77) are expressly
Revisor of spellings [Article 24.2.4, ICZN,    excluded from the type series. There are
1999: 30–31], fixing the spelling as agres-     no paratypes for this taxon, and any spec-
tina.                                          imens labeled as such are mislabeled. Lots
   Maynard (1894b: 179) distinguished          MCZ 26498 (six specimens) and MCZ
three forms [Nos. 1–3] without naming          76176 (five specimens) have no status as
them. Specimens representing forms No.         types.
1–3 are not paratypes of Strophia agresti-        Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.5
na [Article 72.4, ICZN, 1999: 76]. May-        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-
nard (1921b: 150) noted slightly larger        erture height (including lip) 11.0 mm, ap-
measurements .90 by .35 [inches; 22.9 by       erture width (including lip and peristome)
8.9 mm], reported a larger number (2,000)      9.1 mm.
of specimens, presumably from subse-              Type Locality. Cardenas, Cuba.
quent collections, and cited previously           Remarks. Maynard (1896: 4) distin-
published illustrations (Maynard, 1919b:       guished a single form [No. 1], composing
52, figs. 17, pl. 7, figs. 11–13). Maynard       20% of the sample, without naming it.
(1924c: 6) listed S. agrestina as extinct in   Maynard (1919b, pl. 7, figs. 3, 4) reillus-
1924 from the burning of vegetation prior      trated this taxon.
to cultivation.
                                               Taxon 53. Strophia scripta obliterata May-
Taxon 52. Strophia scripta Maynard,              nard, 1896 [March]: 5–6, pl. 1, figs.
  1896 [March]: 3–4, pl. 1, figs. 3, 4.           5, 6. Examined 102 specimens. Size of
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.            405



  type 1.08 by .40 [inches; 27.4 by 10.2       tained a co-type in his collection. Thus,
  mm]. Description noted, ‘‘Plate I, fig. 5,    these two specimens compose the syntype
  front, fig. 6, side view of type.’’           series. Lot MCZ 10314 contains a single
                                               specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’ with one la-
   Type Material. The original description     bel annotated ‘‘id. C. J. Maynard’’ and an-
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’    other with the word ‘‘type,’’ initialed by
specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard       Maynard. Another lot, MCZ 76293, con-
(1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-     tains a single specimen and was labeled
ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-          ‘‘Paratype.’’ Although neither specimen
tained a co-type in his collection. Thus,      closely matches the published measure-
these two specimens compose the syntype        ments, the specimen in MCZ 10314 is
series. Lot MCZ 10335, which was labeled       closer and approximates the illustration of
‘‘holotype,’’ contains a single specimen ac-   the type. This is the specimen returned to
companied by a note in Maynard’s hand-         the MCZ by Maynard and is here desig-
writing identifying the taxon and the term     nated as the lectotype to provide an ob-
‘‘type.’’ This specimen, which closely         jective standard of reference for this spe-
matches the published measurements and         cies-group taxon that is consistent with
figures, is here designated as the lectotype    Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The sec-
to provide an objective standard of refer-     ond specimen (MCZ 76293) was part of
ence for this species-group taxon that is      Maynard’s collection at the time of his
consistent with Maynard’s original concept     death and is the co-type that he retained.
of it. The remaining 100 specimens, in-        It becomes the sole paralectotype. The re-
cluding MCZ 26502, MCZ 26503, MCZ              maining 60 specimens (including MCZ
26504, and MCZ 26505, are, according to        10314, MCZ 76293, MCZ 26513, and
Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly     MCZ 26515) are, according to Article
excluded from the type series. Therefore,      72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77), expressly exclud-
there can be no paratypes, and any speci-      ed from the type series. Therefore, there
mens labeled as such are mislabeled.           can be no paratypes, and any specimens
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.5         labeled as such are mislabeled.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-         Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.7
erture height (including lip) 9.2 mm, ap-      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-
7.3 mm.                                        erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Type Locality. Matanzas, Cuba, rocks        8.8 mm.
close to the sea.                                 Type Locality. Maynard (1896: 7) wrote,
   Remarks. Maynard (1896: 4) distin-          ‘‘This species I found in the collection in
guished five forms [Nos. 1–5] without           the same tray with the shells which I have
naming them.                                   named S. scripta obliterata, therefore it is
Taxon 54. Strophia fastigata Maynard,          to be presumed that they came from Ma-
  1896 [March]: 6–7, pl. 2, figs. 1, 2.         tanzas, Cuba, but as the shells of S. fasti-
  Examined 62 specimens. Size of type          gata are deeply stained with a red earth of
  1.20 by .40 [inches; 30.5 by 10.2 mm].       which those of S. s. obliterata bear no
  Description noted, ‘‘Plate II, fig. 1,        trace, it is evident that they did not come
  front, fig. 2, side view of type.’’           from ‘‘rocks close to the sea’’ as did the
                                               others, but probably from some neighbor-
  Type Material. The original description      ing field. Another lot was labeled Punte
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’    Goade, Matanzas, and still another lot
specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard       Chorrea.’’ Clench (1957: 145) listed the
(1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-     type locality as ‘‘Matanzas [Havana]
ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-          Cuba.’’ The lectotype is from Matanzas,
406    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



Cuba, which is the type locality (Article        MCZ, seven from another source] listed
76.2, ICZN, 1999: 87).                           in the description of form No. 1 of Stro-
  Remarks. Maynard (1896: 7) distin-             phia eurystoma, but none measured.
guished a single form [No. 1] without
naming it.                                        Type Material. Maynard (1896: 1) stated
                                               that he returned figured type specimens to
Taxon 55. Strophia eurystoma Maynard,          the MCZ and retained a co-type in his col-
  1896 [March]: 7–9, pl. 2, figs. 3, 4.         lection. Because this taxon was not figured,
  Examined 21 specimens. Size of typical       there is no indication that type material
  specimen 1.35 by .40 [inches; 34.3 by        was designated. The original description
  10.2 mm]. Description noted, ‘‘Plate II,     lists a total of nine specimens, which are
  fig. 3, front, fig. 4, side view of type.’’    all syntypes. Lot MCZ 10313 contains a
                                               single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’ with
   Type Material. The original description     the label annotated ‘‘id. by C. J. Maynard.’’
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’    This specimen is here designated as the
specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard       lectotype to provide an objective standard
(1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-     of reference for this species-group taxon
ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-          that is consistent with Maynard’s concept
tained a co-type in his collection. Thus,      of this taxon. The remaining eight speci-
these two specimens compose the syntype        mens, including the three specimens in
series, The remaining 19 specimens are,        MCZ 76228, become paralectotypes.
according to Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999:          Lectotype Measurements. Length 35.9
77), expressly excluded from the type se-      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.6 mm; ap-
ries. Therefore, there can be no paratypes,    erture height (including lip) 11.3 mm, ap-
and any specimens labeled as such are          erture width (including lip and peristome)
mislabeled. Lot MCZ 10312 contains a           9.3 mm.
single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’ with        Type Locality. Havana, Cuba.
the label annotated ‘‘id. C. J. Maynard.’’        Remarks. Maynard (1896: 8–9) distin-
This specimen matches closely the mea-         guished a single form [No. 1] and noted
surements and figures of the specimen           that the typical form is stained by red
identified as the type. It is here designated   ochraceous earth, whereas form No. 1 is
as the lectotype to provide an objective       stained by brown earth or without staining.
standard of reference for this species-        On this basis, Maynard supposed that the
group taxon that is consistent with May-       two did not occur together. He wrote (p.
nard’s concept of this taxon.                  9), ‘‘Should this prove true, form No. 1
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 34.4         must take subspecific rank, in which case
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-      it may be called Strophia eurystoma ig-
erture height (including lip) 12.6 mm, ap-     nota.’’
erture width (including lip and peristome)
10.5 mm.                                       Taxon 57. Strophia marmorata polita
   Type Locality. Havana, Cuba.                  Maynard, 1896 [March]: 14–15, pl.
   Remarks. Maynard (1896: 8–9) distin-          3, figs. 3, 4. Examined 25 specimens.
guished a single form [No. 1], which he          Size of type 1.05 by .45 [inches; 26.7 by
provisionally named Strophia eurystoma           11.4 mm]. Description noted, ‘‘Plate III,
ignota (see below). The taxon name also          fig. 3, front, fig. 4, side view of type.’’
appeared as S. eryrostoma (Maynard,
1919c: 54).                                      Type Material. The original description
                                               provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
Taxon 56. Strophia eurystoma ignota May-       specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard
  nard, 1896 [March]: 8–9. Not illus-          (1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-
  trated. Nine specimens [two from the         ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              407



tained a co-type in his collection. Thus,       the label annotated ‘‘ex. C. J. Maynard.’’
these two specimens compose the syntype         This specimen matches closely the mea-
series. The remaining 23 specimens are,         surements and figures of the specimen
according to Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999:        identified as the type. It is here designated
77), expressly excluded from the type se-       as the lectotype to provide an objective
ries. Therefore, there can be no paratypes,     standard of reference for this species-
and any specimens labeled as such are           group taxon that is consistent with May-
mislabeled. Lot MCZ 189792 contains a           nard’s concept of this taxon. Lot number
single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and        MCZ 76225 contains two specimens la-
matches both the published measurements         beled ‘‘paratype.’’ The MCZ catalog num-
of the type and its illustration. This spec-    ber indicates that these specimens were
imen has a hole in the dorsal surface of        among those purchased from Maynard’s
the final whorl that reveals the details of      daughter after his death. The dead speci-
the columellar and apertural teeth. This        men is likely the remaining syntype and
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       therefore a paralectotype. The live collect-
type to provide an objective standard of        ed specimen might have been added after
reference for this species-group taxon that     the original description and would not
is consistent with Maynard’s concept of         have any status as a type.
this taxon. A second specimen, MCZ                 Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.1
76201, was labeled ‘‘paratype.’’ This spec-     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-
imen was part of Maynard’s collection at        erture height (including lip) 12.2 mm, ap-
the time of his death and is the remaining      erture width (including lip and peristome)
syntype, which becomes a paralectotype.         10.6 mm.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.1             Type Locality. Cuba.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-      Taxon 59. Strophia ferruginea Maynard,
erture width (including lip and peristome)        1896 [March]: 19–21, pl. 4, figs. 5, 6.
8.9 mm.                                           Examined nine specimens. Size of type
   Type Locality. Cabo Cruz, Cuba.                .90 by .25 [inches; 22.9 by 6.4 mm]. De-
   Remarks. Maynard (1896: 15) distin-            scription noted, ‘‘Plate IV, fig. 5, front,
guished a single, larger form [No. 1] with-       fig. 6, side view of type.’’
out naming it. Maynard (1919b, pl. 8, figs.
7, 8) reillustrated this taxon.                    Type Material. The original description
                                                provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
Taxon 58. Strophia media Maynard, 1896          specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard
  [March]: 18–19, pl. 4, figs. 3, 4. Ex-         (1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-
  amined two specimens. Size of type 1.20       ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-
  by .50 [inches; 30.5 by 12.7 mm]. De-         tained a co-type in his collection. Thus, the
  scription noted, ‘‘Plate IV, fig. 3, front,    two specimens compose the syntype se-
  fig. 4, side view of type.’’                   ries. The remaining seven specimens are,
                                                according to Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999:
   Type Material. The original description      77), expressly excluded from the type se-
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’     ries. Therefore, there can be no paratypes,
specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard        and any specimens labeled as such are
(1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-      mislabeled. Lot MCZ 76230 contains a
ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-           single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and
tained a co-type in his collection. Thus, the   approximates the published length (but
two specimens comprise the syntype se-          not width, which is likely a typographical
ries. Lot number MCZ 10323 contains a           error) and illustrations of this taxon. This
single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ with       specimen is here designated as the lecto-
408      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



type to provide an objective standard of                     Maynard’s concept of this taxon. Lots
reference for this species-group taxon.                      MCZ 10329 and MCZ 76410 each contain
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 21.46                      a specimen labeled ‘‘paratype.’’ Lot num-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.25 mm; ap-                    ber MCZ 10329 is the specimen that May-
erture height (including lip) 8.61 mm, ap-                   nard returned to MCZ during his lifetime.
erture width (including lip and peristome)                   It was labeled ‘‘type’’ by Maynard but ap-
6.73 mm.                                                     proximates the published measurements
   Type Locality. ‘‘Washed up by the tide                    and figure less closely than the lectotype.
near Jeremie, Cote de Fer.’’ Maynard                         This specimen came from Cayo Piedras
(1896: 21) noted that ‘‘Jeremie is in Hayti,                 del Norte rather than Cayo Birde del Nor-
on the southwest portion,’’ and that ‘‘Cote                  te. It is here considered one of the two
de Fer’’ refers to iron shore.                               original syntypes and becomes a paralec-
                                                             totype. Lot MCZ 76410 is from Cayo Bir-
Taxon 60. Strophia obscura Maynard,                          de del Norte and is likely one of the re-
  1896 [March]: 21–22, pl. 3, figs. 5, 6.                     maining 48 specimens without type status.
  Examined 50 specimens. Size of type                           Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.9
  1.10 by .42 [inches; 27.9 by 10.7 mm].                     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.1 mm; ap-
  Description noted, ‘‘Plate III, fig. 5,                     erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-
  front, fig. 6, side view of type.’’                         erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Type Material. The original description                   9.6 mm.
provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’                     Type Locality. Cayo Birde del Norte,
specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard                     Cuba.
(1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-                      Remarks. Maynard (1896: 22) distin-
ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-                        guished a form [No. 1] composing 20% of
tained a co-type in his collection. Thus, the                the sample without naming it. Specimens
two specimens compose the syntype se-                        representing this form are not paratypes of
ries. The remaining 48 specimens are, ac-                    Strophia obscura [Article 72.4, ICZN,
cording to Article 72.4.6 (ICZN, 1999: 77),                  1999: 76].
expressly excluded from the type series.
                                                             Taxon 61. Strophia faxoni Maynard, 1896
Therefore, there can be no paratypes, and
                                                               [March]: 32–34, pl. 7, figs. 1, 2. S.
any specimens labeled as such are misla-
                                                               faxsoni Maynard, 1920a: 73. Examined
beled. Lot number MCZ 76411 contains a
                                                               two specimens. Size of type 1.12 by .40
single specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’ This
                                                               [inches; 28.4 by 10.2 mm]. Description
specimen matches the length measure-
                                                               noted, ‘‘Plate VII, fig. 1, front, fig. 2,
ment more closely than the width mea-
                                                               side view of type.’’
surement and approximates the figures of
the specimen identified as the type. It is                      Type Material. The original description
here designated as the lectotype to provide                  provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
an objective standard of reference for this                  specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard
species-group taxon that is consistent with                  (1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-

                                                                                                                     →

Figures 61–73. Taxon 61. Strophia faxoni Maynard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 184649. Cuba. Taxon 62. Strophia cylindrica May-
nard, 1896. Lectotype MCZ 10311, Mathewstown, Inagua, Bahamas. Taxon 63. Strophiops antiqua Maynard, 1913. Lectotype
MCZ 76114. Eastern Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 64. Strophiops primigenia Maynard, 1913. Lectotype
MCZ 76088. Fossil in limestone beneath a sand cliff on the east coast of Salt Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon
65. Strophiops salinaria Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76089. Salt Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 66. Stro-
phiops larga Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76139. Rose Island opposite Green Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon
67. Strophiops affinis Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76091. Sandy Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 68. Stro-
phiops acceptoria Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76095. Low Bay Key east of Rose Island, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
Taxon 69. Strophiops cinereavaria Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76395. East end of Hog Island [Paradise Island], New
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                         409




Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 70. Strophiops variathorndikei Maynard, 1913. Lectotype USNM 359502. Cemetery east of
Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 71. Strophiops varianivia Maynard 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76392. About Banyan
tree in Eastern Cemetery west along Shirley St. to St. Paul Quarry, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 72.
Strophiops nivia Maynard, 1913. [Not illustrated.] The holotype (MCZ 010279) of Strophia curtissii nivia Maynard, 1894 [Taxon
26], is designated as the lectotype of Strophiops nivia Maynard, 1913, making Strophiops nivia Maynard, 1913, an objective
junior synonym and junior homonym of Strophia curtissii nivia Maynard, 1894. Taxon 73. Strophiops rediviva Maynard, 1913.
Lectotype MCZ 76093. In field just west of St. Paul Quarry, East Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
410    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-             es; 27.9 by 10.2 mm]. Description not-
tained a co-type in his collection. Thus, the     ed, ‘‘Plate VII, fig. 3, front, fig. 4, side
two specimens compose the syntype se-             view of type.’’
ries. Clench and Aguayo (1952: 420, pl. 55,
fig. 2) listed and illustrated MCZ 184649           Type Material. The original description
as the ‘‘holotype.’’ This specimen matches      provided measurements for a single ‘‘type’’
closely Maynard’s published measure-            specimen, which was illustrated. Maynard
ments and illustration and is accompanied       (1896: 1) stated that he returned this fig-
by two MCZ labels. One label, with MCZ          ured type specimen to the MCZ but re-
10363 crossed out and replaced by               tained a co-type in his collection. Thus,
184649, is annotated ‘‘Type’’ and ‘‘id. C. J.   these two specimens compose the syntype
Maynard.’’ The other label bears the num-       series. Of these, MCZ 10311, which was
ber MCZ 184649 and is annotated ‘‘ex. C.        labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single
J. Maynard, Acc. 766’’ and labeled ‘‘Ho-        specimen accompanied by a note in May-
lotype.’’ Article 74.5 (ICZN, 1999: 82–83)      nard’s handwriting identifying the taxon
states, ‘‘When the original work reveals        but not using the term ‘‘type,’’ is here des-
that the taxon had been based on more           ignated as the lectotype to provide an ob-
than one specimen, a subsequent use of          jective standard of reference for this spe-
the term ‘‘holotype’’ does not constitute a     cies-group taxon that is consistent with
valid lectotype designation unless the au-      Maynard’s original concept of it. The un-
thor, when wrongly using that term, ex-         specified number of additional specimens
plicitly indicated that he or she was se-       are, according to Article 72.4.6 (ICZN,
lecting from the type series that particular    1999: 77), expressly excluded from the
specimen to serve as the name-bearing           type series. Therefore, there can be but
type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this     one paralectotype.
taxon, nor can Clench and Aguayo’s treat-          Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.2
ment of MCZ 184649 be considered a lec-         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; ap-
totype designation. This specimen [MCZ          erture height (including lip) 9.0 mm, ap-
184649] is here designated as the lectotype     erture width (including lip and peristome)
to provide an objective standard of refer-      7.7 mm.
ence for this species-group taxon that is          Type Locality. Mathewstown, Inagua
consistent with Maynard’s original and          [Bahamas], from town border to salina.
Clench and Aguayo’s subsequent concepts            Remarks. Maynard (1896: 35) distin-
of this taxon.                                  guished four forms [Nos. 1–4] without
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.9          naming them. Maynard (1919b, fig. 13, pl.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.2 mm; ap-       7, figs. 1, 2) reillustrated this taxon. Clench
erture height (including lip) 9.6 mm, ap-       (1959: 45) listed this taxon as a synonym
erture width (including lip and peristome)      of Cerion (Diacerion) rubicundum (Men-
8.5 mm.                                         ke, 1829) but did not select a lectotype.
   Type Locality. Cuba.                         Taxon 63. Strophiops antiqua Maynard,
   Remarks. Maynard (1896: 34) com-               1913b [February 1]: 183–184 [not il-
mented that ‘‘Although these specimens            lustrated in original publication]. Ex-
were simply labeled ‘Cuba,’ I have no             amined 375 specimens. Size given as
doubt but what they came from the neigh-          1.25 by .50 [inches; 31.8 by 12.7 mm],
borhood of Gibara, Cuba.’’                        but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
Taxon 62. Strophia cylindrica Maynard,            Type Material. The original description
  1896 [March]: 34–36, pl. 7, figs. 3, 4.        did not distinguish among the 375 speci-
  Number of specimens examined not              mens examined, and there was no mention
  specified. Size of type 1.10 by .40 [inch-     of type material in the other parts of this
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              411



publication. Thus, all 375 specimens are        in Maynard’s hand identifying the speci-
syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76114 con-             mens as ‘‘typical,’’ but none use the word
tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’   ‘‘type’’ nor refer to the subsequently pub-
Although the width of this specimen             lished illustrations. A large specimen that
matches the published measurement, the          approximates the published measurements
length differs by nearly 10%. The speci-        and subsequently published illustration is
men is here designated as the lectotype to      selected as the lectotype to provide an ob-
provide an objective standard of reference      jective standard of reference for this spe-
for this species-group taxon that is consis-    cies-group taxon that is consistent with
tent with Maynard’s original concept of it.     Maynard’s concept of it. The remaining 55
The remaining 374 specimens, including          specimens were recatalogued as MCZ
MCZ 76115 and MCZ 117863, become                356992 and are paralectotypes.
paralectotypes.                                     Lectotype Measurements. Length 35.0
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.0          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.4 mm; ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.7 mm; ap-       erture height (including lip) 11.2 mm, ap-
erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture width (including lip and peristome)      9.7 mm.
9.9 mm.                                             Type Locality. Fossil in limestone be-
   Type Locality. Eastern Nassau [New           neath a sand cliff on the east coast of Salt
Providence Island, Bahamas]. Fossil. May-       Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
nard’s handwritten note accompanying the            Remarks. Maynard (1913b: 184) consid-
type specimen states ‘‘crab holes, Water-       ered this to be the ancestor of all the spe-
loo.’’                                          cies in the ‘‘Primigenia Group’’ [an ‘‘aggre-
   Remarks. Maynard (1913b: 183–184)            gate of species’’ sensu Article 10.4 (ICZN,
surmised that, ‘‘Neither this nor the above     1999: 9) rather than a genus-group taxon].
[S. agassizii] appear to be ancestors of any    Strophiops primigenia was subsequently
living form thus discovered.’’ Maynard          illustrated (Maynard, 1924a, pl. 39, figs. 3,
(1921b: 151) reported 400 specimens and         4). Maynard (1921b: 142) provided slightly
provided citations to illustrations (pl. 47,    smaller measurements and a different lo-
figs. 3, 4) that were never issued. Gould        cality (east of Rose Island). Gould and
and Woodruff (1986: 480) reported ex-           Woodruff (1986: 481) doubted that this
amining the ‘‘holotype’’ and provisionally      taxon was truly a fossil, and regarded it to
considered this taxon to be a synonym of        be a synonym of Cerion glans (Kuster,   ¨
Cerion agassizii Dall, 1894.                    1844).

Taxon 64. Strophiops primigenia May-            Taxon 65. Strophiops salinaria Maynard,
  nard, 1913b [February 1]: 184 [not              1913b [February 1]: 184 [not illus-
  illustrated in original publication]. Ex-       trated in original publication]. Exam-
  amined 100 specimens. Size given as             ined 500 specimens. Size given as 1.35
  1.50 by .50 [inches; 38.1 by 12.7 mm],          by .45 [inches; 34.3 by 11.4 mm], but
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.             the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
   Type Material. The original description         Type Material. The original description
did not distinguish among the 100 speci-        did not distinguish among the 500 speci-
mens examined, and there was no mention         mens examined, and there was no mention
of type material in the other parts of this     of type material in the other parts of this
publication. Thus, all 100 specimens are        publication. Thus, all 500 specimens are
syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76088 con-             syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76089 con-
tained 56 specimens and was labeled             tains a single specimen that was cata-
‘‘paratype.’’ This lot also contained labels    logued as the ‘‘Holotype’’ and that was il-
412    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



lustrated by Gould and Woodruff (1978,         publication. Thus, all 20 specimens are
fig. 2) and captioned ‘‘holotype.’’ Gould       syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76139 con-
and Woodruff’s caption cannot be accept-       tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’
ed as a lectotype designation, as Article      This lot also contains a label in Maynard’s
74.5 (ICZN, 1999: 83) states, ‘‘When the       hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes
original work reveals that the taxon had       references to illustrations (Maynard, 1925,
been based on more than one specimen, a        pl. 41, figs. 3, 4) that were published 12
subsequent use of the term ‘holotype’ does     years after the species was described. This
not constitute a valid lectotype designation   specimen approximates the subsequently
unless the author, when wrongly using that     published measurements and is the spec-
term, explicitly indicated that he or she      imen figured in 1925 [a repaired break on
was selecting from the type series that par-   the apertural surface is present in both fig-
ticular specimen to serve as the name-         ure and specimen]. It is here designated
bearing type.’’ This specimen is here des-     as the lectotype to provide an objective
ignated as the lectotype to provide an ob-     standard of reference for this species-
jective standard of reference for this spe-    group taxon that is consistent with May-
cies-group taxon that is consistent with       nard’s concept of this taxon. The remain-
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-      ing 19 syntypes, including MCZ 76140,
maining 499 specimens, including MCZ           become paralectotypes.
76090 and USNM 420055 (15 specimens),             Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.1
become paralectotypes.                         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.8 mm; ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.5         erture height (including lip) 12.0 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 10.2 mm, ap-     10.4 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)        Type Locality. Rose Island opposite
8.4 mm.                                        Green Key [New Providence Island, Ba-
   Type Locality. Living all over Salt Key     hamas].
[New Providence Island, Bahamas], and             Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 145) provid-
thousands dead in the sand cliff at the east   ed measurements 1.35 by .52 [inches; 34.3
end.                                           by 13.2 mm] and references to subse-
   Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 144, 1925,         quently published illustrations but listed a
pl. 40, figs. 1, 2) published larger dimen-     slightly different locality, ‘‘West shore of
sions of 1.45 by .45 [inches; 36.8 by 11.4     Hog Island opposite Green Key,’’ and not-
mm] and illustrations of this taxon. Gould     ed 25 specimens, some perhaps subse-
and Woodruff (1986: 475) regarded this         quently collected. Gould and Woodruff
taxon to be a synonym of Cerion glans          (1986: 475) regarded this taxon to be a
   ¨
(Kuster, 1844).                                                               ¨
                                               synonym of Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).

Taxon 66. Strophiops larga Maynard,            Taxon 67. Strophiops affinis Maynard,
  1913b [February 1]: 184; Maynard,              1913b [February 1]: 184–185 [not il-
  1921b: 145; Maynard, 1925, pl. 41, figs.        lustrated in original publication]. Ex-
  3, 4. Examined 20 specimens [not illus-        amined 300 specimens. Size given as
  trated in original publication]. No mea-       1.15 by 60 [sic .60] [inches; 29.2 by 15.2
  surements included in original descrip-        mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  tion.
                                                 Type Material. The original description
  Type Material. The original description      did not distinguish among the 300 speci-
did not distinguish among the 20 speci-        mens examined, and there was no mention
mens examined, and there was no mention        of type material in the other parts of this
of type material in the other parts of this    publication. Thus, all 300 specimens are
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             413



syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76091 con-             imens. One of the specimens approximates
tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’   the measurements and subsequent figure
This lot also contains a label in Maynard’s     [Maynard, 1925, pl. 41, figs. 5, 6] and is
hand with the term ‘‘Type’’ that includes       here selected as the lectotype to provide
references to illustrations (pl. 44, figs. 7,    an objective standard of reference for this
8), which were never published. This spec-      species-group taxon that is consistent with
imen is here designated as the lectotype to     Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The re-
provide an objective standard of reference      maining 199 syntypes became co-mingled
for this species-group taxon that is consis-    with additional specimens (see Remarks),
tent with Maynard’s concept of this taxon.      so it is unclear which of the specimens in
The remaining 229 syntypes, including           MCZ 76096 (223 specimens) and USNM
MCZ 76092, become paralectotypes.               420075 (110 specimens), are paralecto-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.9          types.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.3 mm; ap-          Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.4
erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.6 mm; ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      erture height (including lip) 9.4 mm, ap-
9.4 mm.                                         erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Type Locality. The original description      7.8 mm.
listed this taxon as occurring on Sandy and        Type Locality. Low Bay Key east of
Green Keys [New Providence Island, Ba-          Rose Island [New Providence Island, Ba-
hamas], living under different environ-         hamas].
ments on each. Because the lectotype is            Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 145) noted a
from Sandy Key, the type locality is re-        larger size (1.00 by .40 [inches]), a larger
stricted to Sandy Key (Article 76.2, ICZN,      number (528) of specimens, likely the re-
1999: 87).                                      sult of subsequent collections, and provid-
   Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 144) provid-        ed references to figures (pl. 41, figs. 5, 6)
ed slightly different measurements [1.20        that were issued in 1925. Gould and
by .57 inches; 30.5 by 14.4 mm] and a ref-      Woodruff (1986: 474) had examined the
erence to figures [pl. 44, figs. 5, 6; these      ‘‘Holotype’’ and synonymized this taxon
figure numbers differ from those on the                                ¨
                                                with Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).
label accompanying the lectotype] that
were never published. Gould and Wood-           Taxon 69. Strophiops cinereavaria May-
ruff (1986: 474) had examined the ‘‘Ho-           nard, 1913b [February 1]: 185 [not
lotype’’ and synonymized this taxon with          illustrated in original publication]. Ex-
Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).
                  ¨                               amined 614 specimens. No measure-
                                                  ments included in description.
Taxon 68. Strophiops acceptoria May-
  nard, 1913b [February 1]: 185 [not               Type Material. The original description
  illustrated in original publication]. Ex-     did not distinguish among the 614 speci-
  amined 200 specimens. Size given as .94       mens examined, and there was no mention
  by .36 [inches; 23.9 by 9.1 mm], but the      of type material in the other parts of this
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                   publication. Thus, all 614 specimens are
                                                syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76395 con-
  Type Material. The original description       tained five specimens labeled ‘‘paratype.’’
did not distinguish among the 200 speci-        Examination of the MCZ catalog revealed
mens examined, and there was no mention         that no single specimen identified as a type
of type material in the other parts of this     was present in Maynard’s collection when
publication. Thus, all 200 specimens are        it was acquired from his daughter. Because
syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76095 was la-          neither measurements nor illustrations
beled ‘‘Holotype,’’ but contained two spec-     were ever published for this taxon, one of
414    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



the five specimens, the best preserved un-      ed to serve as the lectotype to provide an
damaged adult, is selected to be the lec-      objective standard of reference for this
totype to provide an objective standard of     species-group taxon that is consistent with
reference for this species-group taxon. The    Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
remaining specimens, recatalogued as           maining three specimens, recatalogued as
MCZ 356476, become paralectotypes.             USNM 1093789, become paralectotypes.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.1            Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.1
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.4 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 11.0 mm, ap-     erture height (including lip) 7.4 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     erture width (including lip and peristome)
9.9 mm.                                        6.4 mm.
   Type Locality. East end of Hog Island          Type Locality. Cemetery east of Nassau
[Paradise Island] [New Providence Island,      [New Providence Island, Bahamas].
Bahamas].                                         Remarks. Following Article 32.5.2.4
   Remarks. The taxon name originally ap-      (ICZN, 1999: 40) the hyphen is removed
peared as S. cinerea-vara, but was used as     from varia-thorndikei and the taxon be-
S. cinerea-varia on the following page. A      comes variathorndikei. A label accompa-
correction was published (Maynard,             nying the lectotype stated, ‘‘on an isolated
1913c: 199) in which Maynard acted as the      grass plot, now extinct. 1915.’’ Gould and
First Revisor of spellings [Article 24.2.4,    Woodruff (1986: 478) regarded this taxon
ICZN, 1999: 30–31], selecting cineria-var-     to be a synonym of Cerion gubernatorium
ia to be the correct spelling. Following Ar-   (Crosse, 1869).
ticle 32.5.2.4 (ICZN, 1999: 40), the hy-
phen is removed and the taxon becomes          Taxon 71. Strophiops varianivia Maynard
cinereavaria. Gould and Woodruff (1986:          1913b [February 1]: 186 [not illus-
474) reported examining ‘‘paratypes’’ and        trated in original publication]. Number
synonymized this taxon with Cerion glans         of specimens examined not specified.
(Kuster, 1844).
    ¨                                            No measurements included in descrip-
                                                 tion.
Taxon 70. Strophiops variathorndikei
  Maynard, 1913b [February 1]: 186                Type Material. The original description
  [not illustrated in original publication].   did not specify the number of specimens
  Number of specimens examined not             examined, which are all syntypes. No spec-
  specified. No measurements included in        imen labeled holotype could be found at
  description.                                 the MCZ. Lot MCZ 76392 contained 22
                                               mostly juvenile specimens labeled ‘‘para-
   Type Material. The original description     types.’’ One of the adult specimens in this
did not specify the number of specimens        lot is selected as the lectotype to provide
examined, which are all syntypes. This tax-    an objective standard of reference for this
on was not represented in the collections      species-group taxon that is consistent with
of MCZ, nor was it present in Maynard’s        Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
collection at the time it was acquired from    maining 21 specimens, recatalogued as
his daughter, as revealed by an examina-       MCZ 356675, become paralectotypes.
tion of the MCZ catalog. The USNM cat-            Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.6
alog revealed that USNM 359502 con-            mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.0 mm; ap-
tained four syntypes that Bartsch had pur-     erture height (including lip) 8.0 mm, ap-
chased from Maynard. Because neither           erture width (including lip and peristome)
measurements nor illustration were pub-        6.6 mm.
lished, one of the specimens in this lot, a       Type Locality. About Banyan tree in
well-preserved undamaged adult, is select-     Eastern Cemetery west along Shirley St.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.               415



to St. Paul Quarry [Nassau, New Provi-          nivia as an error for S. nivea Maynard,
dence Island, Bahamas].                         1894, rather than as a separately described
   Remarks. The first use of this name was       taxon.
in the form of a citation, as if it were pre-
viously published. See remarks under            Taxon 73. Strophiops rediviva Maynard,
Strophia curtissii nivia [Taxon 26]. Follow-      1913c [February 9]: 187; Maynard,
ing Article 32.5.2.4 (ICZN, 1999: 40) the         1921b: 144; Maynard, 1925, pl. 40, figs.
hyphen is removed from varia-nivia and            5, 6 [not illustrated in original publica-
the taxon becomes varianivia. Gould and           tion]. Examined 500 specimens. No
Woodruff (1986: 478) regarded this taxon          measurements included in description.
to be a synonym of Cerion gubernatorium             Type Material. The original description
(Crosse, 1869).                                 did not distinguish among the 500 speci-
                                                mens examined, and there was no mention
Taxon 72. Strophiops nivia Maynard,             of type material in the other parts of this
  1913b [February 1]: 186 [not illus-           publication. Thus, all 500 specimens are
  trated in original publication]. Exam-        syntypes. Lot MCZ 76093 was labeled
  ined 829 specimens. No measurements           ‘‘Holotype’’ but contained two specimens
  included in description. See remarks          and a label written by Maynard that con-
  under Strophia curtissii nivia Maynard,       tains the name of the taxon, the word
  1894 [Taxon 26].                              ‘‘type,’’ and ‘‘Plate 40 figs. 5 6.’’ The spec-
                                                imen that closely resembles the published
   Nomenclatural Remarks. This taxon was
                                                illustration is here selected as the lectotype
described as new, appearing as ‘‘S. nivia
                                                to provide an objective standard of refer-
new,’’ whereas the preceding taxon, S. var-
                                                ence for this species-group taxon that is
ia-nivia, was incorrectly listed as being
                                                consistent with Maynard’s concept of this
previously described, appearing as ‘‘S. var-
                                                taxon. The other specimen, recatalogued
ia-nivia Mayn.’’ This is almost certainly an
                                                as MCZ 356478, and MCZ 76094 are
error in typesetting. Strophiops nivia May-
                                                among the 499 paralectotypes.
nard, 1913, is a junior homonym of Stro-            Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.8
phia curtissii nivia Maynard, 1894.             mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.1 mm; ap-
   Type Material. The number of speci-          erture height (including lip) 10.5 mm, ap-
mens listed in Maynard (1913b: 186,             erture width (including lip and peristome)
1919b: 47) was substantially higher than        8.3 mm.
the 40 listed in the original description of        Type Locality. In field just west of St.
S. curtissii nivia (Maynard, 1894: 112). It     Paul Quarry, East Nassau [New Provi-
is likely that Maynard added specimens in       dence Island, Bahamas].
subsequent field work. The type localities           Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 144) noted
for both uses of the name are identical ex-     that the taxon was collected in 1897 but
cept for phrasing, and only one series of       was extinct in 1921. Maynard (1924c: 6)
specimens bearing the name nivia was            listed S. rediviva as extinct in 1913 from
present in Maynard’s collection at the time     the burning of vegetation prior to cultiva-
it was acquired from his daughter. The ho-      tion. Maynard (1925, pl. 40, figs. 5, 6) pro-
lotype of Strophia curtissii nivia Maynard,     vided colored illustrations for this taxon.
1894 (MCZ 10279), is here designated as         Gould and Woodruff (1986: 476) regarded
the lectotype of Strophiops nivia Maynard,      this taxon to be ‘‘intermediate’’ between
1913, making Strophiops nivia Maynard,                              ¨
                                                Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844) and C. gub-
1913, both a junior secondary homonym           ernatorium (Crosse, 1869).
and an objective junior synonym of Stro-
phia curtissii nivia Maynard, 1894.             Taxon 74. Strophiops variapurpurea May-
   Remarks. Clench (1957: 155) listed S.          nard, 1913c [February 9]: 188 [not
416       Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   illustrated in original publication]. Ex-                    Taxon 75. Strophiops purpurea Maynard,
   amined 59 specimens. No measure-                               1913c [February 9]: 188–189; May-
   ments included in description.                                 nard, 1921b: 150 [not illustrated in orig-
                                                                  inal publication]. Examined 50 speci-
   Type Material. The original description                        mens. Size given as 1.05 by .40 [inches;
did not distinguish among the 59 speci-                           26.7 by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
mens examined, and there was no mention                           was not used.
of type material in the other parts of this
publication. Thus, all 59 specimens are                            Type Material. The original description
syntypes. No specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’                      did not distinguish among the 50 speci-
could be found at the MCZ. Lot MCZ                              mens examined, and there was no mention
76286 contained 15 specimens labeled                            of type material in the other parts of this
‘‘paratypes.’’ One of these specimens, a                        publication. Thus, all 50 specimens are
well-preserved undamaged adult, was se-                         syntypes. Lot MCZ 76108 contains a single
lected as the lectotype to provide an ob-                       specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype.’’ This lot also
jective standard of reference for this spe-                     contains a label in Maynard’s hand with
cies-group taxon that is consistent with                        the term ‘‘type’’ that includes references to
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-                       illustrations (pl. 46, figs. 2, 3) that were
maining 58 specimens, including the 14                          never published. This specimen is here
specimens recatalogued as MCZ 356676,                           designated as the lectotype to provide an
become paralectotypes.                                          objective standard of reference for this
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.4                          species-group taxon that is consistent with
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-                       Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The re-
erture height (including lip) 8.9 mm, ap-                       maining 49 syntypes become paralecto-
erture width (including lip and peristome)                      types. Lot MCZ 76107 contains 92 speci-
7.5 mm.                                                         mens, indicating that at least 43 were col-
   Type Locality. From the termination of                       lected after the taxon was described.
Bay Street east to the Creek Settlement                            Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.1
[Nassau, New Providence Island, Baha-                           mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.3 mm; ap-
mas].                                                           erture height (including lip) 10.1 mm, ap-
   Remarks. Following Article 32.5.2.4                          erture width (including lip and peristome)
(ICZN, 1999: 40), the hyphen is removed                         8.4 mm.
from varia-purpurea and the taxon be-                              Type Locality. Creek Settlement, east
comes variapurpurea. Gould and Wood-                            about 1 mile along the shore [Nassau, New
ruff (1986: 478) regarded this taxon to be                      Providence Island, Bahamas].
a synonym of Cerion gubernatorium                                  Remarks. Maynard (1919a: 24) mis-
(Crosse, 1869).                                                 spelled the name as S. purpura. Maynard


                                                                                                                          →

Figures 74–86. Taxon 74. Strophiops variapurpurea Maynard, 1913. Lectotype 76286. Found from the termination of Bay Street
east to the Creek Settlement, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 75. Strophiops purpurea Maynard, 1913.
Lectotype MCZ 76108. Creek Settlement, east about 1 mile along the shore, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon
76. Strophiops macularia Maynard, 1913. Lectotype 76127. South shore New Providence Island, Bahamas, from west side of
first sound west 2 miles to a salina and northward along an old disused road running from the beach to Fox Hill, 1 mile. Taxon
77. Strophiops rufimaculata Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76126. South shore of New Providence Island, Bahamas, from west
side of salina to Sound Point, 2 miles. Taxon 78. Strophiops delicata Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76099. South Key off
Sound Point, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 79. Strophiops ultima Maynard, 1913. Lectotype 76154. Southwest Key,
New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 80. Strophiops avita Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76394. Silver Key just west of
Nassau Bar, New Providence Island, Bahamas, under a bed of limestone a foot thick, embedded in an ancient red soil. Taxon
81. Strophiops vetusta Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 117930. Fossil in the limestone of the three Silver Keys off Nassau Bar
and of the Pimlico Keys off Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 82. Strophiops argentia Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76120. Living
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                       417




on the three Silver Keys, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 83. Strophiops agavaneglecta Maynard, 1913. [Not
illustrated.] The holotype (MCZ 76103) of Strophia neglecta agava Maynard, 1894 [Taxon 41], is designated as the neotype of
Strophiops agavaneglecta Maynard, 1913, making Strophiops agavaneglecta Maynard, 1913, an objective junior synonym of
Strophia neglecta agava Maynard, 1894. Taxon 84. Strophiops oberholseri Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76124. Southwest
Bay, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 85. Strophiops inconsueta Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76123. Southern
portion of Great Pimlico Island, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 86. Strophiops transitoria Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 117848.
Northern portion of Great Pimlico Island, Eleuthera, Bahamas.
418    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



(1921b: 150) reported 705 mostly dead            ed slightly smaller measurements (1.10 by
specimens collected from the back of a           .45 [inches; 27.9 by 11.4 mm]) and re-
sandy beach, just southwest of East Point        ported a larger number (2,041) of speci-
Light on New Providence Island and cited         mens, presumably from subsequent collec-
illustrations (pl. 46, figs. 2, 3) that were      tions. The illustrations cited (pl. 46, figs. 5,
never issued. Maynard (1924?) listed this        6) were never issued. Gould and Woodruff
taxon as S. purpurea in the catalog, but in      (1986: 478) regarded this taxon to be a
the supplement to the catalog (1924c: 6)         synonym of Cerion gubernatorium
reported S. ‘‘purpura’’ as extinct in 1924       (Crosse, 1869).
from the burning of vegetation prior to
cultivation. Gould and Woodruff (1986:           Taxon 77. Strophiops rufimaculata May-
478) regarded this taxon to be a synonym           nard, 1913c [February 9]: 189–190;
of Cerion gubernatorium (Crosse, 1869).            Maynard, 1921b: 150 [not illustrated in
                                                   original publication]. Examined 325
Taxon 76. Strophiops macularia Maynard,            specimens. Size given as 1.25 by .50
  1913c [February 9]: 189; Maynard,                [inches; 32.8 by 12.7 mm], but the term
  1921b: 150 [not illustrated in original          ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  publication]. Examined 325 specimens.
  Size given as 1.18 by .45 [inches; 30.0           Type Material. The original description
  by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was         did not distinguish among the 325 speci-
  not used.                                      mens examined, and there was no mention
                                                 of type material in the other parts of this
   Type Material. The original description       publication. Thus, all 325 specimens are
did not distinguish among the 325 speci-         syntypes. No specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’
mens examined, and there was no mention          could be found at the MCZ. Lot MCZ
of type material in the other parts of this      76126 contained 136 specimens labeled
publication. Thus, all 325 specimens are         ‘‘Paratypes.’’ Because this taxon was never
syntypes. Lot MCZ 76127 contains a single        illustrated, one of the syntypes that most
specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’ This lot also     closely approximates the published dimen-
contains a label in Maynard’s hand with          sions was selected as the lectotype to pro-
the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references     vide an objective standard of reference for
to illustrations (pl. 46, figs. 4, 5) that were   this species-group taxon that is consistent
never published. This specimen is here           with Maynard’s original concept of it. The
designated as the lectotype to provide an        remaining 135 specimens were recata-
objective standard of reference for this         logued as MCZ 356474 and are among the
species-group taxon that is consistent with      remaining 324 syntypes that become par-
Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The re-         alectotypes.
maining 324 syntypes, including MCZ                 Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.2
76128, become paralectotypes.                    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.6 mm; ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.4           erture height (including lip) 12.6 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.0 mm; ap-        erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 10.5 mm, ap-       11.1 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)          Type Locality. South shore of New
8.4 mm.                                          Providence [Island, Bahamas] from west
   Type Locality. South shore New Provi-         side of salina to Sound Point, 2 miles.
dence [Island, Bahamas] from west side of           Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 150) cited il-
first sound west 2 miles to a salina and          lustrations (pl. 46, figs. 7, 8) that were nev-
northward along an old disused road run-         er issued. Gould and Woodruff (1986: 478)
ning from the beach to Fox Hill, 1 mile.         regarded this taxon to be a synonym of
   Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 150) provid-         Cerion gubernatorium (Crosse, 1869).
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                419



Taxon 78. Strophiops delicata Maynard,               Type Material. The original description
  1913c [February 9]: 190; Maynard,              did not specify the number of specimens
  1921b: 151 [not illustrated in original        examined, which are all syntypes. Lot
  publication]. Examined 107 specimens.          MCZ 76154 was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and
  Size given as 1.10 by .35 [inches; 27.9        contains a single specimen accompanied
  by 8.9 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not      by a note in Maynard’s handwriting iden-
  used.                                          tifying the taxon and containing the term
                                                 ‘‘type’’ as well as the notation ‘‘Plate 45
   Type Material. The original description       figs. 1–2.’’ The illustrations were never
did not distinguish among the 107 speci-         published, nor were illustrations men-
mens examined, and there was no mention          tioned in the subsequent treatment of the
of type material in the other parts of this      taxon (Maynard, 1921b: 151). This speci-
publication. Thus, all 107 specimens are         men (MCZ 76154) approximates the pub-
syntypes. Lot MCZ 76099 was labeled              lished measurements and is here designat-
‘‘holotype’’ but contains two specimens ac-      ed as the lectotype to provide an objective
companied by a note in Maynard’s hand-           standard of reference for this species-
writing identifying the taxon and contain-       group taxon that is consistent with May-
ing the term ‘‘types (2),’’ as well as the no-   nard’s original concept of it. It is not clear
tation ‘‘Plate 46 figs. 9–10.’’ Both speci-       how many of the subsequently mentioned
mens      are     nearly      identical     in   200 specimens were available to Maynard
measurements. One specimen (MCZ                  at the time he described this taxon. Lot
76099) is here selected as the lectotype to      MCZ 76153 contains 523 specimens, most
provide an objective standard of reference       of which could not have been part of the
for this species-group taxon that is consis-     type series.
tent with Maynard’s original concept of it.          Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.1
The other specimen was recatalogued as           mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.2 mm; ap-
MCZ 356477 and is among the remaining            erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-
106 syntypes, including MCZ 76100,               erture width (including lip and peristome)
which become paralectotypes.                     8.1 mm.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.6               Type Locality. No locality was men-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; ap-         tioned in the original publication. Maynard
erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-       (1921b: 151) reported the locality as
erture width (including lip and peristome)       Southwest Key, New Providence Island,
8.5 mm.                                          Bahamas. This is also the data accompa-
   Type Locality. South Key off Sound            nying the lectotype.
Point [New Providence Island, Bahamas].              Remarks. Maynard commented that this
   Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 150) cited il-       is ‘‘another fine example of recession with
lustrations (pl. 46, figs. 9, 10) that were       four species intervening between it and
never issued. Gould and Woodruff (1986:          the species it mimics, two of them white!’’
478) regarded this taxon to be a synonym         Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474) had ex-
of Cerion gubernatorium (Crosse, 1869).          amined ‘‘paratypes’’ and synonymized this
                                                                              ¨
                                                 taxon with Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).
Taxon 79. Strophiops ultima Maynard,
  1913c [February 9]: 190; Maynard,              Taxon 80. Strophiops avita Maynard,
  1921b: 151 [not illustrated]. Number of          1913c [February 9]: 190 [not illus-
  specimens examined not specified                  trated in original publication]; Maynard,
  [Maynard, 1921b: 151, mentioned 200              1914a: front cover; Maynard, 1914b:
  specimens]. Size given as .95 by .40             front cover; Maynard, 1921a: 138; May-
  [inches; 24.1 by 10.2 mm], but the term          nard, 1921b, pl. 35, figs. 1, 2. Examined
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                           50 specimens. Size given as 1.10 by .45
420    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



  [inches; 27.9 by 11.4 mm], but the term          trated in original publication]; Maynard,
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                           1921a: 138; Maynard, 1921b, pl. 35, figs.
                                                   3, 4. Examined 200 specimens. Size giv-
   Type Material. The original description         en as 1.25 by .50 [inches; 31.8 by 12.7
did not distinguish among the 50 speci-            mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
mens examined, and there was no mention
of type material in the other parts of this         Type Material. The original description
publication. Thus, all 50 specimens are          did not distinguish among the 200 speci-
syntypes. Lot MCZ 76394 was labeled              mens examined, and there was no mention
‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single specimen      of type material in the other parts of this
accompanied by a note in Maynard’s hand-         publication. Thus, all 200 specimens are
writing identifying the taxon and contain-       syntypes. Lot MCZ 117930 was labeled
ing the term ‘‘type.’’ It is within 7% of the    ‘‘co-type’’ and contains a single specimen
measurements included in the original de-        accompanied by a note in Maynard’s hand-
scription and approximates the subsequent        writing dated ‘‘10/9/14,’’ identifying the
illustration of this species on the front cov-   taxon and containing the term ‘‘co-type.’’
ers of Maynard (1914a,b), more so than           This specimen is significantly (14%) short-
the later illustration (Maynard, 1921b, pl.      er than the measurements included in the
35, figs. 1, 2), which has a more conical         original description but approximates the
spire. This specimen (MCZ 76394) is here         subsequent illustration of this species
designated as the lectotype to provide an        (Maynard, 1921b, pl. 35, figs. 3, 4). This
objective standard of reference for this         specimen (MCZ 117930) is here designat-
species-group taxon that is consistent with      ed as the lectotype to provide an objective
Maynard’s original concept of it. The orig-      standard of reference for this species-
inal description states that 50 specimens        group taxon that is consistent with May-
were examined; thus, the remaining 49, in-       nard’s original concept of it. The remain-
cluding MCZ 76141, become paralectoty-           ing 199 syntypes, including MCZ 76129,
pes. However, Maynard, 1921a (p. 138),           become paralectotypes. Maynard (1921a:
lists 55 specimens, some possibly subse-         138) listed 265 specimens, some possibly
quently collected.                               subsequently collected.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.6              Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.8
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 12.2 mm, ap-       erture height (including lip) 11.2 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)       erture width (including lip and peristome)
10.1 mm.                                         9.6 mm.
   Type Locality. Silver Key just west of           Type Locality. Fossil in the limestone of
Nassau Bar [New Providence Island, Ba-           the three Silver Keys off Nassau Bar [New
hamas]. Found under a bed of limestone           Providence Island], and of the Pimlico
a foot thick embedded in an ancient red          Keys off Eleuthera [Bahamas]. The label
soil.                                            accompanying the lectotype states Silver
   Remarks. Maynard (1913c: 190) opined          Key, thus restricting the type locality.
that this was ‘‘undoubtedly the oldest fossil       Remarks. Clench (1952: 110) listed this
Strophia yet found in the Bahamas.’’             taxon as a junior synonym of Cerion in-
Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474) synony-           consuetum (Maynard, 1913). Gould and
mized this taxon with Cerion agassizii           Woodruff (1986: 482) listed this taxon as a
Dall, 1894, but noted that the ‘‘Holotype’’                                ¨
                                                 synonym of C. glans (Kuster, 1844).
                          ¨
resembled C. glans (Kuster, 1844).
                                                 Taxon 82. Strophiops argentia Maynard,
Taxon 81. Strophiops vetusta Maynard,              1913c [February 9]: 191 [not illus-
  1913c [February 9]: 191 [not illus-              trated in original publication]. S. ar-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.            421



  gntea Maynard, 1921a: 138; Maynard,          Taxon 83. Strophiops agavaneglecta May-
  1921b: 139, pl. 35, figs. 5, 6 [S. argentea     nard, 1913c [February 9]: 192 [not
  in plate caption]. Examined 400 speci-         illustrated]. Examined 150 specimens.
  mens. Size given as 1.20 by .45 [inches;       No measurements provided.
  30.5 by 11.43 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
  was not used.                                   Type Material. The original description
                                               did not distinguish among the 150 speci-
   Type Material. The original description     mens examined, and there was no mention
did not distinguish among the 400 speci-       of type material in the other parts of this
mens examined, and there was no mention        publication. Thus, all 150 specimens are
of type material in the other parts of this    syntypes. This taxon was not represented
publication. Thus, there is no holotype for    in the collections of MCZ, nor was it pre-
this taxon, and the species is based on 400    sent in Maynard’s collection at the time it
syntypes. Lot MCZ 76120 was labeled            was acquired from his daughter, as re-
‘‘Holotype’’ and contained a single speci-     vealed by an examination of the MCZ cat-
men accompanied by a note in Maynard’s         alog. This taxon was not among the ma-
handwriting that identified the taxon and       terial purchased for the USNM collections
contained a reference to subsequently          either during Maynard’s lifetime or from
published illustrations (Maynard, 1921b,       his estate. Searches of the collections and/
                                               or databases of The Academy of Natural
pl. 35, figs. 5, 6) but did not include any
                                               Sciences of Philadelphia, The Field Mu-
form of the word ‘‘type.’’ This specimen is
                                               seum of Natural History, The Florida Mu-
here designated as the lectotype to provide
                                               seum of Natural History, and The Muse-
an objective standard of reference for this
                                               um of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State
species-group taxon that is consistent with    University, failed to uncover a single spec-
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-      imen catalogued under this name. This
maining 399 syntypes (including MCZ            taxon was never illustrated, nor did it ap-
76121, MCZ 118064, and USNM 419999)            pear in any of Maynard’s subsequent pub-
become paralectotypes.                         lications or catalogs. The description is
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.1         limited to the statement ‘‘Intermediate be-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-      tween agava and neglecta.’’ [Strophia aga-
erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-     va was originally proposed as a subspecies
erture width (including lip and peristome)     of S. neglecta.] No specimens bearing the
9.5 mm.                                        name Strophiops agavaneglecta could be
   Type Locality. Living on the three Silver   located in museums, nor could this taxon
Keys [New Providence Island, Bahamas].         be identified on the basis of its limited de-
   Remarks. Maynard (1913c: 150) noted         scription. The holotype of Strophia neglec-
‘‘Silver Key, the most western of the group,   ta agava Maynard, 1894 (MCZ 76103), is
is remarkable as having been the home of       here designated as the neotype of Stro-
three, quite closely allied and evidently      phiops agavaneglecta Maynard, 1913, to
successive species of Strophias, represen-     provide an objective standard of reference
tatives of the three distinct geological pe-   for this species-group taxon. Strophiops
riods.’’ This taxon name was misspelled as     agavaneglecta Maynard, 1913, becomes an
S. argntea in Maynard, 1921a (p. 138), and     objective junior synonym of Strophia neg-
as S. argentea in captions (Maynard,           lecta agava Maynard, 1894.
1919c, fig. 26, 1921b, pl. 35, figs. 5, 6) and      Type Locality. Maynard (1913c: 192)
the sales catalog (Maynard, 1924?: [4]).       defined the type locality of S. agavane-
Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474) listed          glecta to be the eastern portion of the
this taxon as a synonym of Cerion glans        range of S. agava [fields west of Nassau,
    ¨
(Kuster, 1844).                                New Providence Island, Bahamas]. With
422    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



the neotype designation, the type locality     2) noted that this taxon was the same size
of S. agava becomes the type locality of S.    as S. coryi (i.e., 1.00 by .40 [inches; 25.4
agavaneglecta (Article 76.3, ICZN, 1999:       by 10.2 mm]) and provided colored illus-
87).                                           trations. Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474)
   Remarks. Following Article 32.5.2.4         synonymized this taxon with Cerion glans
(ICZN, 1999: 40), the hyphen is removed           ¨
                                               (Kuster, 1844).
from agava-neglecta and the taxon be-
comes agavaneglecta. Gould and Woodruff        Taxon 85. Strophiops inconsueta May-
(1986: 474) synonymized this taxon with          nard, 1913c [February 9]: 193–194
Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).
                ¨                                [not illustrated in original publication];
                                                 Maynard, 1920a, pl. 11, fig. 1; Maynard,
Taxon 84. Strophiops oberholseri May-            1921b: 142; Maynard, 1924a, pl. 39, figs.
  nard, 1913c [February 9]: 193 [not             1, 2. Examined 675 specimens. Size giv-
  illustrated in original publication]; May-     en as 1.27 by .50 [inches; 32.3 by 12.7
  nard, 1920c, fig. 86; Maynard, 1921b:           mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  140, pl. 37, figs. 1, 2. Examined 220
  specimens. No measurements provided             Type Material. The original description
  in original description.                     did not distinguish among the 675 speci-
                                               mens examined, and there was no mention
   Type Material. The original description     of type material in the other parts of this
did not distinguish among the 220 speci-       publication. Thus, all 675 specimens are
mens examined, and there was no mention        syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76123 con-
of type material in the other parts of this    tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’
publication. Thus, all 220 specimens are       and a label in Maynard’s hand with the
syntypes. Lot MCZ 76124 contains a single      term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references to
specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’ This lot also   subsequently published figures (Maynard,
contains a label in Maynard’s hand with        1924a, pl. 39, figs. 1, 2). This specimen,
the term ‘‘Type’’ that includes references     which approximates the measurements in
to subsequently published illustrations        the original description and the subse-
(Maynard, 1921b, pl. 37, figs. 1, 2), which     quently published illustrations, is here des-
the specimen approximates. This specimen       ignated as the lectotype to provide an ob-
is here designated as the lectotype to pro-    jective standard of reference for this spe-
vide an objective standard of reference for    cies-group taxon that is consistent with
this species-group taxon that is consistent    Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The re-
with Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The      maining 674 syntypes, including MCZ
remaining 219 syntypes, including MCZ          76122, MCZ 177994 (one specimen), and
76125 and MCZ 117655, become paralec-          USNM 420051 (75 specimens), become
totypes.                                       paralectotypes.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.4            Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.9
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.6 mm; ap-      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.7 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-      erture height (including lip) 11.6 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     erture width (including lip and peristome)
8.6 mm.                                        11.0 mm.
   Type Locality. Southwest Bay, New              Type Locality. Southern portion of
Providence [Island, Bahamas], near the         Great Pimlico [Island, Eleuthera, Baha-
landing.                                       mas].
   Remarks. This taxon was first illustrated       Remarks. Clench (1952: 110) consid-
(Maynard, 1920c, fig. 86) as an example of      ered this taxon to be a valid species and
Maynard’s ‘‘Law of Specific Reincarna-          the senior synonym of S. vetusta Maynard,
tion.’’ Maynard (1921b: 140, pl. 37, figs. 1,   1913 (see Taxon 81).
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                423



Taxon 86. Strophiops transitoria May-            Taxon 87. Strophiops uniformis Maynard,
  nard, 1913c [February 9]: 194; May-              1913c [February 9]: 194 [not illus-
  nard, 1921b: 141, pl. 37, figs. 9, 10 [not        trated in original publication]; Maynard,
  illustrated in original publication]. Ex-        1921b: 141; Maynard, 1924a, pl. 38, figs.
  amined 250 specimens. Size given as .90          1, 2. Examined 760 specimens. Size giv-
  by .35 [inches; 22.9 by 8.9 mm], but the         en as 1.15 by .45 [inches; 29.2 by 11.4
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                      mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
   Type Material. The original description          Type Material. The original description
did not distinguish among the 250 speci-         did not distinguish among the 760 speci-
mens examined, and there was no mention          mens examined, and there was no mention
of type material in the other parts of this      of type material in the other parts of this
publication. Thus, all 250 specimens are         publication. Thus, all 760 specimens are
syntypes. Lot MCZ 117848 contains a sin-         syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76117 con-
gle specimen labeled ‘‘syntype,’’ whereas        tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’
MCZ 76119 contained 116 specimens la-            that approximates the measurements in
beled ‘‘paratype.’’ All are syntypes, and        the original description and the subse-
most appear to be dead collected. Of             quent illustration in Maynard (1924a, pl.
these, the sequestered specimen (MCZ             38, figs. 1, 2). This lot also contains a label
117848), which roughly approximates the          in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘Type’’
measurements and subsequent illustration,        that includes references to these figures.
is here designated as the lectotype to pro-      This specimen is here designated as the
vide an objective standard of reference for      lectotype to provide an objective standard
this species-group taxon that is consistent      of reference for this species-group taxon
with Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The        that is consistent with Maynard’s concept
remaining 249 syntypes, including the 116        of this taxon. The remaining 759 syntypes,
specimens in MCZ 76119, become para-             including MCZ 76118, MCZ 117851, and
lectotypes.                                      USNM 420052 (30 specimens), become
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.2           paralectotypes.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.6 mm; ap-            Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.5
erture height (including lip) 9.1 mm, ap-        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.1 mm; ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)       erture height (including lip) 10.9 mm, ap-
7.8 mm.                                          erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Type Locality. Northern portion of            9.9 mm.
Great Pimlico [Island, Eleuthera, Baha-             Type Locality. Little Pimlico [Island,
mas], ranging almost into the area occu-         Eleuthera, Bahamas].
pied by the foregoing species [S. incon-            Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 141, 1924a,
sueta].                                          pl. 38, figs. 1, 2) subsequently added de-
   Remarks. Maynard considered this tax-         scriptive notes and illustrated this taxon.
on to be ‘‘In the last stage of its specific      Clench (1952: 110) listed this as a valid
life’’ with ‘‘only 15 of 250 specimens living,   species but did not mention type speci-
10 of these young. Both species [S. incon-       mens.
sueta and S. transitoria] living upon the
                                                 Taxon 88. Strophiops hyattii Maynard,
same food and under the same environ-
                                                   1913c [February 9]: 194–195 [not il-
ment.’’ Maynard (1921b: 141, pl. 37, figs.          lustrated in original publication]; May-
9, 10) subsequently added descriptive              nard, 1921b: 142; Maynard, 1926, pl. 42,
notes and illustrated this taxon. Clench           figs. 1, 2. Examined 600 specimens.
(1952: 110) listed this taxon as a synonym         Measurements not provided.
of Cerion uniforme (Maynard, 1913) (see
below).                                            Type Material. The original description
424       Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



did not distinguish among the 600 speci-                      did not distinguish among the 50 speci-
mens examined, and there was no mention                       mens examined, and there was no mention
of type material in the other parts of this                   of type material in the other parts of this
publication. Thus, all 600 specimens are                      publication. Thus, all 50 specimens are
syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76133 con-                           syntypes. This taxon was not represented
tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’                 in the collections of the MCZ, nor was it
No measurements were provided in the                          present in Maynard’s collection at the time
original description, but this specimen ap-                   it was acquired from his daughter, as re-
proximates the measurements (1.10 by .45                      vealed by an examination of the MCZ cat-
[inches; 27.9 by 14.0 mm]) and illustration                   alog. Three syntypes of this taxon, which
in Maynard (1921b: 142, 1926, pl. 42, figs.                    Bartsch purchased from Maynard in 1923,
1, 2) [as S. hyatiii]. This lot also contains                 were located in the USNM collection. Of
a label in Maynard’s hand with the term                       these, the best preserved specimen
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to these                  (USNM 359439) is selected as the lecto-
figures. This specimen is here designated                      type. The 49 syntypes, including the two
as the lectotype to provide an objective                      specimens in USNM 359438, become par-
standard of reference for this species-                       alectotypes.
group taxon that is consistent with May-                         Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.7
nard’s concept of this taxon. The remain-                     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.6 mm; ap-
ing 599 syntypes, including MCZ 76134,                        erture height (including lip) 13.5 mm, ap-
MCZ 118036 (one specimen), and USNM                           erture width (including lip and peristome)
419973 (75 specimens), become paralec-                        11.1 mm.
totypes.                                                         Type Locality. Fossil on Great Pimlico
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.3                       [Island, Eleuthera, Bahamas].
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.0 mm; ap-                        Remarks. Following Article 32.5.2.4
erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-                     (ICZN, 1999: 40), the hyphen is removed
erture width (including lip and peristome)                    from vetusta-praedevina and the taxon be-
9.3 mm.                                                       comes vetustapraedevina. Also reported
    Type Locality. Bar Bay Settlement, Cur-                   from Upper Fleming and the Silver Keys.
rent Island [Eleuthera, Bahamas].                             Clench (1952: 110, 1957: 167) listed this
    Remarks. Clench (1952: 109) listed this                   taxon as a synonym of Cerion inconsuetum
taxon as a valid species.                                     (Maynard, 1913).
Taxon 89. Strophiops vetustapraedevina                        Taxon 90. Strophiops praedivina May-
  Maynard, 1913c [February 9]: 195                              nard, 1913c [February 9]: 196 [not
  [not illustrated]. Examined 50 speci-
                                                                illustrated in original publication]; May-
  mens. Size given as 1.15 by .48 [inches;
                                                                nard, 1921b: 141, pl. 37, figs. 5, 6. Ex-
  29.2 by 12.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
                                                                amined 100 specimens. Size given as
  was not used.
                                                                1.05 by .45 [inches; 26.7 by 11.4 mm],
   Type Material. The original description                      but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.

                                                                                                                       →

Figures 87–99. Taxon 87. Strophiops uniformis Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76117. Little Pimlico Island, Eleuthera, Baha-
mas. Taxon 88. Strophiops hyattii Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76133. Bar Bay Settlement, Current Island, Eleuthera, Ba-
hamas. Taxon 89. Strophiops vetustapraedevina Maynard, 1913. Lectotype USNM 359439. Fossil on Great Pimlico Island,
Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 90. Strophiops praedivina Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76346. Upper Fleming Key, 20 miles NE
of New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 91. Strophiops praedivinauniversa Maynard, 1913. [Not illustrated.] The lectotype
(MCZ 76287) of Strophiops universa Maynard, 1913 [Taxon 92], is designated as the neotype of Strophiops praedivinauniversa
Maynard, 1913, making Strophiops praedivinauniversa Maynard, 1913, an objective junior synonym of Strophia universa May-
nard, 1913. Taxon 92. Strophiops universa Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76287. Fossil on Green Key, Rose Island, New
Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 93. Strophiops exigua Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76357. Southern portion of Fleming
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                      425




Key, 20 miles NE of New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 94. Strophiops multa Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76354.
Northern portion of Fleming Key, 20 miles NE of New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 95. Strophiops obliterata Maynard,
1913. Lectotype MCZ 76334. Booby Rock, 16 miles NE of New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 96. Strophiops ornatula
Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76343. Current Settlement, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 97. Strophiops ornatulaclappii Maynard,
1913. Lectotype MCZ 117738. North of the Current Settlement, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 98. Strophiops clappii Maynard,
1913. Lectotype MCZ 76344. Salina, north of the Current Settlement, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 99. Strophiops ornatularufina
Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 118095. South of the Current Settlement, Eleuthera, Bahamas.
426    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   Type Material. The original description      in the collections of the MCZ, nor was it
did not distinguish among the 100 speci-        present in Maynard’s collection at the time
mens examined, and there was no mention         it was acquired from his daughter, as re-
of type material in the other parts of this     vealed by an examination of the MCZ cat-
publication. Thus, all 100 specimens are        alog. This taxon was not among the ma-
syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76346 con-             terial purchased for the USNM collections
tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘holotype.’’   either during Maynard’s lifetime or from
This lot also contains a label in Maynard’s     his estate. Searches of the collections and/
handwriting with the name of the taxon          or databases of The Academy of Natural
and the term ‘‘type.’’ This specimen is here    Sciences of Philadelphia, The Field Mu-
designated as the lectotype to provide an       seum of Natural History, The Florida Mu-
objective standard of reference for this        seum of Natural History, and The Muse-
species-group taxon that is consistent with     um of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State
Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The re-        University, failed to uncover a single spec-
maining 99 syntypes, including MCZ              imen catalogued under this name. This
76347 (62 specimens), become paralecto-         taxon was never illustrated, nor did it ap-
types.                                          pear in any of Maynard’s subsequent pub-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.7          lications or catalogs. The description is
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-       limited to the statement ‘‘Intermediate be-
erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-      tween pdrœivina [sic] and universa, but
erture width (including lip and peristome)      inclined to be more like the latter.’’ No
8.9 mm.                                         specimens bearing the name Strophiops
   Type Locality. Upper Fleming [Key, 20        praedivinauniversa could be located in
miles NE of New Providence Island, Ba-          museums, nor could this taxon be identi-
hamas].                                         fied on the basis of its limited description.
   Remarks. A fossil taxon also reported        The lectotype of Strophiops universa May-
from Lower Fleming and Great Pimlico.           nard, 1913 (MCZ 76287), is here desig-
Maynard (1921b: 141, pl. 37, figs. 5, 6)         nated as the neotype of Strophiops prae-
subsequently provided illustrations and a       divinauniversa Maynard, 1913, making
different measurement (1.08 by .55 [inch-       Strophiops praedivinauniversa Maynard,
es; 27.4 by 14.0 mm]) and reported only         1913, an objective synonym of Strophia
55 specimens. The taxon is spelled prae-        universa Maynard, 1913.
divina in the original description and sub-        Type Locality. Maynard (1913c: 194)
sequent plate caption, but as predivina in      noted that S. praedivinauniversa occurred
Maynard (1921b: 141) and in the sales cat-      on Upper Fleming [Key, 20 miles NE of
alog (Maynard, 1924?: [6]). Clench (1952:       New Providence Island, Bahamas], both
109) listed this taxon as a synonym of Cer-     living and fossil. Although S. universa was
ion exiguum (Maynard, 1913).                    reported from Upper Fleming, Great Pim-
Taxon 91. Strophiops praedivinauniversa         lico, and the northern end of Rose Island,
  Maynard, 1913c [February 9]: 196              the type locality of S. universa, and there-
  [not illustrated]. Examined 25 speci-         fore of S. praedivinauniversa, is Green
  mens. Measurements not provided.              Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas,
                                                per Article 76.3 (ICZN, 1999: 87).
  Type Material. The original description          Remarks. Following Article 32.5.2.4
did not distinguish among the 25 speci-         (ICZN, 1999: 40), the hyphen is removed
mens examined, and there was no mention         from praedivina-universa and the taxon
of type material in the other parts of this     becomes praedivinauniversa. Clench
publication. Thus, all 25 specimens are         (1952: 109) listed this taxon as a synonym
syntypes. This taxon was not represented        of Cerion exiguum (Maynard, 1913).
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              427



Taxon 92. Strophiops universa Maynard,         ditional specimens or whether the number
  1913c [February 9]: 196 [not illus-          is a typographical error. Clench (1952:
  trated in original publication]; Maynard,    110) listed this taxon as a synonym of Cer-
  1921b: 140, pl. 37, figs. 3, 4. Examined      ion uniforme (Maynard, 1913).
  30 specimens. Size given as .55 by .32
  [inches; 14.0 by 8.1 mm], but the term       Taxon 93. Strophiops exigua Maynard,
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                         1913c [February 9]: 196 [not illus-
                                                 trated in original publication]; Maynard,
   Type Material. The original description       1921b: 141; Maynard, 1924a, pl. 38, figs.
did not distinguish among the 30 speci-          3, 4. Examined 1,000 specimens. Size
mens examined, and there was no mention          given as 1.30 by 50 [sic .50] [inches; 33.0
of type material in the other parts of this      by 12.7 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was
publication. Thus, all 30 specimens are          not used.
syntypes.
   MCZ 76287, labeled ‘‘Paratype,’’ con-          Type Material. The original description
tained 26 specimens (many fragmentary),        did not distinguish among the 1,000 spec-
of which one was sequestered, together         imens examined, and there was no men-
with a label in Maynard’s handwriting with     tion of type material in the other parts of
the taxon name and ‘‘Plate 37, figs. 3–4.’’     this publication. Thus, all 1,000 specimens
The sequestered specimen closely approx-       are syntypes. Lot MCZ 76357 contains a
imates the subsequently published illustra-    single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype.’’ This
tion and published width measurement.          specimen approximates the measurements
The published length measurement is ei-        in the original description and the illustra-
ther in error, or incorporates length mea-     tion in Maynard (1921b: 141, 1924a, pl.
surements of fragmentary specimens. The        38, figs. 3, 4). This lot also contains a label
sequestered specimen is here designated        in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
as the lectotype to provide an objective       which includes references to these figures.
standard of reference for this species-        This specimen is here designated as the
group taxon that is consistent with May-       lectotype to provide an objective standard
nard’s concept of this taxon. The remain-      of reference for this species-group taxon
ing 25 specimens, recatalogued as MCZ          that is consistent with Maynard’s concept
356475, are among the 29 syntypes that         of this taxon. The remaining 999 syntypes,
become paralectotypes.                         including MCZ 76356 (171 specimens),
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 18.9         MCZ 117837 (1 specimen), and USNM
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.2 mm; ap-       420011 (250 specimens), become paralec-
erture height (including lip) 8.2 mm, ap-      totypes.
erture width (including lip and peristome)        Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.3
6.3 mm.                                        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
   Type Locality. Fossil on Green Key          erture height (including lip) 10.7 mm, ap-
[New Providence Island, Bahamas].              erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Remarks. Also reported from Upper           9.1 mm.
Fleming, Great Pimlico, and northern end          Type Locality. Southern portion of
of Rose Island. Maynard (1913c: 196) sur-      Fleming Key [20 miles NE of New Prov-
mised that ‘‘The wide range of this little     idence Island, Bahamas].
species suggests that the islands on which        Remarks. This taxon was reported from
it is now found were once connected.’’         living specimens, which were abundant,
Maynard (1921b: 140, pl. 37, figs. 3, 4)        and from fossils in the limestone, which
subsequently provided illustrations of this    were rare. Maynard (1921b: 141, 1924a,
taxon and listed 50 specimens examined.        pl. 38, figs. 3, 4) provided descriptive notes
It is unclear whether he later collected ad-   and illustrations of this taxon. Clench
428    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



(1952: 109) listed this taxon as a valid spe-    Taxon 95. Strophiops obliterata Maynard,
cies.                                              1913c [February 9]: 197 [not illus-
                                                   trated in original publication]. Exam-
Taxon 94. Strophiops multa Maynard,                ined 812 specimens. Size given as 1.15
  1913c [February 9]: 197 [not illus-              by .30 [inches; 29.2 by 7.6 mm], but the
  trated in original publication]; Maynard,        term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  1921b: 141; Maynard, 1924a, pl. 38, figs.
  5, 6. Examined 964 specimens. Size giv-           Type Material. The original description
  en as 1.10 by .40 [inches; 27.9 by 10.2        did not distinguish among the 812 speci-
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.       mens examined, and there was no mention
                                                 of type material in the other parts of this
   Type Material. The original description       publication. Thus, all 812 specimens are
did not distinguish among the 964 speci-         syntypes. There were no specimens of S.
mens examined, and there was no mention          obliterata Maynard, 1913, in the collec-
of type material in the other parts of this      tions of the MCZ, nor were there any en-
publication. Thus, all 964 specimens are         tries corresponding to this taxon in the
syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76354 con-              MCZ catalog either during Maynard’s life
tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holo-          or among the specimens purchased from
type.’’ This specimen approximates the           his estate. Maynard and Clapp (1915: 191)
                                                 recognized that S. obliterata Maynard,
measurements in the original description
                                                 1913, was a homonym of Strophia scripta
(within 5%) and the illustration in May-
                                                 obliterata Maynard, 1896, and proposed
nard (1924a, pl. 38, figs. 5, 6). This lot also
                                                 the replacement name Strophiops sula
contains a label in Maynard’s hand with
                                                 [Taxon 105]. Lot number MCZ 76334 con-
the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references     tains a single specimen labeled as the ‘‘Ho-
to these figures (as pl. 38, figs. 7, 8). This     lotype’’ of S. sula. Because Strophiops ob-
specimen is here designated as the lecto-        literata Maynard, 1913, was based on 812
type to provide an objective standard of         syntypes, this specimen is here designated
reference for this species-group taxon that      as the lectotype of Strophiops obliterata
is consistent with Maynard’s concept of          Maynard, 1913, and consequently [Article
this taxon. The remaining 963 syntypes, in-      72.7, ICZN, 1999: 78] its replacement
cluding MCZ 76355 and MCZ 118069, be-            name, Strophiops sula Maynard and
come paralectotypes.                             Clapp, 1915. Lots MCZ 76335 (170 spec-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.9           imens) and USNM 420096 (125 speci-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.8 mm; ap-        mens) contain numerous specimens la-
erture height (including lip) 10.6 mm, ap-       beled as paralectotypes of S. sula. These
erture width (including lip and peristome)       specimens are paralectotypes of S. obliter-
9.0 mm.                                          ata Maynard, 1913, as well as of its re-
   Type Locality. Northern portion of            placement name S. sula.
Fleming Key [20 miles NE of New Prov-               Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.8
idence Island, Bahamas].                         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.4 mm; ap-
   Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 141, 1924a,          erture height (including lip) 12.3 mm, ap-
pl. 38, figs. 5, 6) provided additional de-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
scriptive notes and illustrations of this tax-   10.1 mm.
on. Clench (1934: 214) initially considered         Type Locality. Booby Rock [16 miles
this to be a valid species, but later (1952:     NE of New Providence Island, Bahamas].
109) listed this taxon as a synonym of Cer-         Remarks. Although the taxon was never
ion exiguum (Maynard, 1913). Gould and           illustrated as S. obliterata Maynard, 1913,
Woodruff (1986: 474) synonymized this            Maynard (1921b: 142, 1924a, pl. 38, figs.
                         ¨
taxon with C. glans (Kuster, 1844).              7, 8) subsequently published additional
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             429



notes and illustrations of S. sula. Gould         Type Locality. Current Settlement
and Woodruff (1986: 474) listed both S.        [Eleuthera, Bahamas].
obliterata Maynard, 1913, and S. sula            Remarks. This taxon was later illustrated
Maynard and Clapp, 1915, as synonyms of        (Maynard, 1919a, pl. 6, fig. 3, 1919b, fig.
                ¨
Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).                   11). Clench (1934: 217) reported that Cer-
                                               ion ornatula ‘‘is an absolute synonym’’ of
Taxon 96. Strophiops ornatula Maynard,         C. laeve (Plate, 1907) on the basis of com-
   1913c [February 9]: 197–198 [not il-        parisons of type material.
   lustrated in original publication]; May-
   nard, 1919a, pl. 6, fig. 4; Maynard,         Taxon 97. Strophiops ornatulaclappii
   1919b, fig. 11. Examined 3,528 speci-           Maynard, 1913c [February 9]: 198
   mens. Size given as 1.15 by .30 [inches;       [not illustrated in original publication];
   29.2 by 7.6 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’         Maynard, 1921b: 153. Examined 50
   was not used.                                  specimens. Measurements not provided.
   Type Material. The original description        Type Material. The original description
did not distinguish among the 3,528 spec-      did not distinguish among the 50 speci-
imens examined, and there was no men-          mens examined, and there was no mention
tion of type material in the other parts of    of type material in the other parts of this
this publication. Thus, all 3,528 specimens    publication. Thus, all 50 specimens are
are syntypes. Clench (1934: 217) men-          syntypes. There were no entries for this
tioned comparing the types of Cerion or-       taxon in the MCZ catalog, indicating that
natula (Maynard) and C. laeve Plate, but       this taxon was not represented in May-
did not specify the sort of type, nor the      nard’s collection at the time of his death.
repository or catalog number of the type       Lot number MCZ 117738 contained nine
lot. Later, Clench (1952: 112) listed MCZ      specimens from the collection of N. A.
76343 as the holotype of C. ornatula. This     Clapp, Maynard’s collaborator and co-au-
lot contains a single specimen labeled         thor. Because neither measurements nor
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the pub-        illustration were published, an adult spec-
lished length but not the width and is sim-    imen is selected to serve the lectotype to
ilar to the subsequently published illustra-   provide an objective standard of reference
tion of this taxon (Maynard, 1919a, pl. 6,     for this species-group taxon that is consis-
fig. 4). This specimen, which is accompa-       tent with Maynard’s original concept of it.
nied by a label in Maynard’s hand that in-     The remaining eight specimens were re-
cludes the term ‘‘type’’ and references to     catalogued as MCZ 356993 and are among
these illustrations, cannot be a holotype,     the 49 syntypes that become paralecto-
nor can Clench’s listing be accepted as a      types.
lectotype designation (Article 74.5, ICZN,        Lectotype Measurements. Length 20.3
1999: 83). This specimen is here designat-     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.3 mm; ap-
ed as the lectotype to provide an objective    erture height (including lip) 7.9 mm, ap-
standard of reference for this species-        erture width (including lip and peristome)
group taxon that is consistent with May-       6.5 mm.
nard’s original, or at least subsequent con-      Type Locality. Living just north of the
cept of it. The remaining 3,527 syntypes,      Current Settlement [Eleuthera, Bahamas].
including MCZ 76342 and USNM 420137               Remarks. Following Article 32.5.2.4
(400 specimens), become paralectotypes.        (ICZN, 1999: 40), the hyphen is removed
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.4         from ornatula-clappii and the taxon be-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.0 mm; ap-       comes ornatulaclappii. Clench (1952: 111)
erture height (including lip) 8.9 mm, ap-      listed this taxon in the synonymy of Cerion
erture width (including lip and peristome)     laeve Plate, 1907, citing it as a nomen nu-
7.1 mm.                                        dum.
430    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



Taxon 98. Strophiops clappii Maynard,            Taxon 99. Strophiops ornatularufina May-
  1913c [February 9]: 198 [not illus-              nard, 1913c [February 9]: 198 [not
  trated in original publication]; Maynard,        illustrated in original publication]. Ex-
  1919a, fig. 10, pl. 6, fig. 5; Maynard,            amined 50 specimens. Measurements
  1921b: 153, pl. 48, fig. 6 [plate never           not provided.
  issued]. Number of specimens exam-
  ined not given, but Maynard (1913c:               Type Material. The original description
  198) stated the fields contained ‘‘abso-        did not distinguish among the 50 speci-
  lutely millions of dead shells of this         mens examined, and there was no mention
  [species].’’ Size given as .50 by .20 [inch-   of type material in the other parts of this
  es; 12.7 by 5.1 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’     publication. Thus, all 50 specimens are
  was not used. Maynard (1921b: 153)             syntypes. There were no entries for this
  listed 2,000 specimens.                        taxon in the MCZ catalog, indicating that
                                                 this taxon was not represented in May-
   Type Material. The original description       nard’s collection at the time of his death.
did not provide the number of specimens          Lot number MCZ 118095 contains a sin-
examined, nor is there mention of type           gle specimen from the collection of N. A.
material in the other parts of this publi-       Clapp, Maynard’s collaborator and co-au-
cation. Thus, there are an unspecified            thor. This specimen, one of the 50 syn-
number of syntypes, but not more than the        types, is here designated as the lectotype
2,000 specimens mentioned by Maynard             to provide an objective standard of refer-
(1921b: 153). Clench (1952: 112) listed          ence for this species-group taxon that is
MCZ 76344 as the ‘‘Holotype.’’ Lot MCZ           consistent with Maynard’s original concept
76344 was labeled ‘‘holotype’’ and accom-        of it. The remaining 49 syntypes become
panied by a note in Maynard’s handwriting        paralectotypes.
identifying the taxon and containing the            Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.5
term ‘‘Type’’ as well as references to both      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.2 mm; ap-
published and unpublished illustrations.         erture height (including lip) 7.5 mm, ap-
This specimen is nearly identical to the         erture width (including lip and peristome)
published illustration and measurements.         6.9 mm.
It is here selected as the lectotype to pro-        Type Locality. South of the Current Set-
vide an objective standard of reference for      tlement [Eleuthera, Bahamas].
this species-group taxon that is consistent         Remarks. Following Article 32.5.2.4
with Maynard’s original concept of it. The       (ICZN, 1999: 40), the hyphen is removed
remaining 1,999 syntypes, including MCZ          from ornatula-rufina and the taxon be-
76345 and MCZ 21128, become paralec-             comes ornatularufina.
totypes.
                                                 Taxon 100. Strophiops rufina Maynard,
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 12.6
                                                   1913c [February 9]: 198 [not illus-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 5.1 mm; ap-
                                                   trated]; Maynard, 1924a: 153, pl. 48,
erture height (including lip) 4.4 mm, ap-
                                                   figs. 9, 10 [plate never published]. Ex-
erture width (including lip and peristome)
                                                   amined 20 specimens. Size given as .75
3.8 mm.
                                                   by .40 [inches; 19.0 by 10.2 mm], but
   Type Locality. Living on a salina north
                                                   the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
of the Current Settlement [Eleuthera, Ba-
hamas].                                            Type Material. The original description
   Remarks. This taxon was illustrated by        did not distinguish among the 20 speci-
Maynard (1919a, fig. 10, pl. 6, fig. 5 [as         mens examined, and there was no mention
clappi]). Clench (1952: 111) listed this tax-    of type material in the other parts of this
on in the synonymy of Cerion laeve Plate,        publication. Thus, all 20 specimens are
1907.                                            syntypes. Lot MCZ 76304 contains a single
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              431



specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that roughly         Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.6
approximates the measurements of this           mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.3 mm; ap-
taxon. It is accompanied by a label in May-     erture height (including lip) 9.3 mm, ap-
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       erture width (including lip and peristome)
includes references to figures that were         8.1 mm.
never published. This specimen is here             Type Locality. West shore of Eleuthera
designated as the lectotype to provide an       [Bahamas] near the Current Settlement,
objective standard of reference for this        living on rocks close by the sea.
species-group taxon that is consistent with        Remarks. Maynard (1913c: 199) noted,
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       ‘‘Some individuals appear to mimic species
maining 19 syntypes, including MCZ              unknown to me. The most remarkable re-
76303, become paralectotypes.                   cessional species that I have thus far found
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.2          as, all things considered, it is the most re-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.5 mm; ap-        mote phylogenetically from the species it
erture height (including lip) 7.9 mm, ap-       mimics.’’ Clench (1952: 109) listed this tax-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      on as a synonym of Cerion hyattii (May-
6.9 mm.                                         nard, 1913).
   Type Locality. Rare south of the Cur-
rent Settlement [Eleuthera, Bahamas].           Taxon 102. Strophiops helena Maynard,
   Remarks. Clench (1952: 109) listed this         1914 [August 18]: 177–179, figs. 8A,
taxon as a synonym of Cerion hyattii (May-         B, C, D. Examined 1,000 specimens.
                                                   Size given as .92 by .43 [inches; 23.4 by
nard, 1913).
                                                   10.9 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not
Taxon 101. Strophiops tabida Maynard,              used in connection with the measure-
  1913c [February 9]: 199 [not illus-              ments. Caption to text fig. 8, ‘‘STRO-
  trated in original publication]; Maynard,        PHIOPS HELENA: A, front. B, side
  1921b: 152 [as tibida], pl. 44, figs. 9, 10       view of type; c, front of aperture of type
  [illustrations never published].                 enlarged     2; D, margin of senescent
                                                   specimen     2.’’
   Type Material. Because the original de-         Type Material. The original description
scription did not mention the number of         identifies a single type specimen, the ho-
specimens examined, this taxon is based         lotype, in the figure captions. Lot MCZ
on an unspecified number of syntypes.            76216 contains a single specimen labeled
Maynard (1921b: 152) subsequently re-           ‘‘Holotype.’’ This specimen is accompa-
ported 100 specimens examined and gave          nied by a label in Maynard’s hand contain-
the size as 1.00 by .40 [inches; 25.4 by 10.2   ing the term ‘‘Type’’ and also giving the
mm]. Lot MCZ 76024 contains a single            correct species number and plate number
specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that closely      but incorrect volume and page for this tax-
approximates the subsequently published         on in Maynard (1921b: 131, pl. 7, figs. 5–
measurements for this taxon. This lot also      8). Specimen MCZ 76216 is the originally
contains a label in Maynard’s hand with         designated holotype of Strophiops helena
the term ‘‘Type’’ that includes references      Maynard, 1914. The remaining 999 spec-
to illustrations that were never published.     imens, including MCZ 76203 (231 speci-
This specimen is here designated as the         mens) and USNM 419990 (100 speci-
lectotype to provide an objective standard      mens), are paratypes.
of reference for this species-group taxon          Holotype Measurements. Length 22.6
that is consistent with Maynard’s concept       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-
of this taxon. The remaining syntypes           erture height (including lip) 8.4 mm, ap-
( 99), including MCZ 76025, become              erture width (including lip and peristome)
paralectotypes.                                 7.8 mm.
432       Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



  Type Locality. Fields directly south of                       erture width (including lip and peristome)
Fresh Creek, Andros [Bahamas].                                  8.5 mm.
  Remarks. Maynard (1919b, pl. 7, figs. 5–                          Type Locality. Occurs as a fossil in the
8) re-illustrated this taxon.                                   rock on the south shore of Hog Island [
                                                                Paradise Island, Nassau, New Providence
Taxon 103. Strophiops thompsoni May-                            Island, Bahamas].
  nard and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]:                               Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 139, pl. 35,
  179 bis [not illustrated in original pub-                     figs. 9, 10) provided additional descriptive
  lication]; Maynard, 1921b: 139, pl. 35,                       information and illustrations, noting 370
  figs. 9, 10. Examined 20 specimens. Size                       specimens in his collection. Gould and
  given as 1.05 by .45 [inches; 26.7 by 11.4                    Woodruff (1986: 482) provisionally attri-
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                                                            ¨
                                                                buted this taxon to Cerion glans (Kuster,
   Type Material. The original description                      1844).
did not distinguish among the 20 speci-
                                                                Taxon 104. Strophiops morula Maynard
mens examined, and there was no mention
                                                                  and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 179
of type material in the other parts of this
                                                                  bis-180 bis [not illustrated in original
publication. Thus, all 20 specimens are
                                                                  publication]; Maynard, 1921b: 139, pl.
syntypes. Lot MCZ 76186 contains a single
                                                                  36, figs. 1, 2. Neither the number of
specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype.’’ This speci-
                                                                  specimens examined nor measurements
men closely approximates the measure-
                                                                  are provided in the original description.
ments in the original description and the
subsequent illustrations (Maynard, 1921b,                           Type Material. The original description
pl. 35, figs. 9, 10) and is accompanied by                       did not specify the number of specimens
a label in Maynard’s hand containing the                        examined. In the subsequent monograph,
term ‘‘Type’’ that refers to the published                      Maynard (1921b: 139, pl. 36, figs. 1, 2) list-
figures. This specimen is here designated                        ed 60 specimens. The size of the syntype
as the lectotype to provide an objective                        lot is uncertain, but does not exceed 60
standard of reference for this species-                         syntypes. The original description provid-
group taxon that is consistent with May-                        ed neither measurements nor illustration
nard’s original concept of it. Lot MCZ                          but stated that there were 10 whorls, with
76187 contains 264 specimens (most dam-                         23 costae on the final whorl. Lot number
aged, incomplete, or juvenile) and was la-                      MCZ 76017 contains a single specimen la-
beled ‘‘paratype.’’ Because Maynard added                       beled ‘‘Holotype.’’ This specimen consists
specimens after publishing the descrip-                         of nine whorls but has 23 costae on the
tion, it is not clear which 19 of the 264                       final whorl. This specimen is accompanied
specimens are paralectotypes.                                   by a label in Maynard’s hand with the term
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.7                          ‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-                       subsequently published figures. However,
erture height (including lip) 10.0 mm, ap-                      it does not closely match either the figures


                                                                                                                           →

Figures 100–113. Taxon 100. Strophiops rufina Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76304. South of the Current Settlement Eleuth-
era, Bahamas. Taxon 101. Strophiops tabida Maynard, 1913. Lectotype MCZ 76024. Near the Current Settlement, west shore
of Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 102. Strophiops helena Maynard, 1914. Holotype MCZ 76216. Fields directly south of Fresh
Creek, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 103. Strophiops thompsoni Maynard and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype MCZ 76186. Fossil, south
shore of Hog Island [Paradise Island], Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 104. Strophiops morula Maynard and
Clapp, 1915. Lectotype MCZ 76017. Spruce Key, 4 miles E of Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 105. Strophiops
sula Maynard and Clapp, 1915. [Not illustrated.] Replacement name for Strophiops obliterata Maynard, 1913 [Taxon 95], a junior
homonym of S. scripta obliterata Maynard, 1896 [Taxon 53]. The type specimens and type locality of S. obliterata Maynard,
1913 are also the type specimens and type locality of S. sula Maynard and Clapp, 1915. Taxon 106. Strophiops hesternia
Maynard and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype MCZ 76157. West end of Booby Rock, 16 miles NE of New Providence Island, Bahamas.
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                    433




Taxon 107. Strophiops caerulea Maynard and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype MCZ 76308. Field north of Ft. Charlotte, Nassau, New
Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 108. Strophiops devereuxi Maynard and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype MCZ 76137. Devereux
Estate west end of New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 109. Strophiops praedicta Maynard and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype
MCZ 76393. Great Pimlico Island, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Taxon 110. Strophiops prisca Maynard and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype
76353. Fossil in the rocks on east end of Salt Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 111. Strophiops tenui Maynard
and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype MCZ 76350. East end of New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 112. Strophiops fulminea Maynard
and Clapp, 1915. Lectotype MCZ 76276. Rocky shore east of Ft. Winton, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 113. Stro-
phiops longidentata Maynard, 1919. Nomen nudum. [Not illustrated.]
434    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



or the measurements in the monograph.            1924a, pl. 38, figs. 9, 10. Examined 200
This specimen is here designated as the          specimens. Measurements not provided.
lectotype to provide an objective standard        Type Material. The original description
of reference for this species-group taxon      did not distinguish among the 200 speci-
that is consistent with Maynard’s original     mens examined, and there was no mention
concept of it. The remaining syntypes          of type material in the other parts of this
( 59), including MCZ 76018, become             publication. Thus, all 200 specimens are
paralectotypes.                                syntypes. No specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 21.6         was located at the MCZ. An examination
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.8 mm; ap-       of the MCZ catalog revealed that no spec-
erture height (including lip) 7.7 mm, ap-      imen identified as ‘‘type’’ was present in
erture width (including lip and peristome)     Maynard’s collection at the time of its sale.
5.7 mm.                                        Lot number MCZ 76157 contained 27
   Type Locality. Spruce Key [4 miles E of     specimens labeled ‘‘paratypes’’ together
Nassau, New Providence Island, Baha-           with a note in Maynard’s handwriting list-
mas].                                          ing the taxon name and locality, but lack-
   Remarks. Semi-fossil. Maynard (1921b:       ing the word ‘‘type’’ or references to the
139, pl. 36, figs. 1, 2) provided additional    illustrations. Gould and Woodruff (1986:
descriptive information, including mea-        474) reported examining ‘‘paratypes’’ but
surements [1.10 by .50 inches; 27.9 by         did not see a ‘‘holotype.’’ One of these
12.7 mm] as well as illustrations. Gould       specimens, which most closely matches
and Woodruff (1986: 474) synonymized           Maynard’s only illustration of this taxon in
this taxon with Cerion glans (Ku ster,¨        size and proportions, is here designated as
1844).                                         the lectotype to provide an objective stan-
Taxon 105. Strophiops sula Maynard and         dard of reference for this species-group
  Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 180 bis.           taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s
  Replacement name for Strophiops obli-        concept of it. The remaining 26 specimens
  terata Maynard, 1913 [Taxon 95], a ju-       were recatalogued as MCZ 356994 and are
  nior secondary homonym of Strophia           among the 199 syntypes that become par-
  scripta obliterata Maynard, 1896 [Taxon      alectotypes.
  53].                                            Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.9
                                               mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
   Type Material. The type specimens and       erture height (including lip) 11.2 mm, ap-
type locality of S. obliterata Maynard, 1913   erture width (including lip and peristome)
[Taxon 95], are also the type specimens of     9.6 mm.
S. sula Maynard and Clapp, 1915.                  Type Locality. West end of Booby Rock
   Remarks. Strophiops obliterata May-         [16 miles NE of New Providence Island,
nard, 1913, was not illustrated, nor was S.    Bahamas] by a low place over which the
sula Maynard and Clapp, 1915, at the time      sea frequently breaks.
of its publication. Maynard (1921b: 142,          Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:
1924a, pl. 38, figs. 7, 8) subsequently pub-    474) synonymized this taxon with Cerion
lished additional notes and illustrations of              ¨
                                               glans (Kuster, 1844).
S. sula. Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474)
synonymized this taxon with Cerion glans       Taxon 107. Strophiops caerulea Maynard
(Kuster, 1844).
    ¨                                            and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 181
                                                 [not illustrated in original publication];
Taxon 106. Strophiops hesternia Maynard          Maynard, 1921b: 140, pl. 36, figs. 7, 8.
  and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 180              Examined 50 specimens. Size given as
  bis [not illustrated in original publica-      .92 by .40 [inches; 23.4 by 10.2 mm],
  tion]; Maynard, 1921b: 142; Maynard,           but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             435



   Type Material. The original description     beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the
did not distinguish among the 50 speci-        measurements and subsequently pub-
mens examined, and there was no mention        lished illustration of this taxon and is ac-
of type material in the other parts of this    companied by a label in Maynard’s hand
publication. Thus, all 50 specimens are        with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
syntypes. Lot number MCZ 76308 con-            erences to the figures. This specimen is
tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’   here designated as the lectotype to provide
that approximates the illustration and the     an objective standard of reference for this
measurements of this taxon and is accom-       species-group taxon that is consistent with
panied by a label in Maynard’s hand with       Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references   maining syntypes ( 163), including MCZ
to subsequently published figures. This         76138 and MCZ 117730 (one specimen),
specimen is here designated as the lecto-      become paralectotypes.
type to provide an objective standard of          Lectotype Measurements. Length 20.9
reference for this species-group taxon that    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.7 mm; ap-
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-     erture height (including lip) 8.4 mm, ap-
cept of it. The remaining 49 syntypes be-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
come paralectotypes.                           6.9 mm.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.8            Type Locality. Devereux Estate west
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-      end of New Providence [Island, Bahamas].
erture height (including lip) 9.0 mm, ap-         Remarks. This taxon was later listed as
erture width (including lip and peristome)     S. deveruxi (Maynard, 1921b: 140) and S.
7.5 mm.                                        devereuaxi (Maynard, 1924?: [7]) and il-
   Type Locality. In field N of Ft. Char-       lustrated under its correct original spelling
lotte, Nassau [New Providence Island, Ba-      (Maynard, 1921b, pl. 36, figs. 9, 10). Gould
hamas].                                        and Woodruff (1986: 475) synonymized
   Remarks. Maynard considered this tax-       this taxon with Cerion glans (Ku ster, ¨
on to be extinct at the time it was de-        1844).
scribed. This taxon was subsequently illus-
trated (Maynard, 1921b, pl. 36, figs. 7, 8).    Taxon 109. Strophiops praedicta Maynard
Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474) synony-           and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 181
mized this taxon with Cerion glans (Kus- ¨       [not illustrated]. Number of specimens
ter, 1844).                                      not specified; measurements not provid-
                                                 ed.
Taxon 108. Strophiops devereuxi May-
  nard and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]:              Type Material. The original description
  181 [not illustrated in original publica-    did not specify the number of specimens
  tion]; Maynard, 1921b: 140, pl. 36, figs.     examined. This taxon does not appear in
  9, 10. Unspecified number of specimens        any of Maynard’s subsequent publications
  examined. Size given as .85 by .40 [inch-    or catalogs. The size of the type series is
  es; 21.6 by 10.2 mm], but the term           uncertain. An examination of the MCZ
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                       catalog revealed that no specimen identi-
                                               fied as ‘‘type’’ was present in Maynard’s
  Type Material. The original description      collection at the time of its sale. Lot MCZ
did not specify the number of specimens        76393 contains 91 specimens (many dam-
examined. In the subsequent monograph,         aged, incomplete, or juvenile) and was la-
Maynard (1921b: 140) lists 164 specimens.      beled ‘‘paratype.’’ Because no characteris-
The size of the syntype lot is uncertain but   tics were provided by which an individual
does not exceed 164 syntypes. Lot number       specimen could be identified, a large, ma-
MCZ 76137 contains a single specimen la-       ture, complete specimen is selected from
436    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



the syntype series to serve as lectotype to       Type Locality. Fossil in the rocks on east
provide an objective standard of reference     end of Salt Key [New Providence Island,
for this species-group taxon. The remain-      Bahamas].
ing 90 specimens were recatalogued as             Remarks. Maynard (1921b: 143, 1924a,
MCZ 356995 and are paralectotypes.             pl. 39, figs. 5, 6) noted 15 specimens and
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.5         provided illustrations for this taxon. Gould
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.4 mm; ap-      and Woodruff (1986: 482) synonymized
erture height (including lip) 11.3 mm, ap-     this taxon with Cerion glans (Ku ster, ¨
erture width (including lip and peristome)     1844).
10.0 mm.
   Type Locality. Great Pimlico [Island,       Taxon 111. Strophiops tenui Maynard
Eleuthera, Bahamas].                             and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 182
   Remarks. Fossil in the rocks. Clench          [not illustrated in original publication];
(1952: 110) listed this taxon as a synonym       Maynard, 1921b: 149–150, pl. 46, figs.
of Cerion uniforme (Maynard, 1913).              1, 2 [pl. 46 was never issued]. Unspec-
                                                 ified number of specimens examined.
Taxon 110. Strophiops prisca Maynard             Size given as .70 by .33 [inches; 17.8 by
  and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 182              8.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not
  [not illustrated in original publication];     used.
  Maynard, 1921b: 143; Maynard, 1924a,
  pl. 39, figs. 5, 6. Unspecified number of         Type Material. The original description
  specimens examined. Size given as 1.15       did not specify the number of specimens
  by .45 [inches; 29.2 by 11.4 mm], but        examined. In the subsequent monograph,
  the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.              Maynard (1921b: 150) lists 600 specimens.
                                               The size of the syntype lot is uncertain,
   Type Material. The original description     but does not exceed 600 syntypes. Lot
did not specify the number of specimens        MCZ 76350 contains a single specimen la-
examined. In the subsequent monograph,         beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the
Maynard (1921b: 143) lists 15 specimens.       measurements of this taxon. This speci-
The size of the syntype lot is uncertain but   men is accompanied by a label in May-
does not exceed 15 syntypes. Lot MCZ           nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
76353 contains a single specimen labeled       includes references to illustrations that
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-        were never published. This specimen is
surements of this taxon as well as the sub-    here designated as the lectotype to provide
sequently published illustrations. This        an objective standard of reference for this
specimen is accompanied by a label in          species-group taxon that is consistent with
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’         Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
which includes references to these illustra-   maining syntypes ( 599), including MCZ
tions. This specimen is here designated as     76351, become paralectotypes.
the lectotype to provide an objective stan-       Lectotype Measurements. Length 17.6
dard of reference for this species-group       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.5 mm; ap-
taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s        erture height (including lip) 7.8 mm, ap-
original concept of it. The remaining syn-     erture width (including lip and peristome)
types ( 14), including MCZ 76352, be-          6.8 mm.
come paralectotypes.                              Type Locality. Isolated on a portion of
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.3         shore on east end of New Providence [Is-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.7 mm; ap-      land, Bahamas].
erture height (including lip) 10.7 mm, ap-        Remarks. Maynard and Clapp (1915:
erture width (including lip and peristome)     182) considered this taxon to be extinct at
7.9 mm.                                        the time it was described, but later, May-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                437



nard (1921b: 149–150) wrote that they            Taxon 113. Strophiops longidentata May-
were common along a short reach of shore           nard, 1919a [October 16]: 24 [nomen
just west of East Point Light, New Provi-          nudum].
dence, and that 600 specimens were col-
lected, chiefly dead. Gould and Woodruff            Remarks. Not listed in Clench (1957).
(1986: 477–478) synonymized this taxon           Taxon 114. Strophiops peravita Maynard,
with Cerion gubernatorium (Crosse,                 1919b [November 6]: 47; Maynard,
1869).                                             1920d [September 30], pl. 1, figs. 1, 2
Taxon 112. Strophiops fulminea Maynard             [captioned ‘‘S. perantiqua M. & C.’’].
   and Clapp, 1915 [February 8]: 182                Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen
   [not illustrated in original publication];    Strophiops peravita was used by Maynard
   Maynard, 1921b: 149. Examined 1,000           (1919b: 47) as a example of a species with
   specimens. Measurements not provided.         a conically tapering shell and was accom-
   Type Material. The original description       panied by a reference to subsequently
did not distinguish among the 1,000 spec-        published figures (Maynard, 1920d, pl. 1,
imens examined, and there was no men-            figs. 1, 2) that were captioned ‘‘S. peran-
tion of type material in the other parts of      tiqua M. & C.’’ Article 10.1.1 (ICZN,
this publication. Thus, all 1,000 specimens      1999: 9) states that if publication of the
are syntypes. Lot MCZ 76276 was labeled          data relating to a new nominal taxon or a
‘‘holotype,’’ but contains three specimens       nomenclatural act is interrupted and con-
and a label in Maynard’s hand containing         tinued at a later date, the name or act be-
the term ‘‘Type’’ as well as plate and figure     comes available only when the require-
numbers (pl. 45, figs. 9, 10) for illustra-       ments of the relevant Articles have been
tions of this taxon that were never pub-         met. Strophiops peravita became available
lished. The specimen that most closely ap-       on November 6, 1919, on the basis of the
proximates the subsequently published            publication of the meager description,
measurements (Maynard, 1921b: 149) is            which was adequate to meet the require-
here designated as the lectotype. The re-        ments of the relevant article [Article 12.1,
maining two specimens, recatalogued as           ICZN, 1999: 16], rather than from the lat-
MCZ 356996, MCZ 76277 (262 speci-                er publication of the captioned figure. Au-
mens), and USNM 420088 (50 speci-                thorship is attributed to Maynard, the sole
mens), are among the 999 syntypes that           author of the description, rather than to
become paralectotypes.                           Maynard and Clapp, as specified in the
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.2           caption to the subsequently published il-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.7 mm; ap-         lustrations. Ironically, this is the only time
erture height (including lip) 9.4 mm, ap-        that Maynard used the binomen Stro-
erture width (including lip and peristome)       phiops peravita. It is a lapsus calami be-
8.2 mm.                                          cause Maynard used the name Strophiops
   Type Locality. Very common on rocky           perantiqua in two prior references (May-
shore east of Ft. Winton, New Providence         nard, 1919a [October 16]: 15, 1919b [No-
[Island, Bahamas].                               vember 6]: 31; in both instances as a no-
   Remarks. In the original description,         men nudum) and one subsequent refer-
Maynard noted that nearly all were dead          ence (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
in 1913. Later, Maynard (1921b: 149) pro-        1920d [September 30]: 115, map 1, 2, pl.
vided measurements (1.00 by .40 [inches;         1, figs. 1, 2) to this taxon. The figure re-
25.4 by 10.2 mm]); listed 2,000 specimens,       ferred to in the inadvertent description of
likely by subsequent collection; and ref-        S. peravita is the identical figure refer-
erenced illustrations (pl. 45, figs. 5, 6) that   enced in the intended description of this
were never issued.                               taxon [as Strophiops perantiqua], in which
438      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



it was noted that it was ‘‘contemporary                      within the confines of Article 32.5.1
with S. avita Mayn.’’                                        (ICZN, 1999: 39) because there is no clear
   Type Material. The description of S.                      evidence to suggest an alternative spelling
peravita did not specify the number of                       within the original publication itself. The
specimens examined but included a ref-                       name S. peravita did not appear in the
erence to a subsequently published figure                     Batchelder (1951) compilation of May-
of a single specimen. The 25 specimens                       nard’s taxa, nor in Clench’s (1957) catalog
mentioned in the intended description of                     of Cerion taxa. The lectotype of S. peravita
this taxon (as S. perantiqua Maynard and                     is also the lectotype of Strophiops peran-
Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 115) were avail-                    tiqua Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
able to Maynard in 1919 and are thus part                    1920, which is a junior objective synonym
of the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,                  of S. peravita [see Taxon 139, below].
1999: 76]. Strophiops peravita is thus
based on 25 syntypes. Lot number MCZ                         Taxon 115. Strophiops scalariformis May-
187537 contains a single specimen that                         nard, 1919b [November 6]: 47–48;
closely matches the illustration mentioned                     Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d
in the taxon description. This specimen is                     [September 30]: 116, map 1, 3, pl. 1,
here designated as the lectotype to provide                    figs. 5, 6 [captioned ‘‘S. scalariformis M.
an objective standard of reference for this                    & C.’’]. Examined 50 specimens. Size
species-group taxon that is consistent with                    given as 1.20 by .45 [inches; 38.1 by 11.4
Maynard’s original concept of this taxon.                      mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
The remaining 24 syntypes become para-
lectotypes.                                                     Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.9                       (1919b: 48) first used the binomen Stro-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.7 mm; ap-                    phiops scalariformis as a example of a spe-
erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-                   cies with a turreted shell and included a
erture width (including lip and peristome)                   reference to subsequently published fig-
9.5 mm.                                                      ures (Maynard, 1920d, pl. 1, figs. 5, 6) that
   Type Locality. Found fossil in red earth                  were captioned ‘‘S. scalariformis M. & C.’’
near west coast of Great Guana Key [Ex-                      Article 10.1.1 (ICZN, 1999: 9) states that
umas, Bahamas], about 1 mile from south-                     if publication of the data relating to a new
ern end (see Maynard, 1920d: 117, map 1,                     nominal taxon or a nomenclatural act is in-
location 2 [from the intended taxon de-                      terrupted and continued at a later date,
scription of Strophiops perantiqua]). May-                   the name or act becomes available only
nard (1924a: 164) described in detail the                    when the requirements of the relevant Ar-
locality in which these fossils were collect-                ticle have been met. Strophiops scalarifor-
ed.                                                          mis became available on November 6,
   Remarks. Although it seems clear that                     1919, on the basis of the publication of the
Maynard intended the taxon to be known                       meager description, which was adequate
as perantiqua, it is not possible to consider                to meet the requirements of the relevant
peravita as an ‘‘incorrect original spelling’’               articles [Article 12.1, ICZN, 1999: 16],

                                                                                                                     →

Figures 114–125. Taxon 114. Strophiops peravita Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 187537. Fossil in red earth near west coast
of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas, about 1 mile from southern end. Taxon 115. Strophiops scalariformis Maynard,
1919. Lectotype MCZ 76180. Limited area near beach Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 116. Strophiops
inornata Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76049. North side of Bell Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 117. Strophiops caprana
Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76386. North Goat Key off Fresh Creek, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 118. Strophiops lobata
Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76207. Eastern Soldier Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 119. Strophiops variata Maynard
and Clapp in Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76270. Crab Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 120. Strophiops recessa Maynard
and Clapp in Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76135. Southern portion of Stocking Island, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 121.
                THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                  439




Strophiops palmata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76179. East and west sides of Wax Key, Exuma
Group, Bahamas. Taxon 122. Strophiops agricola Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76004. Farmer’s Key
which lies about 1 mile southwest of the southern end of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 123. Strophiops
elegantissima Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76375. Norman’s Pond Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 124. Strophiops
arbusta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1919. Lectotype MCZ 76273. Guana Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 125. Stro-
phiops aspera Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76176. Among dwarf palms in an area about 300 yards long by some 150 wide
along the third beach north of south end of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
440    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



rather than from the later publication of       1920b [April 8]: 87; Maynard, 1920c
the captioned figure. Authorship is attri-       [July 10], fig. 73, pl. 17, fig. 2; Maynard,
buted to Maynard, the sole author of the        1920d [September 30]: 112; Maynard
description, rather than to Maynard and         and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Septem-
Clapp, as specified in the caption to the        ber 30]: 126, pl. 3, figs. 11–13. Exam-
subsequently published illustrations.           ined 1,060 specimens. Size given as 1.12
   Type Material. The description of S.         by .45 [inches; 28.4 by 11.4 mm], but
scalariformis did not specify the number        the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
of specimens examined, but included a
reference to a subsequently published fig-        Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard
ure of a single specimen. The 50 speci-       (1919b: 49) first used the binomen Stro-
mens mentioned in the intended descrip-       phiops inornata as a example of a taxon in
tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in      which the ultimate whorl and aperture are
Maynard, 1920d: 116) were likely available    contracted, and included a reference to
to Maynard in 1919 and are thus part of       subsequently published figures (Maynard,
the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,      1920d, pl. 3, figs. 11–13) that were cap-
1999: 76]. Strophiops scalariformis is thus   tioned ‘‘S. inornata.’’ Article 10.1.1 (ICZN,
based on 50 syntypes. In a subsequent and     1999: 9) states that if publication of the
more detailed description of this taxon,      data relating to a new nominal taxon or a
Maynard (1924a: 165) included the state-      nomenclatural act is interrupted and con-
ment ‘‘dimensions of type .45 by 1.20         tinued at a later date, the name or act be-
[inches; 11.4 by 30.5 mm], aperture .34       comes available only when the require-
[inches; 8.6 mm].’’ This is regarded as a     ments of the relevant Articles have been
lectotype designation, and the remaining      met. Strophiops inornata became available
49 specimens became paralectotypes.           on November 6, 1919, on the basis of the
Clench and Aguayo (1952: 430, pl. 56, fig.     publication of the meager description,
2) listed and illustrated MCZ 76180 as the    which was adequate to meet the require-
‘‘holotype,’’ presumably on the basis of      ments of the relevant articles [Article 12.1,
Maynard’s handwritten label using the         ICZN, 1999: 16], rather than from the lat-
term ‘‘type’’ that accompanied the speci-     er publication of the captioned figure. Au-
men. This specimen is the lectotype des-      thorship is attributed to Maynard, the sole
ignated by Maynard.                           author of the description.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.0           Before the publication of plate 3, May-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-     nard (1920b [April 8]: 87) again used the
erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-    name S. inornata as an example of mor-
erture width (including lip and peristome)    phological reversion following shell dam-
9.2 mm.                                       age and cited a figure of a different spec-
   Type Locality. Found in a limited area     imen (Maynard, 1920c [July 10], fig. 73)
near beach [Great Guana Key, Exuma            that was reproduced in color (Maynard,
Group, Bahamas] (see Maynard, 1920d:          1920c, pl. 17, fig. 2). In the next issue,
117, map 1, location 3). Maynard (1924a:      Maynard (1920d [September 30]: 112)
165) described in detail the locality in      published a correction stating that figure
which these fossils were collected.           numbers 72 and 73, as well as plate 17,
   Remarks. Clench and Aguayo (1952)          figures 1 and 2, were transposed and that
considered Cerion scalariforme to be a        the figures 73 and plate 17, figure 2, are
synonym of Cerion asperum (Maynard and        actually S. salinaria, whereas figures 72
Clapp, 1920).                                 and plate 17, figure 1, represent S. inor-
                                              nata.
Taxon 116. Strophiops inornata Maynard,          Type Material. The description of Stro-
  1919b [November 6]: 49; Maynard,            phiops inornata did not specify the num-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             441



ber of specimens examined but included a       figure (Maynard, 1919c, fig. 19) that was
reference to a subsequently published fig-      captioned ‘‘S. capraia M. & C.’’ A colored
ure of a single specimen. The 1,060 spec-      version of this figure, also labeled S. ca-
imens mentioned in the intended descrip-       praia, was published (Maynard, 1920c, pl.
tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in       17, fig. 3). Article 10.1.1 (ICZN, 1999: 9)
Maynard, 1920d: 126) were likely available     states that if publication of the data relat-
to Maynard in 1919 and are thus part of        ing to a new nominal taxon or a nomen-
the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,       clatural act is interrupted and continued at
1999: 76]. Strophiops inornata is thus         a later date, the name or act becomes
based on 1,060 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76049         available only when the requirements of
was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ but contained         the relevant Articles have been met. Stro-
three specimens. Of these, one has an off-     phiops caprana became available on No-
set final whorl and clearly matches the fig-     vember 6, 1919, on the basis of the pub-
ures cited in the inadvertent as well as the   lication of the meager description, which
intended taxon description (Maynard and        was adequate to meet the requirements of
Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [September 30]:        the relevant articles [Article 12.1, ICZN,
126, pl. 3, figs. 11–13). This specimen is      1999: 16], rather than from the later pub-
designated to be the lectotype of Stro-        lication of the captioned figure. Author-
phiops inornata Maynard, 1919, to provide      ship is attributed to Maynard, the sole au-
an objective standard of reference for this    thor of the description, rather than to
species-group taxon that is consistent with    Maynard and Clapp as specified in the
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-      caption to the subsequently published il-
maining two specimens were recatalogued        lustrations.
as MCZ 357001 and together with MCZ               Type Material. The description of Stro-
76050, MCZ 118190, and USNM 420056,            phiops caprana did not specify the num-
become paralectotypes.                         ber of specimens examined but included a
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.9         reference to a subsequently published fig-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.7 mm; ap-      ure of a single specimen. The 1,620 spec-
erture height (including lip) 11.6 mm, ap-     imens mentioned in the intended descrip-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in
11.0 mm.                                       Maynard, 1921a: 131) were likely available
   Type Locality. North side of Bell Key       to Maynard in 1919 and are thus part of
[Exuma Group, Bahamas].                        the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,
                                               1999: 76]. Strophiops caprana is thus
Taxon 117. Strophiops caprana Maynard,         based on 1,620 syntypes. The specimen il-
  1919b [November 6]: 52. Strophiops           lustrated in the originally referenced figure
  capraia Maynard and Clapp in May-            (Maynard, 1919c, fig. 19) could not be
  nard, 1919c [December 31], fig. 19;           identified at the MCZ. Maynard clearly re-
  Maynard, 1920c, pl. 17, fig. 3; Maynard       garded a different specimen to be the
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 131, pl.        ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops capraia. Lot MCZ
  28, figs. 7, 8. Examined 1,620 speci-         76386 was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ but con-
  mens. Size given as 1.12 by .47 [inches;     tains two specimens. One of the specimens
  28.4 by 17.8 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’      approximates the measurements and fig-
  was not used.                                ures in the intended taxon description and
                                               is here selected as the lectotype to provide
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen          an objective standard of reference for this
Strophiops caprana was first used by May-       species-group taxon that is consistent with
nard (1919b: 52) as an example of a spe-       Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The re-
cies with a thick margin, and accompanied      maining specimen, recatalogued as MCZ
by a reference to a subsequently published     356997, MCZ 76215, and USNM 420060,
442    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



are among the 1,619 syntypes that become        rupted and continued at a later date, the
paralectotypes.                                 name or act becomes available only when
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.9         the requirements of the relevant Articles
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-       have been met. Strophiops lobata became
erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-      available on November 6, 1919, on the ba-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      sis of the publication of the meager de-
8.9 mm.                                         scription, which was adequate to meet the
    Type Locality. North Goat Key off           requirements of the relevant articles [Ar-
Fresh Creek [Andros, Bahamas].                  ticle 12.1, ICZN, 1999: 16], rather than
    Remarks. This taxon has been the victim     from the later publication of the captioned
of multiple lapsus calami, having been          figure. Authorship is attributed to May-
spelled caprana in the unintended original      nard, the sole author of the description,
description (Maynard, 1919b: 52), capraia       rather than to Maynard and Clapp, as
in text and figure captions (Maynard,            specified in the caption to the subsequent-
1919c, fig. 19, 1920b: 81, 1920c, pl. 17, fig.    ly published illustrations.
3) and in the intended taxon description           Type Material. The unintended taxon
(Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a:           description of Strophiops lobata did not
131, pl. 28, figs. 7, 8), and capria (May-       specify the number of specimens exam-
nard, 1924b?: [3]) in the sales catalog. Al-    ined but included a reference to a subse-
though it seems clear that Maynard in-          quently published figure of a single spec-
tended the taxon to be known as capraia,        imen. The 925 specimens mentioned in
it is not possible to consider caprana as an    the intended description of this taxon
‘‘incorrect original spelling’’ within the      (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a:
confines of Article 32.5.1 (ICZN, 1999: 39)      134) were likely available to Maynard in
because there is no clear evidence to sug-      1919 and are thus part of the type series
gest an alternative spelling within the orig-   [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76]. Stro-
inal publication itself. This taxon was also    phiops lobata is thus based on 925 syn-
listed as S. capraia by Clench (1957: 139).     types. The specimen illustrated in figure
                                                20 could not be identified at the MCZ.
Taxon 118. Strophiops lobata Maynard,           Maynard clearly regarded a different spec-
  1919b [November 6]: 52; Maynard               imen to be the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops lob-
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1919c [Decem-           ata. Lot MCZ 76207 contains a single
  ber 31], fig. 20; Maynard, 1920b: 81;          specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approx-
  Maynard, 1920c, fig. 64, pl. 14, fig. 4;        imates the illustration and the measure-
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a:          ments of this taxon in the intended taxon
  134, pl. 31 [erroneously listed as pl. 30],   description and is accompanied by a label
  figs. 7, 8. Examined 925 specimens. Size       in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
  given as 1.11 by .45 [inches; 30.5 by 11.4    which includes references to these figures.
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      This specimen is here designated as the
                                                lectotype to provide an objective standard
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen           of reference for this species-group taxon
Strophiops lobata was used by Maynard           that is consistent with Maynard’s original
(1919b: 527) as an example of a species         concept of it. The remaining specimens,
with a thickened and lobed margin and in-       including MCZ 76208 and USNM 420147,
cluded a reference to a subsequently pub-       are paralectotypes.
lished figure (Maynard, 1919c, fig. 20) that         Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.1
was labeled ‘‘S. lobata M. & C.’’ Article       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-
10.1.1 (ICZN, 1999: 9) states that if pub-      erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-
lication of the data relating to a new nom-     erture width (including lip and peristome)
inal taxon or a nomenclatural act is inter-     8.9 mm.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.           443



   Type Locality. Eastern Soldier Key, Ber-    from among the 1,132 specimens men-
ry Islands, Bahamas.                           tioned in the intended description of this
   Remarks. Maynard (1920b: 81) again          taxon (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
used the name S. lobata prior to the in-       1921a: 134) that were available to him at
tended description of the taxon, referenc-     the time. All 1,132 specimens are thus part
ing a subsequently published figure (May-       of the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,
nard, 1920c, fig. 64) that was identical to     1999: 76], and Strophiops lobata is based
figure 20 but captioned ‘‘S. caduca M. &        on 1,132 syntypes. None of the figured
C.’’ A colored version of figures 20 and 64     specimens could be identified at the MCZ.
(Maynard, 1920c, pl. 14, fig. 4) is cap-        Maynard clearly regarded a different spec-
tioned ‘‘S. caduca.’’ Maynard (1920d: 112)     imen to be the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops var-
published corrections, stating that the cap-   iata. Lot MCZ 76270 contained two spec-
tions to figures 64 and pl. 14, fig. 4, should   imens in a lot labeled ‘‘Holotype,’’ one
read lobata not caduca.                        smooth, with weak costae limited to the
                                               final whorl, the other with strong costae
Taxon 119. Strophiops variata Maynard          over the entire shell. The smooth speci-
   and Clapp in Maynard, 1919c [De-            men, which more closely agrees with the
   cember 31]: 55, figs. 27, 28; Maynard,       intended taxon description and figures, is
   1920a: 77, 78, fig. 54; Maynard, 1920c,      here designated as the lectotype to provide
   pl. 14, fig. 5; Maynard and Clapp in         an objective standard of reference for this
   Maynard, 1921a: 134, pl. 32, figs. 1, 2.     species-group taxon that is consistent with
   Examined 1,132 specimens. Measure-          Maynard’s original concept of it. The
   ments not provided.                         strongly costate specimen was recata-
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen          logued as MCZ 356998. It and the re-
Strophiops variata was used by Maynard         maining specimens, including MCZ
(1919c: 55, figs. 27, 28) as an example of      76271, MCZ 118258, and USNM 420123,
a taxon with margins malformed after in-       are paralectotypes.
corporation of a limestone granule in the         Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.3
peristome and accompanied by figures of         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.7 mm; ap-
three specimens labeled ‘‘S. variata M. &      erture height (including lip) 10.7 mm, ap-
C.’’ The association of a new species group    erture width (including lip and peristome)
name with an illustration of the taxon be-     8.8 mm.
ing named before 1931 makes the name              Type Locality. Crab Key, Berry Islands,
Strophiops variata Maynard and Clapp in        Bahamas.
Maynard, 1919c [December 31]: 55, figs.            Remarks. Other uses of the binomen
27, 28, available (Article 12.2.7, ICZN,       prior to its intended original description
1999: 17) prior to the intended description    include Maynard (1920a: 77, 78, fig. 54,
of this species (Maynard and Clapp in          1920c, caption to pl. 14, fig. 5).
Maynard, 1921a [May 2]: 134, pl. 32, figs.
1, 2).                                         Taxon 120. Strophiops recessa Maynard
   Type Material. Maynard’s (1919c: 55–          and Clapp in Maynard, 1919c [De-
56) first use of the name S. variata was as       cember 31]: 57, figs. 29A, B; May-
an example of a deformation that could oc-       nard, 1920c, pl. 17, fig. 6; Maynard and
cur in some specimens after incorporation        Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 122, pl. 24,
of a limestone granule in the peristome.         figs. 2, 3. Examined 1,147 specimens.
He mentioned that this produced a pro-           Size given as 1.15 by .45 [inches; 29.2
tuberance in a total of six specimens of S.      by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was
variata and illustrated portions of three of     not used.
the malformed specimens. It is likely that       Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard
the six deformed specimens were selected       (1919c: 57, figs. 29A, B) first used the bi-
444    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



nomen Strophiops recessa as an example        erture width (including lip and peristome)
of a species that has an enlarged, ear-like   8.1 mm.
frontal bar encroaching on the umbilicus          Type Locality. Southern portion of
and included illustrations (figs. 29A, B)      Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas.
captioned ‘‘S. recessa M. & C.’’ The asso-        Remarks. It is not surprising that, after
ciation of a new species group name with      Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as
an illustration of the taxon being named      ‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be
before 1931 makes the name Strophiops         segregated at the MCZ, while the many
recessa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,         remaining specimens were dispersed
1919c (p. 57, figs. 29A, B), available on      among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-
December 31, 1919 (Article 12.2.7, ICZN,      tions (Turner, 1957: 151). Given the qual-
1999: 17), prior to the intended descrip-     ity of Maynard’s illustrations, it is unlikely
tion of this species (Maynard and Clapp in    that the initially illustrated specimen could
Maynard, 1920d: 122, pl. 24, figs. 2, 3).      ever be discerned unambiguously from
   Type Material. The description of Stro-    among the large number of remaining
phiops recessa did not specify the number     specimens, even if it were present among
of specimens examined but included fig-        them.
ures of a single specimen. The 1,147 spec-
imens mentioned in the intended descrip-      Taxon 121. Strophiops palmata Maynard
tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in        and Clapp in Maynard, 1919c [De-
Maynard, 1920d: 122) were likely available      cember 31]: 59–60, 64, figs. 32, 32∗,
to Maynard at the time and are thus part        33, 34A–D, 35, [35]B, pl. 10, figs. 1,
of the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,     2, 8; Maynard, 1920a: 76, 77; Maynard,
1999: 76]. Strophiops recessa is based on       1920b, fig. 58, pl. 12, fig. 2; Maynard,
1,147 syntypes.                                 1920c: 86, fig. 67, pl. 14, fig. 2, fig. 71,
   The originally illustrated specimen          pl. 16, figs. 4, 5; Maynard and Clapp in
(Maynard, 1919c, figs. 29A, B) could not         Maynard, 1920d: 120, pl. 21, figs. 6, 7;
be identified at the MCZ. Maynard clearly        Maynard, 1926: 203–212. Examined
regarded a different specimen to be the         3,422 specimens. Size given as 1.25 by
‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops recessa. Lot MCZ         .45 [inches; 31.8 by 11.4 mm], but the
76135 contained a single specimen labeled       term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-
surements and illustration of this taxon in      Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen
the intended description (Maynard and         Strophiops palmata was first used by May-
Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 122, pl. 24, figs.    nard (1919c: 59–60, 64, figs. 32, 32∗, 33,
2, 3) and is accompanied by a label in        34A–D, 35, [35]B, pl. 10, figs. 1, 2, 8) to
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’        illustrate pathological duplication and/or
which includes references to the figures.      migration of teeth within the shell aper-
This specimen (MCZ 76135) is here des-        ture after shell damage. Portions of at least
ignated as the lectotype of Strophiops re-    six different specimens are illustrated in
cessa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,           these figures, of which figures 32, 32∗, and
1919, to provide an objective standard of     33 and pl. 10, figs. 1, 2, and 8, are cap-
reference for this species-group taxon that   tioned ‘‘S. palmata M & C.,’’ whereas fig-
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-    ures 34A–D, 35, and 35B are captioned
cept of it. The remaining specimens, in-      ‘‘S. palmata.’’ The association of a new
cluding MCZ 76136, MCZ 118346, and            species group name with an illustration of
USNM 420106, are paralectotypes.              the taxon being named before 1931 makes
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.9        the name Strophiops palmata Maynard
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-     and Clapp in Maynard 1919c (pp. 59–60,
erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-    64, figs. 32, 32∗, 33, 34A–D, 35, [35]B, pl.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             445



10, figs. 1, 2, 8), available (Article 12.2.7,   erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-
ICZN, 1999: 17) prior to the intended de-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
scription of this species (Maynard and          7.7 mm.
Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 120, pl. 21, figs.         Type Locality. East and west sides of
6, 7).                                          Wax Key [Exuma Group, Bahamas].
   Maynard (1920a: 76, 77) again used S.           Remarks. It is not surprising that, fol-
palmata as an example of a taxon that ag-       lowing Maynard’s death, the specimens la-
glutinates sand, citing a subsequently pub-     beled as ‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the
lished illustration of another specimen         ones to be segregated at the MCZ, while
(Maynard, 1920b, fig. 58, pl. 12, fig. 2).        the many remaining specimens were dis-
Additional damaged specimens are illus-         persed among MCZ, USNM, and other in-
trated (Maynard, 1920c: 86, fig. 67, re-         stitutions (Turner, 1957: 151). The anom-
peated on pl. 14, fig. 2, fig. 71, repeated       alies in dentition make the six illustrated
on pl. 16, figs. 4, 5). All of these uses of     specimens distinctive, yet they were not
the name preceded the intended original         found in the collections of either MCZ or
description of Strophiops palmata.              USNM. Maynard (1920d: 120) reported
   Type Material. The description of Stro-      this taxon to be very abundant on palm
phiops palmata did not specify the num-         fronds and under them. Maynard (1926:
ber of specimens examined, but included         203–212) provided additional, detailed in-
figures of portions of six specimens. The        formation on the animals and anatomy,
3,422 specimens mentioned in the intend-        noting that 2,683 specimens were collect-
ed description of this taxon (Maynard and       ed in 2 or 3 hours.
Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 120) were likely
available to Maynard at the time, and are       Taxon 122. Strophiops agricola Maynard
thus part of the type series [Article             and Clapp in Maynard, 1919c [De-
72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76]. Strophiops re-         cember 31]: 64, figs. 35C, D; May-
cessa is based on 3,422 syntypes. None of         nard, 1920d, pl. 22, figs. 6, 7; Maynard,
the six initially figured specimens could be       1924c: 1. Examined 80 specimens. Size
identified at the MCZ. Maynard clearly re-         given as 1.15 by .40 [inches; 29.2 by 10.2
garded a different specimen to be the             mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops palmata. Lot MCZ
76179 contains a single specimen labeled           Nomenclatural Remarks. The first use of
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-         the binomen Strophiops agricola appeared
surements and illustration of this taxon in     in a discussion of the occasional appear-
the intended description (Maynard and           ance of a tooth-like concretion along the
Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 122, pl. 24, figs.      shell margin (Maynard, 1919c, figs. 35C,
2, 3) and is accompanied by a label in          D, p. 64). The caption to the figures,
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’          which illustrate the malformed aperture of
which includes references to the figures.        a specimen (fig. 35C) as well as an enlarge-
This specimen (MCZ 76179) is here des-          ment of the concretion (fig. 35D), reads
ignated as the lectotype of Strophiops pal-     ‘‘S. agricola M & C.,’’ establishing the au-
mata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,              thorship of the taxon as Maynard and
1919, to provide an objective standard of       Clapp in Maynard. The association of a
reference for this species-group taxon that     new species group name with an illustra-
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-      tion of the taxon being named before 1931
cept of it. The remaining 3,415 specimens,      makes the name Strophiops agricola May-
including MCZ 76178, MCZ 118352, and            nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1919c (figs.
USNM 420024, are paralectotypes.                35C, D), available (Article 12.2.7, ICZN,
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.6          1999: 17) prior to the intended description
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.0 mm; ap-       of this species (Maynard, 1924c: 1). The
446    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



name was next used in the caption to il-          1920b, fig. 60, pl. 13, fig. 2; Multistro-
lustrations (Maynard, 1920d, pl. 22, figs. 6,      phia elegantissima Maynard and Clapp
7) published 4 years before the intended          in Maynard, 1920d: 126, pl. 25, figs. 1,
description.                                      2. Unspecified number of specimens ex-
    Type Material. Only a single specimen         amined. Size given as 1.25 by .50 [inch-
was referred to in the inadvertent descrip-       es; 31.8 by 12.7 mm], but the term
tion of Strophiops agricola. The intended         ‘‘type’’ was not used.
taxon description (Maynard, 1924c: 1)
mentioned 80 specimens. It is likely that          Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen
at least some if not all of these were avail-   Strophiops elegantissima was first pub-
able to Maynard in 1919. Strophiops agri-       lished by Maynard (1919c: 64, figs. 36A–
cola is thus based on 80 syntypes.              D) together with illustrations labeled ‘‘S.
    Neither of the figures on which the tax-     elegantissima.’’ The text provided detailed
on is based shows an entire specimen;           descriptions of dentition stated to be a
rather, they provide details of a concretion    specific character in S. elegantissima. The
on a portion of the outer lip. An exami-        name Strophia elegantissima Maynard be-
nation of the 49 specimens in MCZ 76004         comes available on December 31, 1919
that were labeled ‘‘paratypes’’ uncovered       (Articles 12.1 and 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17),
the originally illustrated specimen (May-       prior to the intended description of the
nard, 1919c, fig. 35). This specimen is here     taxon as Multicostata elegantissima May-
designated as the lectotype. The remaining      nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d (p.
specimens were recatalogued as MCZ              126, pl. 25, figs. 1, 2). Because figures
356999 and together with MCZ 76003 and          36A–D are captioned ‘‘S. elegantissima,’’
MCZ 118252 are among the 79 speci-              the taxon must be attributed to Maynard
mens that become paralectotypes.                rather than to Maynard and Clapp, as cit-
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.0         ed by Clench (1957: 144). The name S.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.7 mm; ap-       elegantissima was again used by Maynard
erture height (including lip) 9.1 mm, ap-       (1920a: 80) as an example of a taxon with
erture width (including lip and peristome)      color banding, citing a subsequently pub-
7.5 mm.                                         lished illustration (Maynard, 1920b, fig.
    Type Locality. Farmer’s Key which lies      60, identical image colored on pl. 13, fig.
about 1 mile southwest of the southern          2, both captioned ‘‘S. elegantissima M. &
end of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group,            C.’’).
Bahamas.                                           Type Material. The description of Stro-
    Remarks. Maynard clearly regarded a         phiops elegantissima did not specify the
different specimen to be the ‘‘Type’’ of        number of specimens examined but in-
Strophiops agricola. Lot MCZ 76003 con-         cluded figures of portions of a single spec-
tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’    imen. The number of specimens examined
that approximates the subsequent illustra-      was not specified in the intended descrip-
tions (Maynard, 1920d, pl. 22, figs. 6, 7)       tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in
and the measurements in the intended de-        Maynard, 1920d: 126). Although these
scription (Maynard, 1924c: 1). This speci-      were likely available to Maynard in 1919
men, a paralectotype, is accompanied by a       and are part of the type series [Article
label in Maynard’s hand with the term           72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76], the number of
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the      syntypes is unclear. The initially illustrated
previously published plates.                    specimen could not be located at the
                                                MCZ. Maynard clearly regarded a differ-
Taxon 123. Strophiops elegantissima May-        ent specimen to be the ‘‘Type’’ of Stro-
  nard, 1919c [December 31]: 64, figs.           phiops elegantissima. Lot MCZ 76375
  36A–D; Maynard, 1920a: 80; Maynard,           contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              447



lotype’’ that approximates the measure-          of a species that lacked an upper [colu-
ments and illustration of this taxon in the      mellar] tooth. The figure was captioned ‘‘S.
intended description (Maynard and Clapp          arbusta M. & C.’’ This illustration was lat-
in Maynard, 1920d: 126, pl. 25, figs. 1, 2)       er reproduced in color (Maynard, 1920c,
and is accompanied by a label in May-            pl. 16, fig. 6). The association of a new
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which        species group name with an illustration of
includes references to the figures. This          the taxon being named before 1931 makes
specimen (MCZ 76375) is here designated          the name Strophiops arbusta Maynard and
as the lectotype of Strophiops elegantissi-      Clapp in Maynard (1919c: 65, fig. 38)
ma Maynard, 1919, to provide an objective        available (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17)
standard of reference for this species-          prior to the intended description of this
group taxon that is consistent with May-         species (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
nard’s original concept of it. The remain-       1921a: 133, pl. 30, figs. 5, 6). Maynard
ing specimens, including MCZ 76183,              (1920a: 74, figs. 49A, B) again used the
MCZ 118239, and USNM 420105, are                 name in conjunction with figures before
paratypes.                                       the intended introduction of the taxon.
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.3          These illustrations were later reproduced
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.1 mm; ap-        in color (Maynard, 1920b, pl. 12, figs. 4,
erture height (including lip) 10.8 mm, ap-       5).
erture width (including lip and peristome)          Type Material. The description of Stro-
8.7 mm.                                          phiops arbusta did not specify the number
    Type Locality. Norman’s Pond Key [Ex-        of specimens examined but included a fig-
uma Group, Bahamas].                             ure of a single specimen. The 2,454 spec-
    Remarks. It is not surprising that after     imens mentioned in the intended descrip-
Maynard’s death the specimens labeled as         tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in
‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be         Maynard, 1921a: 133) were likely available
segregated at the MCZ while the many re-         to Maynard at the time and are thus part
maining specimens were dispersed among           of the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,
MCZ, USNM, and other institutions                1999: 76]. Strophiops arbusta is based on
(Turner, 1957: 151). Although Maynard’s          2,454 syntypes. The originally illustrated
illustrations (Maynard, 1919c, figs. 36A–D,       specimen (Maynard, 1919c, fig. 38) could
1920b, fig. 60, pl. 13, fig. 2, 1920d: 126,        not be identified at the MCZ. Maynard
pl. 25, figs. 1, 2) are of sufficient quality to   clearly regarded a different specimen to be
conclude that the shells figured are differ-      the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops arbusta. Lot
ent specimens, we have not been able to          MCZ 76273 contains a single specimen la-
match the earliest figure with any of the         beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the il-
specimens available to us.                       lustration more than the measurements of
                                                 this taxon and is accompanied by a label
Taxon 124. Strophiops arbusta Maynard            in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘Holo-
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1919c [De-               type’’ added later. This specimen is here
  cember 31]: 65, fig. 38; Maynard,               designated as the lectotype to provide an
  1920a: 74, fig. 49; Maynard and Clapp           objective standard of reference for this
  in Maynard, 1921a: 133, pl. 30, figs. 5,        species-group taxon that is consistent with
  6. Examined 2,454 specimens. Size giv-         Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
  en as 1.24 by .48 [inches; 30.5 by 11.4        maining specimens, including MCZ
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.       76272, USNM 419968, and USNM
                                                 420027, are paralectotypes.
  Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen                Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.8
Strophiops arbusta was first published by         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.0 mm; ap-
Maynard (1919c: 65, fig. 38) as an example        erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-
448    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



erture width (including lip and peristome)       12.1, ICZN, 1999: 16], rather than from
8.6 mm.                                          the later publication of the captioned fig-
    Type Locality. Guana Key, Berry Is-          ure. Authorship is attributed to Maynard,
lands, Bahamas.                                  the sole author of the description.
    Remarks. It is not surprising that, after       Type Material. The description of S. as-
Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as        pera did not specify the number of speci-
‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be         mens examined, but included a reference
segregated at the MCZ, while the many            to a subsequently published figure of a sin-
remaining specimens were dispersed               gle specimen. The 1,500 specimens men-
among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-              tioned in the intended description of this
tions (Turner, 1957: 151). Given the qual-       taxon (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
ity of Maynard’s illustrations, it is unlikely   1920d: 116) were likely available to May-
that the initially figured specimen could         nard at the time he wrote the unintended
ever be discerned unambiguously from             species description and are thus part of the
among the large number of remaining              type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999:
specimens, even if it were present among         76]. Strophiops aspera is therefore based
them.                                            on 1,500 syntypes. The figured specimen
                                                 (Maynard, 1920b, fig. 57) could not be
Taxon 125. Strophiops aspera Maynard,            recognized at the MCZ. Maynard clearly
  1919a [October 16]: 14 [nomen nu-              regarded a different specimen to be the
  dum]; Maynard, 1920a [February                 ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops aspera. Lot MCZ
  29]: 77; Maynard and Clapp in May-             76176 contains a single specimen labeled
  nard, 1920b [April 8]: 89, fig. 57, pl. 12,     ‘‘Holotype’’ that, at best, approximates the
  fig. 1; Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,           measurements and illustrations of this tax-
  1920d: 116; maps 1, 4, pl. 1, figs. 9, 10.      on in the intended description. This spec-
  Examined 1,500 specimens. Size given           imen is accompanied by a label in May-
  as 1.06 by .30 [inches; 26.9 by 7.6 mm],       nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.            includes references to the figures on plate
   Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard                1. Clench and Aguayo (1952: 430, pl. 56,
(1919a: 14) first introduced the binomen          fig. 1) illustrated this specimen as the ‘‘Ho-
Strophiops aspera as a nomen nudum. He           lotype’’ of Cerion asperum. Article 74.5
again (Maynard, 1920a: 77) used this taxon       (ICZN, 1999: 82) states, ‘‘When the orig-
name as an example of a species in which         inal work reveals that the taxon had been
the animal gathered grains of carbonate          based on more than one specimen, a sub-
sand and fastened them to outer and inner        sequent use of the term ‘holotype’ does
surfaces of the shell, citing a subsequently     not constitute a valid lectotype designation
published illustration (Maynard, 1920b,          unless the author, when wrongly using that
fig. 57) captioned ‘‘S. aspera M & C.’’ Ar-       term, explicitly indicated that he or she
ticle 10.1.1 (ICZN, 1999: 9) states that if      was selecting from the type series that par-
publication of the data relating to a new        ticular specimen to serve as the name-
nominal taxon or a nomenclatural act is in-      bearing type.’’ Thus, Clench and Aguayo’s
terrupted and continued at a later date,         treatment of MCZ 76176 can not be con-
the name or act becomes available only           sidered a lectotype designation. This spec-
when the requirements of the relevant Ar-        imen (MCZ 76176) is here designated as
ticles have been met. Strophiops aspera          the lectotype of Strophiops aspera May-
became available on February 29, 1920, on        nard, 1920, to provide an objective stan-
the basis of the publication of the descrip-     dard of reference for this species-group
tion, which was adequate to meet the re-         taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s
quirements of the relevant articles [Article     original, and Clench and Aguayo’s subse-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                449



quent, concepts of it. The remaining spec-       pressions in their surface sculpture but
imens are paralectotypes.                        noted explicitly that this was not a specific
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.8          character. This use was a nomen nudum,
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.6 mm; ap-         but included a reference to a subsequently
erture height (including lip) 7.6 mm, ap-        published illustration (Maynard, 1920b,
erture width (including lip and peristome)       fig. 55, identical illustration colored on pl.
7.0 mm.                                          12, fig. 3, both captioned ‘‘S. fruticosa M.
    Type Locality. Among dwarf palms in an       & C.’’). The association of a new species
area about 300 yards long by some 150            group name with an illustration of the tax-
wide along the third beach N of the S end        on being named prior to 1931 makes the
of [Great Guana] key [Exuma Group, Ba-           name Strophiops fruticosa Maynard and
hamas].                                          Clapp in Maynard, 1920b (fig. 55, pl. 12,
    Remarks. It is not surprising that, after    fig. 3), available (Article 12.2.7, ICZN,
Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as        1999: 17) prior to the intended description
‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be         of this species (Maynard and Clapp in
segregated at the MCZ, while the many            Maynard, 1920d: 125, pl. 20, figs. 3, 4).
remaining specimens were dispersed                  Type Material. Although the unintended
among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-              description of Strophiops fruticosa makes
tions (Turner, 1957: 151). Given the qual-       reference only to a single specimen shown
ity of Maynard’s illustrations of this spe-      in figure 55, it is likely that the 1,040 spec-
cies, it is unlikely that the initially figured   imens mentioned in the intended descrip-
specimen, shown only in right lateral view,      tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in
could ever be discerned unambiguously            Maynard, 1920d: 125) were available to
from among the large number of speci-            Maynard at the time and are thus part of
mens. Maynard (1920d: 116) reported this         the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,
taxon to be abundant, but mostly dead.           1999: 76]. Strophiops fruticosa is based on
Out of 1,500 specimens collected, only 70        1,040 syntypes.
were living. Maynard (1924a: 167) contra-           The specimen illustrated in Maynard
dicted this number, stating that of 953 col-     (1920b, fig. 55, pl. 12, fig. 3) could not be
lected, 70 were living, and provided more        located at the MCZ. Maynard clearly re-
detailed descriptions of the shell, ecology,     garded a different specimen to be the
and anatomy of this taxon. Clench and            ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops fruticosa. Lot MCZ
Aguayo (1952) considered Cerion asperum          76239 contains a single specimen labeled
to be a valid species and the senior syno-       ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-
nym of Strophiops scalariformis.                 surements and illustration of this taxon in
                                                 the intended description (Maynard and
Taxon 126. Strophiops fruticosa Maynard,         Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 125, pl. 20, figs.
  1920a [February 29]: 77 [nomen nu-             3, 4) and is accompanied by a label in
  dum]; Maynard and Clapp in May-                Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
  nard, 1920b [April 8], fig. 55, pl. 12,         which includes references to the figures.
  fig. 3; Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,           This specimen (MCZ 76239) is here des-
  1920d: 125, pl. 20, figs. 3, 4. Examined        ignated as the lectotype of Strophiops fru-
  1,040 specimens. Size given as 1.25 by         ticosa Maynard, 1920, to provide an objec-
  .45 [inches; 31.8 by 11.4 mm], but the         tive standard of reference for this species-
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                    group taxon that is consistent with May-
                                                 nard’s original concept of it. The
   Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard                remaining specimens, including MCZ
(1920a: 77) first introduced the binomen          76240, MCZ 118290, and USNM 420099,
Strophiops fruticosa as one of two exam-         are paralectotypes.
ples of a taxon that occasionally has de-           Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.3
450      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-                     casionally had depressions in its surface
erture height (including lip) 10.5 mm, ap-                    sculpture, but noted explicitly that this was
erture width (including lip and peristome)                    not a specific character. This use, also a
8.8 mm.                                                       nomen nudum, included a reference to a
   Type Locality. Bush Key [Exuma                             subsequently published illustration (May-
Group, Bahamas].                                              nard, 1920b, fig. 56, captioned ‘‘S. caduca
   Remarks. It is not surprising that, fol-                   M. & C.’’). The association of a new spe-
lowing Maynard’s death, the specimens la-                     cies group name with an illustration of the
beled as ‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the                        taxon being named before 1931 makes the
ones to be segregated at the MCZ, while                       name Strophiops caduca Maynard and
the many remaining specimens were dis-                        Clapp in Maynard, 1920b (fig. 56), avail-
persed among MCZ, USNM, and other in-                         able (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17) prior
stitutions (Turner, 1957: 151). Given the                     to the intended description of this species
quality of Maynard’s illustration of a dorsal                 (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a:
view of the single shell, it is unlikely that                 133, pl. 30, figs. 9, 10). Maynard (1920b:
this specimen could ever be discerned un-                     82) again used the binomen citing figures
ambiguously from among the large num-                         (Maynard, 1920c, fig. 61A) of a different
ber of remaining specimens, even if it                        specimen, captioned ‘‘S. caduca.’’ The bi-
were present among them.                                      nomen ‘‘S. caduca M. & C.’’ appears in the
   Maynard (1920d: 125) reported this tax-                    caption to figure 64 (Maynard, 1920c),
on to be common on the ground or about                        which is identical to figure 20 (Maynard,
the bases of bushes.                                          1919c), captioned ‘‘S. lobata M. & C.’’ A
                                                              colored version of figures 20 and 64 (May-
Taxon 127. Strophiops caduca Maynard,                         nard, 1920c, pl. 14, fig. 4) is captioned ‘‘S.
  1919b [November 6]: 35 [nomen nu-                           caduca.’’ Maynard (1920d: 112) published
  dum]; Maynard, 1920a [February 29]:                         corrections, stating that the captions to fig-
  77 [nomen nudum]; Maynard and                               ures 64 and pl. 14, fig. 4, should read lob-
  Clapp in Maynard, 1920b [April 8],
                                                              ata not caduca.
  fig. 56, 82; Maynard, 1920c, figs. 61A,
                                                                 Type Material. Although the unintended
  64, pl. 14, fig. 4 [see Nomenclatural Re-
                                                              description of Strophiops caduca makes
  marks], pl. 15, fig. 4; Maynard and
                                                              reference only to a single specimen shown
  Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 133, pl. 30,
                                                              in figure 56, it is likely that the 1,278 spec-
  figs. 9, 10. Examined 1,278 specimens.
                                                              imens mentioned in the intended descrip-
  Size given as 1.00 by .45 [inches; 25.4
                                                              tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in
  by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was
                                                              Maynard, 1921a: 133) were available to
  not used.
                                                              Maynard at the time, and are thus part of
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen                         the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,
Strophiops caduca first appeared as a no-                      1999: 76]. Strophiops caduca is based on
men nudum (Maynard, 1919b: 35). May-                          1,278 syntypes.
nard (1920a: 77) again used this binomen                         The specimen illustrated in Maynard,
as one of two examples of a taxon that oc-                    1920b (fig. 56), could not be identified at


                                                                                                                      →

Figures 126–137. Taxon 126. Strophiops fruticosa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76239. Bush Key,
Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 127. Strophiops caduca Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76366. West
side of Cabbage Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 128. Strophiops persuasa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype
MCZ 76189. Along shore north of Fresh Creek, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 129. Strophiops santesoni Maynard, 1920. Lectotype
MCZ 358073. Along northern shore of New Providence Island, west of Nassau from second mile post to beyond the fourth.
Taxon 130. Strophiops inconstans Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76341. West side of Bird Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
Taxon 131. Strophiops plebeia Maynard, 1920. Lectotype USNM 420125. Lignumvitae Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 132.
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                      451




Strophiops cana Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76374. Fortune Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon
133. Strophiops territa Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76396. Methodist churchyard and vicinity, Sherley Street, Nassau, New
Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 134. Strophiops albolabra Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76255. Great Harbor Key, Berry
Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 135. Strophiops fragilis Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76166. Second westernmost Brigadier Key,
Great Exuma, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 136. Strophiops latonia Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76314. St. Paul’s Quarry
off West Sherley St., Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 137. Strophiops mariae Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1920. Lectotype MCZ 76204. Maria Key near Little Exuma, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
452    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



the MCZ. Maynard clearly regarded a dif-        nard, 1920b, fig. 59∗, pl. 13, fig. 1) cap-
ferent specimen to be the ‘‘Type’’ of Stro-     tioned ‘‘S. persuasa M. & C.’’ was pub-
phiops caduca. Lot MCZ 76366 contains a         lished. The association of a new species
single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that       group name with an illustration of the tax-
approximates the illustration more than         on being named before 1931 makes the
the measurements of this taxon in the in-       name Strophiops persuasa Maynard and
tended taxonomic description (Maynard           Clapp in Maynard, 1920, available (Article
and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 133, pl. 30,       12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17) prior to the in-
figs. 9, 10) and is accompanied by a label       tended description of this species (May-
in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’       nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 131,
which includes references to the figures on      pl. 28, figs. 7, 8). The name next appeared
plate 30. This specimen is here designated      (Maynard, 1920d: 112) in a text correction
as the lectotype to provide an objective        [see nomenclatural remarks under S. san-
standard of reference for this species-         tesoni, Taxon 129].
group taxon that is consistent with May-           Type Material. Although the unintended
nard’s original concept of it. Maynard’s re-    description of Strophiops persuasa makes
maining specimens, including MCZ 76365          reference only to a single specimen illus-
and USNM 420005, are paralectotypes.            trated in figure 59∗, it is likely that the
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.4         2,428 specimens mentioned in the intend-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.8 mm; ap-       ed description of this taxon (Maynard and
erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-      Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 131) were avail-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      able to Maynard at the time and are thus
8.7 mm.                                         part of the type series [Article 72.4.1.1,
    Type Locality. West side of Cabbage         ICZN, 1999: 76]. Strophiops persuasa is
Key [Berry Islands], Bahamas.                   based on 2,428 syntypes. The specimen
    Remarks. It is not surprising that, after   figured both in figure 59∗ and on plate 13,
Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as       figure 1, could not be located at the MCZ.
‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be        Maynard clearly regarded a different spec-
segregated at the MCZ, while the many           imen to be the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops per-
remaining specimens were dispersed              suasa. Lot MCZ 76189 was labeled ‘‘Ho-
among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-             lotype’’ but contained two specimens. The
tions (Turner, 1957: 151). Given the qual-      larger of these specimens approximates
ity of Maynard’s illustrations of the dorsal    the subsequently published measurements
view of the shell, it is unlikely that this     and figures and is here selected as the lec-
specimen could ever be discerned unam-          totype to provide an objective standard of
biguously from among the large number           reference for this species-group taxon that
of remaining specimens, even if it were         is consistent with Maynard’s concept of
present among them.                             this taxon. The remaining specimen was
                                                recatalogued as MCZ 357000 and, togeth-
Taxon 128. Strophiops persuasa Maynard          er with MCZ 76188 and USNM 420124,
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920b [April            are among the 2,427 specimens that be-
  8], fig. 59∗, pl. 13, fig. 1; Maynard,          come paralectotypes.
  1920d: 112; Maynard and Clapp in                 Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.8
  Maynard, 1921a: 131, pl. 28, figs. 9, 10.      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.8 mm; ap-
  Examined 2,428 specimens. Size given          erture height (including lip) 8.9 mm, ap-
  as .98 by .40 [inches; 24.9 by 10.2 mm],      erture width (including lip and peristome)
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.           7.9 mm.
                                                   Type Locality. Along shore north of
  Nomenclatural Remarks. This taxon be-         Fresh Creek, Andros, Bahamas.
came available when an illustration (May-          Remarks. It is not surprising that, after
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.               453



Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as       dum. However, it does include a reference
‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be        to a subsequently published illustration
segregated at the MCZ, while the many           (Maynard, 1920c, fig. 62) that was cap-
remaining specimens were dispersed              tioned ‘‘S. santesoni.’’ Because the publi-
among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-             cation of the association of a new species
tions (Turner, 1957: 151). Given the qual-      group name (Maynard, 1920a: 81) with an
ity of Maynard’s illustration of an apertural   illustration (Maynard, 1920b, fig. 62) of
view, it is unlikely that this specimen could   the taxon being named before 1931 was
ever be discerned unambiguously from            interrupted, the name Strophiops sante-
among the large number of specimens,            soni became available only when the re-
even if it were present among them.             quirements of the relevant Articles (Arti-
                                                cles 10.1.1 and 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 9, 17)
Taxon 129. Strophiops santesoni Maynard,        have been met. The name Strophiops san-
  1920a [February 29]: 80, 81 [nomen nu-        tesoni Maynard, 1920, became available
  dum]; Maynard, 1920b [April 8], fig. 59;       July 10, 1920, on publication of figure 62,
  Maynard, 1920c [July 10], fig. 62, pl.         prior to the intended description of this
  15, fig. 5 [both of sinistral speci-           species (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
  men]; Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,           1921b: 139, pl. 36, figs. 3, 4, pl. 15, fig. 5).
  1921b: 139, pl. 36, figs. 3, 4, pl. 15, fig.    Because of Maynard’s unintended taxo-
  5. Examined 1,964 specimens. Size giv-        nomic act, both the date of publication
  en as 1.20 by .47 [inches; 30.5 by 11.9       and the authorship of Strophiops santesoni
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      were altered.
                                                   Type Material. The unintended descrip-
   Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard               tion linked the binomen Strophiops san-
(1920a: 80) first used the binomen Stro-         tesoni with a figure of a single sinistral
phiops santesoni in error as one of three       specimen illustrated in Maynard, 1920c
taxa that, in rare cases, can have a shell      (fig. 62, pl. 15, fig. 5). Maynard (1920b: 81)
encircled by a band of color. Because this      noted that sinistrality is very rare in Cer-
character is not diagnostic of S. santesoni,    ion, and only two have been found, ‘‘one
this passage cannot be considered a de-         in S. santesoni.’’ This clearly indicates that
scription of the taxon and the use is a no-     he had multiple specimens of C. santesoni,
men nudum. This use also includes a             of which one was sinistral, and suggests
clearly incorrect reference to a subse-         that the 1,964 specimens mentioned in the
quently published figure (Maynard, 1920b,        intended description of this taxon (May-
fig. 59) that was captioned ‘‘S. nuda            nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 139)
Mayn.’’ Earlier on the same page is anoth-      were available to him at the time and are
er reference to figure 59 that correctly re-     thus part of the type series [Article
fers to it as S. nuda. Maynard (1920d: 112)     72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76]. Strophiops san-
published a correction to the first use on       tesoni is thus based on 1,963 syntypes. Lot
page 80, stating ‘‘for santesoni read per-      MCZ 76237 contained 216 specimens la-
suasa.’’ This statement makes it clear that     beled ‘‘paratypes,’’ among them the illus-
the intended figure reference was figure          trated sinistral specimen, which is here
59∗ (Maynard, 1920b), which is captioned        designated as the lectotype and has been
‘‘S. persuasa M. & C. 2, banded below           recatalogued as MCZ 358073. Maynard
suture.’’ The next use of the name S. san-      clearly regarded a different specimen to be
tesoni appeared in a discussion of sinis-       the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops santesoni. Lot
trality in Cerions (Maynard, 1920a: 81).        MCZ 76238 contains a single specimen la-
Again, the text notes that this rare char-      beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that resembles the illus-
acter is present in both S. santesoni and S.    tration in the intended description, but
inconstans, and the use is a nomen nu-          differs substantially from the measure-
454    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



ments. This specimen is accompanied by          specimen published in the following issue
a label in Maynard’s hand with the term         (Maynard, 1920c, fig. 63). The identical
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the      image appeared in color in the later issue
figures on plate 36. Maynard’s remaining         (Maynard, 1920c, pl. 15, fig. 6). Both il-
1,962 specimens of S. santesoni, including      lustrations were captioned ‘‘S. inconstans.’’
MCZ 76237, MCZ 76238, USNM 420028,              The use of S. inconstans in Maynard
USNM 419959, and USNM 419964, are               (1920b: 81) is a nomen nudum. For names
paralectotypes.                                 published before 1931, the association of
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.5         a new species group name with an illus-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-       tration is sufficient to make the species
erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-       group name available [Article 12.2.2.7,
erture width (including lip and peristome)      ICZN, 1999: 17]. Because of Maynard’s
7.9 mm.                                         unintended taxonomic act, the binomen
    Type Locality. Along northern shore of      Strophiops inconstans became available on
New Providence [Island] west of Nassau          July 10, 1920, with Maynard as the author.
from second mile post to beyond the             The intended description of this taxon was
fourth.                                         published in the subsequent issue (May-
    Remarks. It is not surprising that, after   nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 119,
Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as       pl. 3, figs. 7, 8) and was based on a dextral
‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be        specimen.
segregated at the MCZ, while the many              Type Material. Although inadvertently,
remaining specimens were dispersed              this taxon is based on a sinistral specimen
among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-             illustrated in Maynard, 1920c (fig. 63, pl.
tions (Turner, 1957: 151). Fortunately, the     15, fig. 6). It is likely that the 584 speci-
sinistral specimen originally illustrated by    mens mentioned in the intended descrip-
Maynard was segregated in a vial and la-        tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in
beled as the specimen appearing in figure        Maynard, 1921a: 131) were available to
62. Surprisingly, the large lot collected by    Maynard at the time and are thus part of
Maynard actually contained two sinistral        the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,
specimens, both illustrated by Gould et al.     1999: 76]. Strophiops inconstans is based
(1985: 1368, fig. 1) as Cerion glans (Kus- ¨     on 584 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76341 con-
ter, 1844), New Providence sample. Gould        tained multiple specimens labeled ‘‘para-
and Woodruff (1986: 475) considered S.          types,’’ among them the illustrated sinistral
santesoni to be a synonym of C. glans.          specimen, which is here designated as the
                                                lectotype of Strophiops inconstans and has
Taxon 130. Strophiops inconstans May-           been recatalogued as MCZ 356677. May-
  nard, 1920b [April 8]: 81 [nomen nu-          nard clearly regarded a different specimen
  dum]; Maynard, 1920c [July 10], fig.           to be the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops inconstans.
  63, pl. 15, fig. 6; Maynard and Clapp in       Lot MCZ 76340 contained a single speci-
  Maynard, 1920d: 119, pl. 3, figs. 7, 8.        men labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates
  Examined 584 specimens. Size given as         the measurements and illustrations of this
  1.10 by .40 [inches; 27.9 by 10.2 mm],        taxon in the intended description. This
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used. Also      specimen is accompanied by a label in
  1920c [July 10], pl. 15, fig. 6.               Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
                                                which includes references to the figures in
  Nomenclatural Remarks. The first use of        the intended description. It becomes a
the binomen Strophiops inconstans ap-           paralectotype, as do the specimens in
peared in Maynard (1920b: 81) in a dis-         MCZ 76340, MCZ 76341, and USNM
cussion of sinistrality in Cerionidae and       420121.
referenced an illustration of a sinistral          Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.4
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                455



mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-       Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 131, pl. 28, figs.
erture height (including lip) 7.6 mm, ap-       7, 8).
erture width (including lip and peristome)         Type Material. Although the unintended
7.9 mm.                                         description of Strophiops plebea makes
    Type Locality. West side of Bird Key        reference only to a single decollated spec-
[Exuma Group, Bahamas].                         imen illustrated in figure 66, it is likely that
    Remarks. It is not surprising that, after   the 1,500 specimens mentioned in the in-
Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as       tended description of this taxon (Maynard
‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be        and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 130) were
segregated at the MCZ, while the many           available to Maynard at the time and are
remaining specimens were dispersed              thus part of the type series [Article
among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-             72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76]. Strophiops ple-
tions (Turner, 1957: 151). Fortunately, the     bea is based on 1,500 syntypes.
sinistral specimen was retained among the          In a search for the specimen illustrated
material at the MCZ and was easily rec-         in figure 66, examination of large series of
ognized. Maynard (1920d: 119) reported          this taxon from the Maynard collection
Strophiops inconstans to be common on           now at the MCZ and USNM revealed over
cacti. Maynard (1925: 185–194) provided         25 decollated specimens. About a third of
additional information on the anatomy,          these specimens could be excluded from
habitat, and morphology of this taxon.          consideration on the basis of the degree of
                                                decollation or the presence of other dam-
Taxon 131. Strophiops plebeia Maynard,          age undocumented in the illustration. The
  1920b [April 8]: 85 [nomen nudum].            majority of decollated specimens, however,
  Strophiops plebea Maynard 1920c               all resembled the illustration to a similar
  [July 10], fig. 66, pl. 14, fig. 1. Stro-       degree, and we are not able to match any
  phiops plebia Maynard and Clapp in            one of them to the illustration with any
  Maynard, 1921a [May 2]: 130, pl. 28,          degree of certainty.
  figs. 3, 4. Examined 1,500 specimens.             Maynard clearly regarded a different
  Size given as 1.20 by .40 [inches; 30.5       specimen to serve as the ‘‘Type’’ of Stro-
  by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was        phiops plebea. Lot MCZ 76401 was la-
  not used.                                     beled ‘‘Holotype,’’ but contained two spec-
                                                imens, neither a close match to the figures
   Nomenclatural Remarks. This binomen          or measurements in the intended taxon
was first used by Maynard (1920b: 85) [as        description. Nor were any labels in May-
plebeia] as an example of a fairly common-      nard’s handwriting present. Lot USNM
ly decollated species [80 of 1,500 speci-       420125 contained numerous specimens
mens] and included a reference to an il-        from among the 1,500 syntypes. A speci-
lustration of an apertural view of a shell      men that closely approximates the illustra-
published in the following issue (Maynard       tions and measurements published togeth-
1920c, fig. 66, pl. 14, fig. 1). Both the text    er with the intended taxon description was
illustration and the identical colored figure    selected as a lectotype (USNM 420125) to
were captioned ‘‘S. plebea.’’ The April 8,      provide an objective standard of reference
1920, use as plebeia is a nomen nudum.          for this species-group taxon that is consis-
The association of a new species group          tent with Maynard’s original concept of it.
name with an illustration of the taxon be-      The remaining specimens were recata-
ing named before 1931 makes the name            logued as USNM 1093795, and together
Strophiops plebea Maynard (1920c, fig. 66,       with MCZ 76401 and MCZ 76169, are
pl. 14, fig. 1) available (Article 12.2.7,       paralectotypes.
ICZN, 1999: 17) prior to the intended de-          Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.9
scription of this species (Maynard and          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-
456    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-     ICZN, 1999: 17) on July 10, with the pub-
erture width (including lip and peristome)     lication of figures 69 and 76, the first cap-
8.7 mm.                                        tioned ‘‘S. cana M & C’’ and the second
   Type Locality. Lignumvitae Key, Berry       ‘‘S. cana,’’ prior to the intended descrip-
Islands, Bahamas.                              tion of this species (Maynard and Clapp in
   Remarks. This taxon has been the victim     Maynard, 1921a: 137).
of multiple lapsus calami, having been             Type Material. In addition to the two
spelled plebeia when first used as a nomen      damaged specimens of Strophiops cana
nudum, plebea in the unintended, but val-      that were illustrated in figures 69 and 76
id description, and plebia in the intended     (as well as the colored versions of these
taxonomic description, as well as in a sub-    figures, pl. 15, fig. 1, pl. 17, fig. 5), it is
sequent listing in the sales catalogue (May-   likely that the 760 specimens mentioned
nard, 1924?: 3). Article 32.5.1 (ICZN,         in the intended description of this taxon
1999: 39) dictates that the spelling plebea    (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a:
be used for this taxon because there is no     137) were available to Maynard at the time
clear evidence to suggest an alternative       and are thus part of the type series [Article
spelling within the original publication it-   72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76]. Strophiops
self. Strophiops plebea Maynard, 1920, has     cana is based on 760 syntypes. Neither of
a different spelling, authorship, and date     the specimens illustrated in figures 69 and
of publication from that cited by Clench       76 could be located at the MCZ. Maynard
(1957: 158).                                   clearly regarded a different specimen to be
                                               the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops cana. Lot MCZ
Taxon 132. Strophiops cana Maynard,            76374 contains a single specimen labeled
  1920b [April 8]: 86, 88 [nomen nudum];       ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                surements of this taxon in the intended de-
  1920c [July 10], figs. 69, 76, pl. 15,        scription (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
  fig. 1, pl. 17, fig. 5; Maynard and            1921a: 137) and the subsequently pub-
  Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May 2]: 137;        lished illustrations (Maynard, 1921b, pl.
  1921b [July 15], pl. 34, figs. 3, 4. Ex-      34, figs. 3, 4) and is accompanied by a la-
  amined 760 specimens. Size given as          bel in Maynard’s hand with the term
  1.10 by .45 [inches; 27.9 by 11.4 mm],       ‘‘type’’ that includes references to the fig-
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.          ures. This specimen (MCZ 76374) is here
                                               designated as the lectotype of Strophiops
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen          cana Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
Strophiops cana was first used by Maynard       1920, to provide an objective standard of
(1920b: 86, 88) in a discussion of shell re-   reference for this species-group taxon that
pair after severe damage and referred to       is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
subsequently published illustrations (May-     cept of it. The remaining specimens, in-
nard, 1920c, figs. 69, 76, pl. 15, fig. 1, pl.   cluding MCZ 76373, MCZ 118217, and
17, fig. 5) of damaged specimens of S.          USNM 420091, are paralectotypes.
cana as examples of snails surviving crush-        Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.3
ing predation, noting that color change oc-    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-
casionally accompanied shell repair. The       erture height (including lip) 10.1 mm, ap-
appearances of S. cana in the text (May-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
nard, 1920b: 86, 88) are as a nomen nu-        8.9 mm.
dum. The association of a new species              Type Locality. Fortune Key, Berry Is-
group name with an illustration of the tax-    lands, Bahamas.
on being named before 1931 made the                Remarks. It is not surprising that, after
name Strophiops cana Maynard and Clapp         Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as
in Maynard, 1920, available (Article 12.2.7,   ‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.               457



segregated at the MCZ, while the many            scription and the subsequently published
remaining specimens, possibly including          illustrations. It is accompanied by a label
those in figures 69 and 76, were dispersed        in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-              that includes references to the figures.
tions (Turner, 1957: 151).                       This specimen is here designated as the
                                                 lectotype to provide an objective standard
Taxon 133. Strophiops territa Maynard,           of reference for this species-group taxon
  1920c [July 10], fig. 70∗, pl. 15, fig.          that is consistent with Maynard’s original
  2; Maynard, 1920d: 112; Maynard and            concept of it. The remaining 392 speci-
  Clapp in Maynard, 1921b: 147; May-             mens, including MCZ 76316 and USNM
  nard, 1926, pl. 43, figs. 5, 6. Examined        419995, are paralectotypes.
  393 specimens. Size given as .94 by .40            Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.4
  [inches; 23.9 by 10.2 mm], but the term        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                         erture height (including lip) 9.3 mm, ap-
                                                 erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen            8.1 mm.
Strophiops territa was first used by May-             Type Locality. Methodist Churchyard
nard (1920c, fig. 70∗, pl. 15, fig. 2) in the      and vicinity [Sherley Street, Nassau, New
caption to a figure of an apertural view of       Providence Island, Bahamas].
a crushed and repaired shell. Figure 70∗             Remarks. It is not surprising that, after
and the identical colored image on plate         Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as
15, figure 2, are both captioned ‘‘S. territa     ‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be
M.’’; the authorship of the taxon is restrict-   segregated at the MCZ, while the many
ed to Maynard. The association of a new          remaining specimens, possibly including
species group name with an illustration of       the damaged specimen in figure 70∗, were
the taxon being named before 1931 makes          dispersed among MCZ, USNM, and other
the name Strophiops territa Maynard,             institutions (Turner, 1957: 151). Gould and
1920c (fig. 70∗, pl. 15, fig. 2), available (Ar-   Woodruff (1986: 476) regarded this taxon
ticle 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17) on July 10,        to be an ‘‘anomalously located species at-
1920, prior to the intended description of       tributable to Cerion glans.’’
this species (Maynard and Clapp in May-
nard, 1921b: 147).                               Taxon 134. Strophiops albolabra Maynard,
   Type Material. Although the unintended          1919b [November 6]: 25 [nomen nu-
description of Strophiops territa makes            dum]; Maynard, 1920b [April 8]: 87, 88
reference only to a single damaged speci-          [nomina nuda]; Maynard, 1920c [July
men shown in figure 70∗, it is likely that          10], figs. 74a, b, 75, 77, pl. 16, figs.
the 393 specimens mentioned in the in-             1–3, pl. 17, fig. 4; Maynard and Clapp
tended description of this taxon (Maynard          in Maynard, 1921a [May 2]: 129–130,
and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b: 147) were             pl. 27, figs. 3, 4. Examined 4,560 spec-
available to Maynard at the time and are           imens. Size given as 1.30 by .50 [inches;
thus part of the type series [Article              33.0 by 12.7 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76]. Strophiops ter-         was not used.
rita is based on 393 syntypes. The speci-
men illustrated in figure 70∗ could not be           Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen
located at the MCZ. Maynard clearly re-          Strophiops albolabra first appeared as a
garded a different specimen to be the            nomen nudum (Maynard, 1919b: 25).
‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops territa. Lot MCZ          Maynard (1920b: 87, 88) discussed shell
76396 contains a single specimen labeled         repair in this species prior to its intended
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-          description and included citations to illus-
surements of this taxon in the intended de-      trations of four broken specimens that
458    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



were published in the following issue          1921a, pl. 27, figs. 3, 4). This specimen is
(Maynard, 1920c [July 10], figs. 74a, b, 75,    here designated as the lectotype of Stro-
77). These same figures were reproduced         phiops albolabra to provide an objective
in color in the same issue (Maynard,           standard of reference for this species-
1920c, pl. 16, figs. 1–3, pl. 17, fig. 4). The   group taxon that is consistent with May-
appearances of the taxon name in the text      nard’s original concept of it. The remain-
are as a nomen nudum.                          ing 4,559 specimens are paralectotypes.
   The association of a new species group          Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.7
name with an illustration of the taxon be-     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.4 mm; ap-
ing named before 1931 makes the name           erture height (including lip) 11.0 mm, ap-
Strophiops albolabra Maynard, 1920c            erture width (including lip and peristome)
(figs. 74a, b, 75, 77, pl. 16, figs. 1–3, pl.    9.1 mm.
17, fig. 4), available (Article 12.2.7, ICZN,       Type Locality. Great Harbor Key [Berry
1999: 17) on July 10, 1920, prior to the       Islands, Bahamas].
intended description of this species (May-         Remarks. It is not surprising that, after
nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 129–         Maynard’s death, the specimens labeled as
130). Because the illustrations were cap-      ‘‘types’’ by Maynard were the ones to be
tioned ‘‘S. albolabra,’’ the taxon must be     segregated at the MCZ, while the many
attributed to Maynard rather than May-         remaining specimens were dispersed
nard and Clapp as cited by Clench (1957:       among MCZ, USNM, and other institu-
137).                                          tions (Turner, 1957: 151). The four severe-
   Type Material. Although the unintended      ly damaged syntypes would be easily rec-
description of Strophiops albolabra illus-     ognizable, yet could not be found in the
trated four broken specimens, it is likely     collections of the MCZ and might have
that these were selected from among the        been discarded, especially since in excess
4,560 specimens mentioned in the intend-       of 4,000 specimens were available.
ed description of this taxon (Maynard and
Clapp in Maynard, 1921a: 130) that were        Taxon 135. Strophiops fragilis Maynard,
available to Maynard and are part of the         1920b [April 8]: 91, 92 [nomen nudum];
type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999:       Maynard, 1920c [July 10], figs. 81,
76]. Strophiops albolabra is based on            82, pl. 18, figs. 4, 5; Maynard and
4,560 syntypes. Over a thousand speci-           Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May 2]: 128,
mens contained in MCZ 76241, MCZ                 pl. 26, figs. 3, 4. Examined 200 speci-
118211, USNM 420023, and USNM                    mens. Size given as 1.00 by .40 [inches;
420098 were examined. Only two exhibit-          25.4 by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
ed significant shell damage but did not           was not used.
correspond to any of the four figured syn-
types. These four syntypes are lost because       Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard
it is unlikely that badly damaged speci-       (1920b: 91–92) used the binomen Stro-
mens would have been selected for sale or      phiops fragilis prior to its intended de-
exchange by Maynard. Maynard clearly re-       scription as an example of his ‘‘Law of In-
garded a different specimen to be the          dividual Reincarnation’’ and referenced
‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops albolabra. Lot MCZ      subsequently published illustrations (May-
76255 contains a single specimen labeled       nard, 1920c, figs. 81, 82) representing ap-
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-   ertural views of two different specimens
tion more than the measurements of this        that were reproduced in color (Maynard,
taxon and is accompanied by a label in         1920c, pl. 18, figs. 4, 5). Article 10.1.1
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’         (ICZN, 1999: 9) states that if publication
which includes references to the figures in     of the data relating to a new nominal taxon
the intended taxon description (Maynard,       or a nomenclatural act is interrupted and
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              459



continued at a later date, the name or act     this species-group taxon that is consistent
becomes available only when the require-       with Maynard’s original concept of it. The
ments of the relevant Articles have been       remaining syntypes become paralecto-
met. Thus, the first uses of the name           types.
(Maynard, 1920b: 91–92) were nomina               Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.5
nuda. The association of a new species         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.2 mm; ap-
group name with an illustration of the tax-    erture height (including lip) 9.4 mm, ap-
on being named before 1931 makes the           erture width (including lip and peristome)
name Strophiops fragilis Maynard, 1920c        8.1 mm.
(figs. 81, 82, pl. 18, figs. 4, 5), available       Type Locality. Second westernmost
(Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17) on July       Brigadier Key, Great Exuma [Exuma
10, 1920, prior to the intended description    Group, Bahamas].
of this species (Maynard and Clapp in             Remarks. Maynard (1920c: 92) com-
Maynard, 1921a: 128). As the illustrations     mented that five specimens of S. fragilis
were captioned ‘‘S. fragilis,’’ the taxon      were indistinguishable from S. nuda [from
must be attributed to Maynard rather than      Clarence Harbor, Long Island, Bahamas].
Maynard and Clapp as cited by Clench
(1957: 146).                                   Taxon 136. Strophiops latonia Maynard,
   Type Material. Two different specimens        1920c [July 10]: 95, fig. 84, pl. 18,
of S. fragilis were illustrated (Maynard,        fig. 1; Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1920c, figs. 81, 82, pl. 18, figs. 4, 5). One      1921b [July 15]: 147–148; Maynard and
(fig. 81, pl. 18, fig. 4) was reported to          Clapp in Maynard, 1926 [March 24], pl.
closely resemble S. agrestina (figs. 80, pl.      43, figs. 7, 8. Examined 600 specimens.
18, fig. 3) the other (fig. 82, pl. 18, fig. 5)     Size given as 1.10 by .42 [inches; 27.9
was described as indistinguishable from S.       by 10.7 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was
nuda (fig. 83, pl. 18, fig. 6). These two          not used.
specimens were selected from the 200
specimens mentioned in the intended de-           Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen
scription of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp     Strophiops latonia was used prior to its in-
in Maynard, 1921a: 128) that were avail-       tended description (Maynard, 1920c: 95,
able to Maynard and are part of the type       fig. 84) as an example of the ‘‘Law of Spe-
series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76].     cific Reincarnation.’’ The figure was repro-
Strophiops territa is based on 200 syn-        duced in color (Maynard, 1920c, pl. 18,
types. Lot MCZ 76166 contains a single         fig. 1). The association of a new species
specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that is ac-      group name with an illustration of the tax-
companied by a label in Maynard’s hand         on being named before 1931 makes the
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-    name Strophiops latonia available (Article
erences to the figures in the intended de-      12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17) at the time of
scription (pl. 26, figs. 3, 4). Although this   publication of the illustrations (July 10,
specimen closely matches the measure-          1920) rather than on July 15, 1921, when
ments provided in the subsequent descrip-      the intended original description was pub-
tion, it more closely resembles one of the     lished. As these illustrations were cap-
two illustrations (Maynard, 1920c, fig. 81,     tioned ‘‘S. latonia,’’ the taxon is attributed
pl. 18, fig. 4) on which the taxon is based     to Maynard, rather than Maynard and
than it does the subsequent illustration in    Clapp, as cited by Clench (1957: 150).
the intended description. In our view, it is      Type Material. Although the unintended
probable that this specimen served as the      description of Strophiops latonia is based
basis for both illustrations. This specimen    on the illustration of a single specimen (fig.
is here designated as the lectotype to pro-    84), it is likely that the 600 specimens
vide an objective standard of reference for    mentioned in the intended description of
460    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in May-             [96 smooth and 120 costate]. Size given
nard, 1921b: 148) were available to May-          as 1.10 by .40 [inches; 27.9 by 10.2
nard at the time and are thus part of the         mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999:
76]. Strophiops latonia is therefore based         Nomenclatural Remarks. The taxon
on 600 syntypes. The specimen shown in          name Strophiops mariae was first used and
figure 84 could not be located at the MCZ.       figured by Maynard (1920c: 96, fig. 88) as
Maynard clearly regarded a different spec-      an example of his ‘‘Law of Specific Rein-
imen to be the ‘‘Type’’ of Strophiops la-       carnation’’ earlier than the intended de-
tonia. Lot MCZ 76314 contains a single          scription of the species. The association of
specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approx-      a new species group name with an illus-
imates the measurements of this taxon in        tration of the taxon being named before
the intended description (Maynard,              1931 makes the name Strophiops mariae
1921b: 147–148) and the subsequently            available (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17)
published illustrations (Maynard, 1926, pl.     prior to the intended description of this
43, figs. 7, 8) and is accompanied by a la-      species (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
bel in Maynard’s hand with the term             1921a: 128). The illustrations referenced
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the      in the intended description were pub-
figures. This specimen (MCZ 76314) is            lished in the previous issue (Maynard,
here designated as the lectotype of Stro-       1920d, pl. 24, fig. 10, pl. 25, fig. 5) and
phiops latonia Maynard, 1920, to provide        depict two different specimens. Because
an objective standard of reference for this     figure 88 is captioned ‘‘S. mariae M & C.,’’
species-group taxon that is consistent with     the taxon is attributed to Maynard and
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       Clapp in Maynard and dates from July 10,
maining specimens, including MCZ 76315          1920.
and USNM 420146, are paralectotypes.               Type Material. Although the unintended
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.1         description of Strophiops mariae is based
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.8 mm; ap-       on the illustration of a single specimen (fig.
erture height (including lip) 9.6 mm, ap-       88), it is likely that the 216 specimens
erture width (including lip and peristome)      mentioned in the intended description of
8.0 mm.                                         this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in May-
    Type Locality. St. Paul’s Quarry off West   nard, 1921a: 128) were available to May-
Sherley Street, Nassau [New Providence          nard at the time and are thus part of the
Island, Bahamas].                               type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999:
    Remarks. Maynard (1924c: 6) listed S.       76]. Strophiops mariae is therefore based
latonia as extinct in 1924 from the burning     on 216 syntypes. The specimen shown in
of vegetation prior to cultivation. Gould       figure 84 could not be located at the MCZ.
and Woodruff (1986: 476) regarded this          Lot MCZ 76204 contains 120 specimens
taxon to be ‘‘intermediate’’ between Cer-       and was labeled ‘‘Paratypes.’’ Of these 120
ion glans (Kuster, 1844) and C. guberna-
              ¨                                 specimens, two were sequestered in glass
torium (Crosse, 1869).                          vials and labeled as figured specimens.
                                                One of the labels in Maynard’s handwrit-
Taxon 137. Strophiops mariae Maynard            ing associated with the smooth specimen
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920c [July             illustrated on plate 25, figure 5, states ‘‘Fig.
  10]: 96, fig. 88; Maynard, 1920d [Sep-         88.’’ This specimen, which retains the
  tember 30], pl. 24, fig. 10 [apertural         number MCZ 76204, is here designated as
  view of costate specimen], pl. 25, fig. 5      the lectotype of Strophiops mariae May-
  [left lateral view of smooth specimen];       nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920, to pro-
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a           vide an objective standard of reference for
  [May 2]: 128. Examined 216 specimens          this species-group taxon that is consistent
            THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             461



with Maynard’s original concept of it. The    illustration of a single specimen (fig. 89).
remaining 119 specimens were recata-          It is likely that this was one of 1,052 spec-
logued as MCZ 357002 and, together with       imens mentioned in the intended descrip-
MCZ 118193, are among the 215 speci-          tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in
mens that become paralectotypes.              Maynard, 1921b: 149) that were available
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.8        to Maynard at the time and are thus part
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-     of the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,
erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-     1999: 76]. Strophiops repetita is therefore
erture width (including lip and peristome)    based on 1,052 syntypes. No specimen la-
8.0 mm.                                       beled as the ‘‘Holotype’’ of Strophiops re-
   Type Locality. Maria Key near Little Ex-   petita was catalogued at the MCZ. Lot
uma [Exuma Group, Bahamas].                   MCZ 76336 contained 198 specimens and
   Remarks. Maynard (1920c: 96) noted         was labeled ‘‘Paratypes.’’ A single speci-
                                              men was sequestered in a vial and labeled
that the species S. mariae closely resem-
                                              ‘‘figured.’’ This specimen closely approxi-
bles S. repetita from Nassau, New Provi-
                                              mates both the illustration in figure 89 and
dence Island.                                 the measurements in the intended de-
                                              scription. Also present was a label in May-
Taxon 138. Strophiops repitita Maynard,       nard’s handwriting referring to ‘‘Fig 89’’
  1919b: 36 [nomen nudum]; S. repetita        and ‘‘Plate 45 figs 5–6.’’ This label indi-
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,               cates that the sequestered specimen is that
  1920c [July 10]: 96, fig. 89; Maynard        in figure 89, as well as the specimen that
  and Capp in Maynard, 1921b [July 15]:       Maynard regarded as the ‘‘type’’ because
  149, pl. 45, figs. 5, 6 [pl. 45 was never    he planned to illustrate it as part of the
  issued]. Examined 1,052 specimens.          intended taxon description. This speci-
  Size given as 1.10 by .40 [inches; 27.9     men, which retains the number MCZ
  by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was      76336 is here designated as the lectotype
  not used.                                   of Strophiops repetita Maynard and Clapp
                                              in Maynard, 1920, to provide an objective
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen         standard of reference for this species-
S. repitita first appeared as a nomen nu-      group taxon that is consistent with May-
dum (Maynard, 1919b: 36). The name was        nard’s original concept of it. The remain-
used as S. repetita (Maynard, 1920c: 96,      ing 197 specimens were recatalogued as
fig. 89) prior to the intended taxon de-       MCZ 357003 and are among the remain-
scription as an example of Maynard’s ‘‘Law    ing 1,051 specimens that become paralec-
of Specific Reincarnation.’’ The association   totypes.
of a new species group name with an il-          Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.3
                                              mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.4 mm; ap-
lustration of the taxon being named before
                                              erture height (including lip) 9.3 mm, ap-
1931 makes the name Strophiops repetita
                                              erture width (including lip and peristome)
Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920,           8.0 mm.
available (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999: 17)       Type Locality. Old fields off Kemp’s
prior to the intended description of this     Road, East Nassau [New Providence Is-
species (Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,        land, Bahamas].
1921b: 149). The caption to figure 89             Remarks. The spelling Strophiops repi-
reads ‘‘S. repetita M & C.,’’ establishing    tita appeared only as a nomen nudum
the authorship as Maynard and Clapp in        (Maynard, 1919b: 36). Both the unintend-
Maynard, 1920.                                ed and the intended taxon descriptions
   Type Material. The unintended descrip-     used the spelling S. repetita. The sales cat-
tion of Strophiops repetita is based on the   alog (Maynard, 1924b?: [4]) used the spell-
462       Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



ing repitita, but its supplement (Maynard,                       tion, which references the same illustra-
1924c: 6) listed S. repetita as nearly extinct                   tions. The taxon S. perantiqua dates from
(only three specimens) in 1924 from the                          the intended species description (Maynard
burning of vegetation prior to cultivation.                      and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d: 115, pl. 1,
Gould and Woodruff (1986: 477) regarded                          figs. 1, 2), as cited by Clench and Aguayo
this taxon to be a synonym of Cerion gub-                        (1952). Strophiops perantiqua is an junior
ernatorium (Crosse, 1869).                                       objective synonym of Strophiops peravita
                                                                 Maynard, 1919, because they share the
Taxon 139. Strophiops perantiqua May-                            same type series, including the same lec-
  nard, 1919a [October 16]: 15 [nomen                            totype [see Taxon 114].
  nudum]; Maynard, 1919b [November                                   Type Material. The taxon description by
  6]: 31 [nomen nudum]; Maynard and                              Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d (p.
  Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Septem-                               115) did not distinguish among the 25
  ber 30]: 115, pl. 1, figs. 1, 2, map 1,                         specimens examined. In the preamble to
  2 [published as map 1, 1]. Examined 25                         the taxonomic portion to this publication,
  specimens. Size given as 1.25 by .60                           Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  [inches; 31.8 by 15.2 mm], but the term                        types were selected. However, there was
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                                         no indication in the original description or
   Nomenclatural Remarks. Maynard’s                              in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-
(1919a: 15) first use of this binomen was a                       ciate a single specimen with the term
nomen nudum. Maynard (1919b: 31) again                           ‘‘type.’’ Clench and Aguayo (1952: 440, pl.
used this name, this time along with a ref-                      55, fig. 6) listed and illustrated MCZ
erence to illustrations that were issued lat-                    187537 as the ‘‘holotype,’’ but the speci-
er (Maynard, 1920d, pl. 1, figs. 1, 2), to-                       men is not accompanied by Maynard’s la-
gether with the intended taxon descrip-                          bel. Article 74.5 (ICZN, 1999: 82) states,
tion. The second use of the name in 1919                         ‘‘When the original work reveals that the
was again a nomen nudum. Article 10.1.1                          taxon had been based on more than one
(ICZN, 1999: 9) states that if publication                       specimen, a subsequent use of the term
of the data relating to a new nominal taxon                      ‘holotype’ does not constitute a valid lec-
or a nomenclatural act is interrupted and                        totype designation unless the author, when
continued at a later date, the name or act                       wrongly using that term, explicitly indicat-
becomes available only when the require-                         ed that he or she was selecting from the
ments of the relevant Articles have been                         type series that particular specimen to
met. Thus, the name S. perantiqua be-                            serve as the name-bearing type.’’ Thus,
comes available on September 30, 1920,                           there is no holotype for this taxon, nor can
upon publication of the illustrations but                        Clench and Aguayo’s treatment of MCZ
does not have priority over the simulta-                         187537 be considered a lectotype desig-
neously published intended taxon descrip-                        nation. The species is based on 25 syn-

                                                                                                                             →

Figures 138–150. Taxon 138. Strophiops repetita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76336. Old fields off
Kemp’s Road, East Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 139. Strophiops perantiqua Maynard and Clapp in May-
nard, 1920. [Not illustrated.] The binomen Strophiops perantiqua is an objective junior synonym of Strophiops peravita Maynard,
1919 [Taxon 114], as the lectotype of Strophiops peravita is also the lectotype of S. perantiqua. Taxon 140. Strophiops processa
Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76148. In area just south of the third beach north of the south end of
Great Guana Key Exumas, Bahamas. Taxon 141. Strophiops mutatoria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ
76234. Northwest of small pond near south end of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 142. Strophiops mitra
Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 187538. Back of fourth beach from south end of Great Guana Key,
Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 143. Strophiops intentata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76305. Small
area east or tract 5 just south of the third beach north of the south end of Great Guana Key, Exumas, Bahamas. Taxon 144.
Strophiops prognata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76163. Between small pond and beach, southern
end of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 145. Strophiops extrema Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920.
                THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                   463




Lectotype MCZ 76146. Near well, at extreme south end of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 146. Strophiops
imperfecta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76313. Near well on south end of Great Guana Key, Exuma
Group, Bahamas. Taxon 147. Strophiops progressa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76197. Near Black
Point, north end of Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 148. Strophiops cyclura Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1920. Lectotype MCZ 76045. Bitter Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 149. Strophiops dissimila Maynard and Clapp
in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76057. East Cistern Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 150. Strophiops veta Maynard and
Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76221. Strout’s [Stroud’s] Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
464    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



types. Of these, MCZ 187537 (the lecto-         bel accompanying the specimen with the
type of Strophiops peravita [Taxon 114]),       term ‘‘typical.’’ Article 74.5 (ICZN, 1999:
which closely approximates the published        82) states, ‘‘When the original work reveals
measurements and clearly matches the            that the taxon had been based on more
published illustrations, is here designated     than one specimen, a subsequent use of
as the lectotype of Strophiops perantiqua       the term ‘holotype’ does not constitute a
to provide an objective standard of refer-      valid lectotype designation unless the au-
ence for this species-group taxon that is       thor, when wrongly using that term, ex-
consistent with Maynard’s original and          plicitly indicated that he or she was se-
Clench and Aguayo’s subsequent concepts         lecting from the type series that particular
of this taxon. The remaining 24 syntypes        specimen to serve as the name-bearing
become paralectotypes.                          type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.9          taxon, nor can Clench and Aguayo’s treat-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.7 mm; ap-       ment of MCZ 76148 be considered a lec-
erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-      totype designation. The species is based on
erture width (including lip and peristome)      either 300 or 122 syntypes. Of these, MCZ
9.5 mm.                                         76148 is here designated as the lectotype
   Type Locality. Found fossil in red earth     to provide an objective standard of refer-
near west coast of Great Guana Key [Ex-         ence for this species-group taxon that is
umas, Bahamas], about 1 mile from south-        consistent with Maynard’s original and
ern end.                                        Clench and Aguayo’s subsequent concepts
   Remarks. Maynard (1924a: 164) de-            of this taxon. The remaining 121 or 299
scribed in detail the locality in which these   syntypes become paralectotypes.
fossils were collected. Clench and Aguayo          Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.4
(1952) considered Cerion perantiquum to         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.8 mm; ap-
be a hybrid between the ‘‘scalarinum ele-       erture height (including lip) 8.5 mm, ap-
ment and a member of the glans com-             erture width (including lip and peristome)
plex.’’                                         7.5 mm.
                                                   Type Locality. In area just S of the third
Taxon 140. Strophiops processa Maynard          beach north of the south end of Great
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-             Guana Key [Exumas, Bahamas].
  tember 30]: 116, pl. 1, figs. 7, 8, map           Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 116) report-
  1, 5. Examined 300 specimens. Size giv-       ed that this taxon was rather common, but
  en as .85 by .35 [inches; 26.9 by 7.6         all 300 specimens collected were dead.
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      Maynard (1924a: 168) later contradicted
                                                this number, stating that 122 specimens
   Type Material. The original description      were collected. Clench and Aguayo (1952:
did not distinguish among the 300 speci-        431) considered this taxon to be a subspe-
mens examined. Later, Maynard (1924a:           cies of Cerion asperum (Maynard, 1920).
168) wrote that only 122 were collected.
In the preamble to the taxonomic portion        Taxon 141. Strophiops mutatoria May-
to this publication, Maynard (1919b: 43–          nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d
44) specified that types were selected.            [September 30]: 116, pl. 1, figs. 3, 4,
However, there was no indication in the           map 1, 6; Maynard, 1924a: 170. Ex-
original description or in any of Maynard’s       amined 500 specimens. Size given as
publications to associate a single specimen       1.00 by .26 [inches; 25.4 by 6.6 mm],
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Clench and Aguayo         but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
(1952: 431, pl. 56, fig. 3) listed and illus-
trated MCZ 76148 as the ‘‘holotype,’’ pre-        Type Material. The original description
sumably on the basis of a handwritten la-       did not distinguish among the 500 speci-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              465



mens examined. Later, Maynard (1924a:           types were selected. However, there was
170) wrote that 627 were collected. In the      no indication in the original description or
preamble to the taxonomic portion to this       in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-
publication, Maynard (1919b: 43–44)             ciate a single specimen with the term
specified that types were selected. How-         ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
ever, there was no indication in the origi-     taxon, and the species is based on 75 syn-
nal description or in any of Maynard’s pub-     types. Of these, MCZ 187538, which was
lications to associate a single specimen        labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   specimen, is here designated as the lecto-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       type to provide an objective standard of
based on 500 or 627 syntypes. Of these,         reference for this species-group taxon. The
MCZ 76234 was labeled ‘‘Holotype-               remaining 74 syntypes become paralecto-
command.’’ and contains a single specimen       types.
accompanied by a note in Maynard’s hand-            Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.2
writing with the term ‘‘type.’’ This speci-     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.7 mm; ap-
men is here designated as the lectotype to      erture height (including lip) 12.2 mm, ap-
provide an objective standard of reference      erture width (including lip and peristome)
for this species-group taxon that is consis-    9.9 mm.
tent with Maynard’s original concept of it.         Type Locality. Back of fourth beach
The remaining 499 or 626 syntypes be-           from south end of Great Guana Key [Ex-
come paralectotypes.                            uma Group, Bahamas], under fallen palm
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.9          fronds.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 7.4 mm; ap-            Remarks. Maynard (1924a: 170) provid-
erture height (including lip) 7.6 mm, ap-       ed supplemental information on the shell,
erture width (including lip and peristome)      animal, anatomy, and habitat.
6.4 mm.
   Type Locality. In area south of last         Taxon 143. Strophiops intentata Maynard
[Strophiops processa      area just south of      and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
the third beach north of the south end of         tember 30]: 118, pl. 2, figs. 6, 7, map
Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Baha-               1, 7; Maynard, 1925: 171. Examined
mas].                                             256 specimens. Size given as .75 by .30
   Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 116) report-          [inches; 19.1 by 7.6 mm], but the term
ed this taxon to be common, but all 500           ‘‘type’’ was not used.
specimens examined were collected dead.
Later, Maynard (1924a: 170) reported that          Type Material. The original description
623 specimens were collected dead, of           did not distinguish among the 256 speci-
which two were fossilized.                      mens examined. Later, Maynard (1925:
                                                171) wrote that 239 were collected. In the
Taxon 142. Strophiops mitra Maynard             preamble to the taxonomic portion to this
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-             publication, Maynard (1919b: 43–44)
  tember 30]: 118, pl. 2, figs. 4, 5, map        specified that types were selected. How-
  1, 1. Examined 75 specimens. Size giv-        ever, there was no indication in the origi-
  en as 1.25 by .50 [inches; 31.8 by 12.7       nal description or in any of Maynard’s pub-
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      lications to associate a single specimen
                                                with the term ‘‘type.’’ Clench and Aguayo,
  Type Material. The original description       (1952: 431, pl. 56, fig. 4) identified and
did not distinguish among the 75 speci-         illustrated MCZ 76305 as ‘‘holotype,’’ pre-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           sumably on the basis of a handwritten la-
taxonomic portion to this publication,          bel identifying a type specimen. Article 4.5
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            (ICZN, 1999: 82) states, ‘‘When the orig-
466    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



inal work reveals that the taxon had been       taxonomic portion to this publication,
based on more than one specimen, a sub-         Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
sequent use of the term ‘holotype’ does         types were selected. However, there was
not constitute a valid lectotype designation    no indication in the original description or
unless the author, when wrongly using that      in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-
term, explicitly indicated that he or she       ciate a single specimen with the term
was selecting from the type series that par-    ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
ticular specimen to serve as the name-          taxon, and the species is based on 300 syn-
bearing type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype      types. Of these, MCZ 76163, which was
for this taxon, nor can Clench and              labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single
Aguayo’s treatment of MCZ 76305 be con-         specimen accompanied by a note in May-
sidered a lectotype designation. The spe-       nard’s handwriting with the term ‘‘type,’’ is
cies is based on 256 or 239 syntypes. Of        here designated as the lectotype to provide
these, MCZ 76305 is here designated as          an objective standard of reference for this
the lectotype to provide an objective stan-     species-group taxon that is consistent with
dard of reference for this species-group        Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s         maining 299 syntypes become paralecto-
original and Clench and Aguayo’s subse-         types.
quent concepts of it. The remaining 255             Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.9
or 238 syntypes become paralectotypes.          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 20.3          erture height (including lip) 9.0 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.4 mm; ap-        erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 7.3 mm, ap-       7.6 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)          Type Locality. Common in area be-
6.8 mm.                                         tween a small pond P [map 1, 8, p. 117]
   Type Locality. Rather common in a            and beach. [Southern end of Great Guana
small area east of tract 5 [    type locality   Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.]
of Strophiops processa       area just south        Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 118) report-
of the third beach north of the south end       ed that all 300 specimens were collected
of Great Guana Key, Exumas, Bahamas].           dead, but were more recent than Stro-
   Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 118) report-        phiops intentata. Maynard (1924: 171–
ed that all of the 256 specimens were col-      172) added some additional information,
lected dead and some were very old. May-        but did not mention the number collected.
nard (1925: 170) reported that 239 speci-
mens were collected. Clench and Aguayo          Taxon 145. Strophiops extrema Maynard
(1952: 431) listed this taxon in the synon-       and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
ymy of Cerion asperum processum (May-             tember 30]: 118, pl. 3, figs. 1, 2 [these
nard and Clapp, 1920) [Taxon 140].                figures are cited in the original descrip-
                                                  tion but captioned ‘‘S. imperfecta’’], pl.
Taxon 144. Strophiops prognata Maynard            2, figs. 10, 11 [these figures are not cit-
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-               ed in the original description but are
  tember 30]: 118, pl. 2, figs. 8, 9, map          captioned ‘‘S. extrema M. & C.’’], map
  1, 8; Maynard, 1924: 171–172. Exam-             1, 9; Maynard, 1924: 173. Examined
  ined 300 specimens. Size given as .92 by        150 specimens. Size given as 1.05 by .49
  .40 [inches; 23.4 by 10.2 mm], but the          [inches; 26.7 by 12.4 mm], but the term
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                     ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  Type Material. The original description         Type Material. The original description
did not distinguish among the 300 speci-        did not distinguish among the 150 speci-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           mens examined. In the preamble to the
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              467



taxonomic portion to this publication,          mens examined. In the preamble to the
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            taxonomic portion to this publication,
types were selected. However, there was         Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
no indication in the original description or    types were selected. However, there was
in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-       no indication in the original description or
ciate a single specimen with the term           in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-
‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this   ciate a single specimen with the term
taxon, and the species is based on 150 syn-     ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
types. Of these, MCZ 76146, which was           taxon, and the species is based on two syn-
labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single      types. Of these, MCZ 76313, which was
specimen accompanied by a note in May-          labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and contains a single
nard’s handwriting with the term ‘‘type,’’ is   specimen accompanied by a note in May-
here designated as the lectotype to provide     nard’s handwriting with the term ‘‘type’’ is
an objective standard of reference for this     here designated as the lectotype to provide
species-group taxon that is consistent with     an objective standard of reference for this
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       species-group taxon that is consistent with
maining 149 syntypes become paralecto-          Maynard’s original concept of it. The other
types.                                          syntype become a paralectotype.
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.9             Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.7
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.3 mm; ap-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 9.6 mm, ap-       erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      erture width (including lip and peristome)
7.7 mm.                                         9.8 mm.
    Type Locality. Found in vicinity of well        Type Locality. Near well, on south end
at extreme south end of [Great Guana]           of Great Guana Key [Exuma Group, Ba-
Key [Exuma Group, Bahamas].                     hamas].
    Remarks. Maynard and Clapp in May-              Remarks. Maynard and Clapp in May-
nard (1920d: 118) erred in citing the           nard (1920d: 118) erred in citing the
wrong illustrations in their original de-       wrong plate number but the correct figure
scription. The illustrations were correctly     numbers in their description of this taxon.
captioned and published at the same time        The illustrations were correctly captioned
as the description. Clench (1957: 145) cor-     and published at the same time as the de-
rected this error. Maynard (1920d: 118)         scription. Clench (1957: 148) corrected
reported that all 150 specimens were col-       this error. Maynard (1920d: 119) reported
lected dead and were of about the same          this taxon to be fossil, embedded in rock.
age as Strophiops prognata, with some
specimens showing reddish markings.             Taxon 147. Strophiops progressa Maynard,
Maynard (1924: 173) added ecological in-          1919b [November 6]: 32, 34, 35 [nonem
formation and confirmed that 150 speci-            nudum]; Maynard and Clapp in May-
mens were collected.                              nard, 1920d [September 30]: 119,
                                                  pl. 2, figs. 1–3. Examined 1,738 spec-
Taxon 146. Strophiops imperfecta May-
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d                imens. Size given as 1.15 by .45 [inches;
  [September 30]: 118–119, pl. 1 [sic,            29.2 by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
  actually 3], figs. 1, 2, map 1, 10. Ex-          was not used.
  amined two specimens. Size given as             Type Material. The original description
  1.05 by .40 [inches; 26.7 by 10.2 mm],        did not distinguish among the 1,738 spec-
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.           imens examined. In the preamble to the
  Type Material. The original description       taxonomic portion to this publication,
did not distinguish among the two speci-        Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
468    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



types were selected. However, there was         in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-
no indication in the original description or    ciate a single specimen with the term
in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-       ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
ciate a single specimen with the term           taxon and the species is based on 4,422
‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this   syntypes. Lot MCZ 76045 contains a single
taxon, and the species is based on 1,738        specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approx-
syntypes. Lot MCZ 76197 contains a single       imates the measurements and illustration
specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approx-      of this taxon and is accompanied by a label
imates the measurements and illustration        in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
of this taxon and is accompanied by a label     which includes references to the figures.
in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’       This specimen is here designated as the
which includes references to the figures.        lectotype to provide an objective standard
This specimen is here designated as the         of reference for this species-group taxon
lectotype to provide an objective standard      that is consistent with Maynard’s original
of reference for this species-group taxon       concept of it. The remaining 4,421 syn-
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      types, including MCZ 76046, MCZ
concept of it. The remaining 1,737 syn-         118235, and USNM 419949 (500 speci-
types, including MCZ 118179 and USNM            mens), become paralectotypes.
419947 (100 specimens), become paralec-             Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.8
totypes.                                        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.6         erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.1 mm; ap-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-      8.9 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)          Type Locality. Bitter Guana [Key, Exu-
10.0 mm.                                        ma Group, Bahamas].
    Type Locality. Near Black Point, north          Remarks. This binomen first appeared
end of Great Guana Key [Exuma Group,            as a nomen nudum (Maynard, 1919a: 24,
Bahamas].                                       1919b: 25). Maynard (1925: 181–185) pro-
    Remarks. This binomen appeared as a         vided additional anatomical information on
nomen nudum (Maynard, 1919b: 32, 34,            this taxon and noted that he collected 82
35) before its description.                     specimens from a single lily plant.

Taxon 148. Strophiops cyclura Maynard,          Taxon 149. Strophiops dissimila Maynard
  1919a [October 16]: 24 [nomen nu-               and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
  dum]; Maynard, 1919b [November 6]:              tember 30]: 119, pl. 24, figs. 8, 9. Ex-
  25 [nomen nudum]; Maynard and                   amined 86 specimens. Measurements
  Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Septem-                not provided.
  ber 30]: 119, pl. 3, figs. 3–5; Maynard,
  1925: 181–185. Examined 4,422 speci-             Type Material. The original description
  mens. Size given as 1.10 by .40 [inches;      did not distinguish among the 86 speci-
  27.9 by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’       mens examined. Maynard (1926: 195) re-
  was not used.                                 ported that 275 specimens were collected.
                                                Presumably 189 of these specimens were
  Type Material. The original description       collected after the taxon was described. In
did not distinguish among the 4,422 spec-       the preamble to the taxonomic portion to
imens examined. In the preamble to the          this publication, Maynard (1919b: 43–44)
taxonomic portion to this publication,          specified that types were selected. How-
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            ever, there was no indication in the origi-
types were selected. However, there was         nal description or in any of Maynard’s pub-
no indication in the original description or    lications to associate a single specimen
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              469



with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   ures. This specimen is here designated as
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       the lectotype to provide an objective stan-
based on 86 syntypes. Of these, MCZ             dard of reference for this species-group
76057, which was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and       taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s
contains a single specimen accompanied          original concept of it. The remaining 79
by a note in Maynard’s handwriting iden-        syntypes become paralectotypes.
tifying the taxon but not using the term           Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.4
‘‘type,’’ is here designated as the lectotype   mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-
to provide an objective standard of refer-      erture height (including lip) 11.5 mm, ap-
ence for this species-group taxon that is       erture width (including lip and peristome)
consistent with Maynard’s original concept      8.9 mm.
of it. The remaining 85 syntypes, which            Type Locality. Strout’s [Stroud’s] Key
might have been co-mingled with 189 sub-        [Exuma Group, Bahamas]. Fossil in cliff
sequently collected non-type specimens,         on west side.
become paralectotypes.                             Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 120) report-
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.4         ed this taxon to be the immediate ancestor
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.7 mm; ap-       of S. stroutii.
erture height (including lip) 11.2 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      Taxon 151. Strophiops stroutii Maynard,
8.9 mm.                                           1919a [October 16]: 15 [nomen nu-
    Type Locality. East Cistern Key [Exuma        dum]; Maynard, 1919b [November 6]:
Group, Bahamas].                                  35 [nomen nudum]; Maynard and
    Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 119) report-         Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Septem-
ed this taxon to occur on palm fronds and         ber 30]: 120, pl. 21, figs. 1, 2; May-
bushes.                                           nard, 1926: 198–203. Examined 1,951
                                                  specimens. Measurements not provided.
Taxon 150. Strophiops veta Maynard and
  Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Septem-                  Type Material. The original description
  ber 30]: 120, pl. 21, figs. 3, 4. Ex-          did not distinguish among the 1,951 spec-
  amined 80 specimens. Size given as 1.25       imens examined. In the preamble to the
  by .50 [inches; 31.8 by 12.7 mm], but         taxonomic portion to this publication,
  the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.               Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
                                                types were selected. However, there was
    Type Material. The original description     no indication in the original description or
did not distinguish among the 80 speci-         in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           ciate a single specimen with the term
taxonomic portion to this publication,          ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            taxon, and the species is based on 1,951
types were selected. However, there was         syntypes. Lot MCZ 76130 contains a single
no indication in the original description or    specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approx-
in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-       imates the illustration of this taxon [no
ciate a single specimen with the term           measurements were published] and is ac-
‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this   companied by a label in Maynard’s hand
taxon, and the species is based on 80 syn-      with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
types. Lot MCZ 76221 contains a single          erences to the figures. This specimen is
specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approx-      here designated as the lectotype to provide
imates the illustration and the measure-        an objective standard of reference for this
ments of this taxon and is accompanied by       species-group taxon that is consistent with
a label in Maynard’s hand with the term         Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
‘‘type’’ that includes references to the fig-    maining 1,951 syntypes, including MCZ
470      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



76131, MCZ 76132, MCZ 118195, USNM                            lotype’’ or accompanied by a label in May-
420000 (200 specimens), and USNM                              nard’s hand could be found, a specimen,
420122 (200 specimens), become paralec-                       USNM 420093, that most closely approx-
totypes.                                                      imates the published measurements and
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.3                        figure is here designated as lectotype from
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-                     a large syntype lot at USNM to provide an
erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-                    objective standard of reference for this
erture width (including lip and peristome)                    species-group taxon. The remaining 599
8.3 mm.                                                       syntypes, including MCZ 76214, MCZ
   Type Locality. Maynard (1920d: 120)                        118243, and USNM 1093792, become
and Clench (1957: 164) listed this taxon as                   paralectotypes.
occurring on Little Strout [Stroud], Strout                      Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.2
[Stroud], East and West Hawksbill and                         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.9 mm; ap-
Cistern Keys [Exuma Group, Bahamas].                          erture height (including lip) 8.6 mm, ap-
The lectotype is from Strout [Stroud] Key.                    erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Remarks. Maynard (1919a: 15, 1919b:                        7.4 mm.
35) twice introduced this binomen as a no-                       Type Locality. Wax Key [Great Exuma
men nudum. Maynard (1926: 198–203)                            Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas].
provided additional data on the basis of                         Remarks. Maynard (1926: 213–218)
dissections and noted that this was one of                    provided additional data on shell mor-
a very few taxa that occurred on more than                    phology and anatomy.
a single key.
                                                              Taxon 153. Strophiops degenis Maynard
Taxon 152. Strophiops palmata minuta                            and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                 tember 30]: 120–121, pl. 4, figs. 6, 7.
  1920d [September 30]: 120, pl. 21,                            Examined 34 specimens. Size given as
  fig. 5. Examined 600 specimens. Size                           1.10 by .45 [inches; 27.9 by 11.4 mm],
  given as .95 by .40 [inches; 24.13 by 10.2                    but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
                                                                  Type Material. The original description
    Type Material. The original description                   did not distinguish among the 34 speci-
did not distinguish among the 600 speci-                      mens examined. In the preamble to the
mens examined. In the preamble to the                         taxonomic portion to this publication,
taxonomic portion to this publication,                        Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that                          types were selected. However, there was
types were selected. However, there was                       no indication in the original description or
no indication in the original description or                  in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-
in any of Maynard’s publications to asso-                     ciate a single specimen with the term
ciate a single specimen with the term                         ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this                 taxon, and the species is based on 34 syn-
taxon, and the species is based on 600 syn-                   types. Lot MCZ 76404 contains a single
types. Because no specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-                      specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approx-

                                                                                                                      →

Figures 151–162. Taxon 151. Strophiops stroutii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76130. Strout [Stroud],
Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 152. Strophiops palmata minuta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype USNM
420093. Wax Key, Great Exuma Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Taxon 153. Strophiops degenis Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1920. Lectotype MCZ 76404. Harvest Key, Harvey Cay, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Taxon 154. Strophiops sampsoni Maynard and
Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76235. North beach of Sampson’s Key, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Taxon 155. Strophiops
tenucostata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76194. South Beach of Sampson’s Key, Exuma Cays,
Bahamas. Taxon 156. Strophiops fulvia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76159. East side of Pipe Key,
Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 157. Strophiops inquita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76182. Fowl
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                     471




Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 158. Strophiops cervina Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76047.
Refuge Key, east of Norman’s Pond Key, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Taxon 159. Strophiops pulla Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1920. Lectotype MCZ 76217. Key opposite Roseville, Great Exuma, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Taxon 160. Strophiops caerules-
cens Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76198. Key north of key opposite Roseville, Great Exuma, Bahamas.
Taxon 161. Strophiops nebula Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76039. First key north of Stocking Island,
Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Taxon 162. Strophiops exorta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76405. Interior of
Refuge Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
472    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



imates the illustration and the measure-        been recatalogued as MCZ 357004. The
ments of this taxon and is accompanied by       remaining 1,539 syntypes, including MCZ
a label in Maynard’s hand with the term         357004, MCZ 76236, MCZ 118237, and
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the      USNM 420090 (100 specimens), become
figures. This specimen is here designated        paralectotypes.
as the lectotype to provide an objective          Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.4
standard of reference for this species-         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
group taxon that is consistent with May-        erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-
nard’s original concept of it. The remain-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
ing 33 syntypes become paralectotypes.          8.4 mm.
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.0           Type Locality. North beach of Samp-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.1 mm; ap-       son’s Key [Exuma Cays, Bahamas].
erture height (including lip) 9.4 mm, ap-         Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 121) report-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      ed this taxon was common on palms.
7.6 mm.
    Type Locality. Harvest Key [Harvey          Taxon 155. Strophiops tenucostata May-
Cay, Exuma Cays, Bahamas].                        nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d
    Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 121) report-         [September 30]: 121, pl. 4, figs. 3
ed this taxon as occurring very scattered         [sic, actually 8], 9. Examined 112 spec-
on palms, bushes, and rocks.                      imens. Measurements not provided.

Taxon 154. Strophiops sampsoni Maynard             Type Material. The original description
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-             did not distinguish among the 112 speci-
  tember 30]: 121, pl. 4, figs. 1, 10. Ex-       mens examined. In the preamble to the
  amined 1,540 specimens. Size given as         taxonomic portion to this publication,
  1.20 by .50 [inches; 30.5 by 12.7 mm],        Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.           types were selected. However, there was
                                                no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
   Type Material. The original description      publications to associate a single specimen
did not distinguish among the 1,540 spec-       with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
imens examined. In the preamble to the          lotype for this taxon, and the species is
taxonomic portion to this publication,          based on 112 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76194
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
types were selected. However, there was         lotype’’ that matches the illustrations of
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       this taxon and is accompanied by a label
publications to associate a single specimen     in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type.’’
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   This specimen is here designated as the
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       lectotype to provide an objective standard
based on 1,540 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76235          of reference for this species-group taxon
was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ but contains two       that is consistent with Maynard’s original
syntypes, one of which matches closely the      concept of it. The remaining 111 syntypes,
published dimensions and illustration of        including MCZ 76195, become paralecto-
this taxon and is accompanied by a label        types.
in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’          Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.5
which includes references to the figures.        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.0 mm; ap-
This specimen is here designated as the         erture height (including lip) 9.9 mm, ap-
lectotype to provide an objective standard      erture width (including lip and peristome)
of reference for this species-group taxon       7.9 mm.
that is consistent with Maynard’s original         Type Locality. South Beach of Samp-
concept of it. The other specimen has           son’s Key [Exuma Cays, Bahamas].
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.               473



  Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 121) report-           tember 30]: 121, pl. 4, figs. 2, 3 [fig-
ed this occurred on palms but was not very        ure caption as S. inquieta]. Neither the
common.                                           number of specimens nor the measure-
                                                  ments are provided.
Taxon 156. Strophiops fulvia Maynard
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-                 Type Material. The original description
  tember 30]: 121, pl. 4, figs. 4, 5.            did not distinguish among the unspecified
  Number of specimens examined not              number of specimens examined but noted
  given. Size given as 1.15 by .40 [inches;     that this taxon was found in 11 small, iso-
  29.2 by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’       lated groups, indicating, at a minimum, 11
  was not used.                                 syntypes. In the preamble to the taxonom-
                                                ic portion to this publication, Maynard
    Type Material. The original description
                                                (1919b: 43–44) specified that types were
did not specify the number of specimens
                                                selected. However, there was no indication
examined but noted that they were com-
                                                in this or any of Maynard’s publications to
mon. In the preamble to the taxonomic
                                                associate a single specimen with the term
portion to this publication, Maynard
                                                ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
(1919b: 43–44) specified that types were
                                                taxon, and the species is based on 11 or
selected. However, there was no indication
                                                more syntypes. Lot MCZ 76182 contains
in this or any of Maynard’s publications to
                                                14 adult specimens and a juvenile and was
associate a single specimen with the term
                                                labeled ‘‘Paratype.’’ No labels by Maynard
‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no holotype for this
                                                accompany this lot. The specimen that
taxon, and the species is based on an un-
                                                most closely resembles the illustrations in
determined number of syntypes. Lot MCZ
                                                size and proportion and in the visibility of
76159 contains a single specimen labeled
                                                a weak columellar tooth is selected as lec-
‘‘Holotype’’ that matches closely the pub-
                                                totype. The remaining 13 adults and ju-
lished dimensions and illustration of this
                                                venile, recatalogued as MCZ 357005, are
taxon and is accompanied by a label in
                                                paralectotypes.
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
which includes references to the figures.            Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.6
This specimen is here designated as the         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.4 mm; ap-
lectotype to provide an objective standard      erture height (including lip) 10.8 mm, ap-
of reference for this species-group taxon       erture width (including lip and peristome)
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      9.1 mm.
concept of it. The remaining syntypes, in-          Type Locality. Fowl Key [Exuma
cluding MCZ 76158, MCZ 118223, and              Group, Bahamas].
USNM 420039 (100 specimens), become                 Remarks. The taxon name originally ap-
paralectotypes.                                 peared as Strophiops inquita in the head-
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.5         ing of the original description, but as S.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.4 mm; ap-       inquieta in the caption to the figures in the
erture height (including lip) 9.9 mm, ap-       plate. The spellings inquita and inquieta
erture width (including lip and peristome)      are thus different original spellings. May-
7.6 mm.                                         nard never referred to this taxon again,
    Type Locality. On the east side of Pipe     and it was not listed in his catalog. Clench
Key [Exuma Group, Bahamas].                     (1957: 149) listed this taxon as inquita, but
    Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 121) report-       cannot be considered the First Revisor
ed this taxon to be common beneath palm         [Article 24.2.3, ICZN, 1999: 30] because
fronds.                                         he did not list both original spellings. Stro-
                                                phiops inquita is here formally selected as
Taxon 157. Strophiops inquita Maynard           the correct original spelling. Maynard
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-             (1920d: 121) reported that this taxon was
474    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



nearly exterminated by cultivation when            Remarks. Maynard’s (1919a: 21) first use
he encountered it in 1915.                      of this binomen was a nomen nudum. Lat-
                                                er (1920d: 121), he reported this taxon to
Taxon 158. Strophiops cervina Maynard,          be exceedingly abundant on palms, bush-
  1919a [October 16]: 21 [nomen nu-             es, and small trees.
  dum]; Maynard and Clapp in May-
  nard, 1920d [September 30]: 121,              Taxon 159. Strophiops pulla Maynard
  pl. 22, figs. 8, 9. Examined 3,480 spec-         and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
  imens. Size given as 1.30 by .47 [inches;       tember 30]: 122, pl. 23, figs. 3, 4. Ex-
  33.0 by 11.9 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’         amined 1,572 specimens. Size given as
  was not used.                                   1.05 by .45 [inches; 26.7 by 11.4 mm],
                                                  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
   Type Material. The original description         Type Material. The original description
did not distinguish among the 3,480 spec-       did not distinguish among the 1,572 spec-
imens examined. In the preamble to the          imens examined. In the preamble to the
taxonomic portion to this publication,          taxonomic portion to this publication,
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
types were selected. However, there was         types were selected. However, there was
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
publications to associate a single specimen     publications to associate a single specimen
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       lotype for this taxon, and the species is
based on 3,480 syntypes. Perusal of the         based on 1,572 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76217
MCZ catalog indicated that no specimen          contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
identified by Maynard as ‘‘type’’ could be       lotype’’ that approximates the measure-
recognized in his collection when it            ments and illustration of this taxon and is
reached MCZ. Lot MCZ 76047 comprised            accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
158 specimens that were labeled ‘‘para-         with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
types.’’ Segregated in a vial were two spec-    erences to the figures. This specimen is
imens, a juvenile and a transversely broken     here designated as the lectotype to provide
adult shell, together with a label referring    an objective standard of reference for this
to ‘‘fig. 124a,’’ which was never published.     species-group taxon that is consistent with
A specimen matching the published mea-          Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
surements and approximating the illustra-       maining 1,571 syntypes, including MCZ
tions was selected as lectotype to provide      76218 and USNM 419948 (100 speci-
an objective standard of reference for this     mens), become paralectotypes.
species-group taxon that is consistent with        Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.6
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.0 mm; ap-
                                                erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-
maining 157 specimens were recatalogued
                                                erture width (including lip and peristome)
as MCZ 357006. These and MCZ 118251
                                                8.2 mm.
and USNM 419938 are among the 3,479
                                                   Type Locality. Key opposite Roseville,
syntypes that become paralectotypes.            Great Exuma, Exuma Cays, Bahamas.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 33.0             Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 122) report-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-       ed this taxon to be common on bushes.
erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      Taxon 160. Strophiops caerulescens May-
8.6 mm.                                           nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d
   Type Locality. Refuge Key (east of Nor-        [September 30]: 122, pl. 22, fig. 10,
man’s Pond Key) [Exuma Cays, Bahamas].            pl. 23, fig. 5. Examined 2,000 speci-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              475



  mens. Size given as 1.30 by .50 [inches;        by 11.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was
  33.0 by 12.7 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’         not used.
  was not used.
                                                   Type Material. The original description
   Type Material. The original description      did not distinguish among the 250 speci-
did not distinguish among the 2,000 spec-       mens examined. In the preamble to the
imens examined. In the preamble to the          taxonomic portion to this publication,
taxonomic portion to this publication,          Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            types were selected. However, there was
types were selected. However, there was         no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       publications to associate a single specimen
publications to associate a single specimen     with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   lotype for this taxon, and the species is
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       based on 250 syntypes. Of these, MCZ
based on 2,000 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76198          76039, which was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        contains a single specimen accompanied
lotype’’ that approximates the measure-         by a note in Maynard’s handwriting with
ments and illustration of this taxon and is     the term ‘‘type,’’ is here designated as the
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand        lectotype to provide an objective standard
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-     of reference for this species-group taxon
erences to the figures. This specimen is         that is consistent with Maynard’s original
here designated as the lectotype to provide     concept of it. The remaining 249 syntypes
an objective standard of reference for this     become paralectotypes.
species-group taxon that is consistent with        Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.7
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-
maining 1,999 syntypes, including MCZ           erture height (including lip) 10.8 mm, ap-
76199, MCZ 118268, MCZ 357007 and               erture width (including lip and peristome)
USNM 419965 (300 specimens), become             9.3 mm.
paralectotypes.                                    Type Locality. First key north of Stock-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 33.0          ing Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.3 mm; ap-          Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 122) report-
erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-      ed this taxon to be rather uncommon on
erture width (including lip and peristome)      palms.
10.0 mm.                                        Taxon 162. Strophiops exorta Maynard
   Type Locality. Key north of key opposite       and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
Roseville, Great Exuma, Bahamas.                  tember 30]: 122, pl. 24, figs. 4, 5. Ex-
   Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 122) report-          amined nine specimens. Size given as
ed this taxon to be common, chiefly on             .90 by .35 [inches; 22.9 by 8.9 mm], but
palms. Clench (1934: 214) noted that he           the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
compared specimens from Strachan, Salt-
water Pond, and Clem Cays off Clarence-            Type Material. The original description
town, Long Island, with the type specimen       did not distinguish among the nine speci-
of Cerion caerulescens from Exuma and           mens examined. In the preamble to the
thought the differences to be only colonial.    taxonomic portion to this publication,
                                                Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
Taxon 161. Strophiops nebula Maynard            types were selected. However, there was
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-             no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  tember 30]: 122, pl. 23, fig. 10, pl.          publications to associate a single specimen
  24, fig. 1. Examined 250 specimens.            with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
  Size given as 1.20 by .44 [inches; 30.5       lotype for this taxon, and the species is
476      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



based on nine syntypes. Lot MCZ 76405                        based on 132 syntypes. Of these, MCZ
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-                     76031, which was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ and
lotype’’ that approximates the illustration                  contains a single specimen accompanied
and the measurements of this taxon and is                    by a note in Maynard’s handwriting with
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand                     the term ‘‘type,’’ is here designated as the
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-                  lectotype to provide an objective standard
erences to the figures. This specimen is                      of reference for this species-group taxon
here designated as the lectotype to provide                  that is consistent with Maynard’s original
an objective standard of reference for this                  concept of it. The remaining 131 syntypes
species-group taxon that is consistent with                  become paralectotypes.
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-                       Lectotype Measurements. Length 33.4
maining eight syntypes become paralecto-                     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.3 mm; ap-
types.                                                       erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.1                       erture width (including lip and peristome)
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.0 mm; ap-                    9.23 mm.
erture height (including lip) 8.8 mm, ap-                       Type Locality. First key north of Leward
erture width (including lip and peristome)                   Stocking Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
7.8 mm.                                                         Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 123) report-
   Type Locality. Interior of Refuge Key,                    ed this taxon to occur beneath palm
Exuma Group, Bahamas.                                        fronds.
   Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 122) report-
ed this taxon to be limited to a small col-                  Taxon 164. Strophiops exasperata May-
ony of nine specimens.                                         nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d
                                                               [September 30]: 123, pl. 23, figs. 1,
Taxon 163. Strophiops cylindriata May-                         2. Examined 572 specimens. Size given
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d                             as 1.27 by .47 [inches; 32.3 by 11.9
  [September 30]: 123, pl. 23, figs. 8,                         mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  9. Examined 132 specimens. Size given
                                                                Type Material. The original description
  as 1.35 by .50 [inches; 34.3 by 12.7
                                                             did not distinguish among the 572 speci-
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
                                                             mens examined. In the preamble to the
   Type Material. The original description                   taxonomic portion to this publication,
did not distinguish among the 132 speci-                     Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
mens examined. In the preamble to the                        types were selected. However, there was
taxonomic portion to this publication,                       no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that                         publications to associate a single specimen
types were selected. However, there was                      with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s                    lotype for this taxon, and the species is
publications to associate a single specimen                  based on 572 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76041
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-                contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is                    lotype’’ that approximates the illustration

                                                                                                                     →

Figures 163–174. Taxon 163. Strophiops cylindriata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76031. First key
north of Leward Stocking Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 164. Strophiops exasperata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1920. Lectotype MCZ 76041. Northeast point, Key east of Anna’s Tract, Great Exuma, Bahamas. Taxon 165. Strophiops crassa
Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76220. East Hill, Little Norman’s Key, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Taxon
166. Strophiops normanii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76248. West Hill, Little Norman’s Key, Exuma
Group, Bahamas. Taxon 167. Strophiops semipolita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76033. Third key
southeast of Roseville, Great Exuma, Bahamas. Taxon 168. Strophiops accuminator Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920.
Lectotype MCZ 76349. Long Key, Long Cay, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 169. Strophiops navalis Maynard and Clapp in
Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76035. South end of Ship Channel Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 170. Strophiops valida
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                   477




Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76043. Near well on west coast of Ship Channel Key, Exuma Group,
Bahamas. Taxon 171. Strophiops genetiva Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76037. On south end of Ship
Channel Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 172. Strophiops marmorosa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype
MCZ 76185. Well Key, a little north of Leward Stocking Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 173. Strophiops pusilla Maynard
and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76053. Key near Long Rock, Great Exuma, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 174.
Strophiops inexpecta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76307. Fossil in soft rock next to westernmost
Brigadier Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.
478    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



and the measurements of this taxon and is       Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand        maining 399 syntypes, including MCZ
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-     76219 and USNM 420007 (100 speci-
erences to the figures. This specimen is         mens), become paralectotypes.
here designated as the lectotype to provide        Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.3
an objective standard of reference for this     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.8 mm; ap-
species-group taxon that is consistent with     erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
maining 571 syntypes, including MCZ             9.6 mm.
76042, MCZ 118234, and USNM 420006                 Type Locality. East Hill, Little Nor-
(75 specimens), become paralectotypes.          man’s Key, Exuma Cays, Bahamas.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.7             Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 123) report-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.5 mm; ap-       ed this taxon to occur not very commonly
erture height (including lip) 11.3 mm, ap-      at the base of shrubbery.
erture width (including lip and peristome)
8.6 mm.                                         Taxon 166. Strophiops normanii Maynard
   Type Locality. Northeast point, key east       and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
of Anna’s Tract, Great Exuma, Bahamas.            tember 30]: 123, pl. 21, fig. 8, pl. 20,
   Remarks. Maynard (1920d: 123) report-          fig. 5 [as normandi]. Examined 400
ed this taxon to occur in a small area on         specimens. Size given as 1.25 by .38
shrubs.                                           [inches; 31.8 by 9.7 mm], but the term
                                                  ‘‘type’’ was not used.
Taxon 165. Strophiops crassa Maynard               Type Material. The original description
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-             did not distinguish among the 400 speci-
  tember 30]: 123, pl. 21, figs. 9, 10.          mens examined. In the preamble to the
  Examined 400 specimens. Size given as         taxonomic portion to this publication,
  1.37 by .50 [inches; 34.8 by 12.7 mm],        Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.           types were selected. However, there was
                                                no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
   Type Material. The original description      publications to associate a single specimen
did not distinguish among the 400 speci-        with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           lotype for this taxon, and the species is
taxonomic portion to this publication,          based on 400 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76248
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
types were selected. However, there was         lotype’’ that approximates the measure-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       ments and illustration of this taxon and is
publications to associate a single specimen     accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       erences to the figures. This specimen is
based on 400 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76220            here designated as the lectotype to provide
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        an objective standard of reference for this
lotype’’ that approximates the illustration     species-group taxon that is consistent with
and the measurements of this taxon and is       Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand        maining 399 syntypes, including MCZ
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-     76249 and USNM 420094 (100 speci-
erences to the figures. This specimen is         mens), become paralectotypes.
here designated as the lectotype to provide        Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.3
an objective standard of reference for this     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.7 mm; ap-
species-group taxon that is consistent with     erture height (including lip) 11.5 mm, ap-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              479



erture width (including lip and peristome)      concept of it. The remaining 384 syntypes,
9.1 mm.                                         including MCZ 76034 and MCZ 118254,
   Type Locality. West Hill, Little Nor-        become paralectotypes.
man’s Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas.                  Lectotype Measurements. Length 34.2
   Remarks. The taxon name originally ap-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.0 mm; ap-
peared as Strophiops normanii in the            erture height (including lip) 11.7 mm, ap-
heading of the original description, but as     erture width (including lip and peristome)
S. normandi in the caption to the figures        9.7 mm.
in the plate. The spellings normanii and          Type Locality. Third key southeast of
normandi are thus different original spell-     Roseville, Great Exuma, Bahamas.
ings. Maynard never referred to this taxon
again, and it was not listed in his catalog.    Taxon 168. Strophiops acuminata May-
Clench (1957: 155) listed this taxon as nor-      nard, 1920b [April 8]: 84 [nomen nu-
manii, but cannot be considered the First         dum]. Strophiops accuminator May-
Revisor [Article 24.2.3, ICZN, 1999: 30]          nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d
because he did not list both original spell-      [September 30]: 124, pl. 3, fig. 6 [ju-
ings. Strophiops normanii is here formally        venile specimens], pl. 20, figs. 1, 2 [S.
selected as the correct original spelling.        accumulata on pl. 20]. Examined 1,500
Maynard (1920d: 123) reported this taxon          specimens. Size given as 1.15 by .47
to occur on the ground, with few living           [inches; 29.2 by 11.9 mm], but the term
and many dead specimens.                          ‘‘type’’ was not used.
Taxon 167. Strophiops semipolita May-              Type Material. The original description
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d              did not distinguish among the 1,500 spec-
  [September 30]: 123, pl. 23, figs. 6,          imens examined. In the preamble to the
  7. Examined 385 specimens. Size given         taxonomic portion to this publication,
  as 1.30 by .50 [inches; 33.0 by 12.7          Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      types were selected. However, there was
   Type Material. The original description      no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
did not distinguish among the 385 speci-        publications to associate a single specimen
mens examined. In the preamble to the           with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
taxonomic portion to this publication,          lotype for this taxon, and the species is
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            based on 1,500 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76349
types were selected. However, there was         contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       lotype’’ that approximates the measure-
publications to associate a single specimen     ments and illustration of this taxon and is
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
based on 385 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76033            erences to the figures. This specimen is
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        here designated as the lectotype to provide
lotype’’ that approximates the illustration     an objective standard of reference for this
and the measurements of this taxon and is       species-group taxon that is consistent with
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand        Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-     maining 1,499 syntypes, including MCZ
erences to subsequently published figures.       76348 and USNM 420062 (100 speci-
This specimen is here designated as the         mens), become paralectotypes.
lectotype to provide an objective standard         Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.0
of reference for this species-group taxon       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-
480    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



erture width (including lip and peristome)      here designated as the lectotype to provide
7.4 mm.                                         an objective standard of reference for this
   Type Locality. Long Key [Long Cay, Ex-       species-group taxon that is consistent with
uma Group, Bahamas].                            Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
   Remarks. The taxon name Strophiops           maining 1,069 syntypes, including MCZ
acuminata first appeared as a nomen nu-          76036, MCZ 118226, and USNM 420015
dum (Maynard, 1920b [April 8]: 84). The         (50 specimens), become paralectotypes.
next to appear was S. accuminator in the          Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.9
heading of the original description, but as     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.3 mm; ap-
S. accumulata in the caption to the figures      erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-
in one of two plates. The spellings accu-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
minator and accumulata are thus different       9.2 mm.
original spellings. Maynard (1924b?: [3])         Type Locality. South end of Ship Chan-
listed the taxon as acuminator [one c] in       nel Key [Exuma Group, Bahamas].
his catalog. Clench (1957: 136) listed this       Remarks. The binomen S. navalia ap-
taxon as accuminator, but cannot be con-        peared twice as a nomen nudum (May-
sidered the First Revisor [Article 24.2.3,      nard, 1919b [November 6]: 32, 35).
ICZN, 1999: 30] because he did not list
both original spellings. Strophiops accu-       Taxon 170. Strophiops valida Maynard
minator is here formally selected as the          and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
correct original spelling.                        tember 30]: 124, pl. 22, figs. 1, 2. Ex-
                                                  amined 400 specimens. Size given as
Taxon 169. Strophiops navalia Maynard,            1.20 by .55 [inches; 30.5 by 14.0 mm],
  1919b [November 6]: 32 [nomen nu-
                                                  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  dum]; Maynard, 1919b [November 6]:
  35 [nomen nudum]. Strophiops navalis             Type Material. The original description
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                 did not distinguish among the 400 speci-
  1920d [September 30]: 124, pl. 20,            mens examined. In the preamble to the
  figs. 8–10. Examined 1,070 specimens.          taxonomic portion to this publication,
  Size given as 1.25 by .50 [inches; 31.8       Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  by 12.7 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was        types were selected. However, there was
  not used.                                     no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
   Type Material. The original description      publications to associate a single specimen
did not distinguish among the 1,070 spec-       with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
imens examined. In the preamble to the          lotype for this taxon, and the species is
taxonomic portion to this publication,          based on 400 syntypes. MCZ 76043 con-
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            tains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’
types were selected. However, there was         that approximates the measurements and
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       the illustration for this taxon and is accom-
publications to associate a single specimen     panied by a label in Maynard’s hand with
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       to the figures. This specimen is here des-
based on 1,070 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76035          ignated as the lectotype to provide an ob-
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        jective standard of reference for this spe-
lotype’’ that approximates the measure-         cies-group taxon that is consistent with
ments and illustration of this taxon and is     Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand        maining 399 syntypes, including MCZ
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-     76044, become paralectotypes.
erences to the figures. This specimen is            Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.3
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.               481



mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.1 mm; ap-        of reference for this species-group taxon
erture height (including lip) 11.9 mm, ap-       that is consistent with Maynard’s original
erture width (including lip and peristome)       concept of it. The remaining 399 syntypes
10.4 mm.                                         become paralectotypes.
   Type Locality. Near well on west coast           Lectotype Measurements. Length 38.6
of Ship Channel Key [Exuma Group, Ba-            mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.5 mm; ap-
hamas].                                          erture height (including lip) 12.3 mm, ap-
   Remarks. Because Strophiops is consid-        erture width (including lip and peristome)
ered to be a subgenus of Cerion in current       10.0 mm.
classifications, Strophiops valida Maynard           Type Locality. On south end of Ship
and Clapp in Maynard, 1920, is a junior          Channel Key [Exuma Group, Bahamas].
secondary homonym of Cerion (Maynar-                Remarks. The binomen S. genitiva first
dia) columna var. valida Pilsbry and Van-        appeared as a nomen nudum (Maynard,
atta, 1895. In our view, it is likely that fu-   1919b [November 6]: 32, 35). The taxon
ture research will identify a synonym for        name was spelled genitiva in the original
Strophiops valida Maynard and Clapp in           description and genetiva on the plate cap-
Maynard, 1920 [Article 60.2, ICZN, 1999:         tion, which was published together with
62], and that establishing a replacement         the text; thus, both names are different
name would only create an additional syn-        original spellings. Maynard (1924b?: [7])
onym.                                            listed the taxon as genetiva in his catalog,
                                                 thus serving as the First Revisor of spell-
Taxon 171. Strophiops genitiva Maynard,          ings [Article 24.2.4, ICZN, 1999: 30–31]
  1919b [November 6]: 32, 35 [nomen              and fixing the spelling as genetiva. Clench
  nudum]. Strophiops genetiva Maynard            (1957: 146) listed this species as genitiva.
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
  tember 30]: 124 [genitiva in text], pl.        Taxon 172. Strophiops marmorosa May-
  22, figs. 3, 4 [genetiva on plate]. Ex-           nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d
  amined 400 specimens. Size given as              [September 30]: 125, pl. 24, figs. 6,
  1.50 by .60 [inches; 38.1 by 15.2 mm],           7. Unspecified number of specimens ex-
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.              amined. Size given as 1.30 by .47 [inch-
                                                   es; 33.0 by 11.9 mm], but the term
   Type Material. The original description         ‘‘type’’ was not used.
did not distinguish among the 400 speci-
mens examined. In the preamble to the               Type Material. The original description
taxonomic portion to this publication,           did not distinguish among the unspecified
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that             number of specimens examined, but noted
types were selected. However, there was          that this taxon was not common. The taxon
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s        is listed for sale in Maynard’s (1924b?: [6])
publications to associate a single specimen      catalog, indicating that more than one
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-    specimen was at hand. In the preamble to
lotype for this taxon, and the species is        the taxonomic portion to this publication,
based on 400 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76037             Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-         types were selected. However, there was
lotype’’ that approximates the illustrations     no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
and measurements of this taxon. This             publications to associate a single specimen
specimen is accompanied by a label in            with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’           lotype for this taxon, and the species is
which includes references to the figures.         based on an uncertain number of syntypes.
This specimen is here designated as the          Lot MCZ 76185 contains a single speci-
lectotype to provide an objective standard       men labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates
482    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



the measurements and the illustration for       1999: 76]. Strophiops pusilla is based on
this taxon and is accompanied by a label        700 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76053 contains a
in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’       single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that
which includes references to the figures.        approximates the illustration more than
This specimen is here designated as the         the subsequently published measurements
lectotype to provide an objective standard      of this taxon and is accompanied by a label
of reference for this species-group taxon       in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      which includes references to the figures.
concept of it. The remaining syntypes, in-      This specimen is here designated as the
cluding MCZ 76184, MCZ 118242, and              lectotype. The remaining 699 specimens,
USNM 419944 (25 specimens), become              including MCZ 76054 and USNM 420133,
paralectotypes.                                 are paralectotypes.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.8             Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.6
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.4 mm; ap-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.0 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 10.6 mm, ap-      erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      erture width (including lip and peristome)
8.1 mm.                                         8.2 mm.
   Type Locality. Well Key, a little north of      Type Locality. Key near Long Rock,
Leward Stocking Key [Exuma Group, Ba-           Great Exuma [Exuma Group, Bahamas].
hamas].                                            Remarks. Maynard (1921a: 127) report-
                                                ed that of 700 specimens examined, only
Taxon 173. Strophiops pusilla Maynard           12 were living.
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
  tember 30], pl. 22, fig. 5; Maynard            Taxon 174. Strophiops inexpecta Maynard
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May 2]:            and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
  127. Examined 700 specimens. Size giv-          tember 30], pl. 25, figs. 3, 4; Maynard
  en as .70 by .30 [inches; 17.8 by 7.6           and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May 2]:
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.        127. Unspecified number of specimens
                                                  examined. Size given as 1.06 by .45
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The captioned           [inches; 29.9 by 11.4 mm], but the term
illustration (Maynard 1920, pl. 25, fig. 5)        ‘‘type’’ was not used.
was published before the text. The taxon
thus dates from the publication of the             Nomenclatural Remarks. The captioned
name in the caption accompanying the il-        illustrations (Maynard 1920, pl. 25, figs. 3,
lustrations, not from the subsequently          4) were published before the text. The tax-
published text (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999:     on thus dates from the publication of the
17). The date of publication is September       name in the caption accompanying the il-
30, 1920. Plate 22 was issued as part of        lustrations, not from the subsequently
‘‘Part Two’’ of the Contributions to the        published text (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999:
History of Cerionidae; therefore, author-       17). The date of publication is September
ship of this taxon is attributed to Maynard     30, 1920. Plate 25 was issued as part of
and Clapp.                                      ‘‘Part Two’’ of the Contributions to the
   Type Material. Although the figure cap-       History of Cerionidae; therefore, author-
tion refers only to the single specimen il-     ship of this taxon is attributed to Maynard
lustrated, it is likely that the 700 speci-     and Clapp.
mens mentioned in the intended descrip-            Type Material. There was no mention of
tion of this taxon (Maynard and Clapp in        other specimens in the plate caption, and
Maynard, 1921a: 127) were available to          the text portion published 7 months later
Maynard at the time and are thus part of        did not specify the number of specimens
the type series [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN,        that might have been available to Maynard
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              483



at the time the plate was prepared. The          ship of this taxon is attributed to Maynard
type series of Strophiops inexpecta likely       and Clapp in Maynard.
consists of multiple specimens [Article             Type Material. There was no mention of
72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76], but the number        other specimens in the plate caption, and
is not known. There was no specimen la-          the text portion published 7 months later
beled ‘‘Holotype’’ at the MCZ. Lot MCZ           did not specify the number of specimens
76307 contains 9 specimens and was la-           that might have been available to Maynard
beled ‘‘Paratypes.’’ This lot contains a label   at the time the plate was prepared. The
in Maynard’s hand that does not include          type series of Strophiops fitzgeraldi likely
the term ‘‘type’’ but does include refer-        consists of multiple specimens [Article
ences to the figures. Only one of these           72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999: 76], but the number
nine specimens is complete enough to             is not known. Lot MCZ 76051 contains a
match the illustration, although it does         single specimen labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that
have some minor damage along the colu-           approximates the illustrations and is within
mella that is not represented in the figure.      a half millimeter of the subsequently pub-
This specimen is the figured specimen and         lished measurements of this taxon. This
is here designated as the lectotype. The         specimen, which is accompanied by a label
remaining specimens were recatalogued as         in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type’’
MCZ 357008. These and MCZ 118187 are             that includes references to the figures, is
among the unspecified number of paralec-          here designated as the lectotype.
totypes.                                            Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.4
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.1           mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.9 mm; ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.0 mm; ap-        erture height (including lip) 8.2 mm, ap-
erture height (including lip) 10.1 mm, ap-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture width (including lip and peristome)       7.7 mm.
8.9 mm.                                             Type Locality. North end of Little Ex-
   Type Locality. Fossil in soft rock next to    uma [Exuma Group, Bahamas], on the
westernmost Brigadier Key [Exuma                 Fitzgerald Estate.
Group, Bahamas].
                                                 Taxon 176. Strophiops adumbra Maynard
Taxon 175. Strophiops fitzgeraldi May-              and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d [Sep-
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920d                 tember 30], pl. 25, figs. 10, 11; May-
  [September 30], pl. 25, figs. 6, 7;               nard, 1924c [10 December]: 2. Exam-
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a              ined 79 specimens. Size given as .75 by
  [May 2]: 127. Unspecified number of               .30 [inches; 19.1 by 7.6 mm], but the
  specimens examined. Size given as .85            term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  by .37 [inches; 21.6 by 9.4 mm], but the
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                       Nomenclatural Remarks. The captioned
                                                 illustrations (Maynard, 1920d, pl. 25, figs.
   Nomenclatural Remarks. The captioned          10–11) were published before the text.
illustrations (Maynard 1920, pl. 25, figs. 6,     The taxon thus dates from the publication
7) were published before the text. The tax-      of the name in the caption accompanying
on thus dates from the publication of the        the illustrations, not from the subsequent-
name in the caption accompanying the il-         ly published text (Article 12.2.7, ICZN,
lustrations, not from the subsequently           1999: 17). Plate 25 was published in ‘‘Part
published text (Article 12.2.7, ICZN, 1999:      Two’’ of the Contributions to the History
17). The date of publication is September        of the Cerionidae; therefore, the author-
30, 1920. Plate 25 was issued as a part of       ship of this taxon is attributed to Maynard
‘‘Part Two’’ of the Contributions to the         and Clapp in Maynard.
History of Cerionidae; therefore, author-           Type Material. There was no mention of
484      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



other specimens in the plate caption, but                     Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
it is likely that the 79 specimens referred                   types were selected. However, there was
to in the text portion published 7 months                     no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
later were available to Maynard at the time                   publications to associate a single specimen
the plate was prepared. The type series of                    with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
Strophiops adumbra thus consists of 79                        lotype for this taxon, and the species is
specimens [Article 72.4.1.1, ICZN, 1999:                      based on 150 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76298
76] that are syntypes. Lot MCZ 76029                          contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-                      lotype’’ that approximates the illustration
lotype’’ that closely matches the illustra-                   and the measurements of this taxon and is
tions and the subsequently published mea-                     accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
surements of this taxon. This specimen is                     with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand                      erences to the figures. This specimen is
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-                   here designated as the lectotype to provide
erences to the figures. This specimen is                       an objective standard of reference for this
the figured specimen and is here desig-                        species-group taxon that is consistent with
nated as the lectotype. The remaining 78                      Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
specimens are paralectotypes.                                 maining 149 syntypes, including MCZ
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.1                        76297 and MCZ 118183 (one specimen),
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 7.6 mm; ap-                      become paralectotypes.
erture height (including lip) 7.2 mm, ap-                        Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.6
erture width (including lip and peristome)                    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.9 mm; ap-
5.7 mm.                                                       erture height (including lip) 8.1 mm, ap-
   Type Locality. North side of a small key                   erture width (including lip and peristome)
just south of Green Turtle Cut and north                      6.4 mm.
of Great Exuma.                                                  Type Locality. Muddy Point Key, Great
   Remarks. Maynard (1924c: 2) reported                       Exuma [Exuma Group, Bahamas].
that all of the specimens were dead col-                         Remarks. The taxon name appears as
lected but that some were fresh.                              transmutata in the text and transimutata
                                                              on the plate, both names were published
Taxon 177. Strophiops transmutata May-
                                                              on the same date and are different original
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a
                                                              spellings. Maynard (1924b?: [6]) listed this
  [May 2]: 127, pl. 26, figs. 1, 2 [figures
                                                              taxon as transmutata, acting as the First
  labeled S. transimutata]. Examined 150
                                                              Revisor of spellings [Article 24.2.4, ICZN,
  specimens. Size given as .95 by .35
                                                              1999: 30–31]. Maynard (1921a: 127) re-
  [inches; 24.1 by 8.9 mm], but the term
                                                              ported that most of the specimens collect-
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.
                                                              ed were dead.
   Type Material. The original description
did not distinguish among the 150 speci-                      Taxon 178. Strophiops similaria Maynard
mens examined. In the preamble to the                           and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
taxonomic portion to this publication,                          2]: 128, pl. 25, figs. 5, 6. Examined

                                                                                                                      →

Figures 175–186. Taxon 175. Strophiops fitzgeraldi Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76051. North end
of Little Exuma, Exuma Group, Bahamas, on the Fitzgerald Estate. Taxon 176. Strophiops adumbra Maynard and Clapp in
Maynard, 1920. Lectotype MCZ 76029. North side of a small key just south of Green Turtle Cut and north of Great Exuma.
Taxon 177. Strophiops transmutata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76298. Muddy Point Key, Great
Exuma, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 178. Strophiops similaria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76055.
Westernmost Brigadier Key, Great Exuma, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 179. Strophiops flamea Maynard and Clapp in
Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76155. Southwest Point of Great Exuma, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 180. Strophiops
proavita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76143. Fossil in cliff at north end of Goat Key, Great Harbor,
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                        485




Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 181. Strophiops intercalaria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76160. Fossil
in cliff at north end of Goat Key, Great Harbor, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 182. Strophiops profunda Maynard and Clapp
in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76145. Fossil in cliff at north end of Goat Key, Great Harbor, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon
183. Strophiops mixta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76175. Bonds Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon
184. Strophiops reliqua Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76206. Holmes’ Key, Bahamas. Taxon 185.
Strophiops aviaria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76171. Bird Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 186.
Strophiops confusa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype USNM 420009. Little Harbor Key, Bahamas.
486    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



  210 specimens. Original description           Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  states ‘‘size of last’’ [ S. fragilis 1.00    types were selected. However, there was
  by .40 (inches; 25.4 by 10.2 mm)].            no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
                                                publications to associate a single specimen
   Type Material. The original description      with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
did not distinguish among the 210 speci-        lotype for this taxon, and the species is
mens examined. In the preamble to the           based on 340 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76155
taxonomic portion to this publication,          contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            lotype’’ that closely approximates the illus-
types were selected. However, there was         tration and the measurements of this tax-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       on. This specimen is accompanied by a la-
publications to associate a single specimen     bel in Maynard’s hand with the term
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   ‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       figures. This specimen is here designated
based on 210 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76055            as the lectotype to provide an objective
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        standard of reference for this species-
lotype’’ that approximates the illustration
                                                group taxon that is consistent with May-
more than the measurements of this taxon
                                                nard’s original concept of it. The remain-
and is accompanied by a label in May-
                                                ing 339 syntypes, including MCZ 76156
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
                                                and MCZ 118184 (one specimen), become
includes references to the figures. This
                                                paralectotypes.
specimen is here designated as the lecto-
                                                    Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.1
type to provide an objective standard of
                                                mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-
reference for this species-group taxon that
                                                erture height (including lip) 9.3 mm, ap-
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
                                                erture width (including lip and peristome)
cept of it. The remaining 209 syntypes, in-
                                                8.1 mm.
cluding MCZ 76056, become paralectoty-
pes.                                                Type Locality. Southwest Point of Great
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.8          Exuma [Exuma Group, Bahamas].
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; ap-            Remarks. Maynard (1921a: 128) report-
erture height (including lip) 9.2 mm, ap-       ed that of 340 specimens, only 38 were
erture width (including lip and peristome)      living.
7.5 mm.
                                                Taxon 180. Strophiops proavita Maynard
   Type Locality. Westernmost Brigadier
                                                  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
Key, Great Exuma [Exuma Group, Baha-
                                                  2]: 129, pl. 26, figs. 9, 10. Examined
mas].
                                                  40 specimens. Size given as 1.40 by .55
   Remarks. Maynard (1921a: 128) report-
                                                  [inches; 35.6 by 14.0 mm], but the term
ed that most of the specimens collected
were dead.                                        ‘‘type’’ was not used.
                                                   Type Material. The original description
Taxon 179. Strophiops flamea Maynard
                                                did not distinguish among the 40 speci-
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
                                                mens examined. In the preamble to the
  2]: 128, pl. 25, figs. 8, 9. Examined
                                                taxonomic portion to this publication,
  340 specimens. Size given as 1.00 by .40
  [inches; 25.4 by 10.2 mm], but the term       Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                        types were selected. However, there was
                                                no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
   Type Material. The original description      publications to associate a single specimen
did not distinguish among the 340 speci-        with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           lotype for this taxon, and the species is
taxonomic portion to this publication,          based on 40 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76143
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                487



contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-         is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
lotype’’ that does not closely approximate       cept of it. The remaining 59 syntypes, in-
either the illustrations or the measure-         cluding MCZ 76161, become paralectoty-
ments of this taxon. This specimen is ac-        pes.
companied by a label in Maynard’s hand              Lectotype Measurements. Length 35.8
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 14.5 mm; ap-
erences to the figures. This specimen is          erture height (including lip) 13.7 mm, ap-
here designated as the lectotype to provide      erture width (including lip and peristome)
an objective standard of reference for this      11.3 mm.
species-group taxon that is consistent with         Type Locality. Fossil in cliff at north end
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-        of Goat Key, Great Harbor [Berry Islands,
maining 39 syntypes, including MCZ               Bahamas].
76144 and MCZ 118257, become paralec-
totypes.                                         Taxon 182. Strophiops profunda Maynard
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.3               and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.9 mm; ap-            2]: 129, pl. 27, figs. 1, 2. Examined
erture height (including lip) 12.1 mm, ap-           115 specimens. Size given as 1.15 by .45
erture width (including lip and peristome)           [inches; 29.2 by 11.4 mm], but the term
10.3 mm.                                             ‘‘type’’ was not used.
   Type Locality. Fossil in cliff at north end       Type Material. The original description
of Goat Key, Great Harbor [Berry Islands,        did not distinguish among the 115 speci-
Bahamas].                                        mens examined. In the preamble to the
                                                 taxonomic portion to this publication,
Taxon 181. Strophiops intercalaria May-          Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a               types were selected. However, there was
  [May 2]: 129, pl. 26, figs. 7, 9. Ex-           no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  amined 60 specimens. Size given as 1.30        publications to associate a single specimen
  by .50 [inches; 33.0 by 12.7 mm], but          with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
  the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                lotype for this taxon, and the species is
                                                 based on 115 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
   Type Material. The original description       76145 was labeled ‘‘paratype,’’ contained
did not distinguish among the 60 speci-          two specimens, and was accompanied by a
mens examined. In the preamble to the            label in Maynard’s hand with the term
taxonomic portion to this publication,           ‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that             figures. Neither specimen matches closely
types were selected. However, there was          the published measurements. The speci-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s        men that more closely approximates the il-
publications to associate a single specimen      lustrations is here designated as the lec-
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-    totype to provide an objective standard of
lotype for this taxon, and the species is        reference for this species-group taxon that
based on 60 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76160              is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-         cept of it. The other specimen was reca-
lotype’’ that approximates the illustration      talogued as MCZ 357009. It is one of the
more than the measurements of this taxon         remaining 114 syntypes that become par-
and is accompanied by a label in May-            alectotypes.
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which            Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.0
includes references to the figures. This          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.7 mm; ap-
specimen is here designated as the lecto-        erture height (including lip) 11.2 mm, ap-
type to provide an objective standard of         erture width (including lip and peristome)
reference for this species-group taxon that      9.4 mm.
488    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   Type Locality. Fossil in cliff at north end     192 specimens. Size given as 1.16 by .40
of Goat Key, Great Harbor [Berry Islands,          [inches; 31.8 by 12.7 mm], but the term
Bahamas].                                          ‘‘type’’ was not used.

Taxon 183. Strophiops mixta Maynard                 Type Material. The original description
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May               did not distinguish among the 192 speci-
  2]: 130, pl. 27, figs. 5, 6. Examined           mens examined. In the preamble to the
  1,005 specimens. Size given as 1.26 by         taxonomic portion to this publication,
  .45 [inches; 32.0 by 11.4 mm], but the         Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                    types were selected. However, there was
                                                 no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
   Type Material. The original description       publications to associate a single specimen
did not distinguish among the 1,005 spec-        with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
imens examined. In the preamble to the           lotype for this taxon, and the species is
taxonomic portion to this publication,           based on 192 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76206
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that             contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
types were selected. However, there was          lotype’’ that approximates the illustration
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s        and the measurements of this taxon and is
publications to associate a single specimen      accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-    with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is        erences to the figures. This specimen is
based on 1,005 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76175           here designated as the lectotype to provide
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
                                                 an objective standard of reference for this
lotype’’ that closely approximates the mea-
                                                 species-group taxon that is consistent with
surements and illustration of this taxon
                                                 Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
and is accompanied by a label in May-
                                                 maining 191 syntypes, including MCZ
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
                                                 76205, become paralectotypes.
includes references to the figures. This
specimen is here designated as the lecto-           Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.4
type to provide an objective standard of         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.0 mm; ap-
reference for this species-group taxon that      erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
cept of it. The remaining 1,004 syntypes,        9.4 mm.
including MCZ 76174, MCZ 118215, and                Type Locality. Holmes’ Key [SW Grand
USNM 420115 (100 specimens), become              Bahama Island, Bahamas].
paralectotypes.                                     Remarks. The taxon name appears as re-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.0           lequa in the text and reliqua on the plate,
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.2 mm; ap-        both published on the same date and both
erture height (including lip) 11.3 mm, ap-       different original spellings. Maynard
erture width (including lip and peristome)       (1924b?: [7]) listed this taxon as S. reliqua,
10.1 mm.                                         acting as the First Revisor of spellings [Ar-
   Type Locality. Bonds Key [Berry Is-           ticle 24.2.4, ICZN, 1999: 30–31]. Clench
lands, Bahamas].                                 (1957: 160) listed this taxon as S. relequa.
   Remarks. Maynard (1921a: 130) report-
ed that this taxon was common on palms.          Taxon 185. Strophiops aviaria Maynard
                                                   and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
Taxon 184. Strophiops reliqua Maynard              2]: 130, pl. 27, figs. 9, 10. Examined
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May                 534 specimens. Size given as 1.16 by .40
  2]: 130 [as relequa in text], pl. 27, figs.       [inches; 31.8 by 12.7 mm], but the term
  7, 8 [as S. reliqua on plate]. Examined          ‘‘type’’ was not used.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              489



   Type Material. The original description      based on 1,272 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76324
did not distinguish among the 534 speci-        contains three specimens and was labeled
mens examined. In the preamble to the           ‘‘Holotype.’’ MCZ 118205 contains a single
taxonomic portion to this publication,          specimen and was labeled ‘‘paratype.’’
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            None of these closely approximates the
types were selected. However, there was         measurements or illustration of this taxon.
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       A syntype, USNM 420009, that more
publications to associate a single specimen     closely matches the measurements in the
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   original descriptions and conforms to the
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       first illustration [pl. 28, figs. 1, 2] is here
based on 534 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76171            designated as the lectotype to provide an
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        objective standard of reference for this
lotype’’ that closely approximates the mea-     species-group taxon. The remaining 1,271
surements and illustration of this taxon        syntypes, including MCZ 76168, MCZ
and is accompanied by a label in May-           76324, MCZ 118205, and USNM
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       1093790, become paralectotypes.
includes references to the figures. This            Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.7
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.7 mm; ap-
type to provide an objective standard of        erture height (including lip) 11.3 mm, ap-
reference for this species-group taxon that     erture width (including lip and peristome)
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-      8.6 mm.
cept of it. The remaining 533 syntypes, in-        Type Locality. Little Harbor Key [Berry
cluding MCZ 118206, MCZ 76170, and              Islands, Bahamas].
USNM 419942, become paralectotypes.                Remarks. This taxon appears twice in
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.2          the same publication: once on page 130
mm, diameter 12.0 (excluding lip) mm; ap-       (pl. 28, figs. 1, 2), then again on page 136
erture height (including lip) 10.5 mm, ap-      (pl. 34, fig. 1, 2) [the second illustration
erture width (including lip and peristome)      appeared in the following issue dated July
8.6 mm.                                         15, 1921]. The descriptions differ (size,
   Type Locality. Bird Key, Berry Islands,      number of costae) but have the same type
Bahamas.                                        locality and list the same number of spec-
                                                imens examined. The figures are similar
Taxon 186. Strophiops confusa Maynard           but do not represent the same specimen.
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May              The taxon originates from the first descrip-
  2]: 130, pl. 28, figs. 1, 2, and 136, pl.      tion (p. 130, pl. 28, figs. 1, 2). The second
  34, figs. 1, 2 [see Remarks]. Examined         appearance of this taxon in the same issue
  1,272 specimens. Size given as 1.20 by        is likely a lapsus on the part of Maynard.
  .45 [inches; 30.5 by 11.4 mm], but the        It is listed twice in the sales catalog (May-
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                   nard, 1924?: [3] nos. 63 [as coufusa] and
                                                94, both from Little Harbor).
   Type Material. The original description
did not distinguish among the 1,272 spec-       Taxon 187. Strophiops candida Maynard
imens examined. In the preamble to the            and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
taxonomic portion to this publication,            2]: 131, pl. 28, figs. 5, 6. Examined 68
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that              specimens. Size given as 1.25 by 0.50
types were selected. However, there was           [inches; 31.8 by 12.7 mm], but the term
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s         ‘‘type’’ was not used.
publications to associate a single specimen
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-     Type Material. The original description
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       did not distinguish among the 68 speci-
490      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



mens examined. In the preamble to the                       types were selected. However, there was
taxonomic portion to this publication,                      no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that                        publications to associate a single specimen
types were selected. However, there was                     with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s                   lotype for this taxon, and the species is
publications to associate a single specimen                 based on 2,008 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76173
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-               contains 179 syntypes [labeled ‘‘para-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is                   types’’], including a segregated specimen
based on 68 syntypes. Lot number MCZ                        that approximates the figures and mea-
76151 contains a single specimen labeled                    surements listed in the original descrip-
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-                tion. The segregated specimen is here se-
tion and the measurements of this taxon                     lected as the lectotype to provide an ob-
and is accompanied by a label in May-                       jective standard of reference for this spe-
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which                   cies-group taxon that is consistent with
includes references to the figures. This                     Maynard’s concept of this taxon. The re-
specimen is here designated as the lecto-                   maining 178 specimens were recatalogued
type to provide an objective standard of                    as MCZ 357010 and are among the 2,007
reference for this species-group taxon that                 syntypes, including USNM 420126 (150
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-                  specimens), that become paralectotypes.
cept of it. The remaining 67 syntypes, in-                     Lectotype Measurements. Length 33.7
cluding MCZ 76152 and MCZ 118200, be-                       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.9 mm; ap-
come paralectotypes.                                        erture height (including lip) 11.9 mm, ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.5                      erture width (including lip and peristome)
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.5 mm; ap-                   10.2 mm.
erture height (including lip) 11.6 mm, ap-                     Type Locality. Great Srirrup Key [Ba-
erture width (including lip and peristome)                  hamas].
10.2 mm.
   Type Locality. East Marketfish Key                        Taxon 189. Strophiops balaena Maynard
[Berry Islands, Bahamas].                                     and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
                                                              2]: 132 [as balaene], pl. 29, figs. 3, 4
Taxon 188. Strophiops primordia May-                          [as S. balaena]. Examined 765 speci-
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a                            mens. Size given as 1.20 by .40 [inches;
  [May 2]: 132, pl. 29, figs. 1, 2. Ex-                        30.5 by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
  amined 2,008 specimens. Size given as                       was not used.
  1.35 by .50 [inches; 34.3 by 12.7 mm],
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                         Type Material. The original description
                                                            did not distinguish among the 765 speci-
  Type Material. The original description                   mens examined. In the preamble to the
did not distinguish among the 2,008 spec-                   taxonomic portion to this publication,
imens examined. In the preamble to the                      Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
taxonomic portion to this publication,                      types were selected. However, there was
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that                        no indication in this or any of Maynard’s


                                                                                                                   →

Figures 187–198. Taxon 187. Strophiops candida Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76151. East Marketfish
Key, Bahamas. Taxon 188. Strophiops primordia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76173. Great Srirrup
Key, Bahamas. Taxon 189. Strophiops balaena Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76190. Whale Key,
Bahamas. Taxon 190. Strophiops porcina Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76193 Frazar’s Hog Key,
Bahamas. Taxon 191. Strophiops obtusa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76213. Cat Key, Berry Islands,
Bahamas. Taxon 192. Strophiops albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76256. Hog Cay, 4 miles NW
of Morgan’s Bluff, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 193. Strophiops litorea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype USNM
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                      491




420058. South border of Guana Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 194. Strophiops rara Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1921. Lectotype MCZ 76023. West side of Cabbage Key, Bahamas. Taxon 195. Strophiops scutata Maynard and Clapp in
Maynard, 1921. Lectotype USNM 420100. Petit Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 196. Strophiops procliva Maynard and
Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76210. Goat Key, Great Harbor, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 197. Strophiops jenneyi
Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76012. Anderson’s Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 198. Strophiops
travellii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76363. Bridgewater Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas.
492    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



publications to associate a single specimen     Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   types were selected. However, there was
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
based on 765 syntypes. Lot number MCZ           publications to associate a single specimen
76190 contains a single specimen labeled        with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-    lotype for this taxon, and the species is
tion more than the measurements of this         based on 2,305 syntypes. Lot number
taxon and is accompanied by a label in          MCZ 76193 contains a single specimen la-
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’          beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the il-
which includes references to the figures.        lustration more than the measurements of
This specimen is here designated as the         this taxon and is accompanied by a label
lectotype to provide an objective standard      in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
of reference for this species-group taxon       which includes references to the figures.
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      This specimen is here designated as the
concept of it. The remaining 764 syntypes,      lectotype to provide an objective standard
including MCZ 76191, MCZ 118213, and            of reference for this species-group taxon
USNM 419943 (200 specimens), become             that is consistent with Maynard’s original
paralectotypes.                                 concept of it. The remaining 2,304 syn-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.2          types, including MCZ 76192 and USNM
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.38 mm;          420012 (150 specimens), become paralec-
aperture height (including lip) 11.4 mm,        totypes.
aperture width (including lip and peri-            Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.3
stome) 9.1 mm.                                  mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-
   Type Locality. Whale Key [Berry Is-          erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-
lands, Bahamas].                                erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Remarks. The name of this taxon is           9.5 mm.
spelled as balaene in the original descrip-        Type Locality. Frazar’s Hog Key [Berry
tion, balaena in the plate caption, and bal-    Islands, Bahamas].
anae in Maynard’s (1924b?: [4]) sales cat-
alog. The spellings balaene and balaena         Taxon 191. Strophiops obtusa Maynard
are different original spellings, whereas         and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
balanae is a subsequent lapsus calami.            2]: 132, pl. 29, figs. 9, 10. Examined
Clench (1957: 138) listed this taxon as ba-       1,500 specimens. Size given as 1.10 by
laena but cannot be considered the First          .45 [inches; 27.9 by 11.4 mm], but the
Revisor [Article 24.2.3, ICZN, 1999: 30]          term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
because he did not list both original spell-
ings. Strophiops balaena is here formally          Type Material. The original description
selected as the correct original spelling.      did not distinguish among the 1,500 spec-
                                                imens examined. In the preamble to the
Taxon 190. Strophiops porcina Maynard           taxonomic portion to this publication,
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May              Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  2]: 132, pl. 29, figs. 7, 8. Examined          types were selected. However, there was
  2,305 specimens. Size given as 1.15 by        no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  .45 [inches; 29.2 by 11.4 mm], but the        publications to associate a single specimen
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                   with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
                                                lotype for this taxon, and the species is
   Type Material. The original description      based on 1,500 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76213
did not distinguish among the 2,305 spec-       contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
imens examined. In the preamble to the          lotype’’ that approximates the illustration
taxonomic portion to this publication,          more than the measurements of this taxon
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              493



and is accompanied by a label in May-             Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.8
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.1 mm; ap-
includes references to the figures. This         erture height (including lip) 10.8 mm, ap-
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
type to provide an objective standard of        8.9 mm.
reference for this species-group taxon that       Type Locality. ‘‘Hog Key near Morgan’s
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-      Bluff.’’ Clench (1957: 136) clarified the
cept of it. The remaining 1,499 syntypes,       type locality as Hog Cay [4 miles NW of]
including MCZ 76212, MCZ 118216, and            Morgan’s Bluff [Andros, Bahamas].
USNM 420102 (500 specimens), become               Remarks. See also Strophiops albata
paralectotypes.                                 Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.1          [Taxon 215], and Strophiops vagabunda
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-       Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1925
erture height (including lip) 10.5 mm, ap-      [Taxon 248].
erture width (including lip and peristome)
9.1 mm.                                         Taxon 193. Strophiops litorea Maynard
   Type Locality. Cat Key, Berry Islands,          and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
Bahamas.                                           2]: 133, pl. 30, figs. 7, 8. Examined
                                                   500 specimens. Measurements not pro-
Taxon 192. Strophiops albata Maynard               vided.
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May                 Type Material. The original description
  2]: 132–133, pl. 30, figs. 3, 4. Exam-         did not distinguish among the 500 speci-
  ined 60 specimens. Size given as 1.08 by      mens examined. In the preamble to the
  .45 [inches; 30.5 by 11.4 mm], but the        taxonomic portion to this publication,
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                   Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
                                                types were selected. However, there was
   Type Material. The original description      no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
did not distinguish among the 60 speci-         publications to associate a single specimen
mens examined. In the preamble to the           with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
taxonomic portion to this publication,          lotype for this taxon, and the species is
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            based on 500 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
types were selected. However, there was         76370 was labeled ‘‘holotype,’’ but contains
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       two specimens, neither of which closely
publications to associate a single specimen     match the published figure. A lectotype,
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   USNM 420058, that more closely approx-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       imates the figure is here selected from a
based on 60 syntypes. Lot number MCZ            large syntype lot at USNM to provide an
76256 contains a single specimen labeled        objective standard of reference for this
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-    species-group taxon that is consistent with
tion and less so the measurements of this       Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
taxon. It is accompanied by a label in May-     maining 499 syntypes, including MCZ
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       76369, MCZ 76370, and USNM 1093791,
includes references to the figures. This         become paralectotypes.
specimen is here designated as the lecto-          Lectotype Measurements. Length 34.0
type to provide an objective standard of        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.4 mm; ap-
reference for this species-group taxon that     erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-      erture width (including lip and peristome)
cept of it. The remaining 59 syntypes, in-      9.9 mm.
cluding MCZ 76257, become paralecto-               Type Locality. South border of Guana
types.                                          Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas.
494    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



Taxon 194. Strophiops rara Maynard and             Type Material. The original description
  Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May 2]:              did not distinguish among the 1,690 spec-
  133, pl. 31, figs. 1, 2. Examined 10           imens examined. In the preamble to the
  specimens. Size given as 2.25 [sic, 1.25]     taxonomic portion to this publication,
  by .52 [inches; 31.8 by 13.2 mm], but         Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.               types were selected. However, there was
                                                no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
    Type Material. The original description     publications to associate a single specimen
did not distinguish among the 10 speci-         with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           lotype for this taxon, and the species is
taxonomic portion to this publication,          based on 1,690 syntypes. Of the specimens
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            at the MCZ, none were found labeled ‘‘ho-
types were selected. However, there was         lotype,’’ and only a single specimen (MCZ
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       118208) labeled ‘‘paratype’’ was located. A
publications to associate a single specimen     lectotype, USNM 420100, selected to
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   most closely approximate the illustration
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       and published measurements of this taxon,
based on 10 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76023             is here designated to provide an objective
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        standard of reference for this species-
lotype’’ that approximates the illustration     group. The remaining 1,689 syntypes, in-
and the inferred measurements (see Re-          cluding MCZ 76211, MCZ 118208, and
marks) of this taxon and is accompanied         USNM 1093793, become paralectotypes.
by a label in Maynard’s hand with the term         Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.4
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.7 mm; ap-
figures. This specimen is here designated        erture height (including lip) 10.8 mm, ap-
as the lectotype to provide an objective        erture width (including lip and peristome)
standard of reference for this species-         9.8 mm.
group taxon that is consistent with May-           Type Locality. Petit Key [Berry Islands],
nard’s original concept of it. The remain-      Bahamas.
ing nine syntypes, including MCZ 76402
(one specimen), become paralectotypes.          Taxon 196. Strophiops procliva Maynard
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.6           and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.5 mm; ap-         2]: 134, pl. 31, figs. 5, 6. Examined
erture height (including lip) 11.6 mm, ap-        145 specimens. Size given as 1.10 by .45
erture width (including lip and peristome)        [inches; 27.9 by 11.4 mm], but the term
10.6 mm.                                          ‘‘type’’ was not used.
    Type Locality. West side of Cabbage
Key [Berry Islands], Bahamas.                      Type Material. The original description
    Remarks. Fossil, embedded in rock. The      did not distinguish among the 145 speci-
length measurement provided, 2.25 inch-         mens examined. In the preamble to the
es, is likely a typographical error. The il-    taxonomic portion to this publication,
lustrated lectotype corresponds to a mea-       Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
surement of 1.25 inches.                        types were selected. However, there was
                                                no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
Taxon 195. Strophiops scutata Maynard           publications to associate a single specimen
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May              with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
  2]: 133–134, pl. 31, figs. 3, 4. Exam-         lotype for this taxon, and the species is
  ined 1,690 specimens. Size given as           based on 145 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
  larger, 1.17 by .50 [inches; 30.5 by 12.7     76210 contains a single specimen labeled
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              495



tion and the measurements of this taxon            Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.1
and is accompanied by a label in May-           mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       erture height (including lip) 11.1 mm, ap-
includes references to the figures. This         erture width (including lip and peristome)
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       9.3 mm.
type to provide an objective standard of           Type Locality. Anderson’s Key, Berry Is-
reference for this species-group taxon that     lands, Bahamas.
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
cept of it. The remaining 144 syntypes, in-     Taxon 198. Strophiops travellii Maynard
cluding MCZ 76209, become paralecto-              and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
types.                                            2]: 135 [as travelii], pl. 32, figs. 3, 4
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.6            [as travellii]. Examined 3,416 speci-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.9 mm; ap-         mens. Size given as 1.35 by .45 [inches;
erture height (including lip) 9.5 mm, ap-         34.3 by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
erture width (including lip and peristome)        was not used.
7.9 mm.
   Type Locality. Goat Key, Great Harbor,          Type Material. The original description
Berry Islands, Bahamas.                         did not distinguish among the 3,416 spec-
                                                imens examined. In the preamble to the
Taxon 197. Strophiops jenneyi Maynard           taxonomic portion to this publication,
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May              Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  2]: 134, pl. 31, figs. 9, 10. Examined         types were selected. However, there was
  1,131 specimens. Size given as 1.15 by        no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  .40 [inches; 30.5 by 10.2 mm], but the        publications to associate a single specimen
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                   with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
                                                lotype for this taxon, and the species is
   Type Material. The original description      based on 3,416 syntypes. Lot number
did not distinguish among the 1,131 spec-       MCZ 76363 contains a single specimen la-
imens examined. In the preamble to the          beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the il-
taxonomic portion to this publication,          lustration and the measurements of this
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            taxon and is accompanied by a label in
types were selected. However, there was         Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       which includes references to the figures.
publications to associate a single specimen     This specimen is here designated as the
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   lectotype to provide an objective standard
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       of reference for this species-group taxon
based on 1,131 syntypes. Lot number             that is consistent with Maynard’s original
MCZ 76012 contains a single specimen la-        concept of it. The remaining 3,416 syn-
beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the il-    types, including MCZ 76364, MCZ
lustrations and measurements of this taxon      118198, and USNM 419946 (200 speci-
and is accompanied by a label in May-           mens), become paralectotypes.
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which          Lectotype Measurements. Length 33.9
includes references to the figures. This         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       erture height (including lip) 11.3 mm, ap-
type to provide an objective standard of        erture width (including lip and peristome)
reference for this species-group taxon that     9.1 mm.
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-         Type Locality. Bridgewater Key, Berry
cept of it. The remaining 1,130 syntypes,       Islands, Bahamas.
including MCZ 76103 and USNM 419985                Remarks. The taxon name appeared as
(75 specimens), become paralectotypes.          S. travelii in the heading of the original
496      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



description and S. travellii in the figure                    erture width (including lip and peristome)
caption. By listing this taxon as S. travellii               9.8 mm.
in the sales catalog, Maynard (1924b?: [3])                    Type Locality. Cliffs on Cabbage Key,
acted as the First Revisor of spellings [Ar-                 Berry Islands, Bahamas.
ticle 24.2.4, ICZN, 1999: 30–31], fixing the
spelling as travellii. Clench (1957: 165)                    Taxon 200. Strophiops lenticularia May-
listed this taxon as S. travelii in his catalog.               nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a
                                                               [May 2]: 135, pl. 32, figs. 9, 10. Ex-
Taxon 199. Strophiops picturata Maynard                        amined 325 specimens. Size given as
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May                             1.19 by .40 [inches; 30.2 by 10.2 mm],
  2]: 135, pl. 32, figs. 7, 8. Examined                         but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  eight specimens. Size given as 1.25 by
  .55 [inches; 31.8 by 14.0 mm], but the                        Type Material. The original description
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                                did not distinguish among the 325 speci-
                                                             mens examined. In the preamble to the
   Type Material. The original description                   taxonomic portion to this publication,
did not distinguish among the eight spec-                    Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
imens examined. In the preamble to the                       types were selected. However, there was
taxonomic portion to this publication,                       no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that                         publications to associate a single specimen
types were selected. However, there was                      with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s                    lotype for this taxon, and the species is
publications to associate a single specimen                  based on 325 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-                76362 contains a single specimen labeled
lotype for this taxon, and the species is                    ‘‘Holotype’’ that closely approximates the
based on eight syntypes. Lot number MCZ                      illustration and less so the measurements
76019 contains a single specimen labeled                     of this taxon. It is accompanied by a label
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-                 in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
tion and the measurements of this taxon                      which includes references to the figures.
and is accompanied by a label in May-                        This specimen is here designated as the
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which                    lectotype to provide an objective standard
includes references to the figures. This                      of reference for this species-group taxon
specimen is here designated as the lecto-                    that is consistent with Maynard’s original
type to provide an objective standard of                     concept of it. The remaining 324 syntypes,
reference for this species-group taxon that                  including MCZ 76361, become paralecto-
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-                   types.
cept of it. The remaining seven syntypes                        Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.0
become paralectotypes.                                       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.6 mm; ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.9                       erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.6 mm; ap-                    erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 11.4 mm, ap-                   8.3 mm.


                                                                                                                    →

Figures 199–210. Taxon 199. Strophiops picturata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76019. Cliffs on
Cabbage Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 200. Strophiops lenticularia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype
MCZ 76362. Staniard Creek, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 201. Strophiops stupida Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype
MCZ 76281. North Key, Staniard Creek, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 202. Strophiops columbiana Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1921. Lectotype MCZ 76339. Pigeon Key, Staniard Creek, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 203. Strophiops carnale Maynard and
Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76299. West of Morgan’s Bluff, Staniard Creek, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 204. Stro-
phiops panda Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76269. Saddle-Back Key, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 205.
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                     497




Strophiops crescentia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76385. Calabash Key, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon
206. Strophiops thayeri Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76367. East end of Thompson’s Key, Berry
Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 207. Strophiops sylvatica Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76371. Chub Point
Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas. Taxon 208. Strophiops ralla Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76301. Joulter
Keys, Andros, Bahamas. Taxon 209. Strophiops rosacea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76246. West
Silver Key, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 210. Strophiops angustocostata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1921. Lectotype MCZ 76295. Fossil on Lower Fleming, Eleuthera, Bahamas.
498    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



  Type Locality. Staniard Creek, Andros,           Type Material. The original description
Bahamas.                                        did not distinguish among the 900 speci-
                                                mens examined. In the preamble to the
Taxon 201. Strophiops stupida Maynard           taxonomic portion to this publication,
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May              Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  2]: 135, pl. 33, figs. 1, 2. Examined          types were selected. However, there was
  266 specimens. Size given as 1.00 by .45      no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  [inches; 25.4 by 11.4 mm], but the term       publications to associate a single specimen
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                        with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
                                                lotype for this taxon, and the species is
   Type Material. The original description      based on 900 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76339
did not distinguish among the 266 speci-        contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           lotype’’ that approximates the illustration
taxonomic portion to this publication,          and the measurements of this taxon and is
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
types were selected. However, there was         with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       erences to the figures. This specimen is
publications to associate a single specimen     here designated as the lectotype to provide
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   an objective standard of reference for this
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       species-group taxon that is consistent with
based on 266 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76281            Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
contained 45 specimens and was labeled          maining 899 syntypes, including MCZ
‘‘paratype.’’ The only slip of paper in May-    76338 and USNM 420054 (75 specimens),
nard’s handwriting gave the locality data       become paralectotypes.
but made no mention of types. Of these,            Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.3
a single specimen that most closely ap-         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.2 mm; ap-
proximated the published illustrations and      erture height (including lip) 9.0 mm, ap-
measurements is here designated as the          erture width (including lip and peristome)
lectotype (MCZ 76281) to provide an ob-         7.5 mm.
jective standard of reference for this spe-        Type Locality. Pigeon Key, Staniard
cies-group taxon that is consistent with        Creek, Andros, Bahamas.
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
                                                Taxon 203. Strophiops carnale Maynard
maining 44 specimens were recatalogued
                                                  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
as MCZ 357011 and are among the 265
                                                  2]: 136, pl. 33, figs. 5, 6. Examined
syntypes that become paralectotypes.
                                                  266 specimens. Size given as .90 by .35
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.9
                                                  [inches; 22.9 by 8.9 mm], but the term
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.7 mm; ap-
                                                  ‘‘type’’ was not used.
erture height (including lip) 9.3 mm, ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)         Type Material. The original description
8.1 mm.                                         did not distinguish among the 266 speci-
   Type Locality. North Key, Staniard           mens examined. In the preamble to the
Creek, Andros, Bahamas.                         taxonomic portion to this publication,
                                                Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
Taxon 202. Strophiops columbiana May-           types were selected. However, there was
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a              no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  [May 2]: 136, pl. 33, figs. 3, 4. Ex-          publications to associate a single specimen
  amined 900 specimens. Size given as .92       with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
  by .40 [inches; 23.4 by 10.2 mm], but         lotype for this taxon, and the species is
  the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.               based on 266 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              499



76299 contains a single specimen labeled        reference for this species-group taxon that
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-    is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
tion and the measurements of this taxon         cept of it. The remaining 71 syntypes, in-
and is accompanied by a label in May-           cluding MCZ 76268, become paralecto-
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       types.
includes references to the figures. This            Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.0
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-
type to provide an objective standard of        erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-
reference for this species-group taxon that     erture width (including lip and peristome)
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-      8.5 mm.
cept of it. The remaining 265 syntypes, in-        Type Locality. Saddle-Back Key, An-
cluding MCZ 76300, become paralecto-            dros, Bahamas.
types.
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.2          Taxon 205. Strophiops crescentia May-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.9 mm; ap-           nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a
erture height (including lip) 8.8 mm, ap-          [May 2]: 136, pl. 33, figs. 9, 10. Ex-
erture width (including lip and peristome)         amined 240 specimens. Size given as .95
7.5 mm.                                            by .40 [inches; 24.1 by 10.2 mm], but
   Type Locality. West of Morgan’s Bluff,          the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
Staniard Creek, Andros, Bahamas.                   Type Material. The original description
   Remarks. Clench (1957: 140) lists the        did not distinguish among the 240 speci-
type locality as 1 mile west of Morgan’s        mens examined. In the preamble to the
Bluff.                                          taxonomic portion to this publication,
                                                Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
Taxon 204. Strophiops panda Maynard             types were selected. However, there was
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May              no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  2]: 136, pl. 33, figs. 7, 8. Examined 72       publications to associate a single specimen
  specimens. Size given as .98 by .45           with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
  [inches; 24.9 by 11.4 mm], but the term       lotype for this taxon, and the species is
  ‘‘type’’ was not used.                        based on 240 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
                                                76385 contains a single specimen labeled
   Type Material. The original description      ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-
did not distinguish among the 72 speci-         tion and the measurements of this taxon
mens examined. In the preamble to the           and is accompanied by a label in May-
taxonomic portion to this publication,          nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            includes references to the figures. This
types were selected. However, there was         specimen is here designated as the lecto-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       type to provide an objective standard of
publications to associate a single specimen     reference for this species-group taxon that
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       cept of it. The remaining 239 syntypes, in-
based on 72 syntypes. Lot number MCZ            cluding MCZ 76260, become paralecto-
76269 contains a single specimen labeled        types.
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the illustra-       Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.5
tion and the measurements of this taxon         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.2 mm; ap-
and is accompanied by a label in May-           erture height (including lip) 9.4 mm, ap-
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       erture width (including lip and peristome)
includes references to the figures. This         7.9 mm.
specimen is here designated as the lecto-          Type Locality. Calabash Key, Andros,
type to provide an objective standard of        Bahamas.
500    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



Taxon 206. Strophiops thayeri Maynard           Berry Islands. This specimen was not the
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May              same species, nor is there any mention of
  2]: 137; Maynard, 1921b [July 14], pl.        Cabbage Key in the description of Cerion
  34, figs. 5, 6 [as thayerii in figure cap-      thayeri. This specimen is likely mislabeled
  tion]. Examined 2,876 specimens. Size         and/or miscatalogued.
  given as 1.35 by .40 [inches; 34.3 by 10.2
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      Taxon 207. Strophiops sylvatica Maynard
                                                  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May
   Type Material. The original description        2]: 137; Maynard, 1921b [July 15], pl.
did not distinguish among the 2,876 spec-         34, figs. 7, 8. Examined 1,500 speci-
imens examined. In the preamble to the            mens. Size given as 1.12 by .47 [inches;
taxonomic portion to this publication,            28.4 by 11.9 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that              was not used.
types were selected. However, there was
                                                   Type Material. The original description
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
                                                did not distinguish among the 1,500 spec-
publications to associate a single specimen
                                                imens examined. In the preamble to the
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
                                                taxonomic portion to this publication,
lotype for this taxon, and the species is
                                                Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
based on 2,876 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76367
                                                types were selected. However, there was
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
                                                no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
lotype’’ that approximates the illustration
                                                publications to associate a single specimen
and the measurements of this taxon and is
                                                with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
                                                lotype for this taxon, and the species is
with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
                                                based on 1,500 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76371
erences to the figures. This specimen is
                                                contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
here designated as the lectotype to provide
                                                lotype’’ that approximates the measure-
an objective standard of reference for this
                                                ments and the subsequently published il-
species-group taxon that is consistent with
                                                lustration and is accompanied by a label in
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
maining 2,875 syntypes, including MCZ           which includes references to the figures.
76368, USNM 420010 (50 specimens),              This specimen is here designated as the
and USNM 420092 (400 specimens), be-            lectotype to provide an objective standard
come paralectotypes.                            of reference for this species-group taxon
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 30.0          that is consistent with Maynard’s original
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; ap-        concept of it. The remaining 1,499 syn-
erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-       types, including MCZ 76372, MCZ
erture width (including lip and peristome)      118119, and USNM 420004 (100 speci-
8.1 mm.                                         mens), become paralectotypes.
   Type Locality. East end of Thompson’s           Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.4
Key, Berry Islands, Bahamas.                    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.7 mm; ap-
   Remarks. The taxon name appeared as          erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-
S. thayeri in the heading of the original       erture width (including lip and peristome)
description and S. thayerii in the figure        8.8 mm.
captions, which were published in a later          Type Locality. Chub Point Key, Berry
issue than the text. This taxon was listed      Islands, Bahamas.
as S. thayerii in the sales catalog (May-
nard, 1924b?: [3]). Clench (1957: 165) list-    Taxon 208. Strophiops ralla Maynard and
ed this taxon as S. thayeri in his catalog.       Clapp in Maynard, 1921a [May 2]:
Lot MCZ 118209 has a single specimen              137; Maynard, 1921b [July 15], pl. 34,
labeled ‘‘Paratype,’’ from Cabbage Key,           figs. 8, 9. Examined 65 specimens. Size
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              501



  given as 1.20 by .47 [inches; 30.5 by 11.9    lotype for this taxon, and the species is
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      based on 1,759 syntypes. No specimen la-
                                                beled ‘‘Holotype’’ was located at the MCZ,
    Type Material. The original description     nor had any been catalogued as such in the
did not distinguish among the 65 speci-         material from Maynard’s collection.
mens examined. In the preamble to the              MCZ 76246 contains 159 paratypes, of
taxonomic portion to this publication,          which one was segregated in a vial and la-
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            beled ‘‘figured.’’ This specimen approxi-
types were selected. However, there was         mates the published figure and measure-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       ments and is here designated as the lec-
publications to associate a single specimen     totype to provide an objective standard of
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   reference for this species-group taxon. The
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       remaining 158 specimens were recata-
based on 65 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76301             logued as MCZ 356678, and, together with
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        MCZ 76246, USNM 419966 (100 speci-
lotype’’ that approximates the measure-         mens), and USNM 420026 (100 speci-
ments and subsequently published illustra-      mens), are among the 1,758 syntypes that
tions of this taxon and is accompanied by       become paralectotypes.
a label in Maynard’s hand with the term            Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.1
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to these    mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.7 mm; ap-
figures. This specimen is here designated        erture height (including lip) 10.0 mm, ap-
as the lectotype to provide an objective        erture width (including lip and peristome)
standard of reference for this species-         9.1 mm.
group taxon that is consistent with May-           Type Locality. West Silver Key, Nassau,
nard’s original concept of it. The remain-      New Providence Island, Bahamas.
ing 64 syntypes, including MCZ 76302 and
MCZ 118356, become paralectotypes.              Taxon 210. Strophiops angustocostata
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.4           Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.9 mm; ap-         1921b [July 15]: 141, pl. 37, figs. 7,
erture height (including lip) 10.8 mm, ap-        8. Examined eight specimens. Size giv-
erture width (including lip and peristome)        en as 1.05 by .55 [inches; 26.7 by 14.0
8.3 mm.                                           mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
    Type Locality. Joulter Keys, Andros, Ba-
hamas.                                             Type Material. The original description
                                                did not distinguish among the eight spec-
Taxon 209. Strophiops rosacea Maynard           imens examined. In the preamble to the
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July             taxonomic portion to this publication,
  15]: 139, pl. 35, figs. 7, 8. Examined         Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  1,759 specimens. No measurements              types were selected. However, there was
  provided.                                     no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
                                                publications to associate a single specimen
  Type Material. The original description       with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
did not distinguish among the 1,759 spec-       lotype for this taxon, and the species is
imens examined. In the preamble to the          based on eight syntypes. Lot MCZ 76295
taxonomic portion to this publication,          contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Para-
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            type’’ that approximates the length mea-
types were selected. However, there was         surement and illustrations of this taxon
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       and is accompanied by a label in May-
publications to associate a single specimen     nard’s hand that includes references to the
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   figures but does not contain the term
502      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



‘‘type.’’ This specimen is here designated                   ments and later illustrations of this taxon
as the lectotype to provide an objective                     and is accompanied by a label in May-
standard of reference for this species-                      nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
group taxon that is consistent with May-                     includes references to the figures. This
nard’s original concept of it. The remain-                   specimen is here designated as the lecto-
ing seven syntypes become paralectotypes.                    type to provide an objective standard of
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.5                      reference for this species-group taxon that
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.6 mm; ap-                    is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
erture height (including lip) 10.5 mm, ap-                   cept of it. The remaining 299 syntypes, in-
erture width (including lip and peristome)                   cluding MCZ 76360 and MCZ 118274, be-
9.5 mm.                                                      come paralectotypes.
    Type Locality. Fossil on Lower Fleming                      Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.7
[Eleuthera, Bahamas].                                        mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-
    Remarks. Clench (1952: 109) listed this                  erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-
taxon as a synonym of Cerion exiguum                         erture width (including lip and peristome)
(Maynard, 1913).                                             8.1 mm.
                                                                Type Locality. Cliffs on east side of Rose
Taxon 211. Strophiops crassalabra May-                       Island, opposite Low Bay Key, New Prov-
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b                           idence Island, Bahamas.
  [July 15]: 143; Maynard, 1924a [Octo-                         Remarks. Misspelled as S. crassilabra in
  ber 25], pl. 39, figs. 7, 8 [figures pub-                    the sales catalog (Maynard, 1924c?: [6]).
  lished with the label S. crassamarga].                     See also Strophiops crassamarga [Taxon
  Examined 300 specimens. Size given as                      233]. Gould and Woodruff (1986: 481) re-
  1.15 by .40 [inches; 29.2 by 10.2 mm],                     ported that they had seen the ‘‘Holotype’’
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                        and synonymized Cerion crassalabra with
   Type Material. The original description                                ¨
                                                             C. glans (Kuster, 1844).
did not distinguish among the 300 speci-
                                                             Taxon 212. Strophiops angustalabra May-
mens examined. In the preamble to the
                                                               nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b
taxonomic portion to this publication,
                                                               [July 15]: 143–144; Maynard, 1924a
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
                                                               [October 25], pl. 39, figs. 9, 10. Exam-
types were selected. However, there was
                                                               ined 500 specimens. Size given as .95 by
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
                                                               .45 [inches; 24.1 by 11.4 mm], but the
publications to associate a single specimen
                                                               term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
lotype for this taxon, and the species is                       Type Material. The original description
based on 300 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76359                         did not distinguish among the 500 speci-
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-                     mens examined. In the preamble to the
lotype’’ that approximates the measure-                      taxonomic portion to this publication,


                                                                                                                     →

Figures 211–222. Taxon 211. Strophiops crassalabra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76359. Cliffs on
east side of Rose Island, opposite Low Bay Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 212. Strophiops angustalabra May-
nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76329. Low cliffs on west side of Rose Island, opposite Green Key, New
Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 213. Strophiops palidula Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76274.
Extreme east end of Hog Island [Paradise Island], New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 214. Strophiops saxitina Maynard
and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76326. Hog Island [Paradise Island], east of Three Bays on rock of shore, New
Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 215. Strophiops albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76258.
Southern end of Rose Island, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Strophiops vagabunda Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1925
[Taxon 248], is a new name for S. albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921, not S. albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1921 [Taxon 192]. Taxon 216. Strophiops mobile Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76309. Extreme west
end of Rose Island, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 217. Strophiops hartbennetii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                      503




1921. Lectotype MCZ 76001. Poters Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 218. Strophiops oscula Maynard and Clapp
in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76333. Old Thompson Place, off East Bay Street, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
Taxon 219. Strophiops eratica Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76387. Near Fox Hill Village, New Prov-
idence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 220. Strophiops castra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76388. Field west
of Williams Street, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 221. Strophiops rubiginosa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1921. Lectotype MCZ 76006. Field east of Methodist Church on Sherley Street, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
Taxon 222. Strophiops migratoria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76312. Grounds directly about Methodist
Sunday School building, Sherley Street, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
504    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
types were selected. However, there was         lotype for this taxon, and the species is
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       based on 1,054 syntypes. Lot number
publications to associate a single specimen     MCZ 76274 contains a single specimen la-
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       measurements and later illustrations of
based on 500 syntypes. Lot number MCZ           this taxon and is accompanied by a label
76329 contains a single specimen labeled        in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-         which includes references to the figures.
surements and subsequently published il-        This specimen is here designated as the
lustrations of this taxon and is accompa-       lectotype to provide an objective standard
nied by a label in Maynard’s hand with the      of reference for this species-group taxon
term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references to     that is consistent with Maynard’s original
these figures. This specimen is here des-        concept of it. The remaining 1,053 syn-
ignated as the lectotype to provide an ob-      types, including MCZ 76275 and USNM
jective standard of reference for this spe-     419991 (250 specimens), become paralec-
cies-group taxon that is consistent with        totypes.
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-          Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.8
maining 499 syntypes, including MCZ             mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.7 mm; ap-
76328 and MCZ 118269, become paralec-           erture height (including lip) 9.6 mm, ap-
totypes.                                        erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.2          7.4 mm.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.0 mm; ap-          Type Locality. Extreme east end of Hog
erture height (including lip) 10.0 mm, ap-      Island [Paradise Island, New Providence
erture width (including lip and peristome)      Island, Bahamas].
8.1 mm.                                            Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:
   Type Locality. Low cliffs on west side of    475) reported that they had seen the ‘‘Ho-
Rose Island, opposite Green Key, New            lotype.’’ These authors synonymized Stro-
Providence Island, Bahamas.                                                             ¨
                                                phiops palidula with Cerion glans (Kuster,
   Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:           1844).
481) reported that they had seen the ‘‘Ho-
lotype’’ and synonymized Cerion angustal-       Taxon 214. Strophiops saxitina Maynard
abra with C. glans (Kuster, 1844).
                        ¨                         and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July
                                                  15]: 145; 1925 [July 18], pl. 41, figs. 1,
Taxon 213. Strophiops palidula Maynard            2. Examined 100 specimens. Size given
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July               as .76 by .35 [inches; 19.3 by 8.9 mm],
  15]: 145; Maynard, 1925 [July 18], pl.          but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  40, figs. 9, 10. Examined 1,054 speci-
  mens. Size given as 1.10 by .40 [inches;         Type Material. The original description
  27.9 by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’       did not distinguish among the 100 speci-
  was not used.                                 mens examined. In the preamble to the
                                                taxonomic portion to this publication,
  Type Material. The original description       Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
did not distinguish among the 1,054 spec-       types were selected. However, there was
imens examined. In the preamble to the          no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
taxonomic portion to this publication,          publications to associate a single specimen
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
types were selected. However, there was         lotype for this taxon, and the species is
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       based on 100 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
publications to associate a single specimen     76326 was labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ but con-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              505



tains two specimens and is accompanied          publications to associate a single specimen
by a label in Maynard’s hand with the term      with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the      lotype for this taxon, and the species is
figures. The specimen that more closely          based on 72 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76258
approximates the measurements and later         contains a single specimen accompanied
illustrations of this taxon is here designat-   by two MCZ labels that refer to this spec-
ed as the lectotype (MCZ 76326) to pro-         imen as the holotype of Strophiops vaga-
vide an objective standard of reference for     bunda, a replacement name for the pre-
this species-group taxon that is consistent     occupied S. albata (see Remarks). A label
with Maynard’s original concept of it. The      in Maynard’s hand contains the name S.
other specimen was recatalogued as MCZ          vagabunda and the term ‘‘type’’ and in-
357012. It and MCZ 76327 are among the          cludes references to the figures. This spec-
remaining 99 syntypes that become para-         imen is here designated as the lectotype of
lectotypes.                                     S. albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.4         1921b, and also [Article 72: 7, ICZN,
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; ap-        1999: 78] its replacement name Strophiops
erture height (including lip) 7.6 mm, ap-       vagabunda Maynard and Clapp in May-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      nard, 1925, to provide an objective stan-
6.3 mm.                                         dard of reference for this species-group
    Type Locality. Hog Island, east of Three    taxon that is consistent with Maynard’s
Bays on rock of shore, New Providence Is-       original concept of it. The remaining 71
land, Bahamas.                                  syntypes, including MCZ 76256 and MCZ
    Remarks. The plate containing the illus-    76257, become paralectotypes of S. albata
trations of this taxon was issued 4 years       Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b,
after the publication of the description.       and consequently [Article 72: 7, ICZN,
Gould and Woodruff (1986: 481) consid-          1999: 78] its replacement name Strophiops
ered this taxon to be a synonym of Cerion       vagabunda Maynard and Clapp in May-
glans (Kuster, 1844).
           ¨                                    nard, 1925.
                                                   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.0
Taxon 215. Strophiops albata Maynard            mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July             erture height (including lip) 10.3 mm, ap-
  15]: 145; Maynard and Clapp in May-           erture width (including lip and peristome)
  nard, 1925 [July 18], pl. 41, figs. 7, 8       8.8 mm.
  [the figures are labeled S. vagabunda]            Type Locality. Southern end of Rose Is-
  [junior primary homonym of S. albata          land, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a;             Remarks. The binomen Strophiops al-
  S. vagabunda Maynard and Clapp in             bata had been previously proposed by
  Maynard, 1925 (Taxon 248), is the next        Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921
  available name]. Examined 72 speci-           ([May 2]: 132–133, pl. 30, figs. 3, 4) (see
  mens. Size given as 1.10 by .45 [inches;      Taxon 192). The second description of S.
  27.9 by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’       albata cites different measurements, a dif-
  was not used.                                 ferent number of specimens examined,
                                                and a different type locality and refers to
  Type Material. The original description       an illustration of a different specimen in-
did not distinguish among the 72 speci-         tended to serve as the type. Strophiops al-
mens examined. In the preamble to the           bata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
taxonomic portion to this publication,          1921b, is a junior primary homonym of
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            Strophiops albata Maynard and Clapp in
types were selected. However, there was         Maynard, 1921a. Maynard (1925, pl. 41,
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       figs. 7, 8) apparently recognized the hom-
506    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



onymy and captioned the subsequently              Type Locality. Extreme west end of
published illustrations S. vagabunda. As        Rose Island, New Providence Island, Ba-
noted by Clench (1957: 166), Strophiops         hamas.
vagabunda Maynard, 1925, is a next avail-         Remarks. The figures cited in the orig-
able name for S. albata Maynard and             inal description were issued 4 years later.
Clapp in Maynard, 1921b, not S. albata
Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a.            Taxon 217. Strophiops hart-bennetii May-
Gould and Woodruff (1986: 474) errone-            nard, 1919b [November 6]: 36 [nomen
ously reported S. albata Maynard and              nudum]. Strophiops hartbennetii May-
Clapp in Maynard, 1921b, to be a nomen            nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b
nudum and considered S. vagabunda to be           [July 15]: 146 [as hart-bennetii—see
a synonym of Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).
                              ¨                   Remarks]; Maynard and Clapp in May-
                                                  nard, 1926 [March 24], pl. 42, figs. 3, 4
Taxon 216. Strophiops mobile Maynard              [as hart-benettii]. Examined 500 speci-
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July               mens. Size given as .80 by .32 [inches;
  15]: 146; Maynard and Clapp in May-             20.3 by 8.1 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
  nard, 1925 [July 18], pl. 41, figs. 9, 10.       was not used.
  Examined 61 specimens. Size given as
  1.00 by .40 [inches; 25.4 by 10.2 mm],           Type Material. The original description
  but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.           did not distinguish among the 500 speci-
                                                mens examined. In the preamble to the
   Type Material. The original description      taxonomic portion to this publication,
did not distinguish among the 61 speci-         Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
mens examined. In the preamble to the           types were selected. However, there was
taxonomic portion to this publication,          no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            publications to associate a single specimen
types were selected. However, there was         with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       lotype for this taxon, and the species is
publications to associate a single specimen     based on 500 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   76001 contains a single specimen labeled
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-
based on 61 syntypes. Lot number MCZ            surements and later illustrations of this
76309 contains a single specimen labeled        taxon and is accompanied by a label in
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-         Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
surements and later illustrations of this       which includes references to the figures.
taxon and is accompanied by a label in          This specimen is here designated as the
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’          lectotype to provide an objective standard
which includes references to the figures.        of reference for this species-group taxon
This specimen is here designated as the         that is consistent with Maynard’s original
lectotype to provide an objective standard      concept of it. The remaining 499 syntypes,
of reference for this species-group taxon       including MCZ 76002, MCZ 118271, and
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      USNM 420022 (50 specimens), become
concept of it. The remaining 60 syntypes,       paralectotypes.
including MCZ 76310, become paralecto-             Lectotype Measurements. Length 20.9
types.                                          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.4 mm; ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.8          erture height (including lip) 7.4 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.6 mm; ap-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 9.7 mm, ap-       5.7 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)         Type Locality. Poters Key [New Provi-
7.8 mm.                                         dence Island, Bahamas].
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              507



  Remarks. The binomen first appeared as            Type Locality. Old Thompson Place off
a nomen nudum (Maynard, 1919b: 36).             East Bay Street, Nassau [New Providence
The taxon name is spelled hart-bennetii in      Island, Bahamas].
the original description, on the handwrit-         Remarks. The illustrations were issued
ten label, and in the sales catalog (May-       nearly 5 years after the original description
nard, 1924?: [6]). The plate, with the spell-   was published. Gould and Woodruff
ing hart-benettii, was issued 6 years later     (1986: 476) regarded this taxon to be ‘‘in-
and is considered a subsequent misspell-                                                ¨
                                                termediate’’ between Cerion glans (Kuster,
ing. According to Article 32.5.2.4 (ICZN,       1844) and C. gubernatorium (Crosse,
1999: 40), the taxon name is hartbennetii       1869).
because hyphens are to be removed.
                                                Taxon 219. Strophiops eratica Maynard
Taxon 218. Strophiops oscula Maynard              and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July               15]: 147; Maynard and Clapp in May-
  15]: 146; Maynard and Clapp in May-             nard, 1926 [March 24], pl. 42, figs. 7, 8.
  nard, 1926 [March 24], pl. 42, figs. 5, 6.       Examined 14 specimens. Size given as
  Examined 442 specimens. Size given as           .90 by .35 [inches; 22.9 by 8.9 mm], but
  95 by 35 [sic .95 by .35] [inches; 24.1         the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  by 8.9 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not
  used.                                            Type Material. The original description
                                                did not distinguish among the 14 speci-
   Type Material. The original description      mens examined. In the preamble to the
did not distinguish among the 442 speci-        taxonomic portion to this publication,
mens examined. In the preamble to the           Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
taxonomic portion to this publication,          types were selected. However, there was
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
types were selected. However, there was         publications to associate a single specimen
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
publications to associate a single specimen     lotype for this taxon, and the species is
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   based on 14 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       76387 contains a single specimen labeled
based on 442 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76333            ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        surements and later illustrations of this
lotype’’ that approximates the measure-         taxon and is accompanied by a label in
ments and later illustrations of this taxon     Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
and is accompanied by a label in May-           which includes references to the figures.
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which       This specimen is here designated as the
includes references to the figures. This         lectotype to provide an objective standard
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       of reference for this species-group taxon
type to provide an objective standard of        that is consistent with Maynard’s original
reference for this species-group taxon that     concept of it. The remaining 13 syntypes
is consistent with Maynard’s original con-      become paralectotypes.
cept of it. The remaining 441 syntypes, in-        Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.7
cluding MCZ 76332 and USNM 420116               mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.5 mm; ap-
(100 specimens), become paralectotypes.         erture height (including lip) 9.1 mm, ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.8          erture width (including lip and peristome)
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.0 mm; ap-       7.3 mm.
erture height (including lip) 8.3 mm, ap-          Type Locality. Near Fox Hill Village,
erture width (including lip and peristome)      New Providence Island, Bahamas.
7.1 mm.                                            Remarks. The illustrations were issued
508    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



nearly 5 years after the original description     en as .85 by .28 [inches; 21.6 by 7.1
was published. Gould and Woodruff                 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
(1986: 477) regarded this taxon to be typ-         Type Material. The original description
ical of coastal Cerion gubernatorium            did not distinguish among the 385 speci-
(Crosse, 1869).                                 mens examined. In the preamble to the
Taxon 220. Strophiops castra Maynard            taxonomic portion to this publication,
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July             Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
  15]: 147; Maynard and Clapp in May-           types were selected. However, there was
  nard, 1926 [March 24], pl. 42, figs. 9,        no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  10. Examined 14 specimens. Size given         publications to associate a single specimen
  as 1.12 by .42 [inches; 28.4 by 10.7          with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      lotype for this taxon, and the species is
                                                based on 385 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76006
   Type Material. The original description      contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
did not distinguish among the 14 speci-         lotype’’ that differs substantially from the
mens examined. In the preamble to the           published measurements for this taxon but
taxonomic portion to this publication,          approximates the later illustrations and is
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            accompanied by a label in Maynard’s hand
types were selected. However, there was         with the term ‘‘type,’’ which includes ref-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       erences to the figures. This specimen is
publications to associate a single specimen     here designated as the lectotype to provide
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   an objective standard of reference for this
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       species-group taxon that is consistent with
based on 14 syntypes. Lot number MCZ            Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
76388 contains a single specimen labeled        maining 384 syntypes, including MCZ
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-         76007, MCZ 356679, and USNM 420089
surements and later illustrations of this       (50 specimens), become paralectotypes.
taxon and is accompanied by a label in             Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.7
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.3 mm; ap-
which includes references to the figures.        erture height (including lip) 9.5 mm, ap-
This specimen is here designated as the         erture width (including lip and peristome)
lectotype to provide an objective standard      7.8 mm.
of reference for this species-group taxon          Type Locality. Field east of Methodist
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      Church on Sherley Street, Nassau [New
concept of it. The remaining 13 syntypes        Providence Island, Bahamas].
become paralectotypes.                             Remarks. The illustrations were issued
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 24.7          nearly 5 years after the taxon description
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.9 mm; ap-        was published. Gould and Woodruff
erture height (including lip) 8.7 mm, ap-       (1986: 476) regarded this taxon to be ‘‘in-
erture width (including lip and peristome)                                              ¨
                                                termediate’’ between Cerion glans (Kuster,
7.3 mm.                                         1844) and C. gubernatorium (Crosse,
   Type Locality. Field west of Williams        1869).
Street, Nassau [New Providence Island,
Bahamas].                                       Taxon 222. Strophiops migratoria May-
                                                  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b
Taxon 221. Strophiops rubiginosa May-             [July 15]: 147; Maynard and Clapp in
  nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b                Maynard, 1926 [March 24], pl. 43, figs.
  [July 15]: 147; Maynard and Clapp in            3, 4. Examined 75 specimens. Size given
  Maynard, 1926 [March 24], pl. 43, figs.          as 1.10 by .40 [inches; 27.9 by 10.2
  1, 2. Examined 385 specimens. Size giv-         mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.              509



   Type Material. The original description      mens examined. In the preamble to the
did not distinguish among the 75 speci-         taxonomic portion to this publication,
mens examined. In the preamble to the           Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
taxonomic portion to this publication,          types were selected. However, there was
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
types were selected. However, there was         publications to associate a single specimen
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
publications to associate a single specimen     lotype for this taxon, and the species is
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   based on 575 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76318
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
based on 75 syntypes. Lot number MCZ            lotype’’ that approximates the measure-
76312 contains a single specimen labeled        ments and later illustrations of this taxon
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-         and is accompanied by a label in May-
surements and later illustrations of this       nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
taxon and is accompanied by a label in          includes references to the figures. This
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’          specimen is here designated as the lecto-
which includes references to the figures.        type to provide an objective standard of
This specimen is here designated as the         reference for this species-group taxon that
lectotype to provide an objective standard      is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
of reference for this species-group taxon       cept of it. The remaining 574 syntypes, in-
that is consistent with Maynard’s original      cluding MCZ 76317 and USNM 420025
concept of it. The remaining 74 syntypes,       (200 specimens), become paralectotypes.
including MCZ 76311, become paralecto-             Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.3
types.                                          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.6 mm; ap-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 27.8          erture height (including lip) 9.3 mm, ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.2 mm; ap-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture height (including lip) 9.9 mm, ap-       8.1 mm.
erture width (including lip and peristome)         Type Locality. In field east of Mackey
8.2 mm.                                         Street, Nassau [New Providence Island,
   Type Locality. Grounds directly about        Bahamas].
Methodist Sunday School building, Sher-            Remarks. The illustrations of this taxon
ley Street, Nassau [New Providence Is-          were issued nearly 5 years after the origi-
land, Bahamas].                                 nal description was published. Gould and
   Remarks. The illustrations were issued       Woodruff (1986: 476) regarded this taxon
nearly 5 years after the original description   to be ‘‘intermediate’’ between Cerion glans
was published. Gould and Woodruff                   ¨
                                                (Ku ster, 1844) and C. gubernatorium
(1986: 476) regarded this taxon to be ‘‘in-     (Crosse, 1869).
                                        ¨
termediate’’ between Cerion glans (Kuster,
1844) and C. gubernatorium (Crosse,             Taxon 224. Strophiops reincarnata May-
1869).                                            nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b
                                                  [July 15]: 148, pl. 44, figs. 1, 2 [pl. 44
Taxon 223. Strophiops mayoi Maynard
                                                  was never issued]. Examined 176 spec-
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July
  15]: 148; Maynard and Clapp in May-             imens. Size given as 1.12 by .40 [inches;
  nard, 1926 [March 24], pl. 43, figs. 9,          28.4 by 10.2 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
  10. Examined 575 specimens. Size given          was not used.
  as 1.03 by .40 [inches; 26.2 by 10.2             Type Material. The original description
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.      did not distinguish among the 176 speci-
  Type Material. The original description       mens examined. In the preamble to the
did not distinguish among the 575 speci-        taxonomic portion to this publication,
510       Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that                           Taxon 225. Strophiops fincastlei Maynard
types were selected. However, there was                          and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s                        15]: 148, pl. 44, figs. 5, 6 [pl. 44 was
publications to associate a single specimen                      never issued]. Examined 150 specimens.
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-                    Size given as .85 by .47 [inches; 21.6 by
lotype for this taxon, and the species is                        11.9 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not
based on 176 syntypes. Lot number MCZ                            used.
76322 contains a single specimen labeled
‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-                           Type Material. The original description
surements and later illustrations of this                      did not distinguish among the 150 speci-
                                                               mens examined. In the preamble to the
taxon and is accompanied by a label in
                                                               taxonomic portion to this publication,
Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’
                                                               Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
which includes references to the figures.
                                                               types were selected. However, there was
This specimen is here designated as the
                                                               no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
lectotype to provide an objective standard                     publications to associate a single specimen
of reference for this species-group taxon                      with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
that is consistent with Maynard’s original                     lotype for this taxon, and the species is
concept of it. The remaining 175 syntypes,                     based on 150 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
including MCZ 76321, become paralecto-                         76015 contains a single specimen labeled
types.                                                         ‘‘Holotype’’ that approximates the mea-
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.5                         surements of this taxon and is accompa-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.9 mm; ap-                      nied by a label in Maynard’s hand with the
erture height (including lip) 9.9 mm, ap-                      term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references to
erture width (including lip and peristome)                     the unpublished figures. This specimen is
8.2 mm.                                                        here designated as the lectotype to provide
   Type Locality. Near Ocean Hole E of                         an objective standard of reference for this
Mackey Street, Nassau [New Providence                          species-group taxon that is consistent with
Island, Bahamas].                                              Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-
   Remarks. The illustrations of this taxon                    maining 149 syntypes, including MCZ
were never issued. Gould and Woodruff                          76016 and MCZ 118102, become paralec-
(1986: 476) regarded this taxon to be an                       totypes.
‘‘anomalously located species attributable                        Lectotype Measurements. Length 21.7
to Cerion glans.’’                                             mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.5 mm; ap-



                                                                                                                         →

Figures 223–236. Taxon 223. Strophiops mayoi Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76318. Field east of
Mackey Street, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 224. Strophiops reincarnata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
1921. Lectotype MCZ 76322. Near Ocean Hole east of Mackey Street, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 225.
Strophiops fincastlei Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76015. Vicinity of Fort Fincastle, West Nassau, New
Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 226. Strophiops novita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76319. In
park west of Fort Montague, East Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 227. Strophiops phoenecia Maynard and
Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76330. Waterloo, East Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 228. Stro-
phiops muralia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. [Not illustrated.] Lectotype MCZ 76389. In walls at East Nassau, New
Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 229. Strophiops rosea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. The type of Cerion (Maynardia)
agassizii Dall, 1894, is designated as the neotype of Strophiops rosea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921, making Strophiops
rosea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921, an objective junior synonym of Cerion (Maynardia) agassizii Dall, 1894. Taxon
230. Strophiops gigantea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Holotype MCZ 76244. In wall on Village Road, near Sherley
Street, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Strophiops ajax Maynard, 1924 [Taxon 246], is a replacement name for this
taxon, a homonym of Strophia grayi gigantea Maynard, 1894 [Taxon 36]. Taxon 231. Strophiops leva Maynard and Clapp in
Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76337. In rock above Queen’s Staircase, Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon
232. Strophiops flacida Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921. Lectotype MCZ 76397. In rock above Queen’s Staircase, Nassau,
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                    511




New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 233. Strophiops crassamarga Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1924. [Not illustrated.]
Strophiops crassamarga has the same type specimens and type locality and is an objective junior synonym of Strophiops
crassalabra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921 [Taxon 210]. Taxon 234. Strophiops extranea Maynard, 1924. Holotype MCZ
76142. Roseville Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 235. Strophiops albicostata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1924.
Lectotype MCZ 76109. Long Key southeast of Highburn Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 236. Strophiops extensa Maynard,
1924. Lectotype MCZ 76008. Churchyard of the Baptist Chapel on St. James St., East Nassau, New Providence Island, Ba-
hamas.
512    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



erture height (including lip) 8.0 mm, ap-       mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.2 mm; ap-
erture width (including lip and peristome)      erture height (including lip) 8.6 mm, ap-
6.3 mm.                                         erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Type Locality. Vicinity of Fort Fincastle,   6.9 mm.
West Nassau [New Providence Island, Ba-            Type Locality. In park west of Fort
hamas].                                         Montague, East Nassau [New Providence
   Remarks. This taxon was never illustrat-     Island, Bahamas].
ed. In the original description, Maynard           Remarks. This taxon, which first ap-
noted that many of the 150 specimens            peared as a nomen nudum (Maynard,
were dead and later (1924c: 6) listed S.        1919b: 36), was never illustrated. Maynard
fincastlei as extinct in 1924 because of the     (1924c: 6) listed S. novita as nearly extinct
burning of vegetation prior to cultivation.     (only one specimen) in 1924 from the
Gould and Woodruff (1986: 476) regarded         burning of vegetation prior to cultivation.
this taxon to be ‘‘intermediate’’ between       Gould and Woodruff (1986: 476) regarded
                  ¨
Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844) and C. gub-         this taxon to be ‘‘intermediate’’ between
ernatorium (Crosse, 1869).                                        ¨
                                                Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844) and C. gub-
                                                ernatorium (Crosse, 1869).
Taxon 226. Strophiops novita Maynard,
  1919b [November 6]: 36 [nomen nu-             Taxon 227. Strophiops phoenicia Maynard,
  dum]; Maynard and Clapp in May-                 1919b [November 6]: 36 [nomen nu-
  nard, 1921b [July 15]: 148, pl. 45,             dum]. S. phoenecia Maynard and
  figs. 1, 2 [pl. 45 was never issued]. Ex-        Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July 15]:
  amined 251 specimens. Size given as .90         149, pl. 45, figs. 3, 4 [pl. 45 was never
  by .35 [inches; 22.9 by 8.9 mm], but the        issued]; Maynard, 1924b?: [4]; Maynard,
  term ‘‘type’’ was not used.                     1924c: 6. Examined 1,550 specimens.
                                                  Size given as .85 by .33 [inches; 21.6 by
    Type Material. The original description       8.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not
did not distinguish among the 251 speci-          used.
mens examined. In the preamble to the
taxonomic portion to this publication,             Type Material. The original description
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            did not distinguish among the 1,550 spec-
types were selected. However, there was         imens examined. In the preamble to the
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       taxonomic portion to this publication,
publications to associate a single specimen     Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   types were selected. However, there was
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
based on 251 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76319            publications to associate a single specimen
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
lotype’’ that approximates the measure-         lotype for this taxon, and the species is
ments of this taxon and is accompanied by       based on 1,550 syntypes. Lot MCZ 76330
a label in Maynard’s hand with the term         contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-
‘‘type,’’ which includes references to the      lotype’’ that approximates the measure-
unpublished figures. This specimen is here       ments and later illustrations of this taxon
designated as the lectotype to provide an       and is accompanied by a label in May-
objective standard of reference for this        nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’ which
species-group taxon that is consistent with     includes references to the figures. This
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-       specimen is here designated as the lecto-
maining 250 syntypes, including MCZ             type to provide an objective standard of
118104, become paralectotypes.                  reference for this species-group taxon that
    Lectotype Measurements. Length 23.0         is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.             513



cept of it. The remaining 1,549 syntypes,       is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
including MCZ 76331, MCZ 118156, and            cept of it. The remaining three syntypes
USNM 420059 (50 specimens), become              become paralectotypes.
paralectotypes.                                    Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.4
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 22.2          mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.1 mm; ap-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.6 mm; ap-        erture height (including lip) 10.5 mm, ap-
erture height (including lip) 7.9 mm, ap-       erture width (including lip and peristome)
erture width (including lip and peristome)      8.9 mm.
6.2 mm.                                            Type Locality. In walls at East Nassau,
   Type Locality. Waterloo, East Nassau,        New Providence Island, Bahamas.
New Providence Island, Bahamas.                    Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:
   Remarks. The binomen S. phoenicea            481) examined the ‘‘Holotype’’ of this tax-
first appeared as a nomen nudum (May-            on and attributed it to the synonymy of
nard, 1919b: 36). The taxon description         Cerion agassizii Dall, 1894.
used the spelling S. phoenecia, as did the
sales catalog (Maynard, 1924b?: [4]). May-      Taxon 229. Strophiops rosea Maynard
nard (1924c: 6) listed S. phoenecia as ex-        and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July
tinct in 1924 from the burning of vegeta-         15]: 151, pl. 48, figs. 9, 10 [pl. 48 was
tion prior to cultivation. Gould and Wood-        never issued]. Examined one specimen.
ruff (1986: 477) regarded this taxon to be        Size given as .73 by .36 [inches; 18.5 by
a synonym of Cerion gubernatorium                 9.1 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not
(Crosse, 1869).                                   used.

Taxon 228. Strophiops muralia Maynard              Type Material. The original description
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July             was based on a single specimen, the
  15]: 151, pl. 47, figs. 5, 6 [pl. 47 was       unique holotype, for which measurements
  never issued]. Examined 4 specimens.          were provided but for which the illustra-
  Size given as 1.05 by .45 [inches; 26.7       tions were never published. The specimen
  by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was        was not at the MCZ, nor was there any
  not used.                                     catalog entry for this taxon at the MCZ at
                                                the time Maynard’s collection was cata-
   Type Material. The original description      logued. Searches of the collections and/or
did not distinguish among the four speci-       databases of the USNM, the Academy of
mens examined. In the preamble to the           Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Field
taxonomic portion to this publication,          Museum of Natural History, the Florida
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that            Museum of Natural History, and the Mu-
types were selected. However, there was         seum of Biological Diversity, Ohio State
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s       University, failed to uncover a single spec-
publications to associate a single specimen     imen catalogued under this name. May-
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-   nard’s original brief description—‘‘Similar
lotype for this taxon, and the species is       to last [S. agassizii Dall] but smaller, .73
based on four syntypes. Lot MCZ 76389           by .36, with 8 instead of 11 whorls, and is
contains a single specimen labeled ‘‘Ho-        tinged with dull orange’’—is inadequate to
lotype’’ that approximates the measure-         differentiate this taxon from S. agassizii
ments and later illustrations of this taxon     unambiguously. The holotype of Cerion
and is accompanied by a label in May-           (Maynardia) agassizii Dall, 1894 (MCZ IP
nard’s hand with the term ‘‘type.’’ This        113595, Invertebrate Paleontology Collec-
specimen is here designated as the lecto-       tion), is here designated as the neotype of
type to provide an objective standard of        Strophiops rosea Maynard and Clapp in
reference for this species-group taxon that     Maynard, 1921, to provide an objective
514    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



standard of reference for this species-        erture width (including lip and peristome)
group taxon. Strophiops rosea Maynard          13.6 mm.
and Clapp in Maynard, 1921, becomes a            Type Locality. In wall on Village Road,
junior objective synonym of Cerion (May-       near Sherley Street, Nassau, New Provi-
nardia) agassizii Dall, 1894.                  dence Island, Bahamas.
   Type Locality. Strophiops rosea was ini-      Remarks. Strophiops gigantea Maynard
tially described as being from the north-      and Clapp in Maynard, 1921, is a hom-
east end of Rose Island, New Providence        onym of Strophia grayi gigantea Maynard,
Island, Bahamas (Maynard and Clapp in          1894 [Taxon 36]. Strophiops ajax Maynard,
Maynard, 1921: 151). According to Article      1924 [Taxon 246], was proposed as a re-
76.3 (ICZN, 1999: 87), the type locality of    placement name. Gould and Woodruff
Cerion agassizii Dall, 1894, ‘‘The calcare-    (1986: 480) attributed this fossil taxon to
ous sand-rock at the W. quarry, top of Nas-    Cerion agassizii Dall, 1894.
sau Ridge’’ [New Providence Island, Ba-
hamas], becomes the type locality of Stro-     Taxon 231. Strophiops leva Maynard and
phiops rosea.                                      Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July 15]:
   Remarks. The illustrations of this taxon        152, pl. 48, figs. 1, 2 [pl. 48 was never
were never published. Gould and Wood-              issued]. Examined 12 specimens. Size
ruff (1986: 481) mentioned that they had           given as 1.10 by .50 [inches; 27.9 by 12.7
not seen the unique holotype of this taxon         mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
but considered it to be a ‘‘fairly unambig-        Type Material. The original description
uous’’ synonym of Cerion agassizii Dall,       did not distinguish among the 12 speci-
1894, on the basis of the limited descrip-     mens examined. In the preamble to the
tion.                                          taxonomic portion to this publication,
                                               Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
Taxon 230. Strophiops gigantea Maynard         types were selected. However, there was
  and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July            no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
  15]: 152, pl. 47, figs. 9, 10 [pl. 47 never   publications to associate a single specimen
  issued]. Examined one specimen. Size         with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
  given as 1.75 by .65 [inches; 44.5 by 16.5   lotype for this taxon, and the species is
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.     based on 12 syntypes. Lot number MCZ
                                               76337 was labeled ‘‘Paratype’’ and contains
   Type Material. The original description     93 specimens, most damaged or incom-
is based on a single specimen, the unique      plete, of which one was sequestered. The
holotype, for which measurements were          labels make no mention of the term
provided, but for which the illustrations      ‘‘type,’’ nor is there a reference to plates
were never issued. Lot MCZ 76244 con-          or figures. The sequestered specimen,
tains a single specimen accompanied by         which is complete and well preserved and
two MCZ labels that refer to this specimen     had been carefully cleaned of matrix, is
as the holotype of Strophiops ajax, a re-      likely the specimen used by Maynard to
placement name for the preoccupied S. gi-      prepare the species description. This spec-
gantea (see Remarks). A handwritten label      imen is here selected as the lectotype
with the specimen contains the name Stro-      (MCZ 76337). The remaining specimens
phiops gigantea, with ‘‘gigantea’’ partially   were recatalogued as MCZ 357013. The
erased and overwritten ‘‘ajax.’’ This speci-   original description referred to 12 speci-
men is the holotype both of S. gigantea        mens, indicating that Maynard had added
and of S. ajax.                                at least 81 specimens since the species was
   Holotype Measurements. Length 43.9          described. It is unclear which 11 of the
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 17.4 mm; ap-      remaining 92 specimens are paralecto-
erture height (including lip) 17.1 mm, ap-     types.
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.               515



   Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.6          Taxon 233. Strophiops crassamarga May-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.7 mm; ap-         nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1924a
erture height (including lip) 11.5 mm, ap-        [October 25], pl. 39, figs. 7, 8.
erture width (including lip and peristome)
9.0 mm.                                            Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen
   Type Locality. In rock above Queen’s         S. crassamarga was published in the cap-
Staircase, Nassau, New Providence Island,       tion beneath the figures (pl. 39, figs. 7, 8)
Bahamas.                                        cited in the original description of Stro-
                                                phiops crassalabra Maynard and Clapp in
Taxon 232. Strophiops flacida Maynard            Maynard, 1921b (p. 143), and was not
   and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [July            used subsequently by Maynard, who listed
   15]: 152, pl. 48, figs. 3, 4 [pl. 48 was      the taxon as S. crassilabra in the sales cat-
   never issued]. Examined two specimens.       alog (Maynard, 1924b?: [6]). The speci-
   Size given as .98 by .34 [inches; 24.9 by    men labeled Strophiops crassamarga on
   8.6 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not       plate 39 (figs. 7, 8) is the lectotype of Stro-
   used.                                        phiops crassalabra [Taxon 211], making
   Type Material. The original description      Strophiops crassamarga Maynard and
did not distinguish among the two speci-        Clapp in Maynard, 1924, a junior objective
mens examined. In the preamble to the           synonym of Strophiops crassalabra May-
taxonomic portion to this publication,          nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921.
Maynard (1919b: 43–44) specified that
                                                Taxon 234. Strophiops extranea Maynard,
types were selected. However, there was
                                                  1924c [10 December]: 2 [not illus-
no indication in this or any of Maynard’s
                                                  trated]. Examined one specimen. Size
publications to associate a single specimen
                                                  given as 1.17 by .50 [inches; 29.7 by 12.7
with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus, there is no ho-
                                                  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
lotype for this taxon, and the species is
based on two syntypes. Lot number MCZ              Type Material. The original description
76397 contains a single specimen labeled        stated that this taxon was based on a single
‘‘Holotype’’ that roughly approximates the      fossil found embedded in rock and provid-
published length of this taxon and is ac-       ed its measurements. This taxon is thus
companied by a label in Maynard’s hand          based on a unique holotype. Lot MCZ
with the term ‘‘type’’ that refers to the un-   76142 contains a single specimen labeled
published illustrations. This specimen is       ‘‘Holotype’’ that corresponds closely to the
here designated as the lectotype to provide     published measurements and is here con-
an objective standard of reference for this     sidered to be the holotype.
species-group taxon that is consistent with        Holotype Measurements. Length 29.9
Maynard’s original concept of it. The other     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.7 mm; ap-
syntype (MCZ 76398) becomes a paralec-          erture height (including lip) 10.8 mm, ap-
totype.                                         erture width (including lip and peristome)
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 25.4          9.2 mm.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.9 mm; ap-          Type Locality. Roseville Key, Exuma
erture height (including lip) 10.1 mm, ap-      Group [Bahamas].
erture width (including lip and peristome)
8.7 mm.                                         Taxon 235. Strophiops albicostata May-
   Type Locality. In rock above Queen’s           nard and Clapp in Maynard, 1924b?: [3]
Staircase, Nassau, New Providence Island,         [nomen nudum]; Maynard, 1924c [10
Bahamas.                                          December]: 2 [not illustrated]. Exam-
   Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:             ined 1,000 specimens. Size given as 1.36
481) regarded S. flacida to be a ‘‘ribby ver-      by .48 [inches; 34.5 by 12.2 mm], but
sion’’ of Cerion agassizii Dall, 1894.            the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
516    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   Nomenclatural Remarks. Strophiops al-       that there was no specimen segregated as
bicostata was listed for sale in Maynard’s     type for this species in Maynard’s collec-
(1924b?: [3]) catalog, whereas the descrip-    tion at the time of his death. Lot MCZ
tion of this taxon was published in the sup-   76008 contains 278 specimens labeled
plement to this catalog. On page [2] of the    ‘‘paratypes.’’ Because this species had not
catalog, Maynard noted that, ‘‘Unless oth-     been figured, nor have any measurements
erwise designated, all species should be       been published to help select the lecto-
accredited to Maynard and Clapp.’’ Thus,       type, an intact, adult, live-collected speci-
Strophiops albicostata Maynard and Clapp       men that conforms to the brief description
in Maynard (1924b?) is a nomen nudum.          is here designated as the lectotype (MCZ
The taxon became available as Strophiops       76008) to provide an objective standard of
albicostata Maynard on December 10,            reference for this species-group taxon. The
1924.                                          remaining 277 specimens were recata-
   Type Material. The original description     logued as MCZ 352331. These and all oth-
did not distinguish among the 1,000 spec-      er syntypes, including USNM 419996
imens examined. There was no indication        (1,500 specimens), become paralectotypes.
in this publication to associate a single         Lectotype Measurements. Length 31.5
specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,         mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.1 mm; ap-
there is no holotype for this taxon, and the   erture height (including lip) 9.8 mm, ap-
species is based on 1,000 syntypes. Lot        erture width (including lip and peristome)
MCZ 76109 contains a single specimen la-       7.9 mm.
beled ‘‘Holotype.’’ This specimen approx-         Type Locality. Churchyard of the Bap-
imates the measurements in the original        tist Chapel on St. James Street, East Nas-
description and is here designated as the      sau, New Providence Island, Bahamas.
lectotype to provide an objective standard        Remarks. Maynard (1924c: 2–3) report-
of reference for this species-group taxon.     ed this taxon to be ‘‘abundant living in the
All other syntypes, including, MCZ 76110
                                               church-yard of the Baptist Chapel on St.
and USNM 420061 (100 specimens), be-
                                               James St. East Nassau, on the west and
come paralectotypes.
                                               south side of this street to Kemp’s Road,
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 34.1
                                               but, except about the chapel, many were
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 12.9 mm; ap-
                                               dead. 23,000 were collected. But out of
erture height (including lip) 11.64 mm, ap-
                                               this number only about 3000 were living.’’
erture width (including lip and peristome)
9.4 mm.                                        Because the lectotype was a live-collected
   Type Locality. Long Key southeast of        specimen, the type locality is here restrict-
Highburn Key [Exuma Group, Bahamas].           ed to the church-yard. Gould and Wood-
                                               ruff (1986: 476) regarded this taxon to be
Taxon 236. Strophiops extensa Maynard,         ‘‘intermediate’’ between Cerion glans
  1924c [10 December]: 2, 3 [not illus-            ¨
                                               (Ku ster, 1844) and C. gubernatorium
  trated]. Examined 23,000 specimens.          (Crosse, 1869).
  No measurements provided.
                                               Taxon 237. Strophiops sparsa Maynard,
  Type Material. The original description        1924c [10 December]: 3 [not illus-
did not distinguish among the 23,000 spec-       trated]. Examined ‘‘about 280’’ speci-
imens examined. There was no indication          mens. Size given as 1.16 by .45 [inches;
in this publication to associate a single        29.5 by 11.4 mm], but the term ‘‘type’’
specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,           was not used.
there is no holotype for this taxon, and the
species is based on 23,000 syntypes. An ex-      Type Material. The original description
amination of the MCZ catalog revealed          did not distinguish among the ‘‘about 280’’
                 THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                       517




Figures 237–248. Taxon 237. Strophiops sparsa Maynard, 1924. Lectotype MCZ 76399. Field at St. James Corner, East
Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 238. Strophiops rufula Maynard, 1924. Lectotype USNM 420135. West side
of Kemp’s Road near the terminus of St. James St. and south of that street to St. James Corner, Nassau, New Providence
Island, Bahamas. Taxon 239. Strophiops gracila Maynard, 1924. Lectotype MCZ 76285. Found in and near a cutting through
rocks on Soldier’s Road about a mile and a half from South Shore, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 240. Strophiops
montana Maynard, 1924. Lectotype USNM 420103. Sunnyside Estate East Bay St. near the house, Nassau, New Providence
Island, Bahamas. Taxon 241. Strophiops clara Maynard, 1924. Lectotype MCZ 76111. Church on the road to Fox Hill from East
Bay St., Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 242. Strophiops livida Maynard, 1924. Lectotype MCZ 76101. On
West Bay Street, Nassau, about opposite North Silver Key, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 243. Strophiops minima
Maynard, 1924. Lectotype MCZ 76022. St. James Corner, East Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon 244. Stro-
phiops concina Maynard, 1924. Holotype MCZ 76020. St. James Corner, East Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Taxon
245. Strophiops pygmea Maynard, 1924. Holotype MCZ 76021. St. James Corner, East Nassau, New Providence Island, Ba-
hamas. Taxon 246. Strophiops ajax Maynard, 1924. [Not illustrated.] Replacement name for Strophiops gigantea Maynard and
Clapp in Maynard, 1921 [Taxon 230], not Strophia grayi gigantea Maynard, 1894 [Taxon 36]. The type specimens and type
locality of S. gigantea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921 are also the type specimens of S. ajax Maynard, 1924. Taxon 247.
Strophiops leucophera Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1925. Lectotype MCZ 76283. Gray hill at the extreme northern end of
Great Guana Key, Exuma Group, Bahamas. Taxon 248. Strophiops vagabunda Maynard, 1925. [Not illustrated.] Replacement
name for S. albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b [Taxon 215], not S. albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921
[Taxon 192]. The type specimens and type locality of Strophiops albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921 (see Taxon 214),
are also the type specimens of S. vagabunda Maynard, 1925.
518    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



specimens examined. There was no indi-             trated]. Examined 3,439 specimens.
cation in this publication to associate a sin-     Measurements not provided.
gle specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,
                                                    Type Material. The original description
there is no holotype for this taxon, and the
                                                 did not distinguish among the 3,439 spec-
species is based on ‘‘about 280’’ syntypes.
                                                 imens examined. There was no indication
An examination of the MCZ catalog re-
                                                 in this publication to associate a single
vealed that there was no specimen segre-
                                                 specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,
gated as type for this species in Maynard’s
                                                 there is no holotype for this taxon, and the
collection at the time of his death. Lot         species is based on 3,439 syntypes. An ex-
MCZ 76399 was labeled ‘‘Paratype’’ and           amination of the MCZ catalog revealed
contained 174 specimens. As this species         that there was no specimen segregated as
had not been figured, an intact, adult, live-     type for this species in Maynard’s collec-
collected specimen from this lot that most       tion at the time of his death. Large syntype
closely approximates the published mea-          lots are present in the USNM and MCZ
surements and conforms to the brief de-          collections. Because this species was never
scription is here designated as the lecto-       figured, nor had any measurements been
type (MCZ 76399) to provide an objective         published to help select the lectotype, an
standard of reference for this species-          intact, adult, live-collected specimen that
group taxon. The remaining 173 speci-            conforms to the brief description is here
mens, which were recatalogued as MCZ             designated as the lectotype (USNM
357014, are among the ‘‘about 280’’ syn-         420135) to provide an objective standard
types that become paralectotypes.                of reference for this species-group taxon
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 29.3           that is consistent with Maynard’s original
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.4 mm; ap-        concept of this taxon. The remaining syn-
erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-       types, including MCZ 76098 and USNM
erture width (including lip and peristome)       1093796, become paralectotypes.
8.9 mm.                                             Lectotype Measurements. Lot USNM
   Type Locality. Field at St. James Cor-        420135, length 28.3 mm, diameter (ex-
ner, East Nassau [New Providence Island,         cluding lip) 10.7 mm; aperture height (in-
Bahamas].                                        cluding lip) 10.9 mm, aperture width (in-
   Remarks. Maynard (1924c: 3) reported          cluding lip and peristome) 8.8 mm.
20 specimens found living in a field at St.          Type Locality. On the west side of
James Corner, East Nassau, and about 260         Kemp’s Road, near the terminus of St.
found dead scattered in fields from this          James St. [Street] and south of that street
point east to the estate called Sunnyside,       to St. James Corner, Nassau, New Provi-
but chiefly as shells occupied by hermit          dence Island, Bahamas.
crabs. Because the lectotype was collected          Remarks. Maynard (1924c: 3) noted that
living (as evidenced by vestiges of an epi-      of the 3,439 specimens collected, only 649
phragm around the aperture), the type lo-        were living.
cality is restricted to the field at St. James
Corner, East Nassau, New Providence Is-          Taxon 239. Strophiops gracila Maynard,
land, Bahamas.                                     1924c [10 December]: 3 [not illus-
   Gould and Woodruff (1986: 476) re-              trated]. Examined 61 specimens. Only
                                                   diameter given as .40 [inches; 10.2 mm].
garded this taxon to be an ‘‘anomalously
located species attributable to Cerion             Type Material. The original description
glans.’’                                         did not distinguish among the 61 speci-
                                                 mens examined. There was no indication
Taxon 238. Strophiops rufula Maynard,            in this publication to associate a single
  1924c [10 December]: 3 [not illus-             specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.            519



there is no holotype for this taxon, and the   lots are present in the USNM and MCZ
species is based on 61 syntypes. An ex-        collections. Because this species had not
amination of the MCZ catalog revealed          been figured and only the diameter was
that there was no specimen segregated as       published, an intact, adult, live-collected
type for this species in Maynard’s collec-     specimen that conforms to the brief de-
tion at the time of his death. Lot MCZ         scription is here designated as the lecto-
76285 was labeled ‘‘Paratypes’’ and con-       type (USNM 420103) to provide an objec-
tained 33 specimens. Because this species      tive standard of reference for this species-
was never illustrated and only a measure-      group taxon that is consistent with May-
ment for the diameter was published, an        nard’s original concept of this taxon. The
intact, adult, live-collected specimen from    remaining syntypes, including MCZ 76113
this lot that most closely approximates the    and USNM 1093794, become paralecto-
published diameter and conforms to the         types.
brief description is here designated as the       Lectotype Measurements. Number
lectotype to provide an objective standard     USNM 420103, length 26.4 mm, diameter
of reference for this species-group taxon.     (excluding lip) 9.8 mm; aperture height
The remaining 32 specimens, which were         (including lip) 9.4 mm, aperture width (in-
recatalogued as MCZ 357015, are among          cluding lip and peristome) 7.4 mm.
the 60 syntypes that become paralectoty-          Type Locality. Occurs on Sunnyside Es-
pes.                                           tate East Bay St. near the house, Nassau,
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 26.5         New Providence Island, Bahamas.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 10.2 mm; ap-         Remarks. Maynard (1924c: 3–4) noted
erture height (including lip) 10.4 mm, ap-     that of the 1,219 specimens collected, only
erture width (including lip and peristome)     33 were living. Gould and Woodruff (1986:
8.8 mm.                                        478) reported that they did not examine
   Type Locality. Found in and near a cut-     specimens of this taxon but regarded it to
ting through rocks on Soldier’s Road about     be a synonym of Cerion gubernatorium
a mile and a half from South Shore, New        (Crosse, 1869).
Providence Island, Bahamas.
   Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:          Taxon 241. Strophiops clara Maynard,
478) regarded this taxon to be a synonym         1924c [10 December]: 4 [not illus-
of Cerion gubernatorium (Crosse, 1869).          trated]. Examined four specimens. Size
                                                 given as .80 by .35 [inches; 20.3 by 8.9
Taxon 240. Strophiops montana Maynard,           mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
  1924c [10 December]: 3, 4 [not illus-
  trated]. Examined 1,219 specimens.              Type Material. The original description
  Only diameter given as .35 [inches; 8.9      did not distinguish among the four speci-
  mm].                                         mens examined. There was no indication
                                               in this publication to associate a single
   Type Material. The original description     specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,
did not distinguish among the 1,219 spec-      there is no holotype for this taxon, and the
imens examined. There was no indication        species is based on four syntypes. Lot
in this publication to associate a single      MCZ 76111 contains a single specimen la-
specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,         beled ‘‘Holotype’’ that roughly approxi-
there is no holotype for this taxon, and the   mates the published measurements for
species is based on 1,219 syntypes. An ex-     this taxon. This specimen is here designat-
amination of the MCZ catalog revealed          ed as the lectotype to provide an objective
that there was no specimen segregated as       standard of reference for this species-
type for this species in Maynard’s collec-     group taxon. The remaining three speci-
tion at the time of his death. Large syntype   mens become paralectotypes.
520    Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



   Lectotype Measurements. Length 19.2         Taxon 243. Strophiops minima Maynard,
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 8.3 mm; ap-         1924c [10 December]: 4 [not illus-
erture height (including lip) 7.8 mm, ap-        trated]. Examined 4 specimens. Size
erture width (including lip and peristome)       given as .75 by .31 [inches; 19.1 by 7.9
6.5 mm.                                          mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
   Type Locality. About a church on the
road to Fox Hill from East Bay St., Nas-          Type Material. The original description
sau, New Providence Island, Bahamas.           did not distinguish among the four speci-
   Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:          mens examined. There was no indication
477) considered this taxon to be a syno-       in this publication to associate a single
nym of Cerion gubernatorium (Crosse,           specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,
1869).                                         there is no holotype for this taxon, and the
                                               species is based on four syntypes. An ex-
Taxon 242. Strophiops livida Maynard,          amination of the MCZ catalog revealed
   1924c [10 December]: 4 [not illus-          that there was no specimen segregated as
   trated]. Examined 795 specimens. Mea-       type for this species in Maynard’s collec-
   surements not provided.                     tion at the time of his death. Lot MCZ
   Type Material. The original description     76022 was labeled ‘‘Paratype’’ and con-
did not distinguish among the 795 speci-       tained three specimens [MCZ catalog lists
mens examined. There was no indication         five], all damaged to some degree. The
in this publication to associate a single      best preserved specimen (lacking a portion
specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,         of the protoconch) is here selected as the
there is no holotype for this taxon, and the   lectotype (MCZ 76022) to provide an ob-
species is based on 795 syntypes. Neither      jective standard of reference for this spe-
measurements nor illustration are includ-      cies-group taxon. The remaining two spec-
ed in the original description. Lot MCZ        imens, recatalogued as MCZ 357016, be-
76101 contains a single specimen labeled       come paralectotypes.
‘‘Holotype’’ that is accompanied by a label       Lectotype Measurements. Length 21.0
in Maynard’s hand with the term ‘‘type,’’      mm, diameter (excluding lip) 9.6 mm; ap-
which is dated July 27, 1924, presumably       erture height (including lip) 8.9 mm, ap-
the date it was collected. This specimen is    erture width (including lip and peristome)
here designated as the lectotype to provide    7.4 mm.
an objective standard of reference for this       Type Locality. St. James Corner, East
species-group taxon that is consistent with    Nassau [New Providence Island, Baha-
Maynard’s original concept of it. The re-      mas].
maining 794 specimens, including, MCZ             Remarks. From crab hole, with S. con-
76102 and USNM 420104 (200 specimens           cina and S. pygmea. Gould and Woodruff
including one sinistral), become paralec-      (1986: 482) considered this taxon to be a
totypes.                                       synonym of Cerion gubernatorium
   Lectotype Measurements. Length 28.5         (Crosse, 1869), but questioned whether it
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 11.5 mm; ap-      were truly ‘‘fossil’’ or just long dead.
erture height (including lip) 11.7 mm, ap-     Taxon 244. Strophiops concina Maynard,
erture width (including lip and peristome)       1924c [10 December]: 4 [not illus-
9.7 mm.                                          trated]. Examined one specimen. Size
   Type Locality. On West Bay Street, Nas-       given as .65 by .30 [inches; 16.5 by 7.6
sau, about opposite North Silver Key, New        mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.
Providence Island, Bahamas.
   Remarks. Gould and Woodruff (1986:             Type Material. The original description
477) considered this taxon to be a syno-       states that this taxon is known from one
                          ¨
nym of Cerion glans (Kuster, 1844).            specimen, the measurements provided ap-
             THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.            521



plying to the unique holotype (MCZ             gigantea Maynard and Clapp, 1921 (see
76020).                                        Taxon 230), are also the type specimen and
   Holotype Measurements. Length 16.0          type locality of S. ajax Maynard, 1924.
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 7.7 mm; ap-
erture height (including lip) 6.6 mm, ap-      Taxon 247. Strophiops leucophera May-
erture width (including lip and peristome)       nard, 1925 [July 18]: 181, pl. 52, figs.
6.1 mm.                                          1, 2 (pl. 52 never published). Examined
   Type Locality. St. James Corner, East         50 specimens. Size given as .50 by 1.50
Nassau [New Providence Island, Baha-             [inches; 12.7 by 38.1 mm], but the term
mas].                                            ‘‘type’’ was not used.
   Remarks. From crab hole, with S. min-
                                                  Type Material. The original description
ima and S. pygmea. Gould and Woodruff
                                               did not distinguish among the 50 speci-
(1986: 481) considered this taxon to be a
                                               mens examined. There was no indication
synonym of Cerion universum (Maynard,
                                               in this publication to associate a single
1913).
                                               specimen with the term ‘‘type.’’ Thus,
Taxon 245. Strophiops pygmea Maynard,          there is no holotype for this taxon, and the
  1924c [10 December]: 4, 5 [not illus-        species is based on 50 syntypes. Lot num-
  trated]. Examined one specimen. Size         ber MCZ 76283 contains a single speci-
  given as .50 by .25 [inches; 12.7 by 6.4     men labeled ‘‘Holotype’’ that is accompa-
  mm], but the term ‘‘type’’ was not used.     nied by a label in Maynard’s hand with the
                                               term ‘‘type,’’ which includes references to
   Type Material. The original description     figures that were never published. This
states that this taxon is known from one       specimen is here designated as the lecto-
specimen, the measurements provided ap-        type to provide an objective standard of
plying to the unique holotype (MCZ             reference for this species-group taxon that
76021).                                        is consistent with Maynard’s original con-
   Holotype Measurements. Length 12.2          cept of it. The remaining 49 specimens be-
mm, diameter (excluding lip) 6.1 mm; ap-       come paralectotypes.
erture height (including lip) 4.5 mm, ap-         Lectotype Measurements. Length 32.5
erture width (including lip and peristome)     mm, diameter (excluding lip) 13.1 mm; ap-
4.6 mm.                                        erture height (including lip) 12.0 mm, ap-
   Type Locality. St. James Corner, East       erture width (including lip and peristome)
Nassau [New Providence Island, Baha-           10.2 mm.
mas].                                             Type Locality. Gray hill at the extreme
   Remarks. From crab hole, with S. min-       northern end of Great Guana Key, Exuma
ima and S. concina. Maynard (1924c: 4)         Group, Bahamas.
noted that this was the smallest fossil Cer-      Remarks. The published measurements
ion known to him. Gould and Woodruff           are transposed. Because this taxon was
(1985: 481) considered this a synonym of       published in ‘‘Part Three’’ of Contribu-
Cerion universum (Maynard, 1913).              tions to the History of the Cerionidae, the
                                               authorship is attributed to Maynard, rather
Taxon 246. Strophiops ajax Maynard,            than Maynard and Clapp, as listed in
  1924c [10 December]: 5. Replace-             Clench (1957: 151).
  ment name for Strophiops gigantea
  Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921           Taxon 248. Strophiops vagabunda May-
  [Taxon 230], not Strophia grayi gigantea       nard, 1925 [July 18], pl. 41, figs. 7,
  Maynard, 1894 [Taxon 36].                      8 [appears in figure caption only].
   Type Material. The type specimen (Ho-         Nomenclatural Remarks. The binomen
lotype, MCZ 76244) and type locality of S.     Strophiops vagabunda appeared under fig-
522      Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



ures cited in the original description of                  Museum of Comparative Zoology, 128(8): 393–
                                                           414.
Strophiops albata Maynard and Clapp in                        . 1964. Land and freshwater Mollusca of the
Maynard, 1921b (see Taxon 215), but pub-                   Cayman Islands, West Indies. Occasional Papers
lished 4 years later. Strophiops albata                    on Mollusks Museum of Comparative Zoology,
Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921b, is                    2(31): 345–380, pls. 61–63.
a junior homonym of S. albata Maynard                   CLENCH, W. J., AND C. G. AGUAYO. 1952. The sca-
                                                           larinum species complex (Umbonis) in the genus
and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a (see Taxon                     Cerion. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, Harvard
192). Clench (1957: 166) regarded Stro-                    University, 1: 413–440.
phiops vagabunda to be a replacement                    FRENCH, M. V. 1930. Charles J. Maynard. The Flor-
name for S. albata Maynard and Clapp in                    ida Naturalist, 3: 58.
                                                        GOULD, S. J., AND D. S. WOODRUFF. 1986. Evolution
Maynard, 1921b, not S. albata Maynard                      and systematics of Cerion (Mollusca: Pulmonata)
and Clapp in Maynard, 1921a, but attri-                    on New Providence Island: a radical revision.
buted authorship to Maynard and Clapp.                     Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural
As the figures are captioned ‘‘S. vagabun-                  History, 182(4): 389–490.
da’’ authorship of the taxon is confined to              GOULD, S. J., N. D. YOUNG, AND B. KASSON. 1985.
                                                           The consequences of being different: sinistral
Maynard, 1925.                                             coiling in Cerion. Evolution, 39(6): 1364–1379.
   Type Material. The type specimens                    HUMMELINCK, P. W. 1980. Caribbean land molluscs,
(Lectotype, MCZ 76258) and type locality                   Cerion in the Cayman Islands. Uitgaven Natu-
of Strophiops albata Maynard and Clapp                     urwetenschappelijke Studiekring voor Suriname
                                                           en de Nederlandse Antillen, 1980: 1–67.
in Maynard, 1921 (see Taxon 215), are also              ICZN. 1999. International Code of Zoological No-
the type specimens and type locality of S.                 menclature. Fourth ed. London: The Interna-
vagabunda Maynard, 1925.                                   tional Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. xxix
                                                           306 pp.
LITERATURE CITED                                        JOHNSON, C. W. 1930. Charles Johnson Maynard.
                                                           The Nautilus, 43(3): 101–103, 1 pl.
ABELE, S. D. 2002. Discovering Charles Johnson          MAYNARD, C. J. 1889a [April]. Monograph of the ge-
   Maynard, Naturalist and Teacher. Newton, Mas-           nus Strophia, a group of tropical and sub-tropical
   sachusetts: Jackson Homestead Museum. 30 pp.            land shells. Contributions to Science, 1(1): 1–29,
BATCHELDER, C. F. 1951. A bibliography of the pub-         pls. 1–2.
   lished writings of Charles Johnson Maynard                 . 1889b [July]. Monograph of the genus Stro-
   [1845–1929]. Journal of the Society for the Bib-        phia. [Continued]. Contributions to Science,
   liography of Natural History, 2(7): 227–260.            1(2): 68–79, pl. 7.
CLENCH, W. J. 1933. Notes and descriptions of land            . 1889c [October]. Monograph of the genus
   mollusks from the Bahama Islands, based mainly          Strophia. [Continued]. Contributions to Science,
   upon collections obtained during the Utowana            1(3): 125–135, pl. 16.
   Expedition of 1932 and 1933. Proceedings of the            . 1890 [January (dated ‘‘January, 1889’’ on
                      ¨
   New England Zoological Club, 13: 77–100, pl. 1.         page 1)]. Monograph of the genus Strophia.
       . 1934. Notes and descriptions of new Cerions       [Continued]. Contributions to Science, 1(4):
   from Hispaniola and the Bahama Islands, based           188–197.
   mainly upon collections obtained during the Uto-           . 1894a [December]. Monograph of the genus
   wana Expedition of 1934. Proceedings of the             Strophia. [Continued]. Contributions to Science,
   Boston Society of Natural History, 40(2): 205–          2(3): 107–152.
   218, pls. 1–2.                                             . 1894b [December]. Monograph of the genus
       . 1952. Land and freshwater mollusks of             Strophia. [Continued]. Contributions to Science,
   Eleuthera Island, Bahama Islands. Revista de la         2(4): 153–182.
   Sociedad Malacologia ‘‘Carlos de la Torre,’’ 8:            . 1896 [March]. Monograph of the genus Stro-
   97–116.                                                 phia. [Continued]. Contributions to Science,
       . 1957. A catalog of the Cerionidae (Mollusca:      3(1): 1–40, pls. 1–7.
   Pulmonata). Bulletin of the Museum of Com-                 . 1913a [January]. Descriptions of some spe-
   parative Zoology, 116: 121–169.                         cies of the family Cerionidae. Records of Walks
       . 1959. Land and freshwater mollusks of Great       and Talks with Nature, 5(Appendix): 177–182.
   and Little Inagua, Bahama Islands. Bulletin of             . 1913b [February 1]. Descriptions of some
   the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 121(2):              species of the family Cerionidae. Records of
   29–53, pl. 1.                                           Walks and Talks with Nature, 5(Appendix): 183–
       . 1963. Land and freshwater Mollusca of the         186.
   Crooked Island Group, Bahamas. Bulletin of the             . 1913c [February 9]. Descriptions of some
           THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                             523



species of the family Cerionidae. Records of             new species and notes on evolution in birds and
Walks and Talks with Nature, 5(Appendix): 187–           plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,
200.                                                     10(10, Appendix): 155–170, text figs. 93–94, pls.
   . 1914 [August 18]. A species of land shell of        38, 39.
the family Cerionidae redescribed. Records of               . 1924b? [undated]. Catalogue of Specimens
Walks and Talks with Nature, 6(Appendix): 177–           of the Family Cerionidae for Sale by Charles J.
179                                                      Maynard Containing Many New Species. West
   . 1919a [October 16]. Contributions to the his-       Newton, Massachusetts: Published privately. 8
tory of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many         unnumbered pp.
new species and notes on evolution in birds and             . 1924c [December 10]. Supplement to Sale
plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,          Catalogue of Cerionidae with Descriptions of
10(1, Appendix): 1–24, text figs. 1–3, pls. 5, 6.         New Species Collected in the Bahama Islands in
   . 1919b [November 6]. Contributions to the            Summer of 1924. [Footnote on p. 6 ‘‘Issued De-
history of the Cerionidae with descriptions of           cember 10, 1924’’] West Newton, Massachusetts:
many new species and notes on evolution in               Published privately. Pp. 1–6.
birds and plants. Records of Walks and Talks                . 1925 [July 18]. Contributions to the history
with Nature, 10(2, Appendix): 25–52, text figs.           of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many new
4–18 [including 13∗, 14∗, 15∗], pls. 7, 8.               species and notes on evolution in birds and
   . 1919c [December 31]. Contributions to the           plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,
history of the Cerionidae with descriptions of           10(11, Appendix): 171–194, text figs. 95–103,
many new species and notes on evolution in               maps 2–4, pls. 40–41.
birds and plants. Records of Walks and Talks                . 1926 [March 24]. Contributions to the his-
with Nature, 10(3, Appendix): 53–68, text figs.           tory of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many
19–42 [including 30∗, 32∗], pls. 9, 10.
                                                         new species and notes on evolution in birds and
   . 1920a [February 29]. Contributions to the
                                                         plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,
history of the Cerionidae with descriptions of
                                                         10(12, Appendix): 195–218, text figs. 104–116,
many new species and notes on evolution in
                                                         maps 5–6, pls. 42, 43.
birds and plants. Records of Walks and Talks
                                                     MAYNARD, C. J., AND N. A. CLAPP. 1914 [August 18].
with Nature, 10(4, Appendix): 69–80, text figs.
                                                         Descriptions of new Strophias. Records of Walks
43–53, pls. 10∗, 11.
                                                         and Talks with Nature, 6(Appendix): 180.
   . 1920b [April 8]. Contributions to the history
                                                            . 1915 [February 8]. Descriptions of new Stro-
of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many new
                                                         phias. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature.
species and notes on evolution in birds and
                                                         6(Appendix): 179 bis, 180 bis, 181, 182.
plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,
                                                     [PILSBRY, H. A.] 1901. Francis C. Browne [Obituary].
Volume 10(5, Appendix): 81–92, text figs. 55–60
                                                         The Nautilus, 14(11): 132.
[including 59∗], pls. 12, 13.
   . 1920c [July 10]. Contributions to the history   PILSBRY, H. A. 1901–02. Family Cerionidae. Manual
of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many new          of conchology. Ser. 2. Pulmonata. Academy of
species and notes on evolution in birds and              Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 14: 174–286,
plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,          pls. 27–47.
10(6, Appendix): 93–110, text figs. 61–89 [in-        PILSBRY, H. A., AND E. G. VANATTA. 1896. Catalogue
cluding 70∗], pls. 14–19.                                of the species of Cerion, with descriptions of new
   . 1920d [September 30]. Contributions to the          forms. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural
history of the Cerionidae with descriptions of           Sciences of Philadelphia, (1896): 315–338, pl. 11.
many new species and notes on evolution in                                           ¨t
                                                     PLATE, L. 1907. Die Variabilita und die Artbildung
birds and plants. Records of Walks and Talks             nach dem Prinzip geographischer Formenketten
with Nature, 10(7, Appendix): 111–126, text figs.         bei den Cerion-Landschnecken der Bahamas-In-
90–92, Map 1, pls. 1–4, 20–25.                                          ¨
                                                         seln. Archiv fur Rassen- und Gesselschafts-Biol-
   . 1921a [May 2]. Contributions to the history         ogie, 4: 433–470, 581–614, pls. 1–5.
of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many new      TOWNSEND, C. W. 1930. Charles Johnson Maynard.
species and notes on evolution in birds and              Bulletin of the Boston Society of Natural History,
plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,          54: 1–7, 2 pls.
10(8, Appendix): 127–138, pls. 26–33.                TURNER, R. D. 1957. Charles Johnson Maynard and
   . 1921b [July 15]. Contributions to the history       his work in malacology. Occasional papers on
of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many new          Mollusks Museum of Comparative Zoology, Har-
species and notes on evolution in birds and              vard, 2(21): 137–152, portrait.
plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature,      WOODRUFF, D. S. 1978. Evolution and adaptive ra-
10(9, Appendix): 139–154, pls. 34–37.                    diation of Cerion: a remarkably diverse group of
   . 1924a [October 25]. Contributions to the his-       West Indian land snails. Malacologia, 17: 223–
tory of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many         239.
524           Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



INDEX OF SPECIES-LEVEL TAXA                                                            caerulea Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon
                                                                                            107 --------------------------------------------------------------------         434
acceptoria Maynard, 1913—Taxon 68 ---------------                                413   caerulescens Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
accuminator Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                   1920—Taxon 160 -------------------------------------------                       474
     1920—Taxon 168 -------------------------------------------                  479   cana Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920—
accumulata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                    Taxon 132 --------------------------------------------------------               456
     1920 (misspelling)—Taxon 168 -------------------                            479   candida Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
acuminata Maynard, 1920 (nomen nudum)—                                                      1921—Taxon 187 -------------------------------------------                       489
     Taxon 168 --------------------------------------------------------          479   capraia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1919
acuta Maynard, 1889—Taxon 4 --------------------------                           376        (misspelling)—Taxon 117 -----------------------------                            441
adumbra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                  caprana Maynard, 1919—Taxon 117 -----------------                                     441
     1920—Taxon 176 -------------------------------------------                  483   capria Maynard, 1924 (misspelling)—Taxon
affinis Maynard, 1913—Taxon 67 -----------------------                            412        117 --------------------------------------------------------------------         441
agava Maynard, 1894—Taxon 41 -----------------------                             398   carlotta Maynard, 1894—Taxon 42 --------------------                                  399
agavaneglecta Maynard, 1913—Taxon 83 ---------                                   421   carnale Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
agrestina Maynard, 1894—Taxon 51 -----------------                               402        1921—Taxon 203 -------------------------------------------                       498
agricola Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                 castra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921—
     1919—Taxon 122 -------------------------------------------                  445        Taxon 220 --------------------------------------------------------               508
agristina Maynard, 1894 (misspelling)—Taxon                                            cera Maynard, 1894—Taxon 46 --------------------------                                401
     51 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   402   cervina Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
agsestina Maynard, 1919 (misspelling)—Taxon                                                 1920—Taxon 158 -------------------------------------------                       474
     51 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   402   cinerea Maynard, 1894—Taxon 28 ---------------------                                  391
ajax Maynard, 1924—Taxon 246 ------------------------                            521   cinereavara Maynard, 1913 (incorrect original
alba Maynard, 1889—Taxon 17 --------------------------                           384        spelling)—Taxon 69 ---------------------------------------                       413
albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                   cinereavaria Maynard, 1913—Taxon 69 -----------                                       413
     1921—Taxon 192 -------------------------------------------                  493   clappi Maynard, 1919 (misspelling)—Taxon 98
albata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921                                                     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------   430
     (homonym of Strophia albata Maynard                                               clappii Maynard, 1913—Taxon 98 ---------------------                                  430
     and Clapp in Maynard, 1921 [Taxon 192];                                           clara Maynard, 1924—Taxon 241 ----------------------                                  519
     Strophiops vagabunda Maynard and Clapp                                            columbiana Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     in Maynard, 1925 [Taxon 248], is a                                                     1921—Taxon 202 -------------------------------------------                       498
     replacement name)—Taxon 215 -----------------                               505   concina Maynard, 1924—Taxon 244 ------------------                                    520
albea Maynard, 1894—Taxon 32 ------------------------                            393   confusa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
albicostata Maynard, 1924—Taxon 235 ------------                                 515        1921—Taxon 186 -------------------------------------------                       489
albolabra Maynard, 1920—Taxon 134 --------------                                 457   copia Maynard, 1889—Taxon 8 --------------------------                                379
angustalabra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                             coryi Maynard, 1894—Taxon 33 ------------------------                                 394
     1921—Taxon 212 -------------------------------------------                  502   crassa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
angustocostata Maynard and Clapp in                                                         1920—Taxon 165 -------------------------------------------                       478
     Maynard, 1921—Taxon 210 -------------------------                           501   crassalabra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
antiqua Maynard, 1913—Taxon 63 --------------------                              410        1921—Taxon 211 -------------------------------------------                       502
arbusta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                  crassamarga Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1919—Taxon 124 -------------------------------------------                  447        1924—Taxon 233 -------------------------------------------                       515
argentea Maynard, 1919, 1921, 1924?                                                    crescentia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     (misspelling)—Taxon 82 -------------------------------                      420        1921—Taxon 205 -------------------------------------------                       499
argentia Maynard, 1913—Taxon 82 -------------------                              420   curtissii Maynard, 1894—Taxon 25 -------------------                                  388
argntea Maynard, 1921 (misspelling)—Taxon                                              cyclura Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     82 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   420        1920—Taxon 148 -------------------------------------------                       468
aspera Maynard, 1920—Taxon 125 --------------------                              448   cylindriata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
aviaria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                       1920—Taxon 163 -------------------------------------------                       476
     1921—Taxon 185 -------------------------------------------                  488   cylindrica Maynard, 1896—Taxon 62 ----------------                                    410
avita Maynard, 1913—Taxon 80 -------------------------                           419   dalli Maynard, 1889 (misspelling)—Taxon 21 ---                                        386
balaena Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                  dallii Maynard, 1889—Taxon 21 ------------------------                                386
     1921—Taxon 189 -------------------------------------------                  490   degenis Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
balaene Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921                                                  1920—Taxon 153 -------------------------------------------                       470
     (incorrect original spelling)—Taxon 189 ---                                 490   delicata Maynard, 1913—Taxon 78 --------------------                                  419
balanae Maynard, 1924? (misspelling)—Taxon                                             devereuaxi Maynard, 1924? (misspelling)–
     189 --------------------------------------------------------------------    490        Taxon 108 --------------------------------------------------------               435
bimarginata Maynard, 1894—Taxon 45 ------------                                  400   devereuxi Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon
brownei Maynard, 1889—Taxon 22 -------------------                               386        108 --------------------------------------------------------------------         435
caduca Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                   deveruxi Maynard, 1921 (misspelling)—Taxon
     1920—Taxon 127 -------------------------------------------                  450        108 --------------------------------------------------------------------         435
                         THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                                                                525



dissimila Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                hartbennetii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1920—Taxon 149 -------------------------------------------                  468        1921—Taxon 217 -------------------------------------------                 506
eburnea Maynard, 1920 (misspelling)—Taxon                                              helena Maynard, 1914—Taxon 102 --------------------                             431
     38 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   396   hesternia Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon
eburnia Maynard, 1894—Taxon 38 --------------------                              396        106 --------------------------------------------------------------------   434
elegantissima Maynard, 1919—Taxon 123 --------                                   446   hyattii Maynard, 1913—Taxon 88 ----------------------                           423
elongata Maynard, 1894—Taxon 39 ------------------                               396   hyatiii Maynard, 1921, 1926 (misspelling)—
eratica Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                       Taxon 88 ----------------------------------------------------------        423
     1921—Taxon 219 -------------------------------------------                  507   ianthina Maynard, 1889—Taxon 13 -------------------                             381
eryrostoma Maynard, 1919 (misspelling)—                                                ignota Maynard, 1896—Taxon 56 ----------------------                            406
     Taxon 55 ----------------------------------------------------------         406   imperfecta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
eurystoma Maynard, 1896—Taxon 55 ---------------                                 406        1920—Taxon 146 -------------------------------------------                 467
evolva Maynard, 1894—Taxon 48 ----------------------                             401   inconstans Maynard, 1920—Taxon 130 -------------                                454
exasperata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                               inconsueta Maynard, 1913—Taxon 85 --------------                                422
     1920—Taxon 164 -------------------------------------------                  476   inexpecta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
exigua Maynard, 1913—Taxon 93 ----------------------                             427        1920—Taxon 174 -------------------------------------------                 482
eximea Maynard, 1894—Taxon 50 ---------------------                              402   inflata Maynard, 1889—Taxon 20 ----------------------                            385
exorta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                   inornata Maynard, 1919—Taxon 116 ----------------                               440
     1920—Taxon 162 -------------------------------------------                  475   inquieta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
extensa Maynard, 1924—Taxon 236 ------------------                               516        1920 (incorrect original spelling)—Taxon
extranea Maynard, 1924—Taxon 234 ----------------                                515        157 --------------------------------------------------------------------   473
extrema Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                  inquita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1920—Taxon 145 -------------------------------------------                  466        1920—Taxon 157 -------------------------------------------                 473
fastigata Maynard, 1896—Taxon 54 ------------------                              405   intentata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
faxoni Maynard, 1896—Taxon 61 -----------------------                            408        1920—Taxon 143 -------------------------------------------                 465
faxsoni Maynard, 1920 (misspelling)—Taxon                                              intercalaria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     61 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   408        1921—Taxon 181 -------------------------------------------                 487
ferruginea Maynard, 1896—Taxon 59 ---------------                                407   intermedia Maynard, 1889—Taxon 3 ----------------                               376
festiva Maynard, 1889—Taxon 5 ------------------------                           378   jenneyi Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
fincastlei Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                     1921—Taxon 197 -------------------------------------------                 495
     1921—Taxon 225 -------------------------------------------                  510   larga Maynard, 1913—Taxon 66 ------------------------                           412
fitzgeraldi Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                               latonia Maynard, 1920—Taxon 136 -------------------                             459
     1920—Taxon 175 -------------------------------------------                  483   lenticularia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
flacida Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                        1921—Taxon 200 -------------------------------------------                 496
     1921—Taxon 232 -------------------------------------------                  515   lentiginosa Maynard, 1889—Taxon 18 --------------                               385
flamea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                    leucophera Maynard, 1925—Taxon 247 ------------                                 521
     1921—Taxon 179 -------------------------------------------                  486   leva Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921—
fragilis Maynard, 1920—Taxon 135 -------------------                             458        Taxon 231 --------------------------------------------------------         514
fruticosa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                levigata Maynard, 1889—Taxon 2 ----------------------                           375
     1920—Taxon 126 -------------------------------------------                  449   lineota Maynard, 1889—Taxon 7 ------------------------                          379
fulminea Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon                                                 litorea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     112 --------------------------------------------------------------------    437        1921—Taxon 193 -------------------------------------------                 493
fulvia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                   livida Maynard, 1924—Taxon 242 ---------------------                            520
     1920—Taxon 156 -------------------------------------------                  473   lobata Maynard, 1919—Taxon 118 --------------------                             442
fusca Maynard, 1889—Taxon 19 ------------------------                            385   longidentata Maynard, 1919 (nomen nudum)
genetiva Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                      —Taxon 113 ----------------------------------------------------            437
     1920—Taxon 171 -------------------------------------------                  481   macularia Maynard, 1913—Taxon 76 ----------------                               418
genitiva Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                 mariae Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1920 (misspelling)—Taxon 171 -------------------                            481        1920—Taxon 137 -------------------------------------------                 460
gigantea Maynard, 1894—Taxon 36 ------------------                               395   marmorosa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
gigantea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                      1920—Taxon 172 -------------------------------------------                 481
     1921 (homonym of Strophia grayi gigantea                                          mayoi Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921—
     Maynard, 1894 [Taxon 36]; Strophiops                                                   Taxon 223 --------------------------------------------------------         509
     ajax Maynard, 1924 [Taxon 246] is a                                               media Maynard, 1896—Taxon 58 -----------------------                            407
     replacement name)—Taxon 230 -----------------                               514   migratoria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
glaber Maynard, 1889—Taxon 10 ----------------------                             380        1921—Taxon 222 -------------------------------------------                 508
gracila Maynard, 1924—Taxon 239 -------------------                              518   minima Maynard, 1924—Taxon 243 ------------------                               520
grayi Maynard, 1894—Taxon 35 ------------------------                            395   minuta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
grisea Maynard, 1894—Taxon 43 -----------------------                            399        1920—Taxon 152 -------------------------------------------                 470
hartbenettii Maynard, 1926 (misspelling)—                                              mitra Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     Taxon 217 --------------------------------------------------------          506        1920—Taxon 142 -------------------------------------------                 465
526           Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. 158, No. 7



mixta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921—                                               pannosa Maynard, 1889—Taxon 1 ---------------------                              375
     Taxon 183 -------------------------------------------------------- 488             parva Maynard, 1889—Taxon 9 -------------------------                            379
mobile Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                    perantiqua Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 216 ------------------------------------------- 506                          1920—Taxon 139 -------------------------------------------                  462
montana Maynard, 1924—Taxon 240 ---------------- 519                                    peravita Maynard, 1919—Taxon 114 -----------------                               437
morula Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon 104                                                perplexa Maynard, 1889—Taxon 15 ------------------                               384
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 432   persuasa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
multa Maynard, 1913—Taxon 94 ----------------------- 428                                     1920—Taxon 128 -------------------------------------------                  452
muralia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                   phoenecia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 228 ------------------------------------------- 513                          1921—Taxon 227 -------------------------------------------                  512
mutata Maynard, 1894—Taxon 31 --------------------- 393                                 phoenicia Maynard, 1919 (nomen nudum)—
mutatoria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                      Taxon 227 --------------------------------------------------------          512
     1920—Taxon 141 ------------------------------------------- 464                     picta Maynard, 1889—Taxon 6 ---------------------------                          378
nana Maynard, 1889—Taxon 11 ------------------------- 380                               picturata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
navalia Maynard, 1919 (nomen nudum)—                                                         1921—Taxon 199 -------------------------------------------                  496
     Taxon 169 -------------------------------------------------------- 480             pilsbryi Maynard, 1894—Taxon 47 --------------------                             401
navalis Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                   plebea Maynard, 1920—Taxon 131 --------------------                              455
     1920—Taxon 169 ------------------------------------------- 480                     plebeia Maynard, 1920 (misspelling)—Taxon
nebula Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                         131 --------------------------------------------------------------------    455
     1920—Taxon 161 ------------------------------------------- 475                     plebia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
neglecta Maynard, 1894—Taxon 40 ------------------- 398                                      1921(misspelling)—Taxon 131 --------------------                            455
nitela Maynard, 1889—Taxon 16 ----------------------- 384                               polita Maynard, 1896—Taxon 57 -----------------------                            406
nivea Maynard, 1894 (incorrect original                                                 porcina Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     spelling)—Taxon 26 --------------------------------------- 390                          1921—Taxon 190 -------------------------------------------                  492
nivia Maynard, 1894—Taxon 26 (see Taxon                                                 praedicta Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon
     72) --------------------------------------------------------------------- 390           109 --------------------------------------------------------------------    435
nivia Maynard, 1913—Taxon 72 (see Taxon                                                 praedivina Maynard, 1913—Taxon 90 --------------                                 424
     26) --------------------------------------------------------------------- 415      praedivinauniversa Maynard, 1913—Taxon
normandi Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                       91 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   426
     1920 (incorrect original spelling)—Taxon                                           predivina Maynard, 1921 (misspelling)—Taxon
     166 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 478            90 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   424
normanii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                  primigenia Maynard, 1913—Taxon 64 --------------                                 411
     1920—Taxon 166 ------------------------------------------- 478                     primordia Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
novita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                         1921—Taxon 188 -------------------------------------------                  490
     1921—Taxon 226 ------------------------------------------- 512                     prisca Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon
nuda Maynard, 1889—Taxon 12 ------------------------ 381                                     110 --------------------------------------------------------------------    436
oberholseri Maynard, 1913—Taxon 84 -------------- 422                                   proavita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
obliterata Maynard, 1896—Taxon 53 ---------------- 404                                       1921—Taxon 180 -------------------------------------------                  486
obliterata Maynard, 1913 (homonym of                                                    processa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     Strophia scripta obliterata Maynard, 1896                                               1920—Taxon 140 -------------------------------------------                  464
     [Taxon 53]; Strophiops sula Maynard and                                            procliva Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     Clapp, 1915 [Taxon 105], is a replace-                                                  1921—Taxon 196 -------------------------------------------                  494
     ment name)—Taxon 95 -------------------------------- 428                           profunda Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
obscura Maynard, 1896—Taxon 60 ------------------- 408                                       1921—Taxon 182 -------------------------------------------                  487
obtusa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                    prognata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 191 ------------------------------------------- 492                          1920—Taxon 144 -------------------------------------------                  466
orbicularia Maynard, 1889—Taxon 24 -------------- 388                                   progressa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
ornatula Maynard, 1913—Taxon 96 ------------------ 429                                       1920—Taxon 147 -------------------------------------------                  467
ornatulaclappii Maynard, 1913—Taxon 97 ------ 429                                       pulla Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920—
ornatularufina Maynard, 1913—Taxon 99 -------- 430                                            Taxon 159 --------------------------------------------------------          474
oscula Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                    pumilia Maynard, 1894—Taxon 37 --------------------                              395
     1921—Taxon 218 ------------------------------------------- 507                     pumilla Maynard, 1894 (misspelling in the
palida Maynard, 1889—Taxon 14 ---------------------- 382                                     index)—Taxon 37 -------------------------------------------                 395
palidula Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                  purpura Maynard, 1919, 1924 (misspelling)—
     1921—Taxon 213 ------------------------------------------- 504                          Taxon 75 ----------------------------------------------------------         416
pallida Maynard, 1889 (misspelling)—Taxon 14                                            purpurea Maynard, 1913—Taxon 75 -----------------                                416
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 382   pusilla Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
palmata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                        1920—Taxon 173 -------------------------------------------                  482
     1919—Taxon 121 ------------------------------------------- 444                     pygmea Maynard, 1924—Taxon 245 -----------------                                 521
panda Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                     ralla Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921—
     1921—Taxon 204 ------------------------------------------- 499                          Taxon 208 --------------------------------------------------------          500
                          THE CERION TAXA OF CHARLES JOHNSON MAYNARD • Harasewych et al.                                                                                     527



rara Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921—                                                    stupida Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     Taxon 194 --------------------------------------------------------               494        1921—Taxon 201 -------------------------------------------                  498
recessa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                       sula Maynard and Clapp, 1915 (new name for
     1919—Taxon 120 -------------------------------------------                       443        obliterata Maynard, 1913)—Taxon 105 -----                                   434
rediviva Maynard, 1913—Taxon 73 -------------------                                   415   sylvatica Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
regula Maynard, 1894—Taxon 44 ----------------------                                  400        1921—Taxon 207 -------------------------------------------                  500
regular Maynard, 1919 (misspelling)—Taxon                                                   tabida Maynard, 1913—Taxon 101 --------------------                              431
     44 ----------------------------------------------------------------------        400   tenucostata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
reincarnata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                        1920—Taxon 155 -------------------------------------------                  472
     1921—Taxon 224 -------------------------------------------                       509   tenui Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon 111 --                                       436
relequa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921                                                  territa Maynard, 1920—Taxon 133 --------------------                             457
     (misspelling)—Taxon 184 -----------------------------                            488   thayeri Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
reliqua Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                            1921—Taxon 206 -------------------------------------------                  500
                                                                                            thayerii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 184 -------------------------------------------                       488
                                                                                                 1921(misspelling)—Taxon 206 --------------------                            500
repetita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
                                                                                            thompsoni Maynard and Clapp, 1915—Taxon
     1920—Taxon 138 -------------------------------------------                       461
                                                                                                 103 --------------------------------------------------------------------    432
repitita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920                                                 thorndikei Maynard, 1894—Taxon 27 ---------------                                391
     (nomen nudum)—Taxon 138 ----------------------                                   461   thorndikeii Maynard, 1921 (misspelling)—
restricta Maynard, 1894—Taxon 49 -------------------                                  401        Taxon 27 ----------------------------------------------------------         391
ritchei Maynard, 1920 (misspelling)—Taxon 34                                                tibida Maynard, 1921 (misspelling)—Taxon
       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------   394        101 --------------------------------------------------------------------    431
ritchiei Maynard, 1894—Taxon 34 ---------------------                                 394   tracta Maynard, 1894—Taxon 30 -----------------------                            392
robusta Maynard, 1894—Taxon 29 --------------------                                   392   transitoria Maynard, 1913—Taxon 86 ---------------                               423
rosacea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                       transimutata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 209 -------------------------------------------                       501        1921 (misspelling)—Taxon 177 -------------------                            484
rosea Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1921—                                                   transmutata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     Taxon 229 --------------------------------------------------------               513        1921—Taxon 177 -------------------------------------------                  484
rubiginosa Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                    travelii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 221 -------------------------------------------                       508        1921(incorrect original spelling)—Taxon
rufimaculata Maynard, 1913—Taxon 77 -----------                                        418        198 --------------------------------------------------------------------    495
rufina Maynard, 1913—Taxon 100 --------------------                                    430   travellii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
rufula Maynard, 1924—Taxon 238 --------------------                                   518        1921—Taxon 198 -------------------------------------------                  495
salinaria Maynard, 1913—Taxon 65 ------------------                                   411   ultima Maynard, 1913—Taxon 79 ----------------------                             419
sampsoni Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                      uniformis Maynard, 1913—Taxon 87 ----------------                                423
     1920—Taxon 154 -------------------------------------------                       472   universa Maynard, 1913—Taxon 92 ------------------                               427
santesoni Maynard, 1920—Taxon 129 ---------------                                     453   vagabunda Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
                                                                                                 1925—Taxon 248 -------------------------------------------                  521
saxitina Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
                                                                                            valida Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 214 -------------------------------------------                       504
                                                                                                 1920—Taxon 170 -------------------------------------------                  480
scalariformis Maynard, 1919—Taxon 115 --------                                        438   varianivia Maynard 1913—Taxon 71 ----------------                                414
scripta Maynard, 1896—Taxon 52 ---------------------                                  404   variapurpurea Maynard, 1913—Taxon 74 --------                                    415
scutata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                       variata Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,
     1921—Taxon 195 -------------------------------------------                       494        1919—Taxon 119 -------------------------------------------                  443
semipolita Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                    variathorndikei Maynard, 1913—Taxon 70 ------                                    414
     1920—Taxon 167 -------------------------------------------                       479   veta Maynard and Clapp in Maynard, 1920—
similaria Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                          Taxon 150 --------------------------------------------------------          469
     1921—Taxon 178 -------------------------------------------                       484   vetusta Maynard, 1913—Taxon 81 ---------------------                             420
sparsa Maynard, 1924—Taxon 237 --------------------                                   516   vetustapraedevina Maynard, 1913—Taxon
stroutii Maynard and Clapp in Maynard,                                                           89 ----------------------------------------------------------------------   424
     1920—Taxon 151 -------------------------------------------                       469   viola Maynard, 1889—Taxon 23 -------------------------                           387

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:12
posted:10/14/2011
language:English
pages:161