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									                                                                                                                                                                           SUPP'I'E-MENT          X.

                                                                   CHRONOLOGICAL                                                                                                                    ARRANGEMENT
                                                                                                                                                              --                    OF-

                ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY                                                                                                   Copyright, 1912, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co.

             The chief aim of this Chronological History is to give in a comprehensive and attractive form the principal events of the history of the world free from unnecessary details.
        For convenience this history is arranged under-1I. Ancient History. II. Medieval History. III. Modern History. The latter is given-First. From the beginning of the Six-
        teenth Century to American Revolution. Second. From the birth of the United States to the present time by countries.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I                                                                                B C.
            Ancient History                                                 B. C.
                                                                            975 Death of Slomon.
                                                                                   Revolt of the Ten Tribes.
                                                                                   Division into kingdoms of Israel and
                                                                                                                                                   B. C.
                                                                                                                                                    598 Capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnez-
                                                                                                                                                              Second captivity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         B. C.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         460 Battle of Salamis-victory of Themisto-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Xerxes destroys Athens.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   409 Second invasion of Sicily by the Carth-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   407 The Volscians defeat the Romans.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               First invasion of Sicily by Carthage.                                      Rhodes founded.
        B. C.                                                                          Judah.                                                       597 Zedekiah made King over the remnant                                                                                                                        406 Battle of Arginuse.
        4004     Biblical account of the creation.                                 The kingdom             of Israel established under                        of Judath.                                                                       Defeat of the Carthaginians by Gelon at
        8800     Sargon I. King of Babylon.                                                                                                                                                                                                       H             timera.                                                   Condemnation of the ten                   generals.
                                                                                       Jerobo           ;lam.                                       596    Persians invade Syria, and Syria con-                                                                                                                          Dionysius tyrant of Syracuse;                       reigns
        3200     *Thle first Egyptian dynasty under Menes.                         Syria recovers independence.                                               tinues a subject of Persia for three                                             Birth of Euripides (died B. C. 406).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         479-450 Anaxagorus (b. 500, d. 428) teaches                                          thirty-eight years.
        2800        Snefru, 3dEgyptian dynasty.                             971 Slhishak, King of Egypt, captures and                                         centuries.
                 Egyptian inscriptions begin.                                                                                                                                                                                                     philosophy at Athens.                                            405 The siege of Veii, Rome.
                                                                                       plmdrs Jerusalerm.                                           594 Code of Solon at Athens published.                                                                                                                                Battle of Egospota-i.                   Dionysius         I.
                 Phenicia said to have been peopled by                      957 Abijah, King of Judah, defeats the King                             590 The seven w ise                   men of Greece                flourish,         479 Occupation of Athens by Mardonius.
                    the "sons of Anak."                                                                                                                                                                                                        Persians defeated at         'latea and Mycale                                 reigns in Syracuse.
                                                                                       of          Isra
                                                                                                      el.                                                     Solon,          Periander,            Pittacus,        Chilon,                                                                                                                                         End of the
        2750 Tyre and Sidonlfounded.                                                                                                                                                                                                              and retreat from Greece.                                         404 Athens taken by Lysander.
                                                                             950 The deceline of Thebes, Egypt.                                               Thales, Cleolmlusand Bias.
        2700 The 4th Egyptian dynasty begins.                                                                                                                                                                                                  Siege of Srstos.                                                               Peloponnesian War.
                                                                                   Assur-dayan II., King of Assyria.                                       War between Media and Lydia.
                 The Pyramid Tombs erected.                                                                                                                                                                                              477 Beginning of the supremacy of Athens.                                        Government of the Thirty Tyrants at
                                                                             916 R hodians         found navigation laws.                           588 The             Pythian games begin to be cele-                                                                                                                       Athens.
        2539        M erie 'epi I., Sixth Egyptian dynasty.                  906   Israel is afflicted with             famine predicted                       brated every five years.                                                        The Fabii perish in battle with the
                    Chaldea said to have been conquered by                                                                                                                                                                                        Veientes.                                                               Spartan supremacy.
        2458                                                                           by the           Prophet Elijah.                                    Jerusalem, having rebelled against Baby-
                    M edesor Armenians.                                                                                                                            lon, is besieged, by Nebuchadnezzar.                                  475-478 Iteiro IT-at Syracuse.                                                   Death of Alcibiades.
                                                                             901 Syria makes war upon Israel and is de-                                                                                                                                                                                            403 Thrasybulu              restores democratic govern-
        2448 The deluge.                                                               feated.                                                      587 Nebuchadnezzar invades Phenicia.                                                 474 Esther and Mordecai.
        2300 The Elamitic Conquest.                                                                                                                                                                                                      471 Banishment of Themistocles.                                                      ment at Athens.
                                                                             900 Erection            ofthe northwest      palace of Nim-                   Golden image set up.
                 The        Ilittites in Cappadocia.                                                                                                                              Meshach             and         Abednego               471 Birth of Thucydides (died after B. C. 403).                           402 Birth of Phocion (died 317).
                                                                                       rod.                                                                Shadrach,
                 Rise of Assyria.                                                                                                                                                                                                              First Pubillian Laws.                                               401 Expedition of Cyrus the younger who
                                                                             897 Elijah translated to heaven.                                                  thrown into a furnace.                                                                                                                                                                                            he is
        2280 Thebes, Egypt, founded.                                                                                                                       Prophecies of Obadiah.                                                              Election of plebeian magistrates given to                                      rebels; at the battle of Cunaxa
                                                                             896 Jehoshaphat              defeats the           Ammonites.
        2231 Alleged beginning of Chaldean astronom-                                                                                                                                                                                              the Conmitia Tributa-R-ome.                                                 defeated and slain and the "Retreat of
                                                                                   Death of Ahab, King of Israel.                                   586 Jerusaleml taken and destroyed by Ne-                                                                                                                                 ten thousand" Greeks under Xenophon
                    ical observations sent by Callisthenres                  895 Miracles of Elislha the Prophet.                                              buchadnezzar.                                                             470 Victory of Ciion over the Persians at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the Eurymedon.                                                              begins.
                    to Aristotle; the earliest extant is of                  892 Sarmaria besiegedby the Syrians.                                          End of the Kingdom of Judalh.
                    720 B. C.                                                884 Lacedemon settled.                                                 585    Death of Periander, tyrant of Athens                                                Antium (Rome) taken.                                                401-384 Ctesias flourished.
        2200 The Ilia dynasty in China founded.                                    Legislation of Lycurgus at Sparta.                                          forty years.                                                                    Suicide of Appius Claudius.                                         400 Malachi.
                 Cuneiform writing probably in use.                                Assur-natsir-pal King or Assyria.                                       Treaty between                   Media and Lydia.                             469 Pericles begins to take part in the pub-                              399      I)eath of Socrates.
        2180 Nineveh built.                                                  880 The Assyrians again invade Babylonia.                               580 Copper money coined at Rome.                                                             lie affairs of Athens.                                              39S Campaign and peace of Dercyllidas.
        2160 First Persian dynasty founded.                                  8T8 Carthage founded by Dido the Tyrian.                               579 Nebuchadnezzar takes Tyre.                                                       468 Birth of Socrates.                                                    396 First Campaign of Agesilaus in Asia.
        2130 Amen-ena-hat I. founds 12th Egyptian                            875 Sardanapalus I. of Assyria.                                        578 Accession of ServiLls Tullius, Rome.                                                   Destruction of Myvene by the Argives.                                      The Roman dictator Camillos captures
                    dynasty.                                                 870 The Assyrians conquer                   Phenieia.                  575 Civil war in Egypt.                                                                    Diogenes of Appolonio              ytourishes.                                  Veii.
        2120 Pyramids built north of Memphis.                                860 Assyrian conquest under Shalmaneser.                               570 Amasis reigns in Egypt.                                                           466 Flight of Thenistocles to Persia.                                       395 Greecian coalition against Sparta; Lysan-
        2100 The Obelisk of On erected.                                            Hazael attacks Israel.                                           569 Egypt conquered by Ne                              buchadnezzar.                       Siege of Naxos.                                                                 der slain.
        2093 Reign of Urich of Chaldea.                                      846 Lycurgus flourishes.                                                566 The first census of Rome taken-84,700                                                 Battles at the Eurymedon.                                           394 Persians             assist the Athenians and defeat
        2042 Uranus arrives in Greece.                                             Olympic gaenes revived               in Elis, Greece.                       inhabitants.                                                                    Phenicians aiding Persia are defeated                                           the Spartans at the naval battle of the
        2008 Sicyon, Greece founded.                                         834 Assyria conquers Tarsus.                                            562 Death of Nebuchadnezzar.                                                                 by the Greeks under Cimon.                                                   Cnidus.
        199!6 Birth of Abraham.                                              820 Babylon becomes subject to Assyria.                                       Nabonidos King of Babylon.                                                    465 Xerxes       I.assassinated.                                                 The Corinthian War begins.
          921 Call of Abraham.
            J                                                                800 The Egyptians the most powerful nation                             560 Pisistratus becomes tyrant of Athens.                                                  Reign of Artaxerxes I.           in Persia.                                The second battle of Coronea.
        1920 Abraham arrives in Syria.                                                 on the sea.                                                          Confucius and Zoroaster.                                                           Revolt of Thasos.                                                    393 The Long Walls of Athens restored by
        1896 Isaac born.                                                           Eolian colonies established.                                            Esop's fables.                                                                 464 Revolt of the ielots at Sparta.                                                  Corion.
        1882 Death of Abraham.                                               794 Ionian colonies established.                                        559 Anacreon begins to be known.                                                          Third Messenian War.                                                 392 Veil stormed by Ilamillus.
        1856 Kingdom of Argus founded.                                       776 Commencement of the Olympiads.                                             Persian Empire founded by Cyrus.                                                   Sparta defeats Messenia.                                             391)l Camillus impeached and exiled.
        1850        Reign of Ismi-dagon, who conquers As-                          First authentic date in Greek history.                            556 Birth of Simonides (died B. C. 467).                                             460 Egypt revolts against Persia.                                         390 Battle of Allia.
                     syria.                                                  760 The Etruscans in, Campania.                                         554 Conquest of Lydia and capture of Cresus                                                (The revolt is suppressed in 455.)                                        The Romans defeated by Brennus and
         1837 Birth of Jacob and Esau.                                       753       Rome founded by Romulus.                                                 by Cyrus.                                                                       Birth of Democritus and Hippocrates                                             the Gatuls.          Rome burnt.
        1822 Memnon invents the Egyptian alphabet.                           752 Athens establishes decennial instead of                             549 Death of Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum.                                                  (both died in B. C. 357).                                              Siege of the Capitol.
        1800 Hykos in Egypt.                                                           perpetual Archons.                                            546 Fall of Lydian Empire.                                                                The Athenian in Egypt.                                               389 Victory of            Dionysius at Helorus.
        1729 Joseph sold into Egypt.                                         750 Sabine war follows the abduction of the                             543 Cyrus atnnexes Asia Minor to Persia.                                             459 Gorgias flourished.                                                         Birth of Eschines.
        1710 Arcadians emigrate to Italy and found a                                    Sahine women.                                                540-510 Era of Pythagoras.                                                           458 Commission of Ezra to rebuild Jerusalem.                                    The Gauls expelled from Rome and city
                     colony.                                                        Ethiopia        independent.                                     539 (circa)          Marseilles founded                   by      Pheni-                   Birth of Lysias the orator (died 378).                                          rebuilt.
        1706 Jacob and his family settle in Egypt.                           747 Babylon independent of Nineveh.                                                cians.                                                                          Cincinnatus made dictator at Rome.                                  387 Peace of Antalcidas, Persia.
         1618 Sesostris conquers Asia and Ethiopia.                                 League between             Romans and Sabines.                   538 Daniel            interprets            handwriting on the                             Defeats the E             dqui.                                           Greek cities in Asia subjected to Persia.
        1582 Beginning of the chronology of the Arun-                        745 Pul assumes the namre of Tiglath Pileser                                       wall.                                                                     457 Battle of Tanagra.                                                          End of the Corinthian War.
                     delian marbles, which were brought                                 and founds the 2nd Assyrian Empire.                                 Cyrus conquers Babylon.                                                       456 The Long Walls of Athens completed.                                         Capitoline games established in Rome.
                     to England, in A. D. 1627.                                     Assyria invades Palestine.                                              Belshazzar, King of Babylon, is slain.                                        451 The first Decemvirate or council of ten                               385 Defeat of the Persians under Evagoras.
         1571 Moses born.                                                     743 Messenian wars.                                                     536 Cyrus ends the captivity of the Jews.                                                    at Rome.                                                         3S4 Birth of Aristotle.
                  Male infants in Egypt destroyed.                                  Sparta victorious.                                                      Return of the first caravan to Jerusalem                                            Laws of the Twelve Tables or code of                                      Manlius hurled from Tarpeian rock for
         1556 Athens founded.                                                 741 Pekah, King oi Israel, besieges Jeru-                                         under Zerubbabel and Joshua.                                                       laws instituted.                                                             having       aimed at sovereignty.
         1516 Kingdom of Sparta formed.                                                 salem.                                                              Cyrus also subdues Phenicia.                                                  449 The Greeks defeat the Persians at Sala-                               383 Battle of Lecheum.
         1530 Expulsion of the                    Ilykos from Egypt.          740 Tiglath Pileser destroys Syria.                                     535 Riebuilding of the Temple commenced.                                                     mu s in Cyprus.                                                        The Olynthian war begins, and ends 379.
                  Aahmes           I. founds      1Ith Egyptian dynasty.            Israel forms an alliance with Syria                                     Thespis first exhibits tragedy.                                                     Virginius kills his daughter to save her                            382 Seizure of the Cadmea                    at Thebes by
         1500 The Kossean                conquest of Babylon.                           against Judah.                                               534 Servius assassinated by Tulla, his daugh-                                                  from Appius Claudius.                                                       Phedibas.
                  Rameses             I. founds 19th Egyptian dy-                   Syria becomes subject to Assyria.                                           ter.                                                                            First Decenmvirate abolished.                                             Birth of Demosthenes (died 322).
                     nasty.                                                   730 Shalmaneser subdues Israel.                                               Her husband, Tarquinius Superbus, be-                                               Appius Claudius, Rome.                                               380 Death of Aristophanes.
                  Arabians subdue Chaldea and establish                       726      Tlezekiah abolishes        idolatry in Judah.                            comes King of Rome.                                                       448 Valerian and Horatian Laws.                                                  Height of Spartan power.
                        a new dynasty.                                        723 Shalmaneser IV. invades Phenicia.                                   532 Polyerates, tyrant of Samos (put to death                                             Tyranny of the second Decemvirate.                                  379 Recovery of the Cadrmea by Pelopidas.
         1497       Reign of Agenor, 1st king of Phenicia.                    721 Assyrians invest              Samaria and carry the                           B. C. 522).                                                                     Secession of the Plebs from Rome.                                   378 The Athenians allied with Thebes.
         1493 Cadmus founds Thebes.                                                     Ten Tribes into captivity.                                   531 Reign of Darius I. begins after assas-                                                 Abdication of the Decemfvirs.                                         376 Roman civil war between patricians and
                  Discovery of brass.                                               The Kingdom             of Israel destroyed.                                sination of Smerdis, the M                          agian.                      Second Sacrted War in Greece.                                                   plebeians.
                  Introduction of the alphabet into Greece.                   717 Assyrians totally defeat the Hittites.                             529 Death of Cyrus.                                                                   447 Battle of Coronea, defeat of Athens.                                        Law passed that one consul shall be a
         1491 The passover instituted.                                        716 Assassination of Romulus.                                                 Accession of Cambyses.                                                         446 Syracuse subdues Agrigentuno and de-                                             plebeian.
                  Departure of the Israelites from Egypt.                     715 Numa Pompilius, King of Rome.                                       525 Conquest of Egypt by Cambyses.                                                            feats the Etruscans.                                             375 Battle of Leucetra, Greece.
                  The law given from Mount Sinai.                             713 Sennacherib,               the      Assyrian,        invades              Birth of Eschylus (died B. C. 456).                                            445 Thirty years' truce between Athens and                               372 Peace between Athens and Sparta.
         1490 Tabernacle established in the wilderness.                                 Egypt.                                                              The temple of Isis, Egypt, completed.                                                   Sparta concluded.                                               371 Victory of Epaminondas over the Spar-
         1451 Death of Moses and Aaron.                                       710 Sennacherib invades Judah.                                                Smerdis usurps the Persian throne, de-                                              Decline of the Athenian Empire.                                                 tans at Leuctra.
                  Joshua leads the Israelites into Canaan.                          185,000 Assyrians destroyed in one night                                     feated by Darius, 522.                                                         Revolt of Eubea and Megara.                                                Foundation of Megapolis.
         1445 Joshua divides Canaan.                                                    by         an angel.                                                                                                                                    Canuleian Laws, Rome.                                                 370  Jason of Phere assassinated.
         1413to 1136 Hebrews subject to six periods of                                                                                                522 Death of Cambyses.                                                                                                                                               Alexander of Phere in Thessaly.
                                                                              709 Sargon of               Assyria conquers Babylon.                          Greeks colonize the Thracian Cherson-                                              Nehemiah governor of Judea.
                      bondage.                                                698 Manasseh, King of Judah.                                                                                                                                                                                                          367 Embassy of Pelopidas,                     the Greek to
                                                                                                                                                                 ese.                                                                      444 Athenian Colony to Thurii.
         1402 Othniel, first judge in Israel.                                          Gross idolatry in Judah.                                                                                                                                 Pericles becomes supreme at Athens.                                             Persia.
                                                                                                                                                            Lestos founded.                                                                                                                                                                 goes to Athens, and remains
         1400 King of Babylon marries the daughter                            690 Gyges founds the 3rd Lydian dynasty.                                                                                                                          Birth of Xenophon about this time (died                                    Aristotle
                      of the Assyrian King.                                                                                                           521-485 Reign of Darius I. (ftystaspis) King                                                                                                                              with Plato twenty years.
                                                                              686 Egypt divided between 12 Kings.                                               of Persia.                                                                         859).
         1394 Ehud, second judge of Israel.                                   685-668 Second Messenian War, under Aris-                                                                                                                        Commission of Nehemiah.                                                     Licinian laws passed at Rome.
         1384 Corinth built.                                                                                                                          520 Sibylline books brought from Culme.                                                                                                                       366 Joshua slain by the High Priest.
                                                                                        tomenes.                                                             Decree of Darius for                        re-building        the                The walls of Jerusalem rebuilt.
         1380 Kurigalzu King of Babylon.                                      684 Archonship at Athens made annual.                                             Temple at Jerusalem.                                                           Roman Consular Tribunes established.                                        Birth of Zeno, the Stoic (died 264).
         1355 Eglon, King of Moab.                                            681 Esar-haddon King of Assyria.                                                                                                                            443-328 The Parthenon at Athens built by                                           Institution        of pretorship         and       curule
         1350 Israel wars with her neighbors.                                                                                                         518 Birth of Pindar (died B. C. 439).                                                                                                                                     edileship at Rome.
                                                                                    Babylon becomes the second capital.                                615 The Temple rebuilt and dedicated.                                                      Phidias.
         1326 Eleusinian monasteries instituted.                              683 Creon becomes first annual archon of                                                                                                                    443 Herodotus flourishes in Greece.                                              First Plebeian consul elected.
                                                                                                                                                      514 Insurreetion in Athens.
         1321 King Thothmosis changes the Egyptian                                      Athens.                                                               Hipparchus slain.                                                            442 New constitution at Rome-censors and                                  365 Great Plague at Rome.
                      calendar.                                               678 Samaria colonized by Assyrians.                                                                                                                                 military tribunes appointed instead of                                   Legend of M. Curtius.
                                                                                                                                                            Hippias rules in Athens.
         1320 Egyptian Obelisks erected.                                      672 Assyria conquers Egypt.                                                                                                                                                                                                           362-346 Rome wars with the Gauls, Etrus-
                  Ruth the Moabitess marries Boaz.                                                                                                    510 Croton destroys Sybaris.                                                                cons"uls.
                                                                              671 Psammeticus reigns in Egypt and en-                                        Expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          440 Romte visited by a terrible famine.                                               cans and tlernicans.
         1318 Kingdom of Myaeena created.                                                 courages intercourse with the                  Greeks.             Foundation of the Republic.                                                  440-439 The Samnian war.                                                         Battle of Mantinea (circa).
         1308 Lethos builds temple of Vulcan at Mem-                          670 Alban invasion and battles of the Horath                                  Junius Brutus and Tarquinius Collatinus                                            Siege and reduction of Samos by Pericles.                                   Victory and death of Epaminondas.
                      phis.                                                             and Curiatii.                                                                                                                                          Death of Spurius Melius-Rome.                                        860 The Samaritans build                   the Temple at
         1296 Borak and Deborah in Israel.                                          Rise of Magaria, Greece.                                                                                                                              437 Cornelius Cossus and Lars Tolumnius.                                              Gerizim.
                                                                                                                                                            The Pisistride expelled from Athens.
         1280 Pelops settles in South Greece.                                 667-625, Reign of Assur-bani-pal, King of                                                                                                                        Second Spolia Opima, Rome.                                                  Kingdom of Pontus founded.
                                                                                                                                                             Athens a .republic.
         1273 Rise of the Assyrian Empire.                                                Assyria.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    358 Beginning of the Social War in Greece.
         19250 Babylon conquered by the Assyrians.                                                                                                    509 Commercial treaty between Carthage and                                          436 Birth of Isocrates (died 338).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Siege of Chios and Byzantium.
                                                                              665 Sea fight between Corinth and Corcyra.                                         Rome.                                                                    434 Rome declares war against the Etrus-
         1249 Gideon. the greatest of the judges of                                 Tullius IHostillius defeats the Albans and                                                                                              ar-                                                                                            Amphipolis taken by Philip II.
                      Israel.                                                                                                                         508 First treaty between Rome and                                                           cans.
                                                                                        destroys Alba Longa.                                                    thage.                                                                                                                                               357-352-347 Roman laws of debt.
         1240 Ramses-Sesostris reigns in Egypt.                                                                                                                                                                                           433 Treaty between Athens and Corcyra.                                           Phocian (or Sacred) War begins.
                                                                              6fi2 Thebes destroyed by Assyrians.                                            First      Valerian Laws.                                                         Meton,       astronomer,      flourished.
         1209 Abimeleeh King of Israel.                                       660 Mescnny, Italy founded.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Expedition of Dion to Sicily.
         1200 Proetus in Egypt.                                                                                                                              The Scvthian Expedition of Darius.                                           431 Peloponnesian            War      begins, between
                                                                                    Buddha.                                                           507 Capitnl at Rome completed and dedi-                                                     Athens and a confederacy with Sparta                               356 Second Sacred War, the Phocians hav-
         1198 Helen carried off by Paris.                                     659 Byzantium founded by Megarians                         under                                                                                                                                                                                  ing seized the Temple of Delphi.
                                                                                                                                                                 cated.                                                                           at      the    head,     lasting twenty-seven
         1193 Trojan war begins.                                                        Bysas.                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Birth of Alexander the Great.
         1184 Trov destroyed by Greeks.                                                                                                               504 Sardis burned by the Greeks.                                                            years and ending in the defeat of
                                                                              6i5   Bacehiadac expelled from Greece.                                                                                                                                                                                                       Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, burned.
         1180 Rameses III. the last Egyptian native                                                                                                   501 Siege of Naxos by Aristagoras.                                                          Athens.                                                                  Dion expels Dionvsius from Syracuse.
                                                                              650 Median Monarchy founded.                                                   Titus Lartius imadle Dictator of Rome.                                            Potidea besieged by the Athenians (tak-
                      hero.                                                   645 Egypt independent of Assyria                                                                                                                                                                                                             Caiuls MA;rcjis Ratilus first Plebeian Dic-
                                                                                                                                                             Ionian revolt in Asia Minor.                                                         en in 429).
         1171 Eli, High Priest of Israel.                                     642 Kaianite dynasty,                Media,       founded      by                                                                                                                                                                                 tator at Rome.
         11   61 Israel wars against Arnorites.                                                                                                       500 Burning of Sardis by the Ionians and                                                 Death of Pericles.
                                                                                        Cyaxzares.                                                               Athenians.                                                                    Rise of Cleon.                                                        355 End of the Social War in Greece.
         1152      Alba Longa founded.                                        641 Cyrene founded.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In(dependence of Rhodes, Cos, Chios and
         1150 Nebuchadnezzar                    of     Babylon    invades                                                                             499 The revolt of the                       Ionians (Greece).                            Battle of Mt. Algidus; the Equi and
                      Syria.                                                  640 Ancus Martius reigns in Rome.
                                                                                    Invasion         of Scythians who                subjugate        498 Persia recovers Cyprus.                                                                  Volsci defeated.                                               I             Byzantium acknowledged by' Athens.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     354 Revolt of Artabazus, the Persian.
          1143 Jepthah            judge over Israel.                                    Persia                                                        497 Ba ttle of Lake Regillus.                                                       430 The plagie at Athens.
                                                                                                                                                             Tarquin and his Latin allies defeated by                                                                                                                353 Sieye of MNlethone, Greece.
         1136 Samson defeats the Philistines.                                        Ostia, Italy, folndeld.                                                                                                                              429 Plato born ((died 347).                                                352 DeImosthenles delivers his first Philippic.
          1130 Tiglath Pileser I. invades Babylonia.                                 Religios           reformation         t under     Josiah,                    Ronmans.                                                                    Sigreg of Platea.
          1123 Samuel, judge                   and     first prophet   in                                                                                    First authentic date in Roman hi.tory.                                                                                                                        Phenicia revolts from the Persian mion-
                                                                                         Kin< of Judah.                                                                                                                                        Naval victories of Phornmio.                                                      archy.
                      Israel.                                                 622 Invasion of Assyria by the Scvthi:,ln.                              496 tlistieus, the Persian, sent to the coast                                       428S RevolIt and fall of Mytilene.
          1112 Death of Samson.                                                                                                     Nabopolas-                   by Darius.                                                               427 Relduction of Mytilene.                                                    3 C. Mircius lRutilus first Plebeian censor,
                                                                              625 Babylon independent under                                                                                                                                                                                                                       llome.
          1110 Tiglath Pileser seizes Babylon but is soon                                sar.                                                         495    Birth of S-phocles (died B. C. 40(n).                                             First Athenian expedition to Sicily.
                      overcome.                                                                                                                              Revolt of the                 Ionians, aided by Athens,                           First comedy of Aristophanes exhibited.                                     Sidoniins revolt and destroy Sidon.
                                                                                      Nineveh taken by the Medes.                                                                                                                                                                                                     350 The Roman                'Popilius (defeatsthe Gauls.
          1103 Eolians settle in Asia Minor.                                         Assyrian Empire enls.                                                       suppressed.                                                                   Corcyreart massacre.
          J100 (circa)           The Chow dynasty              in   China                                                                             494 Tribunes                   Rom? appointed.
                                                                                                                                                                                       at                                                 426 DemoSsthenes in Etolia.                                                 348 Olviynthus taken by Philip of Macedon.
                                                                                     Perilnder at Corinth.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Treatv between                     ond
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ciarthage           Rome.
                      founded.                                                                                                                               Patric ians                                                              Destruction in Fidlene.
                                                                              624 Legislation of Draco, Archon at Athens.                                                                                                                                                                                             346 S,'rrnder of Phocis to Philip.
          1095 Saull made first Kin- of Israel.                                      In       (reairing       the temple         at .leJ     ralm.     493 Inde-penlhne e of the Latins r(cime.                                           425 Reign of Xerxes II. followed byr Log-
          1093 Saul defeats the Philistines.                                               iillTiah discovers the Book of tle law,                           Corioli taken by Ctaiis ?,Trtius (tri-                                                di.anus.                                                                 End of the S                   acred
           los1081Birth of David.                                                                                                                                oliinti).         The Lntin LeagulIe.                                          Sphacteria takien.                                                          Philip ndmitted to the Aniphyctionie
                                                                                         andl .Josiah keeps a solemn passover.                                                                                   l ,      Ir T-                                                                                                  Council.
          1075 Death of Samuel.                                                       .Tereti:ah proplhet.                                             492 First          l'ersim           expd ition.                                   424 Dalrins If. tei;ms in Persia.
          1056 Death of Saul afnd Jonathan, and acces-                                                                                                           don ius doni-                                <l<'f.'.ltxl and
                                                                                                                                                                               ;at.din-t <;'n'cc.'. iis h~f',,atd a l
                                                                                                                                                                               az~~n4                                                           COnrl-ess o f Si.ilians at (ela.                                            Dionysius reTovers the tra-nnvy.
                                                                               623 Passover.                                                                     fl(,t (dstr(-ylnuar Mlt. Atols.                                                                                                                      343 First Szmite \.. r he .ins.
                      sion of l)avid.                                                Thle      Ark restored.                                                                                                                              42;. Al.i'i,b !s         ein s to act in Athenian af-
          1050 Tvrew bcomines the leadinr city.                                                                                                        491 Coriolhns                iaiishleld fl-oln Rome.              lHe is                    fa irI,<                                                                 li-attle of Atr. (C;;IIru-.
                                                                               616 Tarqudiuius Priseus               begins to rei,_n in                                                                                                                                                                                       ('Ol(lle(qil of Syr.Ksliy        Tinlolcon.
                   Hirh,,r seizes the E{yptian throne.                                                                                                           ree ivel Ly the Vod<,i ms.                                                    Thl       S;{i-mlitos    (Romle)    capture Valter-
          1049          a'vid t+el<':4   .Je'tlsalel.i                                                       Rome, betrnn in honor of                 490 Secndl           Persih:m expcdlitiOl, lltlner Datis                                                                                                             El mlsiql'tt of Ot l~itmyl.iu<.
                                                                               615 Tlhe (':,itol,                                                                                                                                                   nitim.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           lt'li:i]s\y        Diiino-thines and others to
           1Io47 Kin,_ lliram1, of Tyre, oidls the Israelites.                            Jupiter, .Juno and MNinwrva.                                             ;ind Artapildrnes.                                                      423    ¢'almua tfa!rn hCp the Samsnites.
          10)44    lonians settle in AsiallMinr.                                       Phll h N-e ho
                                                                                            n                     II. Egypt, circumnavi-                     Ttiir d(, anl victnrv of Miltiales at                                                                                                                       Phlilip.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           419     Hirth of l)i,.nes tile Cynlic, (died 324),
          1040 David defeats the Philistincs and recov-                                  ga;tes Africa.                                                           the battle of Mlir;th:n.                                                 41S      afttle of M.IHtilnea.                                             321X R?.ini a (.ci-in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C                al was.
                       ers the Ark.                                                                                                                   4S9 CoilTlumlls iind tin Vols'ians lmsi''eRonm.                                             Spartans d('fieateil 1' Athens.                                           tlutilny ;it Laltulll(\ Kinse.
                   The Ark removed to Jerusalem.                               610 Battie of 5Mrfildo.                                                                             \itl<raiw.q          frol       sie-o      of                                                                                      342-341       I'Philip of -Macedon's expedition to
                                                                                     Death of Joiah.                                                  488 Coriohlnlu,                                                                      415    Titel lbrw., M;mlihi, prol>hlesies.
                   David, of Israel, subdues the Syrians.                                                                                                           lkntle :It l]i, nn!s     ili         entreaty and is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 us                               Invasion ,f Sicily by the Athenians un-                                     Thrlce.
                                                                                     Necho II. Egypt, attempts to                  cut a ennal
          1023 The revolt and death of Absalom.                                                                                         Failure                   slain by tlhe Vulsc ians.                                                                                                                                Birth of Epicurus (die(d 270).
                                                                                         across the Tsthmns of Sue z.
          1015 Death of David.
                                                                                         after a loss of 100,000 men.                                  486 Ecgypti:n revolt.                                                               411    S!cze of ia.l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     de~r Nie Syracuise.                                              340 l'erintlus        and    Byzantiutl besieged by
                   Solomon becomes King.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Philip.
                                                                                                                                                             First .gri.riaI              L:)W of Ca.<nils pro)o<ed.                       413    Dler';t and surrndelr of Nieias to Gelip-
          1011 SolomIon's Temple begun.                                        60-5 The Circus MaIximnus, Rome, is erected.                                                                                                                                                                                                Viotory of Tintoleon over the Cartha-
                                                                                      Necho II. of Egypt defeated by Nebu                              485    Ac(ess4in of Xerxes 1., King of Persia.
          1004 Completion and dedication of Solomon's                                                                                                          (Gellon tyrl;lt of Syraqlse.                                                412    First treo;v
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        betw-en Spr;na             airl Persia.                ginians :at the ('rimls.s.
                       Temple.                                                           chadnezzar.                                                                                                                                                                                             lhtidred at               B.ttle -,f Mlt. \Vesvis, Rome.
                                                                                     Jeremiah's           prophecy       of     the seventy            485 Reovery                f l-'ypt lw thl( Persians.                                       ('Contlitittion      of thile Fou'r
              990 The Queen of Sheba visits King Solomon                                                                                                                                                                                                 htle-ns.                                                      3.9 S.       R l mw1nain luililin laws.
                                                                                         years' captivity.                                                    Btirth of lrolfus ('li.dl after l1. C. 19O.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Intrimtlcs of           Alcibiadles   with      the    Persi-            Thirdi S;Wcrl War lbngins betwveen Philip
                                                                                     Nehuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem.                                   483 Banishmient of Aristifs tliche Just by ther                                                                                                                         :aul the Atlhi;m-s.
                                                                                     Jehoiakim, his vassql.                                                                                                                                          aps.
                *Egyptian History is in a state of almost                                                                                                                       fleet built.                                               410    Be1iniin         of     the wvirs     ,f      Syraciee and          S3S   Plhilp      genelral     of the   Amphyctionic
                                                                               603 Daniel proptlesies at Babylon.                                      481 Athni')
             hopeless obscurity, the estimates of the great                                                                                                   Third aindl ereattst irnvasion f Cr,-ee by                                              ('a;rtimls.'             3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They             lcontionue seventy
            E-pto]ogers differing more than 3,000 years                        602 Jehoiakim revolts from Babylon.                                                                                                                                                                                                            B:dtlb of Cheronre.
                                                                                G00 The         Cloace        Maxime (great sewers) of                              tl)h l'lcrsi ms. 1l, t'v X,-'\",'x                                               y(:;i r<,.
            The dates here given are grenerally accepted                                                                                                                                                                                                           eian     q-estors of Rome elected.                         Philip subjugates Greece.
                             nart of Chronologists.                                       Romen are built.                                             I ill,
                                                                                                                                                       AC0 'Rattle off Thlrnoovl(-fill of' Leonidas,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   --- - -     I I   -1 1,11,11-1-         409    Three       pl

            i... ,u,,,   ,    ,ctr                                                         Ro. near-uit                                                       - I,,,;      I I     --,
             hy tne wreaser        -ato honlgss
    l                                                                                              IXV^z.F   "^W   .. .                                      480     Battle of Thertllol)-l;            f.ill of Leoni.las                  409                                          eleeted.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Thie+> l.l(le;i.lil qlicstor3 of R<lylue                                     Philip subjugates Greece.                                 i   i
                                                                                                                                                   SUPPLEMENT               XI.
                                                 l   ! is   :   :   r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                                                                                                              ANCIENT,               MEDIEVAL                       AND               MODERN          HISTORY.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I A.
                                                                                                                                                                                  u         u

B.   C.                                                         B. C.                                                                B.C.                                                                 1. C.                                                                           D.
 337 First Roman Plebeian pretor.                               240     The plays of Livius Andronicus exhib-                         143 Birth of Antonius, Roman orator (died                              44 Corinth and Carthage rebuilt.                                           104   Birth of Herodes Atticus, antiquarian
 337-835 The Latin War begins; after two                                  ited (the first tragedies) at Rolme.                               70).                                                           43    Cleopatra         poisons     her   brother     Ptolemy                         (died 180).
       years the Romans are victorious.                         238     Date of the decree of Canopus; tablet                        142 Scipio Africanus (Minor) Rloman Censor.                                     and reigns alone.                                                 114-117                    expedition to the East.
 336 Murder of Philip.                                                    of San.                                                    140 Birth of Crassus, Ronman orator (died                                    Battle of Mutina.                                                    117     tHadrian emperor.
      Accession of Alexander     the Great.
                              III.                              237     Conquest of Spain attempted by the Car-                              91).                                                                 Second Triumvirate-C. Octavius, M. An-                                      lie abandons the conquests of Trajan.
      Accession of Darius Codomanus.                                      thaginians.                                                     Simon made hereditary prince of the                                       tonrly, M.       Lepidus.                                                 The Euphrates made the eastern bound-
 335 Alexander destroys Thebes;    is chosen                            Seizure of Sardinia and Corsica by the                               Jews.                                                             Cicero put to death.                                                               ary of the empire.
        generalissimo of the Greeks, Athens                               Rolmans.                                                        Death of Viriathus-Romre.                                            Birth of Ovid (died A. D. 18).                                          120 Hadrian visits (Gaul and Britain.
            having submitted.                                   235     The gates of the Temple of Janus at                               Macedon formally absorbed by Rome.                                   End of the    tRarida.                                                         Statues of Antonnus (Hadrian's page).
 334 Battle of the Granicus.                                              Romlle shut for the first time since                       138 Birth of L. Cornelius Sulla (died 78).                             42 Battle of Philippi.                                                            Birth of Ireneus, Bishop of Lyons; died
     Macedonian Empire formed.                                            Numa. No war existing at the time.                         136 HIlycanuts (Governorof Judea.                                      42 Defeat and deatih of Brutus ind Cassius.                                           200.
     Alexander invades Persia.                                  234     Birth of M. Porcius Cato-died 149.                           134-132 Servile War in Sicily.                                              The Triumviri masters of the Roman                                           Birth of Lucian; died 200.
 833 Battle of Issus.                                           233     Antigonus Doson in Macedon.                                       Sicilian slaves rebel, are conquered and                                 world.                                                              121     ladrian's walls built--Newcastle to Car-
     Damascus taken and Tyre besieged by                        229     Athens joins the Achean League.                                     slain.                                                          41 Meeting of Antony and Cleopatra at Tar-                                            lile-Hlthi1e to the Dlanubde
       Alexander.                                               227     Cleomenic War with Achean League be-                         133 Laws of Tiberias Gracchus passed at                                           sus.                                                                   Birth of Marcus Aurelius; died 180.
 332 Capture of Tyre and conquest of Egypt                                gins.                                                              Rome.                                                          40     lIerod the Great made king of the Jews.                             125 First apology for the Christians present-
       by Alexander.                                            226     Reforms of Cleomenes at Sparta.                                   Gracchus murdered.                                                      Library of    ',erganus to Alxandria.                                          ed at Atlhens by Quadratus and Aris-
     Alexandria, Egypt,       founded on   the                  225     Invasion of Cisalpine      and battle of
                                                                                                Caul                                      Kingdom of Pergamus bequeathed to                                37     Jerusalemn taken by        lHerod allnd the                                    tides.
       Egyptian village Rhacotis.                                         Clusitum.  Rome victorious.                                            Romle.                                                             Rom.ans.                                                           130 Birth of Appuleius.
     Treaty between Alexander and      Rome.                    222     Ptolemy IV. reigns in Egypt.                                 130    Demetrius Nicator, Syria, restored.                                   Agrippa crosses the Rhine.                                                  Birth of Galen ; died 200.
     Alexander visits Jerusalem and worships                            Defeats Antiochus III. of Syria at Ra-                       129    ttycranus subdues    lIdumea and Samaria                       86     Sextus Pompeiis driven from Sicily (put                                     HIadrian relbuilds Jerusalem.
       at the Temple.                                                     phia.                                                                and destroys Temple at Geriziim.                                  ; to death 35).                                                       132 Second Jewish War.
 331 Phenicia subdued by Alexander.                                     Gallia Cisalpina becomes a Roman Prov-                       125    Rise of the Essenes.                                                  Lapidus deprived of power.                                                  Barchochebas, leader of the Jews.
     Battle of Arbela.                                                     ince.                                                            Fltivis Flaceis and L. Drusus popular                                 Defeat of Antonly in Parthia.                                               FIdictun                  of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             p1erpetuumrn Hladrian.
     Subjugation of Persia.                                     221     Battle of Sellasia.                                                      Roman      leaders.                                       34     Antony invades Armenia.                                              135 Dispersion of the Jews.
     Settlement of the Jews at Alexandria.                              Aratus and Antigonus take Sparta.                                   L.        (CaeliusAntipater, Roman jurist, flour-              32     War between Octavius and Antony.                                     138 Antoni's Nus, emipe'ror.
 330 Darius III. assassinated.                                          Philip V. of Macedon.                                                    ished.                                                    31     Battle of Actium.                                                           The emnlpire at peace.
     Demosthenes' oration for the crown.                                Alliance between Philip and Acheans                          123    Scipio takes and destroys Numiantia.                                  Establishment of the Roman Em.pire.                                         Faustina 1. flourishes.
     Persia becomes a part of the Macedonian                               against Etolians.                                                Roman Colony sent to Carthage.                                 30     Battle of Aetimn. Octavius successful.                                      Wall- of Antoninlus           (Craham's    Dyke)
            Empire.                                             220     Hasdrubal assassinated in Spain.                             121    Civil war in Rome arisigkl from Agrarian                              Suicide of Antony and Cleopatra.                                               ililnt-
327-325 Campaignsof Alexander in India.                         219     Antiochus overruns Palestine.                                         troubles-Caius Gracchus is murdered.                                 Criticismi of the best Attic Literature at                          139 Conquests of Lollius             Trbieus in Britain.
      Voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to                              Siege of Saguntumby Hannibal.                                       Metullius leader of Roman Senate.                                       Roele.                                                             140 Valluni Antonio in Britain.
        the Euphrates.                                                  Second Illyrian war.                                         120    Parthians subdue Bactria.                                      29     The Gates of Janus shut.                                             145-175 Fastiana II. flourishes.
326 Roman servitude for debt abolished.                         218     Second Punic War begins.                                     117    Ptolemiy VIII. reigns jointly with                  his        27     Cesar Octavis is made Emperor under                                  147 D)eveloponwnrt of lt,,m.a         civil laws.
324 Exile of Demosthenes.                                               Hannibal marches from Spain acrossthe                                    mother,     Cleopatra,                                             the title of Augustus Csar.                                         1')(0 Establishment of schools in Roman prov-
323 Death of Alexander at Babylon.                                         Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy.                         116 Birth of Varro (died 25).                                                 Pantheon dedicated by Agrippa.                                                  inces.
      Alexander succeeded by Perdiccas as                               Battles of the Ticinius and the Trebia,                      113 The Teutones and Cirbra invade (Cal.                              25     Tirid]ates seeks tRoman court.                                       161 Marcus Aurelits and L, cis Verus joint
        Regent.                                                            and defeat of Scipio.                                     111-106 The Jugnurthine War-p(iace concluhd-                          24     Defeat of Romans in Arabia.                                                    emllperotrs.
      Antipater in Macedonia.                                   217     Hannibal passes the Apennines.                                     ed.                                                             23':   Death of Marcellus.                                                   1(;1-mi; Pestimlnce and faininec at Rome.
      Lysimachus in Thrace.                                             Battle of Lake Trasimene.        Flaminius                        War renewed two years later.                                     21     Augmstnns Ces;ir founds Confederacy                     of           1(;2 Rome wars with Parthia.
      Cassander in Greece.                                                 defeated.                                                      Metellus and Marius defeat Jugurtha and                                    liconian cities.                                                   163 P'erseeution of (Chri.tiains.
      Antigonus in Syria.                                       217     The two Scipios sent to Spain.                                     subject Numidia.                                                20   Roman standards restored by Parthia.                                    166      1i'"oyerp suffers luarlyrdom.
      Eumenesin Cappadocia.                                     216     Battle of Canne. Romans defeated with                        109-101 War of Rome with the Cimibri and                                   India eimbassy to Romne.                                                 (i;7--150        M'arwith the MSarcomanni, Quadi,
      Seleucus at Babylon.                                                inmmense    loss.                                                      Teutones.                                                 IS Death of Dionysus of       lHalicarnassus.                                           etc. .
      Second Samnite War, lasts twenty-one                           Revolt of Capua.                                                109    Hyrcanus destroys the Samaritan temple                         17-7 Temple at Jerusalemi rebuilt by Herod.                                          Greek philosophers patronized by Rome.
        years.                                                       Alliance of Hannibal with Philip V. of                                      on    MAount     Gerizim.                                      Agrippa invades Asia.                                                  I )9 1)Death of L. Verus.
      Antipater, a Macedonian general, defeats                         Macedon.                                                             Atricuts bolrn (died B. C. 32).                                     Cappadocia created a province of Rome.                                           Marcus Anrelius sole emperor.
        Athens and allies.                                      214-212 Siege and capture of Syracuse by                             106    Birth of Pomnpey and of Cicero.                                16(, German war; Roman defeat under Lol-                                    175 Rome quells rebellion in Syria.
322 Ptolemy I., surnamed Soter, receives the                           Marcellus.                                                    102    Victory of Marius over the Ten(tones at                                 lius.                                                              177 Christilans in Gaull persecuted.
        Egyptian Kingdom.                                       214 First Commercial War.                                                     Aqute Sexte (Aix).                                           1 .5 Victories of Drisus over the Rheti.                                            Advance of thle Goths.
      Phenicia annexed to Egypt by Ptolemy                           Byzantium and Rhodes.                                                  Second Servile war breakls out in Sicily.                      12     lnvasi)n of G(riany by D)ruiss.                                      178 Gotlhs attack D)acia.
        Soter I.                                                212 Battle of Anitorgis.                                             101    Victory of Marius over the Cimbri at                              1-'9 Calmpapligs of Tiberias in Plannonia                                1"o{      (Coniuodtis  emperor of IRome.
321 First war among the "successors of                              Greek works of art brought to Rome.                                       Vercelle and end of the war.                                         and Dahnatia.                                                               Statue of Aurnlins erected.
        Alexander."                                             211 Greece concludes treaty with the Romans                                 Battle of Campus               Raudius.                         9 Death of Drnsus.                                                                  Perennis prefect     (of P'retorians.
      Battle of the Caudine Forks.                                     against Philip V. of Macedon.                                 100  Birth of Julius Cesar.                                            8 Tiberius defeats the Germans.                                             lS. Successes (,f /'lpiis Marcellus in Britain.
      Romans terribly defeated by Pontius and                        Defeat and death of the two S eipiosin                               C. Marius born 157 (died 86). Sixth Ro-                                 Diodorus      Siculus, historian,       fl')ourished.                I S4 Conlnlodus takels the name of Britanicus.
        pass under the Sainite yoke.                                   Spain by Hasdrubal.                                                  man Consul.                                                     4 Birth of Jesus Christ, according to Ush-                                 I 185 Birth of Origecn (died 253).
320 Ptolemy Soter takes Jerusalem.                                  Capua recovered by Rome.                                              L. App. Saturnius Tribune (Rome).                                     er's system.                                                           I8F6 Olemnder prefect of Pretorians.
      Revolt of Phenicia.                                           Conquest of Judea by Antiochus.                                   96 Ptolemy Apion leaves Cyrene.                                             Death of Herod, king of Judea.                                       190 Birth of Tertullian (died 2.410).
      Jewish settlementsin Egypt and Gyrene.                            Hannibal before Rome.                                         95 Birth of Lueretius (died 55).                                    A.D.                                                                         192 Britanicus, as gladiator, killed.
317 Agathocles at Syracuse.                                     208  Battle of Metaurus.                                              92 Sulla on the Euphrates.                                            1 Tiberius commands on the Rhine.                                          1 93 Pertinax, emperor of Rome, is murdered.
316 Thebes rebuilt by Cassander.                                     Battle of Elinga.                                                90-88 The Social or Marsic War in Italy.                              3 Birth of Seneca (died A. D. 65).                                                  D)idius Julianus buys the empire.       Is op-
      Conquest of Antigomnus of Phrygia.                        S07 Battle     of the Metaurus; Hasdrubal de-                             The Marsians, at first successful, are fin-                       6 Judea a Roman province under Syria.                                                 posed      3by lPescenios Niger and Sep-
314 Palestine under Antigonus.                                          feated and slain by the Romans.                                     ally defeated.                                                  9 Destruction of the Romans under Varus                                               timilus Sevenus and killed.
      Roman victory at Cinna.                                       'Gold money first coined in Rome.                                 88-84 First Mithridatic War.                                               and three legions by the Germans under                                194 Septiindus Sevenus sole emnperor.
313 Samnite victory at Lantule.                                 205 Ptolemy V. The decline of Egypt.                                      Mithridates seizes Athens.                                                Hermann.                                                                   Defeat and death of Niger.
312 Battle of Gaza.                                             204 P. Cornelius Scipio conducts the war                                  Civil War of Marius and Sulla and expul-                                Romans defeated by Charusci under Ar-                                196 Severns captures Byzantium after a siege
      Victory of Ptolemy and Seleucus over                             in Africa.                                                           sion of Marius.                                                         minius.                                                                       of three years.
        Demetrius Poliorcetes.                                       Siege of Utica.                                                      Sutlla occupies Rome.                                                Banishment of Ovid.                                                     197 Temple of the Sun at Baalbec.
      Pyrrhus King of Epirus.                                   203 Hannibal leaves Italy.                                            87 Marils retakes Rome.                                               14 Death of Augustus Cesar.                                                        Battle of Lyons.
      Appius Claudius censor.                                        Attaluins and Rhodians war with Philip.                                Proscription.                                                      Accession of Tiberius Cesar.                                                     Death of Albinus.
      Appian Way and aqueduct.                                  202 Defeat of Hannibal at Zama, in Africa,                            86  Revolt and siege of Egyptian Thebas.                                 Accession of Artatanus in Parthia.                                      198 Caracalla named Augustus.
      The great Roman military road com-                               by Scipio Africanus.                                               Death of Marius and return of Sulla.                             14-16 Campaigns of Germanicus in Germany.                                           Defeat of P'arthians by Romans.
        pleted.                                                 201 Treaty of peace between Rome and Car-                                 Athens stormed bv Sulla.                                         17 Germanicus in Parthia and the East.                                      202 Persecution of the Christians.
312-160 Sandracottus, Indian empire.                                   thage; end of the Second Punic War.                                Birth of Sallust (died 34).                                      19 Death of Germanicus.                                                     204 Birth of Plotinus, philosopher (died 274).
311-309 The Etruscan War.                                       200-197 IFirstMacedonian War.                                         85 Tigranes at war with Rome.                                            War between Artabarus and Marbad.                                       209 Invasion of Britain by Severus. His wall
310 L. Papirius Cursor, Roman Dictator.                              Allies attack Macedon and defeat Philip.                         84 Sulla makes peace with Pontuis, King of                           20 Valerius Maximus.                                                                   completed, 220.
      Agathocles defeated at Himera.                            198 T. Quintus Flaininius proclaims liberty to                              the Mithridates.                                                   M. Elino Sejanus dominant at Rome.                                      211 Death of Sevcrus at York.
308 Fabius crosses Ciminian Hills; defeats                             the Greeks.                                                    83 War with Marian party in Italy.                                   23 Pretorian camp at Rome.                                                          Caracalla and Geta emperors.
        the Tuscans at Vadimon.                                      Syria becomes independent of Egypt.                                  Tigranes I. of Armenia annexes Phrygia.                          25 Pontius Pilate governor of Judea.                                                Roman citizenship extended to the whole
307-305 Naval war at Cyprus and Rhodes.                         197 Battle of Cynocephale.                                             83 Birth of Marcus Antonius (died 30).                              26-37 Tiberius retires to Capre.                                                       empire.
  304 Siege of Rhodes by Demetrius.                                  Philip defeated by Flandnius.                                    82 Thebes destroyed.                                                 30 The Crucifixion, according to Eusebius.                                  212 Geta murdered.
301 Battle of Ipsis between Ptolemy Soter                            Palestine and Cole-Syria conquered by                                Second Civil War.                                                      Lactantius, Augustine, Origen and other                                       Caracalla, sole emperor.
        and Antigonus.                                                  Antioehus the Great, and confirmed to                             Victory at the Colline gate.                                           authorities give A. D. 29 as the proper                               213 Death of Clement of Alexandria.
      Final division of Alexander's dominions.                         him by the peace with Rome.                                        Occupation of Rome.                                                    year.                                                                 214 First contact of the Romans with the
300 Athenian democracy restored.                                     The Rosetta Stone written.                                           Sulla becomes Dictator.                                              Agrippina 1. banished.                                                             Alanmanni German tribes on the upper
      Chandrogupta (Sandracottus)      reigns in                                                                                      79 Abdication of Snlla. Dies in 78.                                  31 Marco, Prefect of Pretorians, upon fall                                             Rhine.
        India;    makes a treaty with Seleucus.                 196 Dynasty of Han, China, founded.                                                                                                              of Sejanus.                                                           217 Macrinus emperor.
                                                                     Hannibal joins Antiochus.                                            The Cornelian Laws of Rome.
      Foundation of Antioch by Seleutcus.                       195 Birth of Ilipparchus, first systematic as-                        79-72 Civil war of Sertorius in Spain; aad                           37 Accession of Caligula, Rome.                                             218 Heliogabalus emperor.
      Light-house on island of Pharos erected.                            tronomer.                                                         of Lepidris and Catulus in Italy.                                  Birth of Josephus (died 97).                                            222 Alexander Severus emperor.
299 Athens besieged and taken by Demetrius.                     192-188 War between the Romans and Antio-                             78 Alexandra Queen of Judea.                                         40 Philo Senior ambassador to Rome.                                         225 Sextus          Empiricus,      philosopher,  flour-
298 Third Samnite War. (Samnites, Etrus-                                 chus the Great.                                              75 Nicomedes Ill. leaves    Bithnia to Rome.                             Birth of Plutarch-died 120.                                                        ishes.
        cans, Umbrians and Gauls).                                   Philopemen    pretor of   the  Achean                            74-65 Third Mithridatic War.                                         41 Claudius Emperor of Rome.                                                226 Dissolution of the Parthian Empire and
       Gellius Egnatius, leader of the Samnites.                       League.                                                        74-66 Victories of Lucullus in Asia.                                 42 Claudius conquers Mauretania.                                                       end of Arecide.
296 The Capitoline wolf.                                             Greece declared free from Macedon by                             73-71 Servile war in Italy, led by Spartacus,                            Birth of Quintilian-died 118.                                                   Foundation of the new Persian Kingdom
295 Quintus Fabius defeats the Samnites,                                  Flaminius.                                                        who is defeated and slain by Crassus.                          43 Expedition of Claudius to Britain.                                                  of the Sassanide by Ardshir (Arta-
         Etruscans and Gauls at Sentinum.                            Philopemen defeats Nabis, of Sparta.                             70 Consulship of IPompey and Crassus.                                    Successes of Aulus Plautius,                                                       xerxes).
292 Execution of C. Pontius.                                         Sparta joins the Achean League.                                      Birth of Virgil (d(lied 19).                                         Birth of Martial-died 104.                                              228      Ulpian (lawyer) died.
290 The Third Samnite War ends in sub-                           190 Battle of Magnesia.                                                  Scythians expelled from India.                                       Lycia becomes a Roman province.                                         231 Persian War begins.
        jugation to Rome.                                                                                                             69 Victory of Lucullus over Tigranec.                                44 Judea and Samaria directly Roman.                                        233 Triumph of Severus.
287 Birth of Archimedes (died 212).                              18S The laws and discipline of Lycurgus abro-                                                                                             47 London founded bv the Romans.                                            235 Maximin murders Severus and succeeds
                                                                       gated by Philopemen.                                           67 Cesar begins to take part in public af-
286 The Hortensilan Law passed at Rome;                                                                                                     fairs.                                                             Birth of Juvenal-died 130 (?)                                                      to the throne.
        plebiscita declared binding on all the                  1S4 Death of Plautus.                                                     Pompey subdues the pirates.                                          Thrace directly Roman.                                                  236 Persecution of the Christians.
        people.                                                 183 Death of Hannibal and Scipio.                                     66 Lucullus recalled.                                                    The Frisians subdued by Rome.                                           238 The          Gordiani,   Pupienus      and Balbinu
285 Ptolemy abdicates in favor of his son,                           Lycortas, general of the Achean League.                              Pompey sent into Asia and w-r ended.                             50 Defeat and capture of Caractacus; taken                                             (jointly) and Gordianus III., emperors.
        Philadelphus, who becomes Ptolemy II.                   182-174 Encroachments of Massinissa.                                      Birth of Strabo, geographer (died A. D.                                prisoner to Rome.                                                     242 Gordianus defeats Sapor, King of Persia.
      Under his reign Egypt rose to a high                      181 Ptolemv yI. reigns in Egypt.                                            22).                                                               Claudius marries Agrippiana II., and                                    244 Gordianus murdered and succeeded by
        rank among the nations in power and                          The Villialn Law, Rome.                                          65 Birth of Horace (died B. C. 8).                                         adopts Nero.                                                                     Philip the Arabian.
         wealth.                                                179 Perseus King of Macedonia.                                            Antiochus Asiaticus dethroned by Poin-                           51 South Britain a Roman province.                                          249 Decius emperor of Rome.
284 Alexandrian Library founded by Ptolemy                           Embassy of Callicrates to Greece.                                       pey.                                                          54     Agrippiana poisons             Claudius       and   Nero             250 Decius orders a persecution of the Chris-
        Soter.                                                       Pharnaces, of Pontus, cedes Paphlagonia                          64 Birth of Messalla (died 4).                                                becomes elmperor.                                                             tians.
284 The Etolian League formed.                                         to Rome.                                                           Pompey reduces Syria to a Roman prov-                              55 Birth of Tacitus; died 117 (?).                                                First invasion of the empire by the
 283 Kingdom of Pergamnus founded.                              176 Antiochus makes war on Egypt.                                           ince.                                                          t'5)6 Corbulo in Parthia.                                                              Goths.
      Renewed Gallic and Etruscan War.                          171-16S Second Macedonian War.                                        63 Jerusalem taken by the Romans unlder                               59 Britannicus poisoned by Agrippiana.                                     251 Death of Decius and his son.
      Second battle of Lake Vadimon.                            170   Antiochus takes Jerusalem.                                            Pompey.                                                              Agrippiana murdered by Nero.                                                   Gallus emperor.
281 Rome wars with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.                          40,000 Jews slain and Temple pillaged.                               Birth of Augustus.                                                     Parthia and Armenia at war.                                           252 A pestilence breaks out in the empire
      Rome at war with Tarentum.                                     Birth of Attius, Romnan dramatist (died                              Second conspiracy of Cataline suppressed                          60 St. Paul at Malta.                                                                 and lasts fifteen years.
      Lvsimachus defeated and slain by Se-                             76).                                                                 by Cicero.                                                      61 Insurrection of the Britons under Boa-                                  253 Irruption of the Goths and Burgundians
        leucus at Corupedion.                                    168 Battle of Pydna; victory of Emilius Pau-                             Orations of Cicero.                                                      dicea.                                                                         into M1esia and Pannonia.
280 Achean League be een twelve cities                                  lus over Perseus; Macedonia made a                                Lucull us foutnds Library at Rome.                                     Victory of Suetonius Paulinus.                                                First appearance of the Franks in GAul
        of Achea established.                                             Roman      province.                                            Phenicia absorbed in the province of                                   Birth of Papinius Statius, poet; died 96.                                        about this time.
      Battle of Pandosia.                                               Eumenes II. visits Rome.                                                 Syria.                                                          Birth of Pliny the Minor; died 105.                                   254 Valerian emperor.            IHis son Gallienus as-
      Romans defeated by Pyrrhus.                                       Antiochus Epiphanes takes Jerusalem.                          60  Pompey, Cesar and Crassus form the first                          64 Rome on fire six days.                                                             sociated with him.
      Birth of Chryssippus (died 207).                                  Beginninz of the Maccabean war of in-                               Roman Triumvirate.                                                   Persecution of the Christians.                                                Persecution of the      Christians.
279 Irruption of the Gauls into Greece.                                   dependence.                                                     Birth of Seneca (died 30).                                        65 Deaths of St. Peter and St. Paul (?).                                   25'8 Trapezus taken by the Goths.
      First 1,leheian censor at Rome.                                   Athenfialns attack Oropus.                                    59 Birth of Livy (died A. D. 17).                                          Deaths of Seneca and Luscan.                                          259 Sapor ravages Syria.
      Romans again defeated by Pyrrhus at                       167     Juda s MIaccabens     defeats the Syrians                     58 The Gallic War begins.                                                  Conspiracy of Piso.                                                           Valerian taken prisoner.
        Asculum.                                                          and occupies Jerusalem, except the Cit-                         Cicero banished.                                                       Revolt of the Jews.                                                   260 Gallicnuts sole emperor.
      Rome and Carthage allied.                                           adel.                                                           Cesar invades Gaul.                                                66 .loseplhus go. ernor of Gallilee.                                              The Thirty Tyrants between 260 and 268.
 277 League between        Athens, Sparta and                           Rom(.ans   ravage     Epirus      and    Achea.                                                                                     67 Nero at the Olympic games.                                              262 The Goths in Macedonia and Asia Minor.
                                                                                                                                          Helvetii and Ariovistus defeated.
        Egypt.                                                  166C Rededicatilon of the Temple.                                     57 Cyprus becomes a Roman province.                                   68 Death of Nero.                                                                  They destroy the Temple of Ephesuls.
      The Septuagint written.                                        One th1ousand Acheans im.prisoned                      at            End of the Selcueide.                                                   Galba       becomels emlperor.                                               Antioch taken by Sapor.
      The Gauls settle in Galatia.                                        Rome.                                                           Cesar defeats the Belge and Norvii.                              69     Civil war at Rome.                                                   263 The Franks invade Gaul.
276 Birth of Eratosthenes-died 196.                                     First comedy        of Terence          performed   at        55-54 Cesar invades Britain.                                                Otho kills hilself.                                                  267 Thle ITeruli invade Greece, and are re-
      The great wall of China built (?).                                  Rome.                                                           Crassus plhnders the Temple at Jerusa-                                  Viteltius killeLd.                                                              pulsed by Dexippus.
274 Battle of Beneventurna. Rome victorious                     ] 66-145       Hlipparchls flourishes.                                      lem ; is defeated and killed by the Par-                        70    Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus.                              268 Claudius emperor.
        and Pyrrhus leaves Italy.                                 1('i5 Rise   of the Ph;irisees and Sadducees.                             thians at Carrhe, 53.                                              (ivilis leads a KBatvian revolt.                                        2;9 ('lanldins defeats the G(ths in Mesia.
273 Egyptian embassy to Rome.                                   164  Death of Antiochus.                                              5i Cesar defeats Treviri and crosses the                                 Vespasian emperor at Rome.                                              270 Aurelian emperor of R'lome.
272 Antigonus Gonatus recovers Macedon.                              He is succeeded by Antiochus V. Eupator,                               Rhine.                                                         70-80 C(olosseum at Rome built.                                                      Victories over the Goths and the Ala-
269 Silver money first coined at Rome.                                 who takes Bethoura. and besieges Jeru-                             Birth of Tibullus (died 1S).                                     71 The Gates of Janus closed.                                                         rinanni.
      Hiero II. of Syracuse.                                            salem, beut ,takespeace with the Jews.                        52-51 Cesar conquers Vercingetorix and                                   Triumph of \Vespasian and Titus.                                                Zenobia queen of Palmyra.
268 Berosus flourished.                                              Cvrene and Libya separate from Egypt.                                  Alesia.                                                               Philosophers expelled           from Rome.                           272     Expedition of Aurelian to PI'alrnyra.
      Antigonus of Macedon takes Athens.                        163 Birth of MI. imilius Scaurus, Roman                                   Murder of Claudilts b' Milo.                                            Reform of Treasury,              Rome.                               273     Capture of P'ahlmyra and of Queen Ze-'
      Rome supreme over all Italy.                                      orator (died 90).                                             51 Subjugation (,f (Caiul cmqpleted, and be-                          71-75       Tlhe Stoic      philosophers expelled from                               nohia.
      First Punic War begins.                                   161 Victory of Judas Maccabeus at Adosa.                                         comes a        ]Ronian    province.                                Rome by V\'espasian.                                               274     Birth of Constantine (died 337).
      Carthage disputes Rome's Empire.                               Embassy of (Carneades, Diogenes and                              50 Quintus Sextis (Stoic) flourished.                                78 Agricola commuands in Britain.                                           275     Tacitus emperor.
      Chronology of Arundelian (Parian) mar-                            Critolans to Rome.                                            49 Civil war between ('esar and Pompey.                                 Titus becomles Roman emperor.                                            276     Probus emperor.
        ble ends.                                                    Death of Judas.                                                     Pompey driven from Italy.                                         79 l{erculaneumn  and Pompeii destroyed by                                  277     Probus drives the Alamanni from Gaul.
260 First Roman fleet launched.                                      Alliance between Rome and Judea.                                    The Pompeians defeated in Spain.                                       anl eruption of Vestlviulls.                                           282     Carls emperor.
      Victory of Duilius off Myle.                                   Jonathan Maccabheus succeeds Judas.                                 Cesar dictator.                                                   79 Death of P'liny, the Elder.                                                      Expedition to the East.
      Rise of Parthia.                                          160 Baetrians in India.                                               48 Battle of Plharsalia.                                                The Laocoon group sculptured.                                            284     Diocletian emperor of Rome.
260-230 Reign of Asoka in India.                                159 Death of Terence.                                                    Cesar defeats Pompey.                                             80 Advance of Agrieola to the Tay.                                          286     Maximinn joint emperor with Diocletian.
256 Naval victory of Regulus over the Car-                      155 Athenians fined by Rome.                                             Murder of I'ompey in Egypt.                                          Amphitheatre of Verona built.                                                    Revolt of Carausins in Britain.
        thaginians at Ecnomos.                                  153 War in Spain.                                                        Ptolemy Dionysus and Cleopatra inherit                            81 lDonitian emperor of Rome.                                               289     Victory of Carausius over Maximian.
      Invasion of Africa.                                       150-138 Lusitanian War.                                                    Egyptian throne.                                                82 Rome wars with Chatti.                                                   292     Constantius   and   Galerius named Ce-
      The Arsacide.                   I                              Viriathus commands the Lusitanians.                              47 Cesar again dictator.                                             83 Paris (Pantomime) killed.                                                           sars.
 255      Defeat   and   capture   of   Regulus by the          149 Third Punic War begins.                                              War ii, Egypt.                                                    84 Agricola defeats the         lCaledonians, and                                   Division of the empire.
       Carthaginians.                                                Scipio invades Africa.                                              Partial destruction of the library of Alex-                             sails around and subdues Britain.                                     296     Britain recovered by Constantius.
     Evacuation of Africa.                                              Andriscus in Macedonia.                                            andria during the siege of Alexandria.                          85 Agricola recalled to Rome.                                               297     Siege of Alexandria by Diocletian.
 254 The Kingdom of Dactia.                                     148 Birth of Lucilius-died 103.                                          Cesar defeats Pharnaces at Zela.                                  86 Rome wages an unsuccessful war against                                           Persian War.
 250 Parthia becomes an independent king-                       147 The Achean war with Rome begins.                                  46 The African War.                                                        Gate or D)alia.                                                       298     Constantius defeats the Alamanni near
        dom under Arsaees.                                      146 Ptolemy VI. killed in battle.                                        Battle of Thapsus.                                                       Quadi       and    Marconanni.                                                 Langres.
     Dynasty of Tsin in China founded.                              Carthage taken by Scipio and destroyed                               Suicide of Cato.                                                   91 Insurrection of Antonius suppressed.                                            Defeat of Narses.
 247 Ptolemy III. makes war on Syria.                                 by order of the Roman Senate.                                      Reformation of the calendar by Cesar.                              95 Rome persecutes Jews and Christians.                                    303 Persecution of the Christians by Diocle-
     Restores the Egyptian gods carried off                         Corinth taken and destroyed by Mum-                                     His triumphs.                                                      St. John banished to Patmos.                                                     tian.
       by Cambyses, 525 B. C.                                             mills.                                                       45   War in Spain.                                                   96 Donmitian killed.                                                       305 Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian.
     Birth of Hannibal-died 183.                                     Province of Africa constituted.                                        Battle of Munda; defeat of the Pom-                                Nerva becomles emperor.                                                     Constantius and Galetiuns emperors.
 246 Aratus of Sicyon, general of the Achean                         Greece becomes a Roman province.                                         peians.                                                          Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, born (died                                      Beginning of monasticism in Egypt un-
        Leagues.                                                145 Ptolemy V-II. reigns, marries Cleopatra,                                Cesar l'ater Patrie Imperator, for life,                                106).                                                                  der St. Anthony.
 241 Defeat of Carthaginians by Catulus at                             widow of Ptolemy VI.                                                   Dictator.                                                     9G-9S       Relief of taxes and distribution                   of          306 Death of Constantius at York.
        the Egates insule.                                           Polybius legislates for the Achean cities.                             First year of Julian calendar.                                           lands.                                                                Constantine (the Great) proclaimed em-
     End of the First Punic War.                                     Demetrius Nicator in Syria.                                       44   Assassination of Cesar by Brutus, Cas-                          9S    Tr;ajan emperor of Romle.                                                  peror by the troops.
     Sicily made a Roman Province.                               144 The Tower of Zion taken by the Jews.                                     sius and others. Flight of the assas-                               Plutarch flourishes.                                                 307 Revolt of Maxentius.
     Atalus, King of Pergamus,                                       Judea becomes independent.                                               sins.                                                        10fl Ilirth of Justin              fMartyr (died 166).                          Six empernors.
     Agis IV. killed at Sparta.                                      Rise of the Asmonean dynasty.                                          Antony becomes                master of Rome.                  lo:g--107        Subjugation        <'f Dalcia.                                 Elevation of Lieainis.

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                                                                                                                                                        S'rPPLEMENT        XII.
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                                                                                                        ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL 'AND MODERN HISTORY.

      A.D.                                                     A.D.                                                          A. D).                                                               I A.D.                                                                A. D.
       311   Rome proclaims Christianity.                         493 Theodoric       establishes the Ostrogothic              9! The Avars subdued by Charlemagne.
                                                                                                                                 9                                                                     Itst     Domesday Book completed                 in England;      1238   Moorish Kingdom of Grenada founded
            Edict of Nicomedia to stop the persecu-                       Kingdom of Italy, South Germany anal                el ) Charltemage er-wiIed at loinee; be-                                           commenlced in 1o,77                                              by Mohammed I.
               tion of the Christians.                                    Hungary, capital at Ravenna.                               eomes Emperor of the West by Pope                                          Birnro founds         ('arthusians.                     1239    Seventh Crusade, by Thibaud, Count of
       812 Defeat and death of Maxentius.                       493 Third Saxon invasion of Britain.                                 Leo Ill.                                                          10S7     William lt. crowned King of England.                              Champagne.
       813 Defeat and death of Maxitnian.                             Cetiic tf.ounds    the Kingdom of Wessex.                802         lRlic, the Norman, establishes the first                    10.<8    Urban 11. Pope.                                         1241 Prose Edda.
            Edict of Milan, by Constantine and i-               496 Clovis of France embraces Christianity.                                 regular governnlent in Russia at .Nov-                     I '90    Mantua taklen by Itenry IV.                             1242 Tartars establish the empire of Kahn of
               cinius, for general religious toleration.         501 Laws of Burgundy published.                                        gorod, and becromes grand duke.                                1091     The Saracens of Spain invite the African                          Kaptschak.
            Britain subdued.                                    502 Charbades. the Persian,           ravages the              807     War between Slavs tind Polyponnesian                                       Moors to their alid in driving back the              1244 Jerusalem seized by the Carismians.
       814 War between the two emperors.                                 Greek Empire.                                                      Greeks.                                                               Christians.                                                  Danes invade Russia, and are defeated by
       S31 Birth of St. Martin, Bishop of Tours.                503 Fermgus lands in Scotland from Ireland.                    814     Louis I., Emperor, dethroned, but re-                                    The Moors defeat the Christians and seize                         Alexander Newski.
       82S Constantine sole emperor.                            506--'42 The fa'mous King Arthur said to                                 stored to his dominions.                                                 the      S;aracen   possessionrs.                    1245 The ilanseatic League formed.
       824 Constantinople founded; dedicated as the                       reign in England.                                    617     Loui.,, the German (France), conquers                          1095      Portugal becomes a separate principality               1246 Frederick lI. of Austria killed in battle
               capital of the empire, 330 (or 334).             507 Cluvis, having conquered the country                                 Austria.                                                                 under Hlenry of Besancon.                                       with the luug'arians.
       825 First General Council of the Church                            from the Pyrenees to the Loire, founds               820     Michael II., of the Byzantine Empire,                                    William of Miahnesbury.                                1250 Louis defeats King Henry of England.
               meets at Nicea.                                           the Kingdom of all Franks.                                         founds the Arnorian dynasty.                              1096      First Crlusade bwln'.                                          Louis captured by the Saracens; truce
       326 Athanasius Patriarch of Alexandria.                  510 Clovis makes Paris the capital of the                      823 In Li.gland, (and, two years later,                              Verse Edda compriled (?).                                              for ten years.
            Controversy with Arius.                                       Frankls.                                                   Kent and Northuinbria) are annexed to                            1098 War between Frlmce and England.                                     Mamelukes rule Egypt.
       396 Death of Arius.                                      511 Salic Law established by Clovis in                               W'essex.                                                         199 Death of the (id.                                            125.1 Rise of Mcdina family in Italy.
       837 Constantine II., Constans and Constan-                         France.                                              825 The .,', ins occupy Dalmp  atia.                                        Jerus.alemii capte,l by Godfrey de Bouil-                   1252 Alexander Newski is made Grand Duke
               tiis 11. joint emperors.                                Division of the monarchy between Clovis'                827 The Saxon  ,lleI,;rcIvy  ends and Egbert,                                      lotn.                                                           of Russia, and reigns as Alexander I.
            Nephilas Meso-Gothic gospels.                                  four sons.                                                king of Wessex, becomes king of all                              1100      llhnry I. criwn.d King of England.                     1254 Ottocear of Bohemia acquires the Aus-
       338 Death of Eusebius.                                   514 Vitalianus, the Goth, besieges Constanti-                        England.                                                                   GrnI.Its a      charter     restoring    the   Saxon              trian Provinces.
       340 Birth of St. Jerome-died 420.                                 nople.                                                830     Louis the Debonair imprisoned in France.                                                                        1259 Kll.aI Kahn builds Pekin.
       347 Synod of Sardica.                                    519 Cerdie founds the Kingdom of Wessex                        b39-'40          Louis      separates      Germany     from            1104     Cruts.aders capture Acre.                               12(;0 Ottoear wNars with Illungary over Styria.
       348 Ulfilas Bishop of the Goths (died 388).                       in Britain.                                                        France.                                                   lloo     MAl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in        becomes at ftee reptlblic.                  12(6i2-'(iS Barons' War in England.
       350-'52 Revolt of Magentius.        Defeated by          527 Justinian I. becomes Emperor of Rome.                      840     Charles the Bald King of France.                                         llnrv 1 (1.etf'c, his brother Robert, and              12X;3 Ottoear inherits Corinthia.
               Constantius.                                           Fourth Saxon invasion of Britain. Essex                  Is 1    German         princEts   assert   their   independ-                     gis  Nornd.,y!v.                                       1265 Tlhe first regular Parliament of England
       854 Birth of St. Augustine (died 430).                            found(led.                                                        ence.                                                      1107     Aexindr 1., Sc(,Llhnd.                                             meets.
       857 Victory of Julian over the Alamanni                  529 Justinian Code published.                                  844     Treaty of Verdun; the sonis of Louis di-                       1108     Lo, is VI. le Gros (the Lusty), King of                          Birth of Dante; died 1321.
               at Argentoratum (Strasburg).                     534 Bclisarus conquers Africa.                                       vide the empire.                                                             France.                                              1266    Naples and Sicily conquered by Charles
       361 Julian emperor.                                      538 The Franks appear in Italy.                                    Spain ravaged by the Northmen.                                     1110     llenry V. of Germany invades Italy.                                of Anjou.
       862 Julian recalls the banished bishops, and             539 Italy made subject to Belisarius. Goths                   S46 Tne Saracens sack Rome.                                             111 4 Hlenry V'. marries Matilha of England.                     1268    Ninth Crusade, by Louis IX. and Ed-
               proclaims general religious toleration.                   ravage Milan.                                        848 Brittany becomnes independent.                                      1116 University of lolo na founded.                                         ward, Prince of Wales.
       863 Persian War.                                         544 Birth of Gregory of Tours (died 590).                     850 Russian monarchy established by Ruric.                                       Euclid translated into English.                          1270 Louis IX. dies at Carthage.
            Julian killed,                                      545 The Turks enter Asia.                                     850(?) Scots and Picts united under Kenneth.                            1119     IPlay of St. Ca.therine at Dunstahle.                           Philip III. (the lardv) King of France.
            Jovian emperor.                                     547 Northuitbria founded in Britain.                          b51 NorLthmen pillage France.                                           1120     Rise of the Lombard (Italy)               cities.        1271 The English quit Palestine.
      864 Valentinian and Valens joint emperors.                550 The Angles form the Heptarchy-Anglia,                     865 Russians attack Constantinople.                                              Shi.wreck of Prince William.                             1272 Reign of         Edward I.     of England;
            Final division of the empire.                                Deira, Mercia, etc.                                  Ba7 Bassillian Dynasty founded at Constanti-                            1122     Treaty of Worms, between the Emperor                               Crowned Nov. 20.
       367-'69 Theodosius in Britain; aids Britons              552 Totila, the Ostrogoth, defeated in Italy                         nople.                                                                       and Pope.                                                    Ottocear declines the Imperial Crown of
               against Picts and Scots.                                  by the imperial generals Narses and                  869 Ecumenical Council ot Constantinopie.                               1124     David I. King of Scotland.                                         Germany.
       370 The Saxons land on the coasts of Gaul.                        Belisarius.                                                  (Latin Church.)                                                 1125     Era of the glory of Venice. Victories                    1273 Randolph, Count of Hapsburg, chosen
       373 Death of Athanasius.                                 554 Narses overthrows Gothic power in Italy.                  871 The Danes defeat Alfred at battle of Mer-                                      over the Eastern Empire.                                         Emperor of Germany; Ottocar refuses
       375 War with the Quadi.                                  558 Clotaire sole ruler in France.                                   ton.                                                             1132     Arnold of Brescia.                                                to acknowledge him.
            Gratian emperor of the West with Val-               560 Fergus Mloor II. of Scotland (?).                         873 Kingdom of Navarre founded by Sancho                                1135     Stephen   becomes King of England.                       1274 Navarre passes to the royal family of
               entinian II.                                     561 Death of Clotaire. His four sons divide                          luigo.                                                                    Itenry's dangher, Maud, disputes the                              France.
            Invasion of the Huns.                                        the kingdom between them.                            875 Charls, the Bald, becomes Emperor; is                                          crown;       civil war ensues.                               Rudolph makes war upon Ottocar, and
       876 Valens allows the Huns to settle in                  562 St. Coleotba lands in Scotland.                                  poisoned by Zedechias, a Jewish physi-                                    Louis VI. grants letters of franchise to                          gains Austria, Corinthia and Styria.
               Thrace.                                          563 Constantinople destroyed by fire.                                      cian.                                                       I         cities and towns.                                      ]275 Wars of Robert Bruce and John Baliol
      877 Birth of St. Patrick (died 493?).                     564 History of Gildas (?).                                    875-1154 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.                                         1138     Empress MNfaud's partisans defeated at                            for the crown of Scotland.
      378 Constantinople threatened by the Goths.               565 Death of Justinian I. Ethelbert becomes                   877 Louis II. King of France.                                                      the battle of the Standard, Aug. 22.                  1276 House of Hapsburg, of Austria, founded.
       879 Theodosius the Great, Emperor of the                          King of Kent.                                        878 Alfred the Great driven from England.                               1139     Portugal becomes a kingdoim.                            1277 Rule of the Visconti, Milan.
               East.                                            568 Italy invaded by the Longobardi from                      879 Ecumenical Council of Constantinople.                                        Maud lands in England, and defeats Ste-                  1278 Ottocear slain at the battle of Marshfeld.
       381 Second General Council held at Con-                           Germany, who found the Kingdom of                           (Greek Church.)                                                            phen; is crowned at Winchester, March                  1282 Sicilian Vespers, massacre of Sicilians
               stantinople.                                              Lomhardv. Narses governor of Italy.                  881 Danes ravage Scotland.                                                         3, 1141.                                                        by the French.
            Pagan rites prohibited.                             570 Birth of Mohammed (died 632).                             888 Paris attacked by Northmen.                                         1143 Moors rebel in Spain.                                              Crusade against Aragon; the French ex-
      382 Alaric King of the Goths.                              677 Battle of Durham; West-Saxons defeat the                 890 Itaiy subjected to the Eastern Empire.                              1144 Alphonso of Leon defeats the Moors.                                   pelled.
      883 Revolt of Maximus in Britain.                                  Britons.                                                  Alfred of England founds Oxford, and                                    Wars of the Lombard cities.                                 12S3 Wales subjected to England.
      390 Final suppression of Paganism.                        581 Paris mostly destroyed by fire.                                  establishes a code of laws; organizes                            1146 Second Crusade; Louis VII. of France                        1285 Philip IV. (the Fair) King of France.
           Massacre at Thessalonica.                                  Sclavonians ravage Thrace.                                     militia and a navy; subdivides the                                       and Conrad III. of Germany are de-                       1286 Kenigsberg made the capital of Prussia.
            Death of Gregory at Nazianzus.                      584 Franks invade Italy and are repelled.                            country and causes surveys of the King-                                  feated by Greek treachery, A. D. 1148.                   1287 Jews banished from England.
      393 Honorius Emperor of the West.                                  The Mayors of the palace the real rul-                            donm.                                                           Greece plundered by Roger of Sicily.                        1288 Nicholas IV. Pope.
      394 Theodosius master of the whole Roman                           ers in France.                                       895      Alfred's translations.                                         1147 Maud is defeated by Stephen, and retires                    1289 Second invasion of the Mongols.
              world.                                             686 Kingdom of Mercia founded in Britain.                    896      The Germans, under Arnold, seize Rome.                                 to France.                                               1291 Mamelukes take Acre.
      395 Death of Theodosius.                                  587 Franks expelled from Spain by Recared I.                           Alfred of England vanquishes the Danes.                        1150 Arthurian Legends published.                                       Christian power in Syria destroyed.
           Arcadius emperor of the East.                        590 Gregory I., the Great, becomes Pope.                      901      Death of Alfred the Great.                                     1152 Frederick Barbarossa made Emperor of                        1296 Scotland subdued by England.
           The Huns invade the eastern provinces.               595 The Lombards besiege Rome and overrun                     904      Russia invades Greek Empire under                                      Germany.                                                 1297 Sir William Wallace fights for the inde-
      395 Augustine made Bishop of Hippo (died                           Italy.                                                          Oleg.                                                        1153 Maud concludes a peace with Stephen.                                  pendence of Scotland.
              430).                                             597 St. Augustine arrives in England.                          907     The Russians receive tribute from Con-                              Malcolm IV. King of Scotland.                                      Revolt of Scotland.
            Alaric in Greece.                                   598 Ethelbert, King of Kent, embraces Chris-                               stantinople.                                               1154 Frederick Barbarossa invades Italy.                         1299 Battle of Falkirk; Bruce and Douglas
           Stilicho attains chief power under Hono-                      tianity.                                             910      Asser's life of Alfred written.                                     Henry II., King of England, the first                                 defeated by Edward I.
              rins.                                             600 Italy ravaged by Sclavonians.                             911      Death of Louis the Child, last of the                                  Plantagenet, crowned December 19.                               Osman I. establishes the Turkish Em-
      896 The Britons ask aid of Honorius against               603 Scots invade Bernicia ; are driven back.                               German Carolingians.                                            Adrian IV. Pope.                                                      pire,
              the Picts and Scots.                              611 The Persians make conquests in Syria,                      912 Rollo thie Northman becomes Robert,                                     Constitutions of Clarendon enacted in                       1300 Moscow becomes the capital of Russia.
      397 Deaths of Martin of Tours and Ambrose                          Egypt, and Asia Minor, and besiege                          Duke of Normandy.                                                        England.                                                 1301 Philip IV. quarrels with the Pope.
               of Milan.                                                 Rome.                                                918-'34 htenry 1., the Fowler, reigns in Ger-                           1156 Margraviate, Austria, made a hereditary                            Charles of Valois in Italv.
      398 Chrysostom        Bishop of Constantinople            612 Jews persecuted in Spain.                                        many; conquers the Huns, Danes, Van-                                     duchy by Frederic I.                                     1302 First convocation of States-General in
               (died 407).                                      613 Clotaire II. King of France.                                     dals and Bohemians.                                              1161 War of Guelphs and Ghibellines.                                       France.
      400 Alaric ravages Italy.                                 614 Jerusalem captured by Persians.                           921 Italy invaded by the Burgundians.                                   1162 Barbarossa destroys Milan.                                  1803 Edward I. invades Scotland.
      403 Battle of Pollentia.                                  622 Mohammed secretly leaves Mecca and en-                    928 Five Emperors rule the Byzantine Em-                                1163 Berlin founded by a colony from the                         1305 William Wallace executed.
            Defeat of Alaric by Stilicho.                                ters Medina.                                                      pire.                                                              Netherlands.                                             1306 Robert Bruce crowned as King of Scot-
      406 The Vandals, Alani and Suevi invade                         The Hegira or Arab emigration-not                       933  Athelstan ravages Scotland.                                        1165 William the Lion, King of Scotland.                                   land.
               Spain.                                                    flight as commonly translated.                       934  Henry I. of Germany defeats the Danes.                             1166 Assizes of Clarendon and Northampton.                       1307 Edward II. crowned, July 8, King of
      409 The Roman legions recalled from Britain;              628 Dagobert, the "Solomnon of the Franks,"                   936  Otho the Great, in Germany.                                        1167 Frederick Barbarossa takes Rome.                                      England.
               final withdrawal about 418.                               becomes King.                                        937  Athelstan wins a great victory over the                                 The Lombard League formed against the                       1807-'14 Philip suppresses the Knights Temp-
      410 Sack of Rome by Alaric.                                     Revises and publishes the Salic and Ri-                         Danes, Scots, etc., and becomes first                                   Emperor.                                                           lar, and burns the Grand Master at
            Death of Alaric.                                             parian Laws.                                                 King of England.                                                1169 University of Paris founded.                                          Paris.
           Pelagius begins to preach about this time.           630 Mohammed re-enters Mecca; installed as                    939 Louis IV. of France subdues Hugh Ca-                                1170 Thomas a Becket murdered in England                         1308 Pope Clement V. removes to Avignon, in
      412 Proclus, the philosopher, born (died 485).                     prince and prophet.                                         pet, Count of Paris.                                                     December 29.                                                       France.
      414 Marriage of Ataulphus, King of the                    632 Death of Mohammed.                                        944 Malcolm 1. in Scotland.                                             1172 The Sultan Saladin makes great con-                                Albert I., of Austria, attempts to sub-
               Goths, to Placida, daughter of Theo-                   His religion spreads through Persia.                    951 Otho invades Italy.                                                         quests in Asia.                                                    due the Swiss, who have revolted un-
              dosius the Great.                                 634 The Koran published.                                      962 Otho the Great becomes Emperor of the                                    Ireland conquered by the English.                                     der William Tell. (?)
           Persecution of the Christians in Persia              638 Syria occupied by Saracens.                                       West; Italy and Germany united.                                 1176 Battle of Legnano.      Barbarossa defeated                 1309 The Swiss revolt successful.
              begins; lasts thirty years.                             Clovis II., son of Dagobert, King of                    978 Otho 1i. invades France.                                                    by the Lombard League.                                   1310 Henry VII. subdues the Lombards.
      420 Death of St. Jerome.                                           France.                                              979 Assassination of Edward, the Martyr, of                                  Six circuits for the administration Of                      1313 Louis V. and Frederick of Austria con-
           Orosins, the Spanish presbyter and his-              639 Omar institutes the new Moslem Calen-                            England.                                                                 justice established in England.                                    tend for the German Empire.
              torian, flourished.                                        dar.                                                 982 Battle of Basientello; Otho III. of Ger-                            1180 Glanvil Chief Justice of England.                                  Birth of Boeaccio; died 1375.
      423 Death of Honorius at Ravenna.                         640 Alexandrian Library burnt.                                       many defeated by Greeks and Saracens.                                 Philip II. (Augustus) King of France.                       1314 Battle of Bannockburn; the Scots, un-
      426 Administration of Etius begins, lasting               642 In Britain the Mercians defeat the Berni-                 987 Hugh Capet becomes King of France.                                  1181 Glanvil makes a digest of English law.                                der Robert Bruce, defeat the English
              about thirty years.                                        cians.                                               988 Vladimir marries Annie, sister of Basil                             1183 Peace of Constance establishes the free                               under Edward.
           The Traveler's Song published.                      653 Rhodes taken by the Saracens.                                      11. of Russia, and embraces Chris-                                      cities of Italy.                                                Louis IV. King of Germany.
      428 Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople,               656 Clotaire III. becomes King of France.                            tianity.                                                         1185 Provinces of Amiens and Valois annexed                             Union of France and Navarre.
              banished (435).                                   662 In Italy, Constans II., Emperor of the                     995 Elfric's Homilies.                                                         to France.                                               1315---'25 Insurrection of English Barons.
      429 The Vandals under Genseric invade Af-                          East, is defeated by the Lombards.                   996 Otho III. makes the German Emperor                                  1187 Saladin seizes Jerusalem.                                          The Swiss totally defeat the Austrians at
              rica.                                             668 Constantinople besieged by Saracens.                             elective.                                                        1189 Third Crusade by England, France and                                  Morgarten.
           Death of Theodore, Bishop of Mopsues-               672 Saracens driven from Spain.                                     Paris made the capital of all France.                                         Germany.                                              1316 John I., a posthumous son of Louis X.,
              tia.                                             672-'77 Wamba's "good reign" in Spain.                         997 Death of St. Adelbert, who first intro-                                  Siege of Acre begun.                                                  King, dies at the age of four days.
      481 Third General Council held at Ephesus.               678 Cadwallader, the last king of the Britons,                        duced Christianity into Prussia.                                      Richard I. crowned in England, Sept. 3.                            Philip II. (the Long) King of France.
      4X2 St. Patrick arrives in Ireland.                                reigns.                                              999 Gerbert, Silvester II., Pope.                                            Terrible massacre of Jews in London.                        1321 Death of Dante.
      433 2Itila King of the Huns.                                   Bulgarians occupy Bulgaria, in Northern                 1000 Genoa, Italy, becomes rich and powerful.                            1190 Frederick I. (Barbarossa), drowned.                         1322 Battle of Muehldorf; Louis V. defeats
      438 Theo ie;an code published.                                     Greece.                                             1002 Massacre of Danes in England by Ethel-                                   Order of Teutonic Knights established.                                Frederick.
      439 The Vanoa' surprise Carthage.                        681 Mebrouin, last of the Merovingians, as-                           red.                                                                  Henry V. invades Italy.                                            Charles IV. King of France.
      440 Leo I. (the Great) Bishop of Rome.                             sassinated.                                               Reign of Robert II. in Burgundy.                                        University of Oxford founded.                               1824 Birth of John Wickliffe; died 1384.
      442 Treaty of peace between valentiman and               685 Saxons drive Britons into Wales and                       1003 Sweyn, King of Denmark, avenges the                                 1191 Richard 1. joins the Crusades.                              1326 Germany invaded by Turks.
              Genseric.                                                 Cornwall.                                                          mnassacre.                                                      Acre captured.                                              1327 Edward III. crowned, Jan. 25, King of
      447 Attila in Thrace and Macedon '.                      687 Sussex united to Wessex.                                           Ethelred flees to Normandy.                                          Jerusalem opened to pilgrim.                                          England.
      446 Messages of the Britons to Eti.* for aid                   In France, Pepin defeats Thierry.                                Malcolmn II. King of Scotland.                                       Kingdom of Cyprus founded.                                         Independence of Scotland.
              against the Saxons.                              694 Kent devastated by West Saxons.                           1013     Sweyn conquers England.                                              Artois annexed to France.                                          200,000 Moors brought from Africa by the
      447 Attila ravages the Eastern Empire.                   697 Analeasto becomes the first doge of Ven-                  1014     Battle of Zetunium; Basil II. of Con-                           1192 Richard I., Coeur de Lion, made prisoner                              King of Grenada.
           Theodosius concludes a treaty with At-                       ice.                                                             stantinople defeats the Bulgarians.                                  in Germany by Henry IV.; ransomed                        1328 Charles the Fair, of France, dies; Philip
              tila.                                            709 The Saracens invited into Spain to over-                  1015     Vladimir I. dies; Russia is divided.                                     (1194) for £400,000.                                              VI., of the House of Valois, reigns.
      449 The Robber Council of Ephesus.                                throw King Roderick.                                 1016     Ethelred dies; Edmund Ironsides and                                  Richard defeats Saladin.                                           Ivan I. rules Russia.
           Landing of the English ill Britain.                 711 The Saracens cross from Africa to Spain.                              Canute divide England.                                       1198 Innocent III. Pope.                                         1329 David II. King of Scotland.
           Hlengist and Horsa in Kent.                               The Bulgarians ravage the Eastern Em-                            Italy invaded by Northmnen.                                     1199 John becomes King of England, May 27.                       1333 The Scots defeated by Edward at Hal-
      450 Death of Theodosius II.                                       pire.                                                         Expulsion of Saracens.                                                                                                                     don Hill.
                                                               712 The Gothic Kingdom of Spain overthrown                    1017     Canute, the Dane, becomes King of all                           1200 University of Salamanca founded.
      461 Invasion of Gaul by Attila.                                                                                                                                                                 1202 Fourth Crusade; capture of Zora.                            1337 War between France and Flanders.
             Victory   of Etius at Chalons.                             by the Arabs.                                                    England.                                                                                                                             Birth of Froissart; died 1401.
                                                                     Establishment of the Saracen kingdom of                 1019     The Moors enter Spain.                                          1203 Constantinople besieged and captured by
             Fourth General Council held at Choalce-                                                                                                                                                          the Crusaders.                                           1339 First Doge of Genoa appointed.
               don.                                                     Cordova.                                             1026     Sancho II. of Navarre founds the King-                                                                                           1340 Birth of Gerhard Groot; died 1380.
           Monophysite controversy begins.                     714 Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and                              domn of Castile.                                              1204 Normandy lost to England.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Latins possess and divide Greece.                                   Battle of Tarifs in Spain; Moors terri-
      452 Invasion of Italy by Attila.                                  real ruler of France.                                1035     Arragon becomes a Kingdom under Ram-                                                                                                       bly defeated by Alphonso XI., of Cas-
           Venice founded.                                     716 Independent Gothic Monarchy founded in                               irez I.                                                       1207 Albigensian Crusade.                                                  tile.
      453 Death of Attila. Dissolution of his em-                       the Asturias.                                        1037     Union of Leon and Austria with Castile.                         1208 Otho crowned Emperor of Germany at                          1346 Battle of Crecy; French, under Philip,
                                                               718 Leon and Asturias formed into a King-                     1039     Duncan I. of Scotland murdered by Mac-                                  Rome.                                                              routed by the English, under Edward
              pire.                                                                                                                                                                                        England interdicted by the Pope.
      454 St. Patrick fixes his see at Armagh.                          dom by Pelays. who checks the con-                              beth.                                                                                                                                    III., and the Black Prince.
                                                                        quests of the Saracens in Spain.                     1040     Sicily restored and Servia lost to the                          1209 French Crusade against the Albegeoise.
      455 Sack of Rome by Genseric.                                                                                                                                                                            Inquisition     established.                                   Battle of Durban, in Scotland.
           Intercession of Leo.                                720 The Saracens are defeated at Constanti-                              Eastern Empire.                                                                                                                       Battle of Neville's Cross.
                                                                        nople.                                                        The Cid (Ruy Diaz) in Spain.                                    1210     War between Venice and Genoa.
      457 tlengist founds the Kingdom of Kent.                                                                                                                                                        1213     Battle of Muret; defeat of Albigenses.                  1347 The English take Calais.
      460 The epic poem of Beowulf (?).                              Charles Martel created Duke of France.                  1041     Danes driven from Scotland.                                              Interdict of England removed.                                  Rienzi, last of the Tribunes, establishes
      461-'67 Rule of Ricimer.                                       The Saracens invade France.                             1042     The Saxon Dynasty restored. Edward                                                                                                         a democracy in Rome.
           Severus nominal emperor.                            730 Pope Gregory excommunicates the Em-                                  the Confessor, King of England.                               1214     Alexander II. of Scotland.                              1348 University of Prague founded.
                                                                        peror Leo.                                                    Conquest of Bohemia by Henry III.                                        French defeat Germans at Bouvines.
      462-'72 Conquests of the Visigoths in Spain                                                                                                                                                     1215     Magna Charta signed at Runnymede,                       1849 Dauphiny annexed to France.
              and Gaul.                                        732 Battle of Tours, or Poitiers: crushing de-                1043      Russians defeated before Constantinople.                                                                                               The black death in England.
                                                                         feat of the Saracens by the Franks.                 1051      Rebellion of Godfrey in Kent.                                             June 15; confirmed and renewed 80                     1350 Order of the Garter instituted by Ed-
      465 Great fire at Constantinople.                                                                                                                                                                          times.
      470 Birth of Boethins (died 526).                        739 Charles Martel conquers Provence.                         1052     War of Roderigo, the Cid, with the                                                                                                         ward and John II., King of France.
                                                               746 Slavic settlements in Grecian Pelopon-                                  Moors.                                                              Birth of Roger Bacon (died 1292).                       1352 Marino Faliero at Venice.
      475 Romulus Augnstulis Emperor Of the                                                                                                                                                           1216     Henry III. becomes King of England,
              West (banished 476).                                        nesuls.                                            1058  Moors expelled from Italy.                                                                                                          1353 Turks enter Greece.
                                                               747  Carlomnan of France abdicates.                                 Macbeth defeated and slain.                                                   October 28.                                           1354 Rienzi slain at Rome.
      476 Odoacer captures and sacks Rome and                                                                                                                                                         1217     Fifth crusade by Germans and Hun-
              becomes King of Italy.                           752  Pepin, the Short, son of Charles Martel,                       Malcolhn Ill. of Scotland.                                                                                                          1856 Battle of Poitiers, September 19; 8,000
           Succession of Western Emperors ends.                       becomes King of France.                                1060 Philip I., the Fair, King of France.                                           garians.                                                        English defeat 60,000       French: the
             Close of the period of Ancient History.           754 Pepin gives lRavenna to the Pope.                               Lambert of Hierzfeld.                                              1220 Frederick II. becomes Emperor of Italy.                               Black Prince takes John II. captive to
                                                               755 Insurrection in Mercia, Britain.                          1065 Jerusalem captured by the Turks.                                    1222 Matthew Paris born.                                                   London, where he dies.
                                                                    Abderahman I. becomes King of Cordova.                    u1066William of Normandy invades England,                                    The Teutonic Knights undertake the con-                            Charles IV., of Germany, signs the
                                                               756 Pepin annexes Ravenna to the See of                                     and wins thie battle of Hastings.                                 quest of Poland.                                                    Golden Bull, the basis of tht German
                                                                       Rome.                                                       Harold defeats the Norwegians, and is                              1223 Tartars conquer a large part of Russia.                               Constitution until 1806.
                                                               760 Insurrection of Toledo.                                            crowned King of England, January 6.                                  Louis VIII. King of France.                                 1358 Insurrection of the Jaequerie in France.
                                                               768 Death of Pepin. who is succeeded by his                         Death of Hlarold.                                                  1224 Louis frees his serfs.                                      1360 Peace of Bretigny, between English and
                                                                       two sons, Charlemagne and Carloman,                         William I., the Norman, crowned King,                              1226 St. Louis becomes King Louis IX eo                                    French.
                                                                       who rule in France and Germany.                                December 25.                                                            France.                                                  1361 Italy overrun by the Free Lances.
                                                               771 Charlerma-ne rules alone.                                 1070 The feudal system introduced in Eng-                                1227 Gregory IX. Pope.                                                  Turks enter Greece.
                                                               772-'85 Charlemagne, after a severe strug-                             land.                                                           1228 Sixth Crusade; Frederick II. at Acre.                       1362 The English language ordered to be used
                                                                       gle, conquers the Saxons; they em-                    1071 Norman Kingdom of the two Sicilies.                                 1229 The Inquisition begun.                                                in legal proceedings, England.
      Medieval History                                                 brace Christianity.
                                                               774 Charlemagne      annexes Italy after con-
                                                                       quering the Lombards.
                                                                                                                                   Ilereward in the Isle of Ely.
                                                                                                                             1073 Hildebrand made Pope Gregory VII.
                                                                                                                                   Gregory VII. establishes universal sov-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1229 Ten years' truce with the Sultan.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Jerusalem restored to the Christians.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Frederick crowned King of Jerusalem.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1363 Austria acquires the Tyrol.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1364 Charles V. (the Wise) King of Franc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Philip, the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.
      476    Establishment of the Kingdom of the               778 Battle of lloncesvalles.                                           ereignty of the papacy, and reforms                                      Albigenses defeated in France.                                 Treaty between Austria and Bohemia.
                                                                    Beginning of the age of chivalry.                                 abuses in the Church.                                           1221     University of Cambridge founded.                        1866 H. Van Eyck, painter, born.
      477    Second Saxon invasion of Britain.                      Charlemnagne       unsuccessfully invades                      Henry VI. of Germany disputes his title.                           1232     Fall of Hubert de Burgh.                                1367 The Mamelukes conquer Armenia.
      480    Birth of St. Benedict (died 543).                         Spain.                                                10)75 Oderies Vitalis.                                                   1233     Wars between (Castile and Moors, and                     1369 Empire of Tamerlane founded.
      481    Clovis I. (Merovingian) reigns in Belgic          785 Saxons, shbdued by Charlemagne, be-                       1076 Justice of the Peace appointed.                                                capture of Cordova, Seville, Toledo, and                      Langland's "Piers Plowman."
               Gaul.                                                      come      Christimans.                             1077 Henry IV. submits and does penance.                                            other cities by Ferdinand III.                         1370 Pope Gregory XI. goes to Avignon.
      485    Proclus, philosopher, died.                       7S7 The Danes land in England.                                1081 Italy invaded bv the Germans.                                       12235    The Mons,]dians invade Russia.                           1371 Stuart line begins with Robert IL i
      486    Battle of Soissons.                               791 -'96    Charlemagne establishes the Margra-               10S4 Hlenry IV. takes Rome.                                              1236     War betwen the Empieror and the Lom-                               Scotland.
             Clovis I. defeats the Gauls.                               viate of Austria.                                          The Pope flies to Salerno and dies there,                                     bard Leargue.                                          1374 Death of Petrarch.
      489    Ostrogoths invade Italy.                                 Reign of Alfonso, the Chacte, in Spain;                          in 1085.         ^                                             1237     The brand lDuke Juric (Russia) slain in                         Rlebellion against the Pope.
      491    Ella founds the Kingdom of Sussex.                         independence of Christians established.                    Clement III. made Pope by Henry IV.                                           battle.                                                1375 I)eath of Boccaccio.
;::                                           :            I          -                            ;;
                                                                                                                                       :                            |                         -                                ;                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                                                 SUPPLEMENT     XIII.

                                                                                                         ANCIENT,' MEDIEVAL AND MODERN                                                HISTORY.

                                                                                                                 :                                                            -   -

                                                                                                                                                                                          A. D.                                                           A. D.
    A.D.                                                  A D.
                                                            A.                                                             A.   D.                                                                                                                        1595 Shakespeare's poems first issued.
    1377    Richard II. King of England, June 22.         1 1475 Birth of Sir John Fortescue.                              1522      First Scotch invasion of England.                    1553 Restores  the Roman Catholic religion in
                                                                                                                                                                                                 England.                                                 1596 Capture of Cadiz by Essex.
            Papacy restored to Rome.                      I 476 Battle of Murten.                                                    The Louvre, Paris, commenced.                                                                                             University of Barcellona founded.
    1880 Battle of the Don; Dimitri II., of Rus-          11477 Russian war with Tartars.                                  1523      Italian League against Francis I.                         Trade between        Englandand Russia be-
                                                                                                                                     Clement VlII. Pope at Rome.                                 gun by the        "Rllussian Company."                        Birth of Descartes; died 1650.
              sia, defeats the Tartars.                         Artois and Burguitndy united to France                                                                                                                                                    1597 Bacon's essays published.
            Wycklifle's translation of the Bible pub-                 by       Maximillian's miarriage    .                            lerner's Froissart.                                     Servetus burnt by Calvin.
                                                                 Birth of Titian, painter: died 1576.                                Honduras conquered by the Spaniards.                      Birth of Hooker; died 1600.                                1598 Death of Philip II., ot Spain.
              lished.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Philip III. King; he banishes 300.0
            Thomas A. Kempis born.                        1 1478 Duke of Clarence murdered.                                          Verazzani's discoveries in North Amer-                    Birth of Spenser; died 1599.
                                                                                                                                                                                          1554 Lady     JaneGray and Lord Guilford Dud-                           Moors from Spain by A. D. 1610.
            Russia wars with the Tartars.                 11479 Union of Aragon and Castile, under                                      Ica.                                                                                                                   The Netherlands ceded to Ausatria.
            Charles VI., King of France.                           Ferdinand and Isabella.                                           Birth of Rousard ; died 1586.                               ley beheaded.
                                                                 Great invasion of Russia by Tartars.                      1524      Settlement of New France (Canada).                        Mary marries Philip of Spain.                                   Edict of Nantes in favor of Protetant,
    1881 Watt Tyler's insurrection in London                                                                                                                                                   Birth of Sir Philip Sydney; died 1586.                             by Henry IV.
              crushed.                                    11480  Mongolian power in Russia destroyed.                      1525      Battle of Pavia.                                                                                                          Irish rebellion of O'Niel, or Tyrone; de-
            Ghiberti, artist, born; died 1455.                   Mohammed II. takes Otranto.                                         Francis I. defeated and taken prisoner                    Persecution of Protestants in England.
                                                                                                                                        by Charles V.                                          Siberia discovered.                                                feat of the English at Blackwater.
    1882 "Legend of Good Women," England.                 11481 Frederick IV., of Nurenberg, purchases                                                                                                                                                         Henry IV. commissions De la Roche to
    1888 The Tartars burn Moscow.                                  Brandenburg from Sigismund.                                       Peasants' War in Germany.                                 Wyatt's insurrection suppressed in Eng-
                                                                                                                                     Albert of Brandenburg embraces Luth-                              land.                                                      conquer Canada, in which he fails.
    1885 Death of John Wyckliffe.                         1 1482 Ivan assumes the title of the Czar of                                                                                                                                      Ridley,            The race of Ruric, who had governed
    1386 John of Ghaunt in Spain.                                  Russia.                                                              eranism and becomes Duke of East                  1555       The English martyrs, Latimer,
                                                                                                                                        Prussia and Fief of Poland.                                    Rogers, and Cranmer burned         at the                  Russia for 700 years, becomes extinct
            Battle of Lempaeh: defeat of the Aus-                Birth of Raphael, painter; died 1520.                                                                                                                                                         Bodleian founded.
              trians by the Swiss, and death of Duke      1 1483 Birth of Stephen Hawes; died 1512.                        1526      Ferdinand I. unites Bohemia and Hun-                              stake.
                                                                 Edward V. made King of England; April                                  gary to Austria.                                           Philip II. rules in Holland.                           1599 Appenzel joins the Swiss Cantons.
              Leopold.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Birth of Vandyck, painter; died 1641.
    1387 German Empire divided.                                    8 murdered in the Tower.                                          Pizarro discovers the coast of Quito.                         Religious peace of Augsburg.
                                                                 Richard 111. usurps the throne, June 25.                            Selim I. defeats the Hungarians.                              Bale's "King John" issued.                                  Birth of Velasquez, painter; died 1I60.
            Fra Angelico, painter, born; died 1448.
    1388 Battle of Chevy Chase, or Otterburne,                   Charles VIII. King of France.                                       Mongol dynasty founded in India.                     1556     Charles, of Spain and Germany, retires
              between Scots and English.                         Birth of Luther; died 1546.                                         Tyndale's new Testament published.                              to a monastery.
    1389 Margaret of Norway.                              1 1484 Spain invaded by Turks; first auto da                     1527      Germans capture Rome.                                         Philip II. King of Spain.
    1890 The Eastern Empire loses power in Asia.                   fe at Seville.                                                    Papal war.                                                    Ferdinand, his brother, succeeds in Ger-
            Robert III. King of Scotland.                 1485 Bosworth Field.                                                       Insurrection of Moriscoes suppressed, in                         many.
            The Canterbury Tales published.                      August 22, death of Richard I.                                         Spain.                                                       Reign of Akbar, the greatest sovereign
            J. Van Eyck, painter, born.                          Henry VII. crowned.                                                 Death of Machiavelli.                                           of Hindoostan.
    1392 The Portuguese discover the Cape of              11486 Henry marries Elizabeth, daughter of                                 Birth of Canoens; died 1579.                         1557     Spain at war with France.
               Good Hope.
    1395 Tamerlane, the Tartar, invades Russia.
            The Wakefleld and Towneley mysteries.
                                                                   Edward IV.
                                                                 B. Diaz rounds Cape of Good Hope.
                                                          11487 The Court of the Star Chamber insti-
                                                                                                                                     Sackville, earliest dramatist, born.
                                                                                                                                     Narvaez's expedition to Florida coast.
                                                                                                                                     Constable Bourbon at Rome.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Battle of St. Quentin; Philip gains a
                                                                                                                                                                                                      decisive victory.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Alva takes Rome.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Modern History.
    1396 Battle of Nicopolis, the Turks. under Ba-                 tuted in England.                                                 James V., of Scotland, reigns.                       1558     Calais retaken by the French.                          1600       Maurice, of Holland, invades Flanders.
              jazet I., defeat the Hungarian Chris-              Province joined to France.                                          Birth of P. Veronese, painter; died 1588.                     Mary, of Guise, in Scotland, marries the                          The Dutch East India Company char-
              tians.                                      11488 War between Russia and Sweden.                             1529      Diet at Spiers, Germany.                                         Dauphine.                                                         tered with a capital of $360,000.
    1397 Persecution of the Wycklifites or Lol-                  The Yeoman of the Guard organized in                                Turks invade Austria.                                         Elizabeth accedes to English throne, No-                          Chauvin's trading voyages to Tadoussae,
               lards.                                               England.                                                         France and Spain sign treaty of peace at                         vember 17.                                                        Canada.
            Union of Calmar.                              11490 Leonardo da Vinci, painter, flourished.                                 Cambria.                                                   Re-establishes the Church of England.                             Birth of the painter, Rembrandt; died
    1899 Henry IV. crowned King of England,               11491 Charles VIII. marries Anne of Brittany.                              Sir Thlomas More, Chancellor.                        1559     Francis II. King of France.                                           1669.
            Sept. 50th; Order of the Bath founded.               Alexander VI. Pope.                                       1530      The Augsburg Confession published.                            Treaty of Cateau-Cambreris signed.                                Birth of Claude Lorraine, painter; died
    1400 Birth of Della Robbia, architect and                    Sevnigorod defeats and annihilates the                              Persecution      of Protestants begun in                      William Cecil Secretary in England.                                  1682.
              sculptor.                                            Tartars.                                                            France.                                            1560     Charles IX. King of France; regency of                            Portuguese introduce tobacco into In-
            Death of Chaucer and Froissart.               11492 Columbus sails from Spain, August 3,                                 Fall and death of Cardinal Wolsey.                               Catherine de Medici.                                              dia.
    1401 Rebellion in Wales; Glendower and the                      and discovers America, October 12;                               Reformation makes great progress in                           The Geneva Bible issued.                               1601       Execution of the Earl of Essex, Febru-
               Percies defeated.                                    discovers Cuba, October 28; Hayti, De-                              Switzerland.                                               Birth of Southwell; died 1596.                                        ary 25.
    1402 Battle of Angora ; Timour the Tartar de-                   cember 6.                                                        Italy conquered by Charles V.                                 Persecution of       Protestants begun in                         Alleged discovery of Australia by Portu-
               feats the Turks and captures Bajazet I.           Ferdinand conquers Grenada and de-                                  Russia makes peace with the Tartars.                             Spain.                                                            guese.
            Masaecio, painter, horn.                                stroys the Moorish power in Spain.                     1531      League of Smalkald formed by Protes-                 1561     Birth of Bacon; died 1626.                             1602       Siege of Geneva, Switzerland; Charles
    1406 Prince James of Scotland captured.                      Cesar Borgia poisons Pope Alexander                                    tant princes.                                              Mary Stuart reigns in Scotland.                                      of Savoy defeated.
    1406 Albany, regent, in Scotland.                                  VII.                                                          First European Colony in South Amer-                          Religious wars in France.                                         Champlain's first expedition to the St.
    1407 France interdicted by the Pope.                             Henry sells the sovereignty of France.                             ica.                                              1562     Massacre of Protestants at Vassy.                                    Lawrence.
    1409 Council of Pisa.            Alexander V. made               Warbeck's insurrection; quelled in 1498.                        San Vincente founded.                                         Huguenots defeated at Dreux by Guise.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Russia and Sweden unite against Poland.                1603       Death of Queen Elizabeth; accession of
               Pope by council of Pisa.                              Spanish persecution of the Jews.                                Royal printing       press established in                                                                                          James IV., of Scotland, to English
    1410 Sigismund of Hungary becomes Emperor             1493
                                                          1          Treaty of Barcelona, between France                                France.                                                    Port Royal, Carolinas, founded by Hu-                                Crown, as James I.
               of Germany.                                             and Spain.                                                    Elliot's "Governor" issued.                                      guenots.                                                       Union of England and Scotland, March 4.
    1411 University of St. Andrews founded.                          League between Russia and Denmark.                              Death of Zwingle; born 1484.                         1563     Guise killed at the siege of Orleans.                             First settlements in Nova Scotia by
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Temporary peace with the Huguenots.                    1604
            Battle of Ilarlaw; the Lowland defeat                    Birth of Correggio, painter; died 1534.               1532      France annexes Brittany.                                                                                                            Acadians.
               the Highland Scots.                        1494
                                                          1          Charles VII. invades Italy and conquers                         Conquest of Peru begins.                                      The Eseurial Palace of Spain founded.                             Port Royal, on Bay of Fundy, founded.
    1412 Birth of Fra Filippo Lippi, painter.                          Naples.                                                       Calvin at Geneva.                                             Tusser's Bucolics issued.                                         Hampton Court Conference.
    1418 Henry V. crowned, March 21, King of                         Lollards persecuted in England.                       1533      Ivan I., Czar, noted for his cruelty.                         Birth of Drayton; died 1631.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Maximillian II. King of Germany.                       1605       Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot to blow
               England.                                   1495
                                                          1          Poynings' Act in Ireland.                                        Henry divorces Catherine, and marries               1564                                                                          up Parliament.
    1414 Council of Constance; Pope John XXIII.           1496
                                                          1          Naples lost to Charles.                                            Anne Boleyn.                                               Florida colonized by Huguenots.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Birth of Shakespeare; died 1616.                       1606       Great fire in Constantinople.
               deposed.                                              Spain accrues to Austria by the marriage                        Birth of Montague; died 1592.                                                                                                   Matins at Moscow.
            Sigismund, King of Bohemia, Emperor of                     of Philip I. with the heiress of Ara-                         The Hotel de Ville, Paris, founded.                           Birth of Galileo; died 1640.                                      Demetrius, a pretended son of Ivan, and
               Germany.                                                gon and Castile.                                    1534      The Anabaptist war; they capture Mun-                         The Tuileries, Paris, begun.                                          many Poles massacred.
     1415 Battle of Agincourt; 10,000 English, un-        1497
                                                          1          Cabot discovers Labrador, June 26; and                             ster.                                             1565      Philip establishes the Inquisition in Hol-                       Liberty of worship given to Protestants,
               der Henry V., defeat 50,000 French.                     surveys Hudson's Bay, July 3.                                  Henry VIII. is styled "Head of the                              land.                                                              in Austria, by peace of Vienna.
            John Huss and Jerome of Prague burned         1498
                                                          1          Louis XII. King of France.                                          Church"; authority of the Pope of                         Mary Queen of Scots marries Lord Darn-                            Australia observed by the Dutch.
                                                          1499       The French unite with Venice and seize                              Rome abolished in the kingdom.                                ley.
               at the stake, betrayed by Sigismund.       1                                                                                                                                          St. Augustine, Florida, founded by Mel-                         Silk and other manufactures introduced
     1416 The partisans of Huss take up arms;                           Milan.                                                        Carter's expedition to the Gulf of the                                                                                             into France.
                a severe war ensues.                                 Battle of Lepanto; victory of the Turks.                            St. Lawrence.                                                  endez.                                                       Mantua ceded to the Emperor of Austria.
                                                                     Mohammedans expelled from Spain.                                 Rebellion of Fitzgerald in Ireland.                 1566       Confederacy     of    "Guenx"    (beggars)
     1417 Cobham burnt.                                                                                                                                                                                 against Philip's cruelty.                                    Birth of Corneille; died 1684.
     1419 The Hussites take Prague.                                  Swiss Confederacy independent.                                   Foundation of Jesuit order.                                                                                         1607       Settlement of Jamestown, Va., by Lord
     1420 Paris captured by the English; Treaty                      Perkin Warbeck executed.                                         Comeggio died; born 1493.                                      Murder of Rizzio, by Darnley, March 9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Religious wars resumed in          France;                          de la Warr.
                of Troyes; Hlenry wins the French         1500
                                                          ]          Pinzon discovers Brazil, January 26.                  1535       Execution of Sir Thomas More, in Eng-               1567
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1608       Quebec founded by Champlain,
                                                                     Cabral, the Portuguese, lands in Brazil,                            land.                                                          Huguenots defeated at St. Denis.
                crown; birth of John Wessel.                                                                                                                                                         Alva enters the Netherlands.                                    John Sigismund created Elector of Bran-
     1422 Henry VI. proclaimed King of France                           May 3.                                                        Cartier's second      voyage,   enters and                                                                                         denburg and Duke of Prussia.
                and England.                              1501
                                                          3          Brasle and Schaffhausen join the Swiss                               names the St. Lawrence, ascends the                        Assassination of Darnley, Feb. 10; Mary
                                                                                                                                                                                                        accused of connivance.                                       Ulster settlements made by the English.
             Ottoman Empire reunited by Amurath II.                     Confederation.                                                   river as far as present site of Montreal.                                                                                   Birth of John Milton; died 1674.
                                                                     Negro slaves imported into Hispaniola.                           Mendoza founds Buenos Ayres, and con-                          Mary marries Brothwell, May 15; abdi-
     1423 James I. reigns in Scotland.                                                                                                                                                                  cates in favor of her son.                        1609       Truce of Antwerp;           independence of
     1425 War between Milan and Venice.                   1502
                                                          ]          Spanish Moors compelled to adopt Chris-                             quers adjacent country.                                                                                                          united provinces of Holland.
             The Paston Letters.                                        tianity.                                                      California supposed to have been discov-                       James VI., Earl of Murray, regent.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Mary escapes from prison, is defeated                           Moriscoes expelled     from Spain by Philip
     1429 Joan of Arc raises siege of Orleans, de-                   Columbus sails on his fourth voyage and                             ered by an expedition fitted out by              1568                                                                           III.
                feats the English at Patay, and drives                  discovers various isles on the coast of                          Cortez under Grijalva.                                         by Murray, at Langside, May 13, and                          The Douay Bible first issued.
                them from all their conquests in                        Honduras, and explores the coasts of                          Cromwell, vicar-general in England.                               seeks shelter in England.                                     Peace between Spain and the Dutch.
                France except Calais.                                   the islands; discovers and names Por-                         Suppression of monasteries in England.                         Bishop's Bible issued.                                           Henry Hudson discovers Hudson River.
             Charles VIII. King of France.                              to Bello, November 2.                                         Coverdale's Bible issued.                           1569       Huguenots defeated at Jarnac and Mou-                            Champlain's discoveries in Canada.
                                                          '1503      Reign of Montezuma in Mexico.                                    Mendoza erects the first Mexican mint.                            contour.
     1430 Henry VI. crowned at Paris, in Decem.                                                                                                                                           1570       Rebellion of Moriscoes, in Spain, put                           Virginia obtains a new charter.
                ber.                                                 Louis XII., of France, invades Spain.                 1536       Suppression of the Anabaptists, and                                                                                             Hawkins at Mogul Court.
             Amurath II. conquers Macedonia.                         Portuguese in India.                                                death of John of Leyden.                                       down.                                                        King James drives the Irish from Ul-
             Humphrey Duke of Gloucester.                            Birth of Wyatt; died 1542.                                       Anne Boleyn beheaded; Henry marries                            Ivan massacres 25,000 persons at Novgo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        rod, Russia.                                                      ster and divides the land between Eng-
             The Medici at Florence.                                 Birth of Mendoza, historian; died 1575.                             Jane Seymour.                                                                                                                   land and Scotland.
                                                           1504       Death of Queen Isabella of Spain.                               The Portuguese granted Macao, China.                           Hungary definitely annexed to Austria.
     1431 Joan of Arc burned at Rouen.                                                                                                                                                               Murray      murdered;     Lennox   becomes           1610       "King James' Version" of the Bible
     1433 Lisbon the capital of Portugal.                            Brazil explored by Americus Vespucius.                           The Boulevards, Paris, commenced.                                                                                                   completed.
                                                                      Columbus, worried by the machinations                1537       English suppression of the monasteries.                           regent.
             Council of Basle.                                                                                                                                                                       Birth of Kepler; died 1630.                                      Henry IV. of France assassinated; Marie
             Birth of Thomas Malory.                                     of his enemies, returns to Spain, No-                        Death of Jane Seymour.                              1571                                                                            de Medici Regent.
                                                                        vember 7.                                                     Pilgrimage of Grace.                                           Spain allied with Venice and the Pope
     1485 Treaty of Arras, between France and                                                                                                                                                           against the Turks.                                            Louis XIII. King of France.
                 Burgundy.                                 1505       Birth of John Knox; died 1572.                        1539      Adoption of the six articles, England.                                                                                          The Palais-Royal, Paris, built.
                                                           1506       Death of Columbus, May 20; he was                               First edition of Cromwell's Bible pub-                         Battle of Lepanto; Turkish power crip-
             Sicily and Naples united.                                                                                                                                                                  pled.                                             1611        The title of Baronet created by James I.
             End of Hussite wars.                                        treated with the basest ingratitude by                           lished.                                                                                                                     Champlain returns to America, founds
                                                                         the Spanish Government.                                      Cranmer's Anglican Liturgy.                                    Moscow, Russia, burned by the lartars.
             War of Turks with Venice.                                                                                                                                                               Lennox murdered; Mar becomes regent.                                 Montreal, and is in supreme command
     1436 Invention of Printing by Guttenberg.                        Buchanan born; died 1582.                            1540       Execution of Cromwell.                                                                                                              in Canada.
                                                                      Rule of Charles V., of Spain, in Hol-                           Greece subjected to the Ottoman Em-                 1572       Rebellion   of William of   Orange against
     1437 James I., of Scotland, murdered.                                                                                                                                                          Philip's tyranny.                                                 Issue of the English Bible, "King James'
             James II. becomes King.                                     land.                                                            pire.                                                                                                                           Version."
                                                                      Birth of Francis Xavier; died 1552.                             Henry VIII. marries Annie of Cleves,                       Massacre of St. Bartholomew, France,
             Albert V., Duke of Austria, obtains Bo-                                                                                                                                                August 24.                                                        Carr, afterwards Somerset, favorite In
                 hernia and Hlungary, and is made Em-                 Yucatan discovered by Solis and Pinzon.                             January 6; divorced July 9; marries                                                                                             England.
                                                           1508      League of Cambray, between Louis XII.                                Catherine Howard, August 8.                             Henry of Navarre marries Marguerite,
                 peror of Germany.                                                                                                                                                                  of Valois.                                            1612        Mathias becomes Emperor of Germany.
     1438 University of Florence founded.                                and Maximillian, against Venice.                             James V., of Scotland, dies.                                                                                                    English factories established in India.
                                                           1509       Henry VIII. King of England; he mar-                            Mary proclaimed Queen of Scots; re-                        Birth of Inigo Jones; died 1652.                                     Virginia receives a third charter.
             The Pragmatic Sanction; Albert V., of                                                                                                                                                Accession of Henry III., of France, the
                 Austria, becomes Emperor of Ger-                        ries Catherine of Aragon.                                        gency of Cardinal Beaton.                       1574                                                                        Death of Prince Henry.
                                                                      Venice stripped of its Italian possessions.                     Birth of Gascoigne; died 1577.                                 last of the Valois.
                 many.                                                                                                                                                                            Birth of Ben Jonson; died 1637.                         1613        Accession of the Romanoff Dynasty in
     1A89 Council of Florence.                             1510       Russia again invaded by Tartars.                                Birth of Gilbert (magnetism) ; died 1603.                                                                                           Russia.
             Title of Emperor limited to the Aus-                     Execution of Dudley and Empson.                                 Orellana sails down the Amazon to the               1575 Elizabeth, of England, declines the sov-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ereignty of Holland.                                             Michael Fedorvoitz Czar.
                 trian Hapsburgs.                                     Ojedo founds San Sebastian.                                       sea.                                                                                                                          Champlain explores the Ottawa River,
                                                           1511       Pope Julius II. forms the Holy League                 1541   Great Tartar invasion of Russia repelled.                      Birth of Guido Reni, painter; died 1642.                                Canada.
      1442 Battle of Vasag; Turks routed by Hun-                                                                                                                                          1576 Ghent pacified.
                 garians.                                                 with Ferdinand and Venice.                               De Soto discovers the Mississippi River.                                                                                           The Overbury murder, England.
                                                                      Velasquez subdues Cuba.                               1542 Catherine Howard executed.                                       Provinces in Holland unite against
      1443 Battle of Nissa; Turks again defeated.                                                                                                                                                    Spain.                                                           Louis XIII. assumes the exercise of the
      1445 Birth of Leonardo da Vinci.                     1512       Selim I. made King of Turkey by Janis-                       Henry VIII. takes the title of King of                                                                                                  Government.
             The Arabian Knights issued (?).                           saries.                                                        Ireland.                                                    Accession of Rudolph II., of Germany.                                Princess Elizabeth, of England, marries
                                                                Ponce de Leon discovers the Florida                                Roberval's expedition to the St. Law-                          Frobisher enters San Francisco Bay.
      1447 Nicholas V. Pope.                                                                                                                                                                      The Holy Catholic League organized.                                      Frederic, Elector of Palatine.
             Duke of Gloucester murdered.                         coast.                                                              rence.                                                                                                              1614         English defeat Portuguese in Bombay.
                                                                Birth of Vasari, painter; died 1571.                        1543 Ivan IV., the Terrible, reigns, at the age               1576 Birth of Burton; died 1640.
      1449 The Cforzas at Milan.                                                                                                                                                                  Birth of Flether; died 1625.                                        New Amsterdam, now New York, built
             Alphonso V. at Aragon.                             Birth of Tintoretto, painter; died 1594.                              of fourteen.                                                                                                                        by the Dutch.
                                                                Navarre annexed to Spain.                                          Henry VIII. marries Catherine Parr.                     1577 Birth of Rubens, painter; died 1626.
             Peacock's "Represser."                                                                                                                                                        1579 League of Utrecht.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Smith explores the New England coast
      1450 Jack Cade's insurrection.                       1513 England invades France.                                            Death of Copernicus; born 1473.                                                                                                     Dutch settlements in New Jersey.
                                                                Battle of Guinegate or Spurs; French                        1544 Grison League joins Swiss Confederacy.                            Northern provinces of Holland declare
             Early English Ballads.                                                                                                                                                                  their independence.                                               Napier's Logarithms.
             Birth of Dunoar; died 1530.                          defeat.                                                          France at war with England and Spain.                                                                                  1615         Villier's Duke of Buckingham, favorite.
                                                                Scotland invades England.                                          English invasion of France under Henry                          Fitzgerald's Irish rebellion suppressed.
      1451 University of Glasgow founded.                                                                                                                                                          Sir Francis Drake lands in the Moluccas.               1616        The present TEing Dynasty in China es-
      1452 Earl Douglas murdered by James II.                   Battle of Flodden Field; Scots defeated.                              VIII.                                                                                                                                tablished by Mantchou Tartra.
                                                                Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Darien,                              Birth of Tasso; died 1595.                               ss1580 Alva, of Spain, conquers Portugal; the
             The Archlduchy of Austria created, with                                                                                                                                                 united provinces renounce their alle-                             Death of Cervantes and Shakespeare.
                 sovereign power, by Frederick III.               and discovers the Pacific ocean.                                 University of Konigsberg founded by                                                                                                 Harvey discovers circulation of blood.
                                                                Leo X., Pope, encourages literature and                               Duke Albert.                                                   giance.
      1453 Constantinople captured by Mohammed                                                                                                                                                     English take fortress of Smerwick, in                   1617       Ladislaus, of Poland, marches on Mos-
                  II. ; end of the Eastern Empire.                the arts.                                                 1545 Ivan IV. crowned by the Patriarch.
                                                           1514 Wolsey's power begins in England.                                  Pope Paul III. erects Parma and Pla-                              Ireland, from Italians, and butcher 700                            cow.
              End of the French and English wars.                                                                                                                                                    prisoners.                                                       Finland ceded to Sweden.
              The Mazarin Bible issued.                    1515 Battle of Marignano.                                                  centia into a Duchy.                                                                                                1618        The thirty years' war begins in Bohemia,
                                                                Francis I. defeats the Italians, Swiss and                         Ascham "Toxophilus."                                            Birth of Alexander, of Sterling; died
      1455-'71 War of the Roses, between Henry VI.                                                                                                                                                    1640.                                                              between the Protestants, under the
                  and the Duke of York, afterwards Ed-                  Germans.                                                   Council of Trent.                                                                                                                     Elector Palatine, and the Catholic Ba-
                                                                      Maximillian       I. secures       the   Hungarian     1546 Death of Martin Luther.                                  1581 Campian's Jesuit conspiracy suppremssed.
                  ward IV.                                                                                                                                                                 1582 Sante Fe, New Mexico, founded by Es-                                    varian League.
              Battle of St. Albans.                                     succession.                                                 France concludes peace with England.                                                                                              Sir Walter Raleigh executed.
                                                                      Francis I. becomes King of France.                           Assassination of Beaton, regent of Scot-                           pejo.
       1456 Battle of Belgrade; Turks repulsed by                                                                                                                                          1588 Birth of Hugo Grotius; died 1645.                                     Matthias II., of Hungary, abdicates; ac-
                  Hungarians.                                         First English prose history.                                    land.                                                                                                                              cession of Ferdinand II.
                                                                      Birth of St. Theresa; died 1582.                       1546-'52 Charles V., of Germany, makes war                    1584 William of Orange assassinated.
       1457 Frederick III. divides Austria with his                                                                                                                                                Henry      III. killed by Jacques Clement:                         Australian coast surveyed by Zeache
                  relatives.                                  1516    Death of Ferdinand, King of Spain.                               on the Protestants, who are assisted                                                                                              and others.
                                                                      Rule of Cardinal Ximenes.                                       later by Henry II.                                              accession of Henry IV., of Navarre,
       1458 Pius II. Pope at Rome.                                                                                                                                                                    first of Bourbon line.                                          Kepler's Laws published.
       1460 Birth of Skelton; died 1528.                              Charles I. King of Spain.                              1547 Earl of Surrey, England, executed.                                                                                       1619       Execution of Barneveldt, Holland.
                                                                      Accession of the House of Austria.                            Death of Henry VIII.                                           Expedition of Amidas and Barlow to
              The Turks conquer Greece.                                                                                                                                                               America.                                                        The Dutch visit India and establish a
       1461 Edward IV. deposes Henry VI. of Eng-                      Turks gain Egypt.                                             Edward VI. reigns under protectorship                                                                                                united East India Company.
                                                              15177   Europeans first obtain a footing in China.                       of the Duke of Somerset.                             1585 Southern provinces of Holland subdued
                  land.                                                                                                             Henry II. King of France.                                         by the Duke of Parma.                                   1620    Battle of Prague; defeat of Hungaria
              Louis XI. King of France.                               Selim I. defeats Mamelukes and adds                                                                                                                                                                Protestants.
                                                                          Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.                              Battle of Pinkey.                                              Treaty of Peace between Holland and
       1462 Ivan, the Great, of Russia, founds the                                                                                  Death of Victoria Colonna; born 14                                   England.                                                     Puritans arrive at Plymouth.
                   modern Russian Empire.                             Luther begins the work of reformation                                                                                                                                                           "Great Patent" to Virginia company ib.
                                                                          in Germany.                                               The Smalcadic war.                                            Failure of Raleigh's Roanoke Island set-
       1463 Turkish war with Venice.                                                                                                Birth of Cervantes; died 1616                                   tlements.                                                            sued.
              Close of Austria's war with Frederick                    Fernando de Cordova discovers the Mex-                                                                                                                                                         Dutch vessels with first negro olavm
                                                                          ican coast.                                        1548 Hall's Chronicle issued.                                        Davis Strait discovered by Davis.
                   III.                                                                                                                                                                     1586 Battle of Zutphen.                                                      enter James River.
       1464 "League of the Public Good," formed by                     Luther translates and publishes the Bible             1549 Execution of Lord Seymour, England;                                                                                                 Navarre annexed to France.
                                                                          and Liturgy in German.                                       arrest of his brother, the Duke of Som-                    Sir Philip Sydney killed.
                   the nobles, against Louis.                                                                                          erset.                                                     Birth of Beaumont; died 1616.                               1621    Spain and Holland at War.
        1467 Birth of Erasmus; died 1536.                              Birth of Surrey; died 1547.                                                                                                                                                                     Philip IV. King of Spain.
                                                              15118    Grijalva penetrates into Yucatan, and                 1550 John Knox's Scotch reformation.                           15877 Prince Maurice becomes Stadtholder of
        1468 The Coventary mysteries.                                                                                                                                                                Holland.                                                         The Dutch West India Company formed.
        1470-'92 Lorenzo de Medici flourished.                            names it New Spain.                                       Udal, earliest English comedy.                                                                                                     Lord Bacon impeached and overthrown.
                                                                                                                                    Birth of Coke; died 1634.                                         Execution of    Mary   Queen   of   Scots at
        1471 League of Italian cities against the             15199    Cortez lands in Mexico.                                                                                                    Frotheringay Castle.                                        1622     Seldom and Pym imprisoned.
                   Turks.                                              Charles I., of Spain, elected Emperor of               1551 Wilson's Art of Rhetoric published.                                                                                                 Birth of Moliere; died 1673.
                                                                           Germany as Charles V.                             1552 The Book of Common Prayer published                       1588 Assassination of the Duke of Guise and
               William Caxton establishes first English                                                                                 in Engla nd.                                               his brother, by order of the King.                         1623     New Hampshire first settled.
                   pnnting-press.                             152(0    "Field of the Cloth of Gold" meeting of                                                                                                                                                         First edition of Shakespeare's workt
                                                                           Francis I. with Henry VIII.                              Duke of Somerset beheaded.                                   Destruction of the Spanish Armada off
               Battle of Tewkesbury.                                                                                                Metz successfully' defended by the Duk                         the English coast.                                         1624     Richelieu's reforms, begins with tU
               Warwick, king-maker.                                    Balboa       passes  through    Magellen's                                                                                                                                                         finances.
                                                                           Straits.                                                     of Guise.                                              0
                                                                                                                                                                                            1590       Battle of Ivry.
               Birth of Durer, painter; died 1528.                                                                                  Close of religious war in Germany by                               Henry IV. defeats the League.                                   England declares war with Spain.
        1478 Birth of Copernicus.                                1
                                                              152:     Battle of Razau; Russia defeats Poland.                                                                                         Barnevaldt, grand Pensionary of         Hol-           1625     Prince Frederick Henry reigns in Hol
               Birth of Michael Angelo, architect and                  Martin Luther excommunicated at the                             the Peace of Passan.                                                                                                               land.
                                                                           Diet of Worms.                                           Massacre of Cazan, Russia.                                           land.
                   sculptor; died 1556.                                                                                              Birth of Sir Walter Raleigh; died 1618                 1591     Birth of Herrick; died 1674,                                       Accession of Ferdinand III., of Hungary.
        1474 Birth of Ariosto; died 1533.                              Conquest of Mexico by Cortez.                                                                                                                                                                    Accession of King Charles I., of Eng&
                                                                        Henry VIII., styled the "Defender of the              1553 Mary Tudor, daughter of Catherine o                      1592     Sigismund, of Poland, in Sweden.
                Ferdinand II., of Aragon, marries Isa-                                                                                  Aragon, succeeds Edward, July 6.                             Birth of Quarleas; died 1644.                                        land; he marries Princes Henrita
                    bella, of Leon and Castile.                            Faith" by the Pope.                                                                                                                                                                            Maria, of France.
                                                                        France and Spain at war.                                     Lady Jane Gray proclaimed Queen e                               Birth of Gassendi; died 1655.
        1475 Edward IV. invades France.                                                                                                 England, July 10, but relinquishes th               159 )3 Henry IV. adopts the Catholic faith.                                 Huguenot uprising.
                Ivan introduces cannon and firearms           152 2     Cortez made governor of Mexico by                                                                                                                                                     1626      Death of Lord Bacon.
                                                                           Charles V.                                                   title.                                              159 *4 Birth of Shirley; died 1666.
                    into Russia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  hi Birth of Shirley; died 1666.
                                                                           ChresV                                                                                                     -

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                                                                                                                                                       SUPPLEMENT       XIV.
                                                                                                                                                            SUPPLEMENT        XIV.
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                                                                                                     ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL' AND MODERN HISTORY.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -                                    0 l

                                              -   An:!                                                                                                                                                                                                 l

                                                                 1656  Jamaica conquered.
                                                                                                                         I                                                                         Treaty of Utrecht between the great
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       I    1746    Total defeat of the Pretender, at Cullo-
     1627    War of the Mantuan succession, in Italy.                                                                                   French and Indians ravage New England                 1713
             Delaware settled by Swedes and Finns.               1657 Convention gives Cromwell power to ap-                                frontier.                                                 powers, and terminates the wars of                               den, April 16.
             Cardinal Richelieu's scheme for coloniz-                    point his successor.                                           Canadian expedition fails.                                    Queen Anne.                                                   Victories of Marshal Saxe.
               ing Canada.                                            Death of Admiral Blake.                                           The Toleration Act passes Parliament.                      Newfoundland and Nova Scotia ceded to                            Invasion of      Shirley, Nova Scotia.
             The company of one hundred associates               1658 Accession of Leopold I. in Germany.                               Iroquois lay waste the Island of Mon-                         England.                                                      French and English struggle for poe-
               formed.                                                Death of Oliver Cromwell; Richard                                    treal.                                                  Italy divided; a part of the Duchy of                               session of India.
             War between England and France.                             Cromwell, his son, succeeds him.                               Frontenac again made Governor of Can-                         Milan given to the Emperor of Austria.                        Capture of Madras by the French.
             Birth of Brossnet; died 1704.                       1C59 Auto de fa, of the Inquisition, Mexico.                              ada.                                                    Barcelona, Spain, besieged.                              1747    The French invade Flanders.
     1628    The Duke of Buckingham assassinated.                     Richard Cromwell resigns title of Lord                            France at war with England.                                Frederick William I. becomes King of                             Statdholdership revived in Holland.
             Rochelle surrenders after a memorable                       Protector.                                                     Birth of Montesquieu; died 1755.                              Prussia.                                                      Execution of Lord Lovat in England.
               siege.                                                 Peace of the Pyrenees.                                 1690       French and Indians destroy Schenectady,                    Peter takes the title of Emperor of Rus-                         Klopstoek's Messiah issued.
             Petition of Right, England.                         1660 The restoration.                                                      New York.                                                 sia.                                                          Birth of David, painter; died 1825.
             Massachusetts Bay settled.                               Charles II. returns to England; the mon-                          Massacre of Salmon Falls.                                  Birth of Sterne; died 1768.                              1748    The Peace of Aix la Chapelle.
             Elliot sent to the Tower of London.                         archy re-established.                                          Siege of Londonderry.                                 1714 Death of Queen Anne.                                             The House of Austria confirmed          the
             Birth of John Bunyan; died 1688.                         Birth of Stahl; died 1734.                                        British colonies in America resolve to                     George I. becomes King of England,                                  possession of Milan.
     1629    English seize French possessions in Can-            1661 Death of Mazarin.                                                     invade Canada.                                            Aug. 1.                                                       France takes a part of Flanders.
               ada.                                                   Colbert, Minister of Finance, iR France.                          Unsuccessful attack made on Quebec by                       Hanovarian succession begins.                           1749    De La Jouquille becomes governor of
             Champlain made prisoner and sent to                      Execution of the Marquis of Argyle, in                               the British fleet.                                      Treaty of Rastadt; Austria acquires the                             Canada.
               England.                                                  Scotland.                                                      Spain joins the "Grand Alliance" against                      Netherlands.                                                  French encroach upon Nova Scotia.
             Charter granted to Massachusetts Bay                     Birth of De Foe; died 1731.                                           France.                                                Birth of Whitefleld; died 1770.                                  Birth of Goethe; died 1832.
               Company.                                               The Royal Palace at Versailles com-                               William III. lands in Ireland, June 10.                    Birth of Gluck ; died 17S7.                                      Birth of Laplace; died 1827.
             Edict of Restitution.                                        menced; court opened there in 1672.                           Battle of the Boyne, July 1; James de-                1715 Rebellion in Scotland under the Earl of                          Birth of Playfair; died -
     16S0    The city of Boston founded.                         1662 Terrible earthquake in Pekin; 300,000                                 feated.                                                   Mar.                                                  1750    Treaty of Madrid, between England and
             Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, in-                      lives lost.                                         1691       French invasion of Spain.                                  Battles of Preston and Sheriffmuir and                              Spain.
               vades Germany.                                         Act of Uniformity, May 19.                                        Aragon and Catalonia ravaged.                                 defeat of the rebels.                                         The first theater in New York opened.
     1631    Treaty of Cherasco, between Louis of                     The Church of England restored.                                   Treaty of Limerick deprives James of                       Landing of the Chevilier at Peterhead,                           Discovery of Pompeii.
                France and Victor Amadeus I., of Sa-                  Charles marries Catherine of Braganza,                                power in Ireland, and grants amnesty                      December 22.                                                  Paoli's Corsicean revolt, 1819.
               voy.                                                      May 20.                                                            to rebels.                                             Louis XV., King of France, with the                      1751    Lord Clive takes Arcot, India.
             Birth of Dryden; died 1700.                         1GCe3Canada becomes a royal government un-                  1692       Beginning of the English national debt.                       Duke of Orleans Regent.                                       Diderot and D'Alembert French Encyclo-
     1632    Charter of Maryland granted to Lord                         der Louis XIV.                                                 Insurrection in the City of Mexico.                        Austria acquires Naples, Milan, etc.                                pedic.
                Baltimore, and settled by Irish Cath-                 Earthquake in Canada.                                             Massacre of Gleneoe.                                       Russia adds Esthonia, Levonia, and a                             Birth of Sheridan; died 1817.
                olics.                                                Birth of Cotton Mather; died 1728.                                Battles in Steinkirk and Landen.                              large part of Finland to the Empire.                          Birth of James Madison; died 1836.
             Canada restored to the French by treaty             1664 France begins war with Hlolland.                                  Birth of Bradley; died 1762.                               Peter visits Germany,        Holland and                 1752    The Marquis Duquesne Governor of Can-
                of St. Germain.                                       New Jersey sold to Lord Berkeley; set-                 1693       Battle of Marsaglia; the Duke of Savoy                        France.                                                          ada; he prepares for war with Great
             The Cavalier Poets.                                          tled at Elizabethtown.                                            defeated by the French utinder Catinat.                Occupation of the Morea by Turkey.                                  Britain and her colonies.
             Birth of Lock; died 1704.                                The English take New Amsterdam and                     1694       Bank of England established.                               Rule of Cardinal Alberoni in Spain.                              The French dispute the claim of Virginia
     1633    Champlain returns to Canada with new                        name it New York.                                              Mary, Queen of England, dies.                              Prussia and Sweden at war.                                          to the valley of the Ohio.
                settlers.                                             North Carolina settled.                                           Dictionary of French Academy issued.                       Death of Louis the Great; accession of                           New style of year introduced into Eng-
             Battle of Lutzen; victory and death of                   De Courcelles governor in Canada.                                 University of Halle founded.                                  Louis XV., his grandson.                                          land; Sept. 3 counted as Sept. 14.
                Gustavus Adolphus.                                    War with the Mohawks.                                             Birth of Bishop Butler; died 1752.                    1716 Great era of speculation.                                        The Journals ordered to be printed by
     1634    French Academy established by Riche-                1665 Second Dutch war with England.                                    Birth of Voltaire; died 1778.                              George Law's financial schemes.                                     the British Parliament.
                lieu.                                                 Death of Philip II.; regency of Anne.                             Birth of Chesterfield; died 1773.                          The village charter of Brooklyn first issued.            1753    Hostilities begin in the American colo-
             Spain at war with France, which is in-                   The Great Plagule in London.                           1G95       Turks again invade Hungary.                                The Septennial Bill passed in England.                               nies; French seize Hudson Bay Com-
                vaded.                                                Western Australia named New Holland,                              Bayle's Dictionary published.                              Birth of Garrick, actor; died 1779.                                 pany's trading posts; George Washing-
             Assassination of Wallenstein.                               by Dutch.                                                      Abolition of censorship of the English                1717 New Orleans founded.                                                 ton sent to St. Pierre.
             Ship money levied in England.                            Canada granted to French West India                                   press.                                                 Belgrade abandoned by Turkey.                                      Charles III. King of Spain.
     1635    Connecticut       settlements    at    Hartford,             Company.                                                      Naimur falls.                                         1718 The Duke of Savoy becomes King of                        1754    Kentucky settled by Daniel Boone.
                Windsor and Weathersfield.                       1666 De Ruyter defeated by Monk.                            1¢96       Trinity Chureh, New York, founded.                                 Sardinia.                                                Peace between France and England in
             Rogers Williams driven from Massachu-                    Mohawk        villages   destroyed by  the             1697       Peace of Ryswick.                                             Peace of Passavowitz.                                           India.
                setts, settles in Rhode Island.                           French.                                                       Treaty between England, France, Spain                         Austria gains additional territory.                           Fort Necessity built at Great Meadows;
             Death of Champlain.                                      Great fire in London.                                                 and Holland.                                              fussia expels the Jesuits.                                      Washington surrenders it to De Vil-
             The "Tulip mania" prevails in Holland.                   The French Academy of Sciences found-                             Peter, Czar of Russia, visits Holland and                     Turkey        re-establishes   supremacy   in                   liere with honors of war.
     1636    University of Utrecht founded.                              ed.                                                                England, and learns useful trades.                           Greece.                                                    Kings, now Columbia, College, New York,
             Claius' play of Creation.                           1667 Perpetual edict abolishes office of stadt-                        Peter suppresses the conspiracy of the                        Arch of St. Denis, Paris, completed.                            chartered.
     1637    Pequod Indian war in Connecticut.                            holder in Holland.                                                Strelitz, and punishes its members with           1719    Battle of Glenshiel.                                  1755    Braddock and his army defeated by the
             Gov. De Montmagny arrives in Canada.                     First Russian vessel built.                                           barbarous cruelty.                                        Ostend East India Company founded.                              French and Indians.
             The Island of Montreal settled.                          Birth of Swift; died 1745.                                        End of King William's war.                                    Mohammed Shah ascends the throne of                           Defeat of Dieskau at Lake George.
             Hampden's trial in England respecting                    New York City; 384 houses.                                        Birth of Hogarth, painter; died 1774.                            India.                                                     French Acadians taken from their homes.
                "ship money."                                    1668 Triple Alliance; England, Holland and                      1698   Death of Fronteinac.                                          Robinson Crusoe published.                                    Frontier settlements in New York and
             Prynne fined by Star Chamber.                               Sweden united against France.                                  First Partition treaty, regulates Spanish             1720    Sardinia is made a kingdom,                                     Pennsylvania harassed by the French
             Harvard College founded.                                 Treaty of Lisbon.                                                     succession,   and cedes territory to                      Law's Mississippi South Sea Bubble, and                         and Indians.
             First      settlement     at   Brooklyn,    Long         Spain recognizes Portugal's independ-                                 France.                                                      other schemes, collapse.                                   Niagara expedition fails.
                Island.                                                    ence.                                                        The Darien expedition sails.                                  Widespread financial distress.                                Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake.
     1688    New Haven colony founded.                                   Russian ambassador sent to France and                          Second East India Company formed.                     1721    Birth of Smollet; died 1771.                                  Birth of Dr. Hahnemann; died 1843.
             First peace between the Iroquois and                          Spain.                                                       Birth of Savage; died 1743.                                   Birth of Foote, actor; died 1777.                             Birth of Mrs. Siddons, actress; died 1831.
                Canada.                                          1670    France and Sweden break the triple                             Birth of Warburton; died 1779.                        1722    The Pragmatic Sanction settles the Im-                1756    War   declared between        France and     Eng-
             Turks defeat Persians, and take Bagdad.                       Alliance, and declare war against IHol- 1699                 Peace of Carlowitz, between Turks and                            perial Crown of Germany on Maria                              land.
             Solemn League and Covenant between                            land.                                                            the Allies.                                                  Theresa.                                                   Beginning of the Seven Years' War.
                England and Scotland.                                    First settlements of English in South                          The Morea ceded to Venice.                                    Death of the Duke of Marlborough.                             Austria, Russia and France allied against
     1639    Van Tromp, of Holland, captures two                           Carolina.                                                    Further explorations of the Mississippi.              1723    The Jesuits expelled from China.                                 Prussia.
                Spanish fleets.                                          Champs Elysees, Paris, planted.                                Fenelon's "Telemaque" issued.                                 Birth of Reynolds, painter; died 1792.                        Frederick invades Saxony and captures
             Pacification of Dunse.                              1671    Birth of Steele; died 1729.               1700                 The French in Canada make peace with                          Birth of Adam Smith; died 1790.                                  Saxon army.
             Withdrawal of English army from Scot-               1672    Coude and Turenne overrun Holland.                                 the Iroquois.                                             Birth of Blackstone, jurist: died 1780.                       Montcalm sent to Canada and seizes Os-
                land.                                                    Perpetual edict of 1667 revoked.                               Second Partition treaty in Spain, declares            1724    Philip V., of Spain, abdicates, but re-                          wego, New York.
             First printing press in America.                            William of Orange, stadtholder.                                    the Arch Duke Charles next in suc-                           sumes power upon the death of Louis,                       The conquest of India begun by Great
             Birth of Racine; died 1699.                                 The De Witts assassinated in Holland.                            cession.                                                       his son.                                                      Britain.
     1640    John of Braganza drives Spaniards from                      The Holland dikes opened, and French                           Charles II., of Spain, the last of the                        "Wood's half-pence."                                          Admiral Byng executed, March 14.
                Portugal.                                                  driven out.                                                    House of Austria, dies, and is suc-                         Great excitement in Ireland.                                  Dowlah, Viceroy of Bengal, captures Cal-
             Portugal wins its independence.                             The French acquire Pondicherry, India.                           ceeded by Philip V., of the House of                        Modern History at Oxford University.                             cutta after a heroic defense by Holwell.
             Beginning of the Long Parliament.                           Count de Frontenac, Governor of Can-                             Bourbon.                                                    Guy's Hospital founded.                                       The Black Hole tragedy, June 20.
             First American book issued.                                   ada.                                    1701                 War of the Spanish successlon begins in               1725    Death of Peter the Great.                              1757   Fort William Henry, on Lake George,
     1641    Earl of Stafford beheaded.                                                                                                   Italy and continues until 1713.                             Catherine I. becomes Empress of Russia.                          captured by Montcalm.
                                                                         Paris Academy of Music founded.                                                                                                                                                            Lord Clive's victories in India; takes
             Judgment against Hampden annulled.                          Birth of Addison; died 1719.                                   Death of James II., in exile, at St. Ger-                     The New York Gazette founded.
             Ulster rebellion in Ireland; massacre of                                                                                     main, Sept. 16.                                             Academy of Seiences, St. Petersburg, es-                          Calcutta, January 2; Chanderuagore,
                                                                 1673    Virginia granted to Arlington and Cul-                         Spain allied with France and Mantua.                                                                                           March 23.
                 English.                                                  pepper.                                                                                                                       tablished.
             Fort St. George built at Madras.                                                                                           The French found Detroit.                             1726    Prussia concludes a league with Ger-                          Battle of Plassey, June 23, establishes
     1642    Death of Galileo and Richelieu.                             Discoveries of Marquette and Joliet in                         The Prussian monarchy established by                             many.                                                          English power in India.
             Charles I. attempts to seize members in                        the northwest.                                                Frederick, and recognized by Leopold,                       Birth of Hutton; died 1797.                                   Battle of the Prague, May 6, victory of
                 the House.                                      1674    Death of the poet John Milton.                                   of Gemtany.                                         1727     Death of George I., and accession of                             Frederick.
             Civil war in England.                                       Discovery of the Mississippi.                                 Russia at war with Sweden.                                        George II., in England, June 11.                           Frederick defeated in the battle ot KEo-
             Battle of Edgehill, Oct. 23.                        1675    King Philip's war in New England.                             Total defeat of Peter at the battle of                          Death of Sir Isaac, Newton.                                      lin, May 18.
             Tasman coasts, South Australia and Van                      Birth of Clarke; died 1729.                                      Narva, by Charles XII.                              1728    Birth of Goldsmith; died 1774.                                Defeat of Prussians at Battle of Breslau.
                 Diemans Land explored.                          1677    William of Orange marries Mary.                               Census of New York gave 6,000 inhabit-                 1729     A citv library founded in New York.                          Austria concludes treaty with France for
             Hobb's Leviathan published.                                 "Paradise Lost" first published.                                 ants.                                                       Birth'of Lessihg; died 1781.                                      division of Prussia.
             Birth of Newton; died 1727.                         1678    Russia begins war with the Turks.         1702                Death of William III. of England.                      1730     Peter II., the last of the Romanoffs, de-                    Victory of Frederick in the battles of
             First      ferry   between     New York       and           Peace of Nimeguen, France.                                    Anne succeeds to the English throne,                               posed.                                                          Rosbach, Nov. 5, and Lissa, Dec. 5.
                 Brooklyn established.                                   England alarmed by Titus Oates, stories                          March 8.                                                     Anne, Duchess of Courland and daughter                       Attempted assassination of King Louis of
     1648    Accession of Louis XIV., the Great, in                        of a false "Popish plot."                                   Beginning of "Queen Anne's War."                                  of Ivan IV., becomes Empress of Rus-                           France by Damiens.
                 France.                                                 Sir Edward Berry Godfrey found mur-                           Prussia takes Cuelders from the Dutch.                            sia.                                                       Birth of Jonathan Trumbull; died 1804.
             Regency of Anne of Austria, and ascend-                        dered.                                                     Holland, Austria and England declare                           Birth of J. Watt; died 1819.                                  Birth of Alexander Hamilton; died 1804.
                 ency of Mazarin.                                        Expedition of La Salle.                                          war with France and Spain.                          1731     Birth of Cavendish; died 1810.                               Birth of J. P. Kemble, actor; died 1823.
             Battle of Chalgrove, June 18, and New-                      Bunvan's "Pilgrim's Progress" published.                      Treaty of French with the Five Nations.                         Birth of Cowper; died 1800.                                  Birth of Canova, sculptor; died 1822.      4
                 bury, Sept. 20.                                         Birth of Bolinbroke; died 1751.                               Massachusetts frontier ravaged by In-                  1732    Birth of George Washington, Feby. 22.                 1758    Louisburg captured by the English, un-
             Covenant approved by Parliament.                    1679    Habeas Corpus Act passes parliament.                             dians.                                              1733     Georgia settled by Oglethorpe.                                   der Wolfte.
             Turrene on the Rhine.                                       Archbishop Sharpe murdered by cove-       1703                Peter founds St. Petersburgh, and makes                         Birth of Wieland; died 1813.                                 Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward's
             Torricelli's Barometer.                                        nanters, who defeat Cloverhouse at                            it the capital of the empire.                       1734     "Lettres Philosophiques" burnt by the                            Island captured.
     1644    Battle of Marston Moor;              victory of                London Hill, but are routed at Both-                       Portugal joins alliance against Spain and                          hangman.                                                  Abercrombie defeated by Montcalm, at
                 Cromwell.                                                  well Bridge.                                                  France.                                                      Birth of Priestly; died 1804.                                    Ticonderoga.
             Second battle of Newbury, Oct. 27.                  1680    East India Company begins trading in                          Irish parliament petitions for union.                  1735     Charles, the son of Philip V., conquers                      Fort Frontenac capitulates to Bradstreet;
             Charter granted to Rhode Island.                               China.                                                     Birth of Jonathan Edwards; died 1758.                              Naples and crowned king of the two                            Fort George built.
             Indian massacre in Virginia.                                 Execution of Lord Stafford, Dec. 29.                         Birth of John Wesley; died 1794.                                   Sicilies.                                                 General Forbes captures Fort Duquesne
             Self-denying ordinance, England.                             Mississippi river explored by Hlennepin.  1704               Battle of Blenheim; English and their                           Birth of John Adams; died 1826.                                  from the French.
             Birth of William Penn; died 1718.                           Charleston, South Carolina, founded.                             allies, under Marlborough, victorious               1736     Marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis I.,                     Prussians defeated at the Battle of Hoch-
     1645    Archbishop Land beheaded, Jan. 10.                          The Exclusion Bill, England.                                     over the French.                                                Duke of Lorraine.                                             kerchau.
             Battle of Naseby, June 14; decisive de-                      Origin of the Whig and Tory.                                 The English capture Gibraltar.                                  War between Spain and Portugal.                              The French seize Forts St. David and
                  feat of royalists.                                     Mahratta power begins in India.                               Peter abolishes the Strelitz, or royal                          Birth of Mozart, musician; died 1792.                            Ascot, India.
             Battle of Philiphaugh; Montrose defeat-             1681    La Salle sails down the Mississippi, and                         body guard.                                         1737     Hungary again at war with the Turks.                 17,59   Fort Niagara captured by the British,
                  ed by Cromwell.                                           names Louisiana.                                           England passes the Irish "Popery Act."                          Birth of Gibbon, historian; died 1794.                           July 23.
             Alexis, called the Father of his country,                    De Frontenac recalled from Canada.                           Battle of Donanwerth.                                  1738     Birth of Benjamin West, painter; died                        The French abandon Ticonderoga and
                  Czar of Russia.                                        Reign of Ivan and Peter I., the Great,     1705               Charles acknowledged King of Spain at                              1820.                                                          Crown Point.
             Royal Society of England founded.                               in Russia.                                                   Barcelona.                                                                                                                 Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Birth of Sir William Herschel; died 1822.                     Death of the French and English cornm-
     1646    Charles I. seeks refuge in Scotland, and                     Murder of La Salle, in Louisiana.                            Joseph I. becomes Emperor of Germany.                  1739     England again declares war with Spain.
                  is surrendered to the Parliament.                      The Cossacks subdued by Russia.            1706               Defeat of the French at Ramilles.                                                                                                manders, Montcalm and Wolfe, Sept. IS.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Treaty of Belgrade between Russia, Aus-                       Quebec surrenders to the English.
             Birth of Leibnitz; died 1716.                       1682    William Pernn settles in Pennsylvania.                        Battle of Turin.                                                   tria and Turkey.
              Conversion of Indians in Canada to Chris-                   Delaware granted to Penn.                                    The French raise the siege and surrender                                                                                      Charles III., King of the two Sicilies,
     164'                                                                                                                                                                                              Russia renounces her rights on the Black                          becomes King of Spain.
                  tianity.                                       1683     Sobieski, of Poland, raises the siege of                        Naples and Lombardy.                                            Sea.
     1648    Treaty of Westphalia.                                         Vienna.                                                     Birth of Ben Franklin, died 1790.                                                                                             The Prussians defeated in the battles of
              Switzerland's         independence      acknowl-           Discovery of Rye House plot, to secure                  1707 Union of England and Scotland as the                             Invasion of India by Persia.                                      Minders, Cunersdorf and Maxen.
                  edged.                                                   succession for Duke of Monmouth.                               Kingdom of Great Britain.                                    Delhi sacked by Nadir Shah.                                   The French driven back in India.
              Holland given up by Spain, becomes a                       Execution of Lord Russell, July 21, and                                                                                       Methodism begins in England.                                  England obtains much territory from
                                                                                                                                       Nuenburg seized and Lecklenburg pur-                            Prohibition of the publication of De-                             Subadhar, of Deccan.
                  republic.                                                Algernon Sydney, Dec. 7.                                       chased by Frederick I.
              End of the thirtv years' war between                       Canada renews war with the Iroquois.                                                                                             bates in England.                                          Birth of Robert Burns; died 1796.
                                                                                                                                       Holland, Germany and England at war                    1740     Death of the Emperor Charles VI., of                          Birth of Schiller; died 1805.
                  Catholics and Protestants.                             Mahomet I. besieges Vienna, but fails.                           against France.                                                 Germany, last of the male line of the
              Pomerania, and other territory, annexed            1684    Greece invaded by the Venetians.                                                                                                                                                   1760     Quebec attacked by the French under
                                                                                                                                       First expedition against Port Royal,                               House of Hapsburg.                                             De Levi.
                  to Prussia.                                            Birth of Berkeley; died 1753.                                    Nova Scotia, fails.
             Civil wars of the Froude.                           1685    Revocation of Edict of Nantes: terrible                                                                                       Maria Theresa, his daughter, becomes                          Montreal captured by the English.
                                                                                                                                       Defeat of the allies, at Almaaze.                                  Queen of Hungary and Empress of Ger-                       Surrender of Canada to Great Britain.
     1648    Canadians at war with the Indians.                            persecutions of French and Protestants                      Death of Aurungzebe.                                               many.
              The House of Brandenburg acquire Hal-                         follow,                                                                                                                                                                                  Death of George II., of England, and suac-
                                                                                                                                       Birth of Fielding; died 1754.                                   Frederick the Great, King of Prussia.                             cession of George III., Oct. 25.
                  berstadt and Minden.                                   Accession of James II. of England.                            Birth of Buffon; died 1788.
              New Amsterdam contains about 1,000 in-                     Argyle's rebellion suppressed,  and his                                                                                       Prussia advanced to the rank of a first-                      Berlin captured by the Austrians and
                  habitants.                                               execution.                                            170S Mantua ceded to Joseph I., of Austria.                              class power.                                                   Russians.
             Trial and execution of Charles I.                           Duke    of Monmouth, natural son of                           The French squadron rouented by the                             Ivan VI., an infant, emperor of Russia.                       Battle of Torgan ; defeat of the Austrians.
     1649                                                                                                                                 English, tinder Admiral Byng.                                New York Society Library founded.
              Massacre and capture of Drogheda, Ire-                       Charles 11., lands qt Lyme, June 11;                                                                                                                                                      Thurot's invasion of Ireland.
                  land, by Cromwell.                                       proclaimed king at Taunton, Jne 20.                          Discovery of ilerculaneum.                                     Swedenborg flourishes.                                        Coote retakes Arcot, India.
              Confession of Faith.                               1685    Battle of Segernoor, July 6; defeat and                 1709) England determines upon the conquest                   1741     Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and France                  1761     George III. marries Charlotte Sophia, of
              Marquis of Montrose beheaded in Scot-                        execution of Monmouth.                                         of Canada.                                                      make war upon Maria Theresa, who re-                           Mecklenburg, Strelitz.
     1660                                                                                                                               Battle of Pultowa; Peter totally defeats                          ceives support from Great Britain.
                  land.                                                  Texas colonized bv Spaniards.                                                                                                                                                               The French surrender Pondicherry, in
              Leopold I. made King of Hungary.                           Birth of Handel; died 1759.                                       Charles XII., of Sweden, who flies to                       Prussian victory at Molwitz.                                      India.
              Charles II. crowned at Scone, Scotland,                    Birth of Bach; died 17.5)0.                                       Turkey.                                                     Breslau ceded to Prussia.                             1762    Revolution at St. Petersburg.
                  Jan. 1.                                        1686    William Dampier lands in Australia.                             14,0(0 Swedish prisoners sent by Peter to                     Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great,                       Peter III. murdered, and Catherine II.,
              Battle of Worcester, Sept. 3, and defeat                   Louis marries Madame de Maintenon.                                colonize Siberia.                                              imprisons Ivan VI. for life and reigns                         called the Great, becomes Empress of
                  of Royalists.                                          Alliance between Russia and Poland                      1709    Battle of Malplaqupt; Marlborough again                          in his stead.                                                  Russia.
              Charles I1. flees to France.                                 against the Turks.                                              defeats the French.                                         Russia at war with Sweden.                                    Spain again declares war against Eng-
              "Barebones"      Parliament.                               Birth of Allan Ramsay; died 1757.                               Birth of Samuel Johnson: died 1784.                  1742     The Elector of Bavaria elected Emperor                            land and Portugal and invades the
                                                                         Birth of Young; died 1765.                              1710    (Capture of Port Royal, Nova Scotia, by                          of Germany as Charles VII.                                     latter country.
              Birth of Fenlon; died 1715.                                                                                                                                                              The French defeated at Dettingn by the
              English Navigation Act.                            16C7    Athens captured by the Venetians.                                 the English, and name changed to An-               1743                                                                   Battles of Freiburg and Burkersadorf;
              England at war with Holland.                               Hungarian crown declared to be in the                             napolis.                                                       English.                                                       Austrians defeated in Silesia, by Fred-
              The Dutch, tnder Van Tromp, "sweep                           Austrian male line.                                           Rout of Spaniards,       tinder Philip      V., at            Birth of Thomas Jefferson; died 1826.                             erick.
                  the Channel."                                          Accession of Joseph I.                                            battle     of Aluenava.                            1744     Hostilities renewed in America between                        Jesuits banished from France.
              De Ruyter defeated by Blake.                               Madame Guyon, and the "Quietists," per-                         Sacheverell's riots in Great Britain; dis-                       France and England, known as King                          Lord Rute, Prime Minister, England.
     1653     Negro insurrection suppressed in Mex-                         secuted.                                                       senting meeting houses destroyed.                              George's War.                                      1763    Peace of Paris.
                ico.                                              1688    Trial and aequittal of the seven bishops,                      The "Tattler" first published.                                Friesland annexed to Pressia.                                 Canada ceded to Great Britain.
              Peace between England and Holland.                            June 30.                                             1711    Attack and repulse of English fleet on               1745     Capture of Louisburg by Massachusetts                         Pondicherry restored to France.
              Death of Van Tromp.                                      Abdication and flight of James Il., Dec.                             Quebec.                                                       militia, inder Pepperell.                                  Governor Murray appointed governor of
              Long Parliament dissolved by Cromwell,                     23.                                                             Russia at war with Turkey.                                    Francis I., Duke of Lorraine, consort of                          Canada, and first introduces English
                April 20. He becomes Lord Protector,                   Landing of the Prince of Orange on                                Accession of Charles VI.. of Germany.                             Maria Theresa, elected Emperor of Ger-                        laws.
                Dec. 16.                                                 English soil.                                                   A slave market opened in Wall Street,                            many.                                              1763    Close of the Seven Years' War.
              Jesuits establish themselves among the                   Bonsset's Variations issued.                                         New York.                                                  The young pretender lands at Moidart,                         Treaty of Hubertsburg; Sileia added to
      1654                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Prussia.
                Onondaga Iroquois.                                     Birth of Pope; died 1744.                                         Birth of flume; died 1,776.                                      Scotlarnd.
              Russian victories    in Poland.                     1689 Williamr and Marv proclaimed King andt                    1712    The principality of Meturs acquired by                        Defeat of the Royalists at Preston Pans,                      Treaty of Madrid restores peace be-
      1655Spain and England at war, which lasts                          Queen, Veh. I'.                                                    Prussia.                                                      Jan. 17, and invasion of England.                            tween Spain, Portugal and England.
            five years.                                                James 11. lands in Ireland.                                       P'eace of Aargau ; end of the religilos war                   Birth of Hannah More: died -                                  John Wilkes arrested for sedition.
      166O Russian Truce of N.emetz, or Wilma,                         Peter the Great. soile sovereign in Russia.                          in Switzerland.                                            Birth of John Jay; died 1829.                                 Explorations   of   Willis and     Carteret   in
            with Poland.                                               C'loverho,,se's rebellion in Scotland snp-                        Accession     of    Charles   as Emnperor       cf             Birth of Benjamin Rutsh; died 1813.                            Australia.
                                                            presoed.                                                                       Austria f                                          1 746                 .-...     ,J..-_
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            , ,-         ,.]._~ 1                    Great defeat of native princes, at battle          I
          Prussia declared independent of Poland.                                                                                                                                                      i   OVylists again defeated at ralKirk, Jan.                                                                     I
          Frederic William, the Great Elector.            King William's war.                                                            Birth of Rosseau;       died 1779.                                 17.                                                        of Buxar, India, Oct. 23.
      - -
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                                                                                                                                                     SUPPLEMENT         XV.
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                                                                                                                                                      Illllll                                                II              I   Ill      I II   II   II              I IllI      III   I

                                                                                                  ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY.
                                                                                                                       I 1S58                                                        I 1853                                                                I I180
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           I        Svv ral     s-hldier          killn,   ;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and   wounded,
     11T61   Pontiac's war; Indians capture English      1772       Warren       tastings becomes    governor of                    An    Act for the better government of                     Army sent to Turkish frontier.
               forts and massacre inhabitants.                         Bengal.                                                        India received roy.l assent, Aug. 2.                     ('{)n[Cl'crr of thi ffl';t p,-wrrs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ('e                                                         IFebl.17.
             The Sandy Hook lighthouse first lighted.    1774       Office of Governor General created.                            Government takes control of India from                      War declared b~v TtILrv, let. 5,                                   Arrest of Htartmann, ;it Pars, Feb. 20.
             G. Granville, English Prime Minister.                  Rohilla army defeated.                                            the East India Company, Sept. 1.                        lEnalidh an-ld F-nch' flits enter the Bos-                          Gcn. Mrlikofl' made virtual dictator, Feb.
             Birth of J. Paul Richter; died 1825.        1775       Benares ceded to the East Indian Com-                          Lord Canning made first Viceroy of In-                       plhi.M'11,    Noi-v.   *3.                                          24.
     17M     Murder of Ivan VI., by order of the Em-                   pany; charges of bribery against War-                          dia.                                            1854    Allies  enlter  ll<lc S-s.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Bih,                                               France refuses extraditin of Hartmann.
               press.                                                  ren ltastings.                                      1859 Thankskiving day in India for peace re-                       BiatIP of citate, Jan. 0;                Russians de-               Nihilists convicted    at St.    Petersburg
                                                         1778       Pcndicherry captured by the British.                              stored.                                                   fen td.                                                             and Keiff.
             Indians sue for peace.
                                                         1780       Arcot taken by tlyder Ali.                                     The Punjaub is made a presidency.                          UIlt imatIIum of         France and      England uin-         1881 Assassination   of Alexander It., by bombs
             End of Pontiac's war.
                                                                    Hastings defeats Ityder Ali's invasios of                      Pacification of Oude announced, Jan. 25.                                                                                                            ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    thrown at his carriag- March 13S one
             British parliament decrees heavy duties
                                                                       Carnatic.                                           1,SqC,2 Lord Elgin appointed Viceroy of India.                   Treaty between Eizlind, France and Tur-                                 assassin killed by explosion, another
               oB imports.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          seized.
             The    Pantheon, St. Owreeve,      Paris,       1781   Defeat of the triple alliance of the                   lS{;3     ,eath of Lord Elgin.                                      kev, March 12.
                                                                      Nizam, the Mahrattas and Hyder Ali.                          Sir John Lawrnce inado Viceroy.                          Bonmkarduwnit of O<ess-a, April 22.                                   Accession of Alexander Ill., who was not
               fornded.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             crowned until 1882, on account of fear
                                                                    Battle of Novo Porto, July 1.                          1IS;6 P,engal vi-ited by a sevwre fafine.                        Siege of Sili.tris,   NM;>y  17.
                                                                    Treaty of Chtnar, between Itastings and                        1E(;S of Maiyo becomes Viceroy of Inia.
                                                                                                                                     Earl                                                   Siege of Silistria rai'rcd, June 28.                                    of assassination.
                                                                       the Subadhar of Ondh.                               ] S70 Railway between Calcutta and Bombay                        Capture of B1iuiarsmnd, A             1lfl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 16.                              Trial of Nihilists, April 8.
                                                                    Tippoo Sail, son of tlhtydes Ali, secures                            opo-ne(n.                                          Russia evacuates the principalities.                                  Russakoff, Sophie Pieofisky, Jelaboff and
                                                                       the assistance of the French against                1S72     Assassination of Lord Mayo, Feb. 8.                     Battle of the Alma,     Slpt. 20; victory of                            others, condemned to death.
                                                                       the English.                                                 Lord Northbrook becomes Viceroy.                           the allies.                                                        Treaty of peace with China.
                                                                    Trinconflee lost hy the British.                       1S74     Terrible famine throughout Bengal.                      Sicge of SObastop-1 t,,l in:< Oct. 17.                                Resignation of Gen. Melikoff, May I3.
                                                                    Hyder Ali succeedied by Tippoo Saib.                   1875     Tour of the Prince of Wales through               1854 Battle of Balaklava, Oct. 25>.                                         Manifesto of Gen. Iknaticff, May 23.
                                                                    French troops under Bussy arrive.                                  India ; arrives at Bombay, Nov. 8.                   Battle of Inkernmann, N           .5.v.                               Counter manifesto of Nihilists.
        Modern History.                                      1783

                                                                    Tippoo Sailb captures Bedmore.
                                                                    Treaty of peace concluded with Tippoo
                                                                                                                           1876     Prince of Wales sails for home, March 13.
                                                                                                                                    Lord Lytton appointed          Governor  Gen-
                                                                                                                                                                                            Death of the Emt1ror Nicholas, March 2.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Alexander II. Emperor.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  New Nihilist plot discovered, November.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18S2 Retire..ent of Prince Gortsehakoff.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Anti-Jewish riots.
                                                                       Saib.                                                           eral.                                          1855 Sortie of Malakff to--r, March 22.
        From A. D. 1765 to the present time, by                     'Pitt's India bill passes Parliament.                           A terrible cyclone causes loss of 220,000               Russians evacuate Anapa, June 5.                                      Pan-Slavist speech of Cen. Skebeleff, at
                      Countries.                             1785   Return of Warren tHastings to England.                             lives.                                               Kars investvd J,       1. 7ly                                           Paris.
                                                                    Succeeded by Sir John Macpherson.                               Queen Victoria proclaimed, in London,                   Capture of Malakoff tower by the French,                              Death of Gen. Skoleleff. July 6.
                                                             1786   Lord Cornwallis appointed Governor Gen-                             Empress of India, May 1.                                Sept. 8.                                                    1883 Accident to the Czar while hunting, Dec.
                                                                         eral of India.                                             Great famine in India, continuing nearly                 Death of Lord lapzlan.                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Col. Senderkin, fhief of Police, assas-
                       CHINA.                                1788
                                                                    Reform of the Company's Civil Service.
                                                                    Declaratory Act passes Parliament.                     1877
                                                                                                                                       a year.
                                                                                                                                    Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of
                                                                                                                                                                                            The Russians evacuate Srastop-l and r,,-
                                                                                                                                                                                                tire to their works       ,n the no'th si,] *
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1                               sinated by Nihilists, Dec. 28.
                                                                    Trial of Warren Iastings begins in West-                           India, at Delhi, and other great cities,                of the harhor; destruction of the 11us-                            Coronation of Alexander III., Czar of all
     1798  Reception of the English Embassy at                          minster Hall1; Burke opens, Feb. 15-19;                        Jan. 1.                                                 sian fleet, Sept.                                                    the Russias, Aug. 27.
             Pekln.                                                     Sheridan presents charges in relation              1879     Massacres at Cabul.                                      Russian assault on Kars faiN,4.                                18S4 Anti-.Jewish riot, resulting in the death
     IlM Edict against Christianity because of                          to the Begums, June 3-13.                          1880     Marquis of Ripon made Governor General                  Battle of the lngpur; dcat of lIRu-sianm                                of many persons, June 19.
              Jesuits.                                       1789   Tippoo Saib attacks Travancore, Dec. 24,                           of India.                                                by Turks, Nov. 6,                                                 Great fire in Moscow, Oct. 29.
     1816 Failure of Lord Ambert's Embassy.                             and is defeated.                                   1882     Riot between tlindoos and Mohammed-                     Kars surrendered to Russians, Nov. 2f;.                               Marriage of Duke Sergius to Princess
     1832 Kingdom of Korea established.                      1790   Travancore captured and plundered by                               ans in the presidency of Madras.                1856 Council of war at Paris. Jan. 11.                                       Elizabeth of tesse, June 15.
     1834 Opium trade prohibited.                                       Tippoo Sail).                                      1883     International      exhibition    at   Calcutta          Amnesty granted to Poh-s, May 27; to                            1885 Attack     of the    Russians, under Gen.
     1839 Opium seized,        causing trouble with                 Treaty with Mahrattas concluded.                                   opened, Dec. 4.                                         political offenders, Sept. 7.                                        Komaroff, on Afghan positions near
              British.                                                                                                              Death of Maj. Gen. Francis Mardall.                     Suspension of hostilities in the Crimea,                                Murghat.
           Chisese outrages in Canton.                       1791   Lord Cornwallis takes Bengalore.
                                                                    Tippoo routed at the battle of Arikera,                1884     Death of Keshut Chunder Sen, head of                        Feb. 20.                                                    1893 Jews expelled from the Asiatic prov-
           Hong Kong captured.                                         May 14; Hastings begins his admirable                           the reformed theistic sect of ttindoos,              Treaty of peace at Paris, March 30.                                     inces.
           Naval battles.                                              defense.                                                       Jan. 8.                                               Close of the war.                                                     Prince Korsakoff, an eminent statesman,
     1840 Trade with England forbidden by the                1792   Peace concluded with Tippoo Saib.                               Formal installation of Mir Mahbub Ali,                  Crimea evacuated, July 9.                                               died, April 28.
              Emperor.                                       1793   Renewal of charter of East India Com-                              Nizam of Hyderabad, by Lord Ripon.                   Alexander      II.   crowned       at      Moscow,              189t Alexander Ill., Czar of all Russia, died
           Canton and coast blockaded.                                 pany for twenty years.                                       The Calcutta exhibition closed, March 10.                  Sept. 2.                                                             and was succeeded by Nicholas II.
           War ends in a truce.                                     Pondicherry taken by the British.                               Terrible epidemic       of    small pox,    at     1858 Partial emancipation of the serfs on the                        1895 Russia assists China in procuring money
     1841 War renewed owing to China's bad faith.            1795   Warren Hastingos acquitted.                                       Madras, March 20.                                        imperial domains.                                                    to pay war indemnity to Japan and se-
           Victory of the British.                           1798   Marquis of Wellesley appointed Governor                         The Ilbert      bill passes the legislative       1857 Meeting of the Emperors at Stuttgardt                                    cures considerable advantages on the
           Treaty giving England Hong Kong and                          General.                                                       council, Calcutta, Jan. 25.                             and Weimar.                                                          Pacific coast.
             $6,000,000, repudiated by Emperor.              1799   British take Seringapatam.                                      Earl of Dufferin nominated to the Vice-           1S59 Russia censures the warlike movements                            1905 Labor riots at St. Petersburg, 1,500 killed
     1842 Treaty of peace, at Nankin, with Eng-                     Tippoo Saib killed, May 4.                                         royalty of India, Sept. 10.                             of the Germanic Confederation during                                 Jan. 22.
             land, August 29.                                       Restoration of the Mysore to the right-                         Lord Reay appointed governor of Bom-                       the Franco-Italian war.                                            Gen. Stoessel surrendered Port Arthur to
           Hong Kong ceded to England.                                 ful Hindoo sovereign.                                          bay, Dec. 13.                                         Treaty with Great Britain.                                              Gen. Nogi, Jan. 2.
           The Chinese cities of Canton, Amoy,                      Rajah of Tangore surrenders his power                  1885     Indian Parcel Post inaugurated, July 7.           1860 Commercial treaty with China.                                    1.905 Russia-Japan war begun, Feb. 7, 1904;
              Foochoofoo,    Ningpo    and Shanghae                                                                                 Burmese expedition, from Calcutta, for            1861 Insurrection in Poland begins.                                           ended Sept. 5, 1905.
                                                                       to the English.
              opened to British.                                                                                                       Rangoon, Nov. 1.                                     The Emperor issues a decree providing                           1907-1909     Peace Conferences held at The
           China pays $21,000,000.                           1800   Surrender of Surat to the British.
                                                                    Nizam cedes Mysore to the British.                              Hostilities against Burmese begun by                       for the total emancipation of the serfs                              Hag'ue.
     1848 Treaty ratified by Queen Victoria and the          1802   Pondicherry given to France at the                                 Lieut. Gen. Prendergast, Nov. 16.                       throughout the empire in two years;                          1910 Epidemic of cholera        rages over many
              Emperor Taou-Kwang.                                      treaty of Amiens.                                            King of Burmah unconditionally surren-                     23,000,000 serfs freed.                                              provinces; 83,613 deaths reported.
           Hong Kong charter issued, April 5.                       The British receive further concessions.                           ders, Nov. 30.                                       Students' riots throughout the empire.                          1911 Premier Stolypin was assassinated.
     1850 Rebellion in Quang-Si successful.                         Treaty of Bassein, between the East In-                         India gives prompt aid to England dur-            1862 The insurrection in Poland becomes gen-                          1912 Fire holocaust near Tambov; 59 lives
     1853 Nankin and Shanghae taken by rebels.                         dia Company and the Peishwa, breaks                             ing Afghan war.                                         eral; it is quelled with great severity.                             lost.
     1856 Renewal of war owing to Chinese out-                         up the Mahratta confederacy.                                 India tenders assistance to England dur-                Trial by jury granted.
              rages on Europeans.                                                                                                     ing Russian controversy.                              Increased privileges granted to the Jews.
                                                             1803   The third Mahratta war; the British,
           Commodore Elliott, U. S. N., destroys                       under General Lake, defeat French and               1888     Marouis of Lansdowne appointed Gov-                     Serfdom in the emwire ended.
              Chinese fleet.                                             Mahrattas at the battle of Delhi, Sept. 11.                  ernor General, Dec. 11.                               War with Asiatic nations.
     1857 Blockade of Canton.                                       Battle of Assaye; Marquis of Wellesley,                1891     Massacre of native troops and English             1864 The war in the Caucasus ended.
     1858 Capture of Canton by English and                             with 4,500 men, defeats 50,000 natives,                         officers at Manifur, March 27.                 1865 Death of the Czarowitch Nicholas, at
           Treaty of Lord Elgin.                                       Sept. 23.
                                                                    General Lake takes Agra, Oct. 17.
                                                                                                                                    Defeat of the Manifurans by the Eng-
                                                                                                                                       lish, May 5.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Nice, April 24.
                                                                                                                                                                                            New province of Turkestan in Central
           Chinese pirates destroyed.                               Treaty of Peace with Scindia, Dec. 30.                 1893     Mints closed as to free silver by order of                 Asia created.
     1859 Commercial treaty with United States.              1804   Holkar lays siege to Delhi.                                        the Indian Council.                            1866 Attempt by Karakosoff to assassinate the                         1770    Rebellion      of       Ali     Bey    suppressed,   in
           English Envoy attacked by Chinese.                                                                                       Lord Curzon inaugurated Governor Gen-                      Czar, Sept. 15.                                                        Egypt.
                                                                    Gen. Frazer defeats Holkar at battle of                1899
      28B0 England and France at war with China.                       Deeg, No. 13.                                                   eral, Jan. 9.                                        Diplomatic quarrel with Rome.                                   1774    Abdul Hamid becomes Sultan.
           European allies victorious.                                                                                     1905     Great earthquake, April 4.                              Marriage of Prince Alexander.                                   1784    Crimea ceded to Russia.
           Treaty of peace signed October 24.                1805   Treaty of peace with Holkar, who cedes                                                                                                                                                  1787    War with Russia and Austria; defeat of
                                                                        Bundelcund and other territory.                    1912     King George visited India, and received           1867 Russian America, Alaska, sold to the
           Surrender of Pekin, Oct. 12.                                                                                                royal ovation.                                          United States for $7,000,000.                                           the Turks.
           Ratification of treaty with Russia.               1806   Mutiny among Sepoys.                                                                                                                                                                    1788     Selim III., Sultan of Turkey.
                                                             1807   Lord Minto, Governor General.                                                                                           Attempted assassination of the Czar, in
           China forced to pay indemnity, and to                                                                                                                                                Paris, by a Pole.                                           1798     The French,        under   Napoleon,  invade
              apologize.                                     1808   War with Travancore.                                                                                                                                                                                Egypt.
                                                                    Travancore subdued; mutiny at Seringa-                                                                            1868   Amnesty granted for political offenses.
           Former treaty ratified.                           1809                                                                                                                                                                                           1799     Battle of Aboukir; French victorious.
                                                                       patam.                                                                                                                Poland disappears from map of empire.
     1861 Allies restore Canton to the Chinese.                     Ecclesiastical establishment formed.                                                                               1869 Socialistic conspiracies among Prussian                         1801    The English aid the Turks; Napoleon
           Rebels defeated by French and English             1813                                                                                                                                                                                                       forced to retreat.
                                                                    India trade thrown open to any British                                                                                      students.
              aid.                                                                                                                                                                     1870 Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war de-                           1803     Insurrection of Mamelukes at Cairo.
     1864 Suicide of Tien-wang, the rebel emperor.
                                                                    Marquis of Hastings, Governor General.
                                                                                                                                                     RUSSIA.                                    clared.                                                     1806     Mehemet Ali becomes Pasha in Egypt.
     1865 Prince Kung becomes regent during                                                                                                                                                  Gortschakoff repudiates treaty of 1856, as                     1807     War with England and Russia.
             minority of emperor.                            1817   Mahratta confederacy dissolved.                        1768 War declared against Russia by Turkey.                                                                                               British fleet passes the Dardanelles.
                                                                    Ahmednuggur ceded to English.                                                                                               regards the Black Sea.
     1868 Burlingame Embassy visit United States                    Defeat of Holkar at Mehudpore.
                                                                                                                           1769-'84 Conquest of the Crimea.                            1871 Conference of the powers, at London, abro-                               Mustapha IV., Sultan.
              and sign treaty.                                                                                             1772 Catherine I. commences the dismember-                           gates the Black Sea clauses.                                1808     Mahmoud II., Sultan.
     1869 Burlingame, Chinese Embassy, received                     Pindarrie war.                                                                                                                                                                          1811     Massacre of Mamelukes; Mehemet be-
                                                             1818   End of Pindarrie war; peace with Hol-
                                                                                                                                     ment of Poland.                                        Many socialists imprisoned throughout the
              at Paris.                                                                                                    1774 Rebellion of the Cossacks.                                      empire.                                                                 comes supreme.
     1870 French consul and many priests mas-                          kar.                                                1775 Cossacks' rebellion suppressed.                                                                                             1812    Treaty of Bucharest; Pruth made fron-
                                                                    The Peiswa surrenders and cedes the                                                                               1873 Expedition against Khiva, which surren-
              sacred at Tien-tsin.                                                                                         1778 Prince Potemkin becomes prime minister.                         ders June 10.                                                           tier of Turkey and Russia.
     1871 Chinese apologize and give indemnities.                      Deccan.                                             1780 Army neutrality.                                                                                                            1815     Discoveries of Belzonia, in Egypt.
                                                             1818   Oudh becomes independent.                                                                                               Visit of the Emperor of Germany to Rus-
           Marriage of Emperor.                                                                                                   Russia, Sweden and Denmark declare that                      sia.                                                         1821     Insurrection in Moldavia and Wallachia;
     1873 Ki-Tsiang of age; becomes Emperor as               1823   Lord Amherst, Governor General.                                  "free ships make free goods."                                                                                                      independence of Greece secured.
              Tung-chi, Jan. 22.                             1824   Burmese war begins; British take Ran-                  1784 Acquisition of the Crimea.                                  Visit of the Shah of Persia.                                    1824    Turks defeated at Mitylene.
                                                                       goon, May 5.                                                                                                         New treaty with the Khan of Bokhara.
     1875 Death of the Emperor Tung-Chi, Jan.                                                                              1787 War with Turkey renewed.
                                                                                                                                                                                             Marriage of the Emperor's daughter to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1827     Battle of Navarino; Turkish fleet de.
              22; accession of Tsai-Tien, born 1871,         1825   British capture Assam, Feb. 1.                         1788 War with Sweden.                                      1874                                                                             stroyed.
              son of Prince Chan.                                   Burmese defeated at the battle of Prome.                      Treaty of Warelow.                                            the Duke of Edinburgh.                                      1828    War with Russia; surrender at Anapa,
           First Chinese railway from Shanghae to            1826   Battle of Pagham Mew ends Burmese                      1793 Second partition of Poland.                                 Visit of the Emperor to Germany and                                        June 23.
              Woosung opened.                                          war.                                                        Alliance with England.                                       England.                                                            Bajazet taken, Sept. 9.
     1877 Terrible famine throughout the Empire.                    Peace declared Feb. 24: Burmah pays                    1795 Final partition of Polana between Rus-                1875 The island of Saghalien ceded to Russia                                   Varna occupied by Russians, Oct. 11.
           Edict forbidding opium smoking.                             $1,000,000 and ceds large territory.                          sia, Prussia and Austria.
                                                                                                                                                                                               by Japan.                                                    1829    Battle of Shumla.
                                                                    English take Bhurtpore.                                                                                                 Japan cedes the Kurile Isles to Russia.
     1880 Serious troubles with Russia.                                                                                           The partition of Poland ~ompleted.
                                                                                                                                                                                            War with Kholand.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Russians take Erzeroum and enter Adri-
     1881 Treaty of peace concluded with Russia.             1828   Lord Bentinck, Governor General.                       1796 Death of Catherine the (,reat.                                                                                                         anople; treaty of peace, Sept. 14.
                                                             1833   The northwest provinces made a separate                                                                                  Baltic provinces incorporated into the
     1883 Sacking of European quarter in Canton.                       administration.
                                                                                                                                  War with Persia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1831    Revolt of Mehemet Ali.
     1884 Treaty of peace with France, May 11.                                                 introduced into             1798 Russia joins the alliance of England and
                                                                                                                                                                                      1876 Russia encourages the insurgents in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Battle     of Konieh;       Egyptians   defeat
           The Imperial Government sanctions the             1835   Steam     communication                                          Austria against France.                                                                                                           Turks.
              introduction of railways, June 20.                       India.                                                                                                                  Turkish provinces c( Servia and Bul-                                 Egypt invades Syria.
                                                                                                                           1799 Suwarrow assists Austrians and checks the                       garia.
           The Chinese Government declares war               1838   Slavery   abolished in the East.                                 French in Italy.                                                                                                       1832    Battle of Konieh; disastrous defeat of
              against France, Aug. 15.                       1838   Afghan war declared; Cabul captured by                         Russia forms an alliance with France.                    Capture of Khokan.                                                         Turks.
           French destroy Kinpai Forts at Foo-                        the British, Aug. 7.                                 1800 Insanity of the Emperor Paul.                               Conquest of Khiva completed.                                    1833    Russians enter Constantinople; offensive
              chow, Aug. 28.                                 1842   Lord Ellenborough Governor General.                    1801 He is assassinated.                                   1877 Russia       declares war      against Turkey,                              and defensive treaty with Russia.
           Repulse of the French at Tamsui.                  1843   Ameers of Scind defeated by Sir Charles                       Alexander I. becomes emperor; he makes                        April 24.                                                           Treaty of Kutayah.
                                                                       Napier, Feb. 17.                                                                                                     Melikoff enters Armenia and seizes Bay,
           French admiral declares all the For-                                                                                      peace with England.
                                                                                                                                                                                               azid, April 30.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rebellion in Egypt suppressed.
              morsan ports to be blockaded.                  1844   Lord Hardinge Governor General.                        1805 Russia joins the coalition against France,                                                                                  1839    Abdul Medjid becomes Sultan.
           Insurrection in Korea.                            1845   Danish possessions in India purchased by                         April.                                                 Russians defeated at Batourn, May 4.                                    A second revolt of Mehemet Ali.
           Assassination of the King's son, Dec. 4.                    England.                                                   Battle of Austerlitz; Napoleon defeats the                Melikoff storms Ardaban, May 17.                                        Battle of Nezib; Ibrahim Mehemet, Ali's
           Bhamo, Korea, captured by the Chinese,                   England at war with Sikhs; battle of                             allies, Dec. 2.                                         Investment of Kars, June 3.                                               son, defepts the Turks.
              Dec. 8.                                                 Moodkee, Sept. 6.                                    1807 Treaty of Tilsit; peace with France.                         Passage of the Danube by the Grand                             1840    .England, Russia, Austria, and Prussia
                                                             1846   British victory over Sikhs at Sobraon,                                                                                      Duke Nicholas, June 22-27.
     1885 Langson, in Cochin China, captured by                       February.
                                                                                                                           1809 The Turks defeat the Russians near Silis-
                                                                                                                                                                                            Capture of Timova, July 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       aid Turkey.
              the French, Feb. 12; evacuated March                                                                                   tria.                                                   Plevna occupied, July 6; retaken by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Battle of Beyrout;         Egyptians defeated.
              28.                                                   Treaty of Lasore.                                      1812 War with France.                                                                                                            1841    Treaty with Egypt.
                                                             1848   Lord Dalhousie Governor General.                                                                                           Turks, July 30; great defeat of Rus-
           Peace concluded with France, April 6;                                                 Ramnuggur                         Napoleon invades Russia.
                                                                                                                                                                                               sians by Mukhtar Pasha.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mehemet Ali made Viceroy, but deprived
              signed at Tien-tsin, June 9.                          Second Sikh war begun;                                         Battle of Smolensko, Aug. 17; Russians                                                                                              of Syria.
     1885 Admiralty Board created, Dec. 15.                           taken by General Cough; again de-                              defeated.                                        1877 The capture of Nicopolis by the Russians,                        1847    New system of education introduced.
     1888 Marriage of the Emperor, Feb. 25.                           feated at Vyseerabad.                                        Battle of the Borodino, Sept. 7; Russians                   July 15.                                                     1849    Turkey refuses to surrender Polish ref-
     1890 British Consulate at Ching-Kung-Foo                1849   The Sikh war ended with battle of Goo-                           defeated.                                              The Russians occupy the Shipka Pass.,                                      ugees'    refusal sustained by England.
                                                                      jerat, Feb. 21.                                                                                                          JulV 19.
              wrecked, Feb. 6.                                                                                                     Burning of Moscow by         the Russians,                                                                               1851    Rebellion of Croatia.
                                                                    Sir Charles Napier becomes Commander-                                                                                    Severe fighting in the Shipka Pass, July
     1891 Floods and famine in Northern Districts,                    in-chief.
                                                                                                                                     Sept. 14.
                                                                                                                                                                                               19, Dec. 31.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1852    Treaty with France regarding the "Holy
              April.                                                                                                               Retreat of the French.
                                                                                                                                                                                             Russian attack on Plevna partly success-
     1894-5 War with Japan and continued defeats                    Annexation of the Rajah to British do-                 1813 Battle of Leipzig, and defeat of Na-                                                                                        1853    A large Russian army crosses the Pruth.
              of the Chinese armies and navies.                       minions.                                                       poleon.                                                    ful Sept. 7-11.                                                     Turkey declares war; approved by the
     1895 Peace concluded with Japan, China pay-             1850   Mutiny of native infantry in Bengal.                   1814 Downfall of Napoleon.                                       Great Russian victory at Aladja Dagh.                                       great powers, England, France, Aus-
              ing a large indemnity and relinquish-          1851   Beginning of the Second Burmese war.                          The Emperor Alexander          enters Paris,               Capture of Kara by the Russians, with                                      tria and Prussia.
                                                             1852   Pegu annexed to British Empire.                                                                                             great slaughter, Nov. 18.
              ing her claims on Corea.                                                                                               with the allies, in triumph.
                                                                                                                                                                                             Capture of Etropol by the Russians.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1854    Crimean war;         allied fleets enter the
           Massacre of missionaries in the interior.         1853   Close of the Second Burmese war.                       1815 The Emperor Alexander            organizes the                                                                                          Black Sea, Jan. 4.
                                                                    Burmah deprived of its seaboard prov-                                                                                    Capture of Plevna and Osman Pasha's
     1900 "Boxer" uprising in China.                                                                                                 "Holy Alliance," between Russia, Aus-
                                                                                                                                                                                                army, by the Russians, Dec. 10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Russia refuses intervention, March 19.
      1901 Chinese government agrees to terms de-                      inces.                                                        tria and Prussia.                                                                                                              Treaty with England and France.
                                                                    First     Indian    railway    and   telegraph                                                                           Emperor returns to St. Petersburg, Dec.
              manded by the powers.                                                                                                Alexander proclaimed King of Poland.                                                                                             The allied powers guarantee Turkish in-
     1908 Death of Kwang-Hsu, emperor, and Tsu-                        opened, Bombay to Tannah.                           1822 The Grand Duke Constantine renounces                           22.                                                                     tegrity.
              Hsi, dowager empress, Nov. 14-15.                     Renewal, for the last time, of East India                        his right to the throne.                               Erzeroum invested, Dec. 24.                                              Allied fleets bombard Odessa, and block-
              Edict issued appointing Prince Chun                     Company's charter.                                   1825 Death of the Emperor Alexander.                              Gen. Gourko crosses the Balkans, Dec.                                      ade the Danube.
              to regency and his son, Pu-Yi, heir                   Bengal put under a Lieutenant-Governor.                        Insurrection of troops at Moscow.                           31.                                                                   Allies overcome Russians at Giurgero.
              presumptive.                                          Indian Civil Service thrown open to com-               1826 The Emperor Nicholas crowned at Mos-                   1878 Russians occupy Sofia, Jan. 4.                                           Turks defeated at Bayazid; see Russia.
      1909 International opium conference held at                      petition.                                                     cow.                                                   Servians defeated, Jan. 7.                                      1855    Battle at Kara, Russians defeated; Turks,
              Shanghai, February.                            1854   Ganges Canal opened.                                          War with Persia.                                           Capture of the Shipka Pass, by the Rus-                                    under Omar Pasha, win a great victory
      1911 Revolution, and general uprising.                 1855   Calcutta Railway opened.                               1P27 The Emperor Nicholas visits England.                            sians, Jan 8, 9.                                                        at the Ingour, Nov. 6; allies take Kars,
           Republic of China proclaimed.                            Annexation of Oudh.                                    1828 Peace with Persia.                                           Batourn attacked without success by the                                    Nov. 26.
      1912 Manchu dynasty abdicates.                         1856   Lord Canning appointed Governor Gen-                           War with Turkey, Russians generally vic-                      Russians.                                                  1856     Suspension of hostilities, awaiting nego-
                                                                       eral.                                                          torious, begins April 26.                              Russians occupy Philippolis, Jan. 16.                                      tiations for peace, Feb. 29.
                                                             1857   Mutiny among native regiments at Bar-                  1829 Peace of Adrianople with Turkey.                             Russian occupation of Adrianople, Jan.                                  Treaty of peace signed, at Paris, April
                                                                       rackpore,     Burhampore and      Lucknow,          1830    Polish war of independence begins.                           20.                                                                     29.
                                                                      May 6. The great Sepoy rebellion com-                1831 Warsaw taken by the Russians, and the                        British fleet enters the Dardanelles, Jan.                              The Crimea evacuated, July 9.
                                                                      menced at Meerut, May 10:               Delhi                   insurrection crushed, Sept., Oct.                         25.                                                                  Independence of Turkey guaranteed.
                                                                       seized by 40,0o0      rebels and the King           1832 The emperor decrees that Poland shall                        Erzeroum evacuated by the Turks, Feb.                          1858     Conflict with Montenegrins.
                                                                       proclaimed      Emperor;      mutinies    at                   henceforth form an intergral part of the                  21.                                                                  Christians massacred at Jedda.
                        INDIA.                                         Cawnpore and Allahabad.
                                                                    Cawnpore surrenderd by the British to
                                                                                                                                     Russian Empiie.
                                                                                                                           1840 Failure of the Khivan Expedition.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Treaty of peace signed at San Stefano.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Skobeleff and Radetzky capture Turkish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Montenegrin boundaries determined.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Suez Canal begun by De Lesseps.
                                                                       Nana -ahib, June 25.                                        Treaty of London signed by Russia.                          army in Asia Minor.                                          1858    Great fire at Constantinople.
      1878 Nabob of Oudh becomes tributary to                       Siege of Lucknow begins July 1; Gen-                                                                                    Conference of powers at Berlin, June 13.                                Conspiracy against the Sultan.
             British.                                                                                                      1841 War with Circassians.
                                                                       eral Haveloek      enters Cawnpore, July            1848 Russia aids Austria in suppressing the                      Treaty of Berlin signed, July 13.                                1860   Druse and Maronite War.
           East India Company made receiver of                         17: victory over Nana Sahib, at Bit-                                                                            1879 Final treaty with Turkey, signed Feb. 8.
             Bengal, Bahar and Orissa.                                                                                                Hungarian Revolution.                                                                                                         Massacre of Christians at Damascus.
                                                                       hoor, July 1ft.                                     1849 Russia demands that Polish and Hun-                         Solovieff attempts to assassinate the                                   Convention of Great Powers.
      1768 Treaty with Nizam of the Deccan.                         Capture of Delhi from the rebels, Sept.                                                                                    Czar, April 14.                                               1861   Abdul-Aziz Sultan.
      1767 Alliance of Nizam and Hyder Ali, who at-                                                                                   garian exiles be expelled from Turkey.
                                                                       20; Lucknow relieved by           Havelock,         1850 Conspiracy against the life of the em-                      Nihilists at Kieff and Odessa convicted.                                Insurrection in Herzegovina and Mon-
             tack the British an4 are defeated at                      Sept. 25.                                                                                                            Attempt on the Czar's life by mining
             Vellore.                                                                                                                peror detected.                                                                                                                  tenegro.
                                                                    Rebels     routed at Battle of Cawnpore,                       Harbor of Sebastopol completed.                             railway, Dec. 1.                                              1862   Omar Pasha invades Montenegro.
      17S9 Hyder Ali, a Musselman       adventurer,                                                                                                                                          Discovery of plot to blow up the Winter
                                                                       Dec. 6.                                                     Exiles sent to Kouish, Asia Minor.                                                                                               Servians demand their independence.
             marches on Madras and compels Eng-              1858   Battle of Futteghur, Jan 2.         Sir Colin                                                                              Palace, Dee. 12.
             lish to form alliance.                                                                                        1852    Visit of the emperor to Vienna.                                                                                           1863   Death of Said Pasha: Ismail Pasha be-
                                                                       Campbell captures Lucknow, March 21.                 1853 Coniniineemcent of the q,,,arrel with Tur-            1880 Explosion nider diningroom of Winter                                      comes Viceroy of Egy'pt.
      1770 Terrible famine in Bengal.                                  Rebels defeated    at Kotara, July 14 ; at
      1771 The Mahrattas enter Delhi.                                                                                                key about the "IHoly Places."                             Palace.                                                       1864   Arabian rebellion suppressed by Egypt.
                                                                       other points subdues the rebels.

Io                                                       I                                                             I
                                                                                                                                              Sr:I'Ll' I    l:NT XVI.

                                                                         --                                                  -:- -                                                                                                                                               r

                                                                                               ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY.

                                                    I IS1,5                       ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                                                                                  ..                         I                                                                       -

                                                                                                                                                                                                    I 1833 Death (of Ferdlinand VII.; his queen as-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -                  -

                                                                                                                                 in Lln'.bardy anld Venice I 1871 Opening of the Mit. Cenis Tunnel.
1865 Suez Canal opened in             part.                         Terrific   fighting near S   Miarii, 22.
                                                                                                 March         1S4S Ilnsrrection
1 1f06 evolt C andia.
      R         in                                                  D)eath of Mahlidi Mohlammiied       .Acehlned,                      /tfainst    Austrian povwer;      revolt    is sup-     S172 Death of Mazzini.                                                               sumes       the government       as    Regent dur-
      Cretan Greeks revolt against the Turks.                          June 29.                                                         ported by thle King of Sardinia.                             Great eruption of Mount Vesucvius. Se-                                       ing the minority of her daughter, Isa-
1867 The Khedive of Egypt, Viceroy, visits                          Revolution in Eastern Rournelia.                                  Thle Pope supports the mllovement                  for            rious inundations throughout the pe-                                      bella II.
         France and England.                                        P'rince Alexander of Bulgaria, G(overnor,                            ltalian   independence, June.                                  ninsula.                                                                Don Carlos claims the throne.
186.9 Suez C(anal inaugurated.                                        Sept. 1S.                                                       War between Sardinia and Austria.                        1S73 Suppression of the convents at Rome.                                1884    The Quadruple Treaty of France, Eng-
1870 Sir Samuel Baker sent to suppress slave                      Meeting of Ambassadors, at Constantino-                             Lombardy annexed to Sardinia, June 29.                         Expulsion of Jesuits from Italy.                                             land, Spain and Portugal guarantees
        trade.                                                        p1<, the Eastern crisis, Oct. t.
                                                                          on                                                           Revolution at Rome; flight of the Pope to               1874 General      assembly of   free Christian                                     the right of Queen Isabella to the
1i72 Baker returns, after considerable suc-                 1S8 First through train from Paris to Con-                                  Gaeta.                                                          churches in Italy.                                                        thr,:".
         Cc-s.                                                      stantinople, Aug. 3.                                        19
                                                                                                                               IS,    The Sardinians, after repeated reverses,                       Brigands cause great trouble.                                              Doin ('arlos           enters Spain    and claims the
1S73 By the Sultan's firman the Khedive of                  1IS 9 Egyptian             Army routed, Aug. 3.
                                                                               l)Dervish                                                are totally defeatedl by the Austrians                         The       government   suppresses       the       Camlor-                   c rown.
         Egypt becomes independent in most                        Turkish forces occupy Crete, Aug. 30.                                  at Novara, March 23.                                            ra's.                                                                  Beginning of the Carlist war.
         points.                                            1S90 Turkish man-of-war Ertogroul founders                                Close of the war, and recovery of Lorm-                  1,-75   Visit of the Emiperors of Austria and                             Iff    l.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Defeat of Cairlists at battle of Bilbao.
1874 Circular letter to the Powers, protesting                      at sea, 500 liv-es lost, Sept. 19,                                  bardy by Austria.                                                Germany to lthe King, of Italy.                                't:;7   D)iss(lution ,f mlonasteries.
         against treaties with Turkish tribu -              1s94 Insurrection in Armenia, and great mas-                              Carlo Alberto abdicates in favor of his                          Garib.aldi takes aith tof allegisnee to tlhe                     8S]9    Suecess        of   the g-,vrnmenet        forces.
         taries.                                                    sacre of Christians at Sassoun.                                       so Victor Emmanuel II., March 23;
                                                                                                                                           n,                                                            governmenlt,   and bl'(clnhs a llenmber                                Don <'arlos takes rtefuge in England.
1875 Insurrection in Herzegovina and Bosnia.                  1'5 Riot in Constantinople and massacre of                                 dies July 28.                                                   of the Chamber of Dleputies.                                   1?40    Espartir ,,  (co1n1niandcr of  the roval
      Bosnians victorious at the battle of                          Armenian Christians in that city.                                 The Roman republic formed.                                       Ratification of a treaty of commerce with                                     forces, becones the real ruler of Spain.
         Gatschko.                                                  Great powers of               demand ire-
                                                                                            iEurope                                    Romle captured bv the French army, un-                              (;rc.t Britain.                                                      The Q-eu               Retgent    Christina     abdicates
      Unsuccessful Abyssinian expedition.                           forms fri~n the Sultan and protection                               dr Marshal Oidinot.                                            Six new card.ilns appointed.                                                  and      leaves     Spain.
      British      government       purchases Suez                  for his Christian subjects.                                    The relublic overthrown, and the lPop-                       S,76   Italy  landanti-Turkish in the                    eastern               Espartero expels the Papal Nuncio.
        Canal stock.                                              Change in the Ministry, Nov. 7.                                     restorfld.                                                           question.                                                    1841 Espartero declared, by the Cortes, Re-
1878  War with Abyssinia; the Egyptian debt                 IS97 Groe,-Turkish war began April 16; e-nded                    1S,() Ecclesi-istical jurisdictions abolished in                          Attempted assassination of King                      um-n-                gent during the young Queen's minority.
         consolidated.                                              May 17, 18S7 ; p)eace treaty signed                                 Sardinia.                                                        bert, Nov. 7.                                                         Insurrection in favor of Christina quelled.
      Battle of Trebinge, indecisive.                               Sept. 1S, 1897.                                                   Arrest of the Archbishop of Turin.                       1877    The celebrated "Antonelli" case                      dis-        18iS2 Insurrection at Barcelona against Es-
      Germany, Austria           andRu ssia demand          1905 The Porte refused to authorize street sales                 18'51    Count Cavour Minister of Foreign Af-                                 missed.                                                               partero ; he bombards the city, Dec. 3,
         reform in Turkish tributaries.                             of Bibles, Jan. 2.                                                  fairs.                                                 1S 78   Death of Victor Emmanuel, Jan. 9.                                         and receives its surrender, Dec. 4.
      Bulgaria revolts against Turkish rule.                1908 Sultan proclaimed constitution, July 15.                    1S5,3    Revolt in Milan subdued.                                         Attemrnpted assassination of King tlum-                            S183 Uprising against Espartero at Barcelona,
      Suicide or murder of Sulta n Abdul-Aziz.              1909 Sultan Abdul              deposed and Meh-
                                                                                     lanmidI                                  l]i.    Sardinia joins the alliance of France,                              bert I., Nov. 17.                                                      Corunna, Seville and other points.
       Montenegro and Servia declare war                            reed V. proclaimed Sultan, April 27.                                England       and    Turkey     against     Rtlssia,           Death of Pope Pius IX., Feb. 7.                                         Bombardment of Seville, July 21.
         against Turkey.                                    1912 War with Italy.                                                        anti takes part in the Crim.ean wvar.                          Leo XIII. elected Pope, Feb. 20.                                        Defeat of Espartero.
       Murad V., Sultan, Mav         30th; accession                                                                         18,56    Unsuccessful revolt in Sicily.                           1880    Elections favorable to the ministry of                           1845 Don Carlos assigns his claims to his son.
         of Abdul-lHamid II.                                                                                                  ls57    Diplomatic rupture between Sardinia and                             Cairoli.                                                             Isabella II., 13 years old, is declared, by
       Defeat of the Servians at Alexinatz.                                                                                             Austria.                                                       The monster ironclad Italia successfully                                   the Cortes, to be of age.
      Conference of Great Powers abou t Tur-                                                                                   85,9Quarrel between Sardinia and Austria,                                   launched.                                                           Narvaez, a friend of Queen Christina, is
         kish affairs.                                                                                                               caused by former power refusing to dis-                           Resignation of Garibaldi as Deputy, and                                    made commander of the armv.
1I 77 Treaty of peace with Abyssinia, made by                                                                                        arm.                                                                retirement to Genoa.                                            IS46 Marriage of Queen Isabella to her cousin,
         Col. Gordon.
      Turkey rejects proposals of the Great
                                                                               GREECE.                                             France espouses the cause of Sardinia,
                                                                                                                                      and sends an army to her assistance.
                                                                                                                                                                                               1881    Cairoli nministry overthrown and a new
                                                                                                                                                                                                         one foinded by l)epretio.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Don Francisco d' Assiz, Duke of Cadiz.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Marriage of the Infanta to the Duke de
         Powers.                                                                                                                   The Austrians cross the Ticino, April 27.                           Reform Bill passed by the Senate, Dec.                                     Montpensier, son of the King of France.
                                                            1770    Greek insurgents assisted by Russia.                           The French army reaches Genoa, May 3.                                   21.                                                                 Protest of England against these mar-
      Midhat Pasha banished.                                        They are defeated ly thie    Turks.                                                                                        1882 Elehctoral Law passed.                                                       riages.
      War with Russia declared.                                                                                                    Battles of Montebello, May 20; Palestro,
                                                                    Rebellion of Siiot suppressed.                                   May 30, 31; Magenta, June 4; Maleg-                            Death of Garibaldi, June 2.                                         1847 Attempt by La Riva to assassinate the
       Hostilities with Montenegro.                         1803    Turks put down second Suliot rebellion,
      Russians cross the Danube, June 23;                                                                                            nano, June 8; Solferino, June 24.                         1883 Discovery of site of the celebrated An-                                      Queen.
                                                                       which was incited hythe French.                             Total defeat of Austrians.                                          trium, at Rome, Nov. 6.                                                 Espartero restored to power.
         Nicopolis surrendered to Russia; slight            1821    Revolt of Ipsylanti;    Peloponnesus gained                                                                                                                                                         1848 The British Envoy ordered to quit Mad-
         Turkish success in Armenia; Plevia                                                                                        Revolution in Tuscany, Parma, Modena,                       1S84 The cholera rages in Naples.
                                                                       by the Greeks.                                                Bologna, Ferrara, etc.                                    1889 Statue of Bruno unveiled at Rome, June                                       rid within 48 hours.
         abandoned, July 6; recaptured, July                1822    Independence of Greece.                                                                                                                                                                             18S50 Birth of the Queen's first child; it dies
         28 ; terrific battles in the Shipka Pass,                                                                                 Peace of Villefranca, July 11.                                          9.
                                                                    Terrible massacre at Seio.                                     Western Lombardy annexed to Sardinia.                       1890 Statue of Victor Emmanuel unveiled,                                          immediately.
         August 21-28; Russians repulsed at                 1823    National Congress at Argos.                                                                                                        Sept. 20.                                                               Attempt of Lopez to wrest Cuba from
         Plevna, Sept. 7-11; immense losses on                                                                                     Protest of Tuscany, and declaration for a
                                                                    Death of Marco Bozzaris.                                         United Kingdom.                                           1891 Crispi resigns the Premiership and Ru-                                           Spain.
        both sides; relief of Plevna, Sept. 22,         1824        Death of Lord Byron at Missolonghi.                                                                                                dini appointed, Feb. 9.                                          I Sl    Opening of the Madrid-Aranjuez railway.
         by Chefket Pasha; retreat of Turks,                                                                                       The people incited to arms by Garibaldi.
                                                                     lpsara destroyed by the Turks.                                The Pope appeals to Europe against the                           Baron Fava, Minister to the United                                  1852    Merino, a Franciscan monk, attempts to
         Sept. 24; removal of Mehemet Ali as                1826    Siege of Missolonghi; capitulates to the                                                                                           States, recalled, March 30.
         Commander-in-chief;        Suleiman Pasha                                                                                   King of Sardinia, July 12.                                                                                                                   kill the Queen, and slightly wounds her
                                                                      Turks.                                                       The Italian Duchies declare in favor of                     1S93 Pope Leo X11I. celebrates his 83d birth-                                      with a dagger.
         appointed; Mukhtar Pasha gains Turk-               1827    Turkish army takes Athens.                                                                                                         day.                                                             1853    Narvaez exiled to Vienna.
         ish victories in Armenia ; total defeat                                                                                     annexation to Sardinia.
                                                                    Interference of foreign powers rejected                        Newv constitution for Sardinia.                                  King Humbert and Queen Margaret cele-                               1854    Espartero organizes a military insurrec-
        of Mukhtar Pasha at battle of Aladja-                          by Turkey.                                                  Alliance between Tuscany, Modena, Par-                              brate their silver wedding.                                                tion at Saragossa and succeeds in mak-
         Dagh, Oct. 15; Russians take Kars by                       Battle of Navarino; the allied British,                                                                                    1900 King Humbert assassinated, July 20.                                           ing himself prime minister.
        storm, Nov.        1S; surrender of Plevna,                                                                                  ma and the Romagna formed, Oct. 10.
                                                                       French and Russian fleets defeat the                        Peace of Zurich, Nov. 10; part of the                            Coronation of King Victor Emmanuel III.                                     The queen-mother impeached, and com-
         Dee. 10.                                                      Turks and Egyptians.                                                                                                           Aug. 11.                                                                    pelled to quit Spain.
1878 Erzeroum evacuated, Sept. 17; complete                                                                                          Papal States and the Duchies of Parma
                                                                    Independence of Greece established.                              andl Modena ceded to Sardinia.                            1902 Emmanuel III., King of Italy, crowned,                              1855    Death of Don Carlos.
         defeat of Turkey; preliminary treaty               1828    The Turks evacuate the Morea.                                                                                                      Aug. 11.                                                         1856    Insurrection at Valencia.
        of peace signed, March 3.                                                                                                  The Emperor Napoleon advises the Pope
                                                            1829    Turkey surrenders Missolonghi.                                   to give up his revolted States, Dec. 31.                  1904 Death of Pope Leo XIII.                                                     Espartero resigns.
      Conference by the Powers at Berlin, to                        Treaty of Hadrianople.                                                                                                          Pius X. elected Pope.                                                       A new cabinet formed, headed by Mar-
         settle Turkish question.                                                                                             1S60 The Pope refuses the Emperor's proposal
                                                            1831    President D'Istria assassinated.                                 and denounces him, Jan. 8.                                1910 Hurricane near Mt. Vesuvius, Oct, 23;                                         shal O'Donnell.
      Treaty of Berlin ratified, Aug.       S.              1833    Accession of Otho I.                                           A new ministry formed by Cavour, Jan.                               nearly 200 lives lost.                                                   Insurrection in Madrid quelled by the
      Great Britain, July 3, secures Cyprus.                1843    Insurrection in Athens;       National As-                                                                                 1911 War with Turkey.                                                              government.
               treaty with Russia signed, Feb. 8.                                                                                       16.
1879 Final                                                             sembly; new constitution adopted.                              Tuscany, Parma, Modena and the Ro-                       1912 Italian parliament votes annexation of                                      Disbandment of the national guard.
      Russians evacuate Turkey.                             1850    Pireus blocaded by a British fleet.                                   magna vote for annexation to Sardinia,                       Tripoli.                                                                 Insurrection at Barcelona and Saragossa
      England demands reforms in Turkey.                            England demlands indernity for injuiry                                                                                          Attempt to assassinate Victor Emmanuel                                         quelled by O'Donnell, as Dictator.
      Nubar Pasha resigns.                                                                                                               March 9.
                                                                       to British subjects.                                           Savoy and Nice ceded to France by Sar-                          IIL.                                                                      O'Donnell forced to resign.
      The Khedive deposed by the Sultan,                            French intervention sought.                                          dinia.                                                                                                                                 Narvaez made prime minister.
         June 26.                                                   Greece forced to yield.                                           The French troops leave Italy in May.                                                                                             1857    Birth of the prince royal.
       His son Tewfik succeeds him.                         1854    Revolt of Albanians.                                              Garibaldi lands in Sicily, May 11.                                                                                                1859    WVar with Morocco.
1880 The Powers protest regarding delay in                          English and French occupy Greece.                                 Declares himself Dictator, and drives the                                                                                                 O'Donnell commands the army in Africa.
         executing provisions of Berlin treaty.                     Neutrality in Russo-Turkish war de-                                  Neapolitans from Sicily in the battles                                                                                         1860    Moors defeated at Tetuan and Guadelras.
        Great naval demonstration.                                     clared.                                                           of Calatifinni and Melazzo, July 20.                                                                                                   Treaty of peace signed, March 26.
       Cession of Dulcigno, Nov. 26.                        1857    Greece evacuated by the French and Eng-
1881 Conference of the Powers at Constantino-                                                                                         lie invades Naples with his little army,                                                                                                  Unsuccessful efforts of Ortega to over-
      Midhat Pasha, and others, tried for mur-
                                                            1862    Serious insurrections in Greece.
                                                                                                                                         Sept. 7.
                                                                                                                                      Insurrection in the Papal States in Sep-                                         SPAIN.                                                      throw the Queen and make the Count
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   de Montemolin king, as Charles VI.
                                                                    Otho I. forced to leave Greece.                                      tember. Sardinian army enters them,                                                                                                    Ortega shot, April 19.
         der of Abdul-Aziz; and condemrned to                       Prince Alfred, of England, declared King.                            and defeats the Papal troops, Sept. 18,               1767    Jesuits expelled from the kingdom.                                       The Emperor Napoleon III. proposes to
         death; their sentence commuted to                          Austria declares for Otho I.                                         and takes Ancona, Sept. 29.                           1 7"1   Falkland Islands ceded to England.                                          recognize Spain as a first-class power.
           exile.                                           1863    National Assembly declares Alfred elect-                          The Sardinian army, under the King,                      1775    War with Portugal resumed.                                               The project abandoned, owing to the re-
       Decree of abolition of slavery in Egypt.                        ed King.                                                          enters the Neapolitan territory; de-                  1777    War with England renewed.                                                   fusal of England.
1882 The Porte declines to enter conference of                      England refuses to allow his accession.                              feats the Neapolitans, at Iseraia, Oct.                       France and Spain besiege Gibraltar.                              1861    The annexation of St. Domingo to Spain
         Powers regarding Egypt, but subse-                         Prince William, of Denmark, elected                                 17.                                                    1783    England cedes Balsaric Isles to Spain at                                      ratified.
         quently yields.                                               King, March 18, and becomes King                            Garibaldi defeats the Neapolitans, at the                             peace of Versailles.                                                   Spain joins England and France in the
       Remonstrates with England for intended                          George I., Nov. 2, 1863; new Constitu-                        Volturna, Oct. 1.                                         1794    French invade Spain.                                                        Mexican expedition.
         bombardment of Alexandria.                                    tion adopted.                                               Meets Victor Emmanuel, Oct. 26, and                         1796    War again with England.                                          1863    Don Juan de Bourbon renounces his
       Dervish Pasha sent as envoyto Egypt.                 I S67   King George I. married to Princess Olga,                          salutes him as "King of Italy."                          1797    Battle of Cape St. Vincent; defeat of the                                   right to the throne.
       Turkey declines to send troops to Egypt,                        of Russia.                                                  Sicilv and Naples vote for annexation to                              Spanish fleet, Feb. 14.                                                O'Donnell resigns the premiership.
         but, after the bombardment, consents.              1S70    Trouble with the brigands, who kill many                         Sardinia, Oct. 21.                                        1800    Spain cedes Parma to France.                                             Insurrection in St. Domingo.
      Arabi Pasha sentenced to banishment to                           English prisoners.                                          Victor Emmanuel enters Naples as King,                      1801    Treaty with Portugal at Badajos.                                 1864    Spanish quarrels with Peru.
         Ceylon for life, Dec. 3.                           1875    Neutrality observed in Herzegovinian in-                         Nov. 7.                                                           Treaty of Madrid with France.                                            General Prim exiled for conspiracy.
       Prayers offered in Mosques of Cairo for                        surreetion.                                                  Garibaldi resigns the Dictatorship and re-                  1802    Treaty with England at Amiens.                                   1864    Narvaez again becomes prime minister.
         the Queen of England as the "Mirror                 lfl    Declares for neutrality in Servian war.                           tires to Caprera.                                        1804    Renewed war with England.                                                  He advises the relinquishment of St.
         of Justice," Dec. 13.                              1878    Thessalians aided by Greeks against the                  18S61 The first Italian Parliament assembles                      1805    Battle of Trafalgar, Oct. 21; total defeat                                  Domingo; Queen Isabella refuses.
      Arabi Pasha, Egyptian Minister of War,                          Turks.                                                         Feb. 18.                                                            of French and Spanish fleets by Eng-                                   Christina returns to Spain.
         heads opposition to the Khedive.                   1880    Berlin conference considers question of                        Parliament decrees Victor Emmanuel                                    lish, under Nelson.                                            1865    Peace with Peru, which is compelled to
      Alleged conspiracy against Arabi Pasha,                         Greek and Turkish frontiers.                                    "King of Italy," Feb. 26.                                1807    Invasion of Spain by the French.                                           pay a heavy indemnity.
          Minister of War, leads to international           1881    Convention with Turkey, July 2.                                The new kingdom recognized by Eng-                                  Treaty of Fountainebleau.                                                Queen Isabella orders the sale of the
         complications.                                             Thessaly ceded to Greece.                                        land, March 31.                                           1808    Territory demanded by France.                                              crown lands, and gives three-fourths to
      English and French fleets appear at                   1884    Serious fire at royal palace, Athenw,                          The Pope protests against the new king-                             Spanish fortress seized.                                                   the nation.
         Alexandria, May.                                             Aug. 5.                                                        dom, April 15.                                                    The French take Madrid.                                                  Spain relinquishes St. Domingo.
      On June 11, a riot breaks out in Alex-                1889    Princess Sophie of Russia and the Crown                        Death of Cavour, June 6.                                            Charles IV. abdicates in favor of Na-                                    Quarrel with Chili, followed by war.
         andria, the natives killing 340 Eu-                          Prince married, October 27.                                  Unsuccessful revolt in Calabria, by lose                              poleon, May 1.                                                         Kingdom of Italy recognized by Spain;
          ropeans.                                           1890   Greek Ministry resigns, October 28.                              Borges, in the interest of Francis I1.                            Massacre of 200 French in Madrid, May 2.                                    insurrection, headed by General Prim.
      The powers called upon to aid the                     1891    Prof. Waldstein discovers rare jewels in                 1862 Ratazzi forms a new ministry.                                        Napoleon assembles the notables at Bay-                          1866    General Prim lays down his arms, and
           Khedive.                                                   the ruins of Eretria, March.                                 Naples declared in a state of siege.                                  onne, May 25.                                                            insurgents enter Portugal.
       Arabi erects fortifications, and threatens           1893    Ministry resigned May 10, and suc-                             Ratazzi's ministry overthrown and a new                             Ferdinand VII. abdicates.                                                O'Donnell resigns, and Narvaez forms a
         to blow up the Suez Canal.                                   ceeded by a new cabinet, with M.                               one formed by Farina.                                             Napoleon I. gives crown to his brother                                     new ministry.
       Admiral Seymour takes command           of                     Tricoupis as premier, Nov. 11.                               Garibaldi endeavors to wrest Rome from                                Joseph Bonaparte, who enters Madrid,                                   The Cortes dismissed by the Queen.
          English forces, and orders Arabi to               1897    Greeo-Turkish war began April 16; ended                          the Pope.                                                           July 12, but is driven out, July 29.                                   Spain formally recognizes and forms a
         cease fortifying; he refuses.                                May 17, 18S97; peace treaty signed                           He is made prisoner at Aspromonte, by                               The French defeated at Vimtniera, Aug.                                     treaty with the republics of Guatemala,
       Bombardment of Alexandrian forts, July                         Sept. 18, 1897.                                                the Italian army.                                                   21, by the English.                                                       Honduras, Salvador, Costa Rica and
         12; they are destroyed by the English              1910    King George called National Assembly                     1863 Commercial treaties with France and                                  Battle of Logrono; defeat of the patriots.                                    Nicaragua.
         fleets.                                                      for purpose of introducing reforms.                            Great Britain.                                                    Battle of Durange; the French victorious.                        1867    Revolt in Catalonia and Aragon sup-
       Arabi Pasha retreats into the country                1912    Revival of interest in old Olympian                      1864 Treaty with France for the evacuation                                The French retake Madrid, and restore                                      pressed.
         under cover of a flag of truce.                              games.                                                         of Rome by the French in February,                                  King Joseph Bonaparte, Dec. 2.                                 1868    The Queen grants general amnesty.
       The Khedive declares him a rebel.                                                                                                1867.                                                          Napoleon enters Madrid, Dec. 4.                                          Death of Narvaez.
       Gen. Sir Garnet Wolsley arrives at Alex-                                                                                       Transfer of the Capital from Turin to                    1809    Battle of Corunna and death of Moore,                                    Murrillo becomes prime minister.
         andria, Aug. 15, with English troops.                                                                                           Florence.                                                       Jan. 16.                                                               Revolution led by Prim and Serrano,
       Ramleh fortified.                                                                                                     1865     Bank of Italy established.                                       Surrender of Saragossa.                                                    Sept. 17; revolution successful, and
        Skirmish between Egyptians and the                                                                                            New Parliament meets at Florence.                                Spain entered by Sir Arthur Wellesley,                                     ministry resigns.
          English.                                                                                                                    The insurrections at Turin suppressed.                             who crosses the Douro.                                                 Queen Isabella takes refuge in        France,
       The joint fleet sails to Aboukir under
          sealed orders; then proceeds to Port
                                                                                ITALY.                                                Brigands cause much trouble.                                     Defeat of the French at Tulavera, July
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and is deposed.
                                                                                                                             1866     The Austro-Italian war begins.                                                                                                            Provisional    government   organized      at
         Said; reached Ismailia.                            1775 Death of Pope Clement XIV. and eleva-                                Alliance with Prussia.                                           Spanish defeated at Ocana, Nov. 12.                                        Madrid, by Prim, Serrano and Olozaga,
       The English occupy the Suez Canal.                            tion of Pio VI.                                                  Italy declares war against Austria, June                         Severe battle of Molinos del Ray, Dec. 21.                                 Oct. 8.
       Arabs attack the British at Kassassin,               17096-'97 Bonaparte's first victories in Italy.                              20.                                                   1810    Granada, Seville and Atsbrga seized by
          and are repulsed with heavy loss.                                                                                                                                                              the French.                                                            Religious freedom, liberty of the press,
                                                             1797 Treaty of Campo Formic.                                             Italians cross the Mincio, June 2o3.                                                                                                        and universal suffrage granted by new
       Battle of Tel-el-Kebir in which the                         France and Austria divide the Venetian                                                                                              Capture of Ciudad-Rodrigo by Marshal
         whole Egyptian army is routed, Sept.                                                                                         Battle of Custoza, June 24, and defeat of                          Ney, July 10.                                                             government, Oct. 26.
                                                                     States.                                                             the Italians by the Archduke Albrecht.                                                                                                 Revolts at different points suppressed.
           13.                                                     The Cis-Alpine republic founded.                                                                                            1811    Wellington defeats the French at Fuen-
       Zagazig occupied.                                                                                                              Battle of Lissa.                                                   tes d'Onoro, May 6, and at Albuera,                                    The United States government recog-
                                                             179S Second invasion of the French.                                      Defeat of the Italian fleet, July 20.                                                                                                        nizes the provisional government.
       Kafre-el-Dwar surrenders.                                   Pope Pius VI. deposed by Bonaparte.                                                                                                   May 16.
       Cairo opens its gates.                                                                                                         Peace of Prague, Aug. 23; Eastern Lom-                           Tarragora taken by Suchet.                                       1869    Efforts to find a king for Spain.
                                                            1799 Defeat of the French at Trebia, by the                                  bardy and Venetia added to the King-                                                                                                   Serrano elected Regent, June 15.
       Arabi Pasha and 10,000 troops surrender                       Russians, under Suwarrow.                                                                                                         King Joseph returns to Madrid.
         unconditionally.                                                                                                                dom.                                                          Spanish defeated by Soult at Lorca.                                      Prim becomes prime minister.
                                                            1800 Death of Pio VI.; Pio VII. Pope.                                     Treaty of Nicholsburg, Aug. 26; close of                                                                                                  Outbreaks of the Carlists and republicans
       End of the war, Sept. 15.                                   Bonaparte crosses the Alps.                                                                                                 1812    Wellington victorious at Ciudad-Rodrigo,
       Total destruction of Hlicks Pasha and                                                                                             the war.                                                        Jan. 19.                                                                  suppressed.
1883                                                              *Battle of Marengo, June 24; total defeat                           Cession of Venetia to the Italian king-                                                                                           1870    Espartero declines the Spanish crown.
         his army in the Soudan, Nov. 3.                             of Austrians.                                                                                                                     Badajoz stormed and carried, April 6.
1884   Resignation of Egyptian ministry of                                                                                               dom.                                                          Defeat of the French at Salamanca, July                                  Isabella abdicates in favor of her son Al-
                                                            1802 The Cis-Alpine republic remodeled as the                             King Victor Emmanuel enters Veni-e,                                                                                                          fonso; it is offered to Prince Leopold,
         Sherif Pasha, Jan. 7.                                        Italian republic; Bonaparte Prmesident.                                                                                              22.
       Gen. C. G. Gordon leaves England for                                                                                              Nov. 7.                                               1813 English,    under    Wellington,   occupy                                      of Germany, who refuses it.
                                                            1805 Napoleon crowned King of Italy, May 26.                                                                                                                                                                        Amadeus, son of the King of Italy, elect-
         Egypt en route for Kartoum, Jan. 18.                      Eugene Beauharnois made Viceroy of                        1867     Insurrection in the Papal States.                               Madrid.
       Defeat of Baker Pasha near Tokar,                                                                                              Garibaldi placed under arrest.                                English successful at Castella, April 13;                                     ed king by the Cortes, Nov. 16.
                                                                      Italy.                                                                                                                                                                                                    Amadeus lands at Carthagena, Dec. 80.
         Feb. 4.                                            1806 The Treaty of Presburg deprives Austria                              The French enter Rome.                                          Vittoria, June '°, and Pyrenees, July
       Gen. Gordon arrives at Kartoum, Feb. IS.                                                                                       Garibaldi defeated at Mentana.                                  28.                                                                       Marshal Prim assassinated, Dec. 29.
                                                                      of her Italian possessions.                                                                                                                                                                       1871    Amadeus enters Madrid, Jan. 2.
       Surrender of Tokar to the rebels under.              1814 Downfall of Napoleon.                                       1868     Railway over Mont Cenis opened.                               The French driven out of Spain, Wel-
                                                                                                                                      Crown Prince Humbert marries Princess                           lington crossing the Bidasoa and fol-                                     Serrano forms a new ministry, Jan. 5.
         Osman Digna, Feb. 22.                                     Overthrow of the Kingdom of Italy.                                                                                                                                                                           The Cortes dissolved, Nov. 25.
       Defeat of the rebels at Tet, by Gen. Gra-            1815 Establishment of the          Lombardo-Vene-                            Margherita.                                                  lows them into France.
           ham, Feb. 29.                                                                                                     1869     Ecumenical Council held at Rome.                          l14 Ferdinand VII. restored.                                                    Insurrection in Cuba.
                                                                      tian Kingdom for Austria.                                                                                                                                                                         1872    Resignation of the ministry.
     Tokar relieved by Gen. Graham, March 2.                       Genoa added to the Sardinian crown,                                Severe earthquake at Florence.                           1 17 The slave trade abolished for a comnpen-
     Osman Pasha defeated by Gen. Graham                                                                                      1870    Dogma of Infallibility proclaimed by the                        sation.                                                                   Carlist war begins.
                                                            1823 Death of Pope Pio VII.; Leo XII. be-                                                                                                                                                                           Serrano enters Navarre; defeats the Car-
       at Tamasi, March 13.                                           comes Pope.                                                       Council.                                               1820 Revolution under Nunez del Riego begins
                                                                                                                                                                                                      in Januars.                                                                 lists at Oroquita.
     Egyptian troops meet with reverse at                   1 S29 Death of Leo XII.; Pio VIII. becomnes                               Arrest of Mazzini at Palermo.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Attempt to assassinate the King and
       Kartoum, March 16.                                             Pope.                                                                                           the
                                                                                                                                      The Papal States entered by q- Italian                        Ferdinand swears to the constitution of
                                                                                                                                        ......    . R....
                                                                                                                                                  1               :
                                                                                                                                                               ..... ~,.L on0                         the Cortes.                                                                  Queen, July  19 .
     Third conference of the Great Powers                   1831 Death of Pope Pio VIII., and elevation of                              army, anld liorllte ocU pie, Npt'|!t. zu.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Suppression of Carlist and republican up-
       upon Egyptian finances, Aug. 2.                                Gregorio XVI.                                                   Papal States a part of the Kinigdomn of                  1823 The Cortes remove the king to Seville,
                                                                                                                                        Italy, Oct. 9.                                                and thence to Cadiz, March.                                                    risings.
1886 General Stewart's forces reach Gakdul,                        Death of Carlo Felix, and extingiishmnent
       Egvpt, Jan 12. _                  .                            of the direct male line of the Ih,,so                           Pope Pl'ius IX. issues bull of excommuni-                     Intervention of France in behalf of the                             1873    Abdication          of King       Amadeus.
     Battle of Atto Klea, victory of British                          of Savoy.                                                         cation against the government, Nov. 1.                             king.                                                                Republic         proclaimed.
       forces, Jan. 17.                                             The crown falls to Prince Carlo) Alberto.                         Rome evacuated by the French, Aug. 11.                           French army enters Spain, April 7.                                       Defeat of the Carlists at various points.
     British victory near Metammeh.                                 The "Young State Party" formed liv                                Revollution in Rome imminent.                                    Cadiz invested, ,June 25.                                                Don Carlos enters Spain, July 13.
     Gen. Stewart wounded, Jan. 19.                                    Mazzini.                                                       The Pope takes refuge in the castle of                           Battle of the Trotadero, Aug. 31.                                        Oadiz surrenders to him, July 31.
     Fall of Kartoum, Jan. 26.                                      Insurrection in Central Italy.                                      St. Angelo.                                                    Rebels defeated     and the   revolution                                 Castelar President of the Cortes.
     Death of Gen. Gordon. Jan. 26, produces                1837    King Charles Albert of Sardinia promul-                           Rome annexed to Italy, and made the                                  erlsheld.                                                            The "Virginius" affair.
       intense excitement in London.                                  gates a new Code.                                                 Capital of the kingdom by ryal decree,                         The king again restored.                                         1874    Coup d'Etat.
     The Italian flag hoisted with that of                  1S46    Death of Pope Cregorio XV I.; Pilus IX.                             Oct. 9.                                                        Execution of      iRiego   and the patriot lead-                         Marshal Serrano President and Com-
       Egypt, at Massowah, Feb. 8.                                    becomes Pope.                                                   The Italian Duke of Acosta eleetd King                           ers.                                                                       mander of the army.
     British victory near Dulka Island; death               1848    The King of Sardinia grants a Constitu-                             of Spain.                                              1q2R Tlie French evacuate Cadiz.                                                 Overthrow of the republic.
       of Gen. Earl, Feb. 10.                                         tion and oplonly espotuses the -a'-e of                1S71     The government transferred from Flor-                     I'i9   Cadiz proclained       a free port.                                      Alfonso XIII. proclaimed king by troops,
     The mmider of Dongola decorated by                                Italian regeneration against Austria.                 N                         July.
                                                                                                                                        ence to Rollime,                                       ]S:!t   The Salique law        abolished.                                          Dec. 30.
       Lord Wolseley.
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                                                                                                                                                                                       SIt-'1',:~M1    NT    XVII.

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                                                                                                                                    ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY.
                                                                    I                                                                                                        I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~                                                                                                                        I    ~~~ ~ ~ ~
     1875     King Alfonso lands at Barcelona, Jan.                  9.       1794 Dalnton an others guillotined, April 5.                                     1836 Louis Alibaiud fires at the King, June 25;                       1859   Tlhe Empress declared Regent.                              1870    The        Republic       proclaimed        in   Paris,   and
              Vittoria taken from Carlisty. July 9.                                 Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI., executed.                                           is guillotiued,         Jul     I 11.                              The Emperor takes conmnand of the ar-                                  the Provisional Government organized,
     1876     Surrender of Bilbao, Feb. 5.                                                      Ilobespierre   becomes     president,         Julne.                 Death of Charles     X.,Nov 6.                                            my in Italv. Arrives at Genoa, May 12.                              Sept. 7.
              Defea.t of Carlists at Durango, and sur-                                     Fall of Robespierre, July 27.                                             Princee Louis Napoleon attempts an in-                                  Battles -f Montcbell,, May 20; Palestro,                           I'Puris invested by the Prussians, Sept. 19.
                 render at Pamplona, Feb. 26.                                              Robespierre,        St. Just     and      seventy others                    surrection at Strasbourg, Oct. 30; is                                   May 30, 31; Magenta, June 4; Maleg-                             Strasburg surrelndered, Sept. 27.
              Don Carlos fltees to France.                                                   guillotined, July 28.                                                     banished to America, Nov. 13.                                             nano,     ,June and Solferno, June 24 ;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8,                                                Metz and French army, under Bk;iz,       in,
              Triumphal entry of Alfonso into Madrid.                                      Close of the Reign of Terror.                                             The ministers of Charles X. set at liberty                               the allies victorious in each.                                       surrender, Oct. 27.
     1877     Extradition treaty     witit  the United                        1795         The Dauphin (Louis XVII) dies in prison.                                    and sent out of France.                                              Aimistice arranged, July 6.                                        Defeat of the French army of the North,
                States.                                                                    Napoleon suppresses rebellion of royalists                                Meunier attempts to kill the King.                                     Meeting of the Emperors of France and                                  Dec. 23.
              General amnesty to Carlists.                                                   Oct. 5.                                                           1838 Death of Tallyrand, May 14.                                               Austria, at Villa Franca, July           t.              1871    Rocroy capitulates, Jan. 6.
              Qu een Isabella visits Spain.                                                The Directory established Nov. 1.                                         War with Mexico.                                                         Preliminary peace effected, July 12.                             Aleneon surreindered, Jan. 17.
     1878     Marriage of King Alfonrso to Mercedes,                          1796         Bonaparte wins the victories of Monte-                              1839 Insurrections in Paris.                                                 The     Emperor    Napoleon   returns    to                        P'aris bombarded by the Plrussians.
                 dautghter of the Due de Montpensier,                                        notte, April 12; Mondivi, April 22, and                           1S40) M. Thiers becomes Prime Minister.                                        France, July 17.                                                 King Williamr            of   'Prulssiaproclaimed Em-
                Jan. 23.                                                                     Lodi, May 10. Attchkirchen, June 1,                                     Prince Louis Napoleon, General Menthol-                                Peace              meets at Zurich, for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      eonferenee                                                    peror of Germany, at V>Tsaiilis Jan.
              Death of Queen Mercedes, June 26.                                              Radstadt, July 5, in Italy.                                               on, and others, attempt an insurrection                                arrangement of treaty between France                                  18.
              Attempted assassination of Alfonso, Oct.                                     The conspiracy of Baboeuf suppressed.                                       at Boulogne, Aug. 6.                                                    and Sardinia     and Austria.     Peace                         The armistice            andl peace signed, lF'b. 27.
                 25.                                                          1797         Pichegru's conspiracy fails.                                              Prince Louis Napoleon sentenced to im-                                   signed, Nov. 12.                                                 France agrees            to give tip Alsace, a fifth
     1879     Indlmtations in Seville, Granada and else-                                   Return of Napoleon into Paris.                                              prisonment for life, and confined in the                      1860   France adopts a free trade policy.                                   of Lorraine,             with Metz and Thionvill,
                where.                                                                     Bonaparte's          Egyptian           expedition          em-             castle of   lain,
                                                                                                                                                                                       Oct. f.                                              Conimmer-ial    treaty    with    England     signed                 and to pay              five miillarls of francs.
              Alfonso marries the Archduchess Maria                                             barks.                                                               Dalnles attempts to shoot the king, Oct.                                   Jan. 23.                                                  Meeting of the Assembly at Bordeaux.
                Christina, of Austria, Nov. 29.                                     Battle of the Pyramid, July 13-21.                                                   15.                                                                 Annexation of Savoy and Nice to France.                      Formation of :a provision.l governlnllpt.
              Attempted assassination of king and                                   D)estruction of the French fleet, near                                             Removal of the remains of the E lnp(ror                              Meeting of the Emperor with the (Ger-                         Prussians enter France, March 1.
                queen, Dec. 30.                                                        Alexandria, by Nelson, Aug. 1.                                                    Napoleon I. from St. Hlelena to Paris,                                 man sovereiglms at Baden,         .lJune15-17.            Peace with (;crnai-y.
     1880     Law fir gradual albolition of slavery i                         1799 England, Germany, Russia, Turke-, P'or-                                               Dec. 15.                                                           Visit of the Emperor             and Elnpress to              Revolt oif the CounineTi, March 18.
                Cuba, Feb. 18.                                                         tugal and Naples coalesce against Na-                                   1.842   The Duke of Orleans, the heir to the                                      Savoy, Corsica, and Algiers.                             The second siege and capture of Paris,
11            PvoortlimTi of thre .,z5a,.,tn
                           - L.,
                                   asassin            Aant;1 14
                                               Otfro. 11-1 J-             I            poleon, June 22.                                                                  throne, dies from the effect of a fall,                             The public levying of Peter's pence for-                        March 28.
     1881 Expulsion of Donr Carlos from France,                                     Bonaparte returns from Egypt; deposes                                                July 13.                                                                bidden, and restrictions placed upon                     Thiers elected President of the Third Re-
             July 17.                                                                  the Council of Five Hundred, Nov. 10,                                   1843    Queen Victoria, of England, visits the                                   the issuing of pastoral letters.                              public.
     1882 Franco-Sparnish    commercial treaty      ap-                                and Napoleon is declared First Consul                                             royal family at the Chateau d'Eu.                                   Napoleon makes concessions to the Cham-            1872 iehrganization of the government in
              proved by the 'Cortes, April 23.                                         Dec. 13.                                                                        Extradition treaty with England.                                            bers in favor of freedom of speelh                        France.
          Introdtuction of a bill to abolish slavery                          1S00   Battle of Marengo, June 14.                                               1846    Lecompte attempts to assassinate the king                            The Pope advised by the Emperor to give                       A large part of the war iidemnnity paid.
              in Cuba, June 10.                                                      (;reat victory by Bonaparte over the Aus-                                           at Fontainebleau, April   t16.                                         up his temporal possessions.                              Death of the Duke de t'ersigrny, Jan. 12.
          Heavy snow storm at Madrid, Dec. 10.                                         trians.                                                                         Louis Napoleon escapes frotm liar, May    1861                       The principality of Monaco purchased for                      Commercial treaty with Belgiuml                      and
     1883 Marriage o! Infanta della l'az to Prince                                  Attempt to kill the Council by means of                                              25.                                                                     4,000,000 francs by France.                                 England abrogated, Feb. 2.
              Louis, of Bavaria, April 2.                                              an infernal machine, Dec. 24.                                                   Joseph IIcnri attempts to kill the king,                             Troubles with           the chu..h about the        1873 Death of Napoleon III., at Chiselhurst,
          King Alfonso visits Frankfort to witness                            INA01Treaty with Gernmany.                                                                 July 29.                                                               Romnan question.                                             England, Jan. 9.
              German military maneuvers, Sept. 20.                                  The Rhine made thie French boundary.                                       1847    Jerome Bonaparte returns to France after                             Sardinian Boundary treaty, March 7.                           New treaty of evacuation signed with
          King Alfonso appointed commander of                                       Peace with Russia, Oct. 8, and with Tur-                                              an exile of thirty-two years.                                     The governmenrt issues a circular for-                           Germany, March 15.
              the Schleswig-lolstein Uhlan regiment                                   key, Oct. 9.                                                                     Death of the ex-Emrpress Marie Louise.                                   bidding priests to meddle in politics,                    M. Thiers resigns the presidency, May 21.
             by German Emperor, Sept. 23.                                     16Si2 Def.,it of the French at Aboukin, March                                            Surrender of Abd-el-Kadcr to the French.                                  April 11.                                                Marshal MacMahon chosen President of the
          Return of Alfonso to Madrid, Oct. 2.                                                  S.                                                             1848    "teformn banquet" prohibited.                                        Commercial treaty with Belgium ratified.                          lRepublic, May 25.
          Resignation of Spanish ministry, Oct. 11.                                        Pe.ace with England, Spain and Holland                                        Revolution of February 22, and barricade                           Neutrality declared in the American con-                      War indemnity paid in full, Sept. 5.
          Hlervera becomes Prime Minister.                                                   signed at Amiens, March 27.                                                  of the streets of Paris.                                              flict.                                                    Germans evacuate Verdun, Sept. 15.
     1884 Severe earthquakes in Spain; over 1,000                                          Legim, of lHonor instituted.                                                Flight and abdication of the King, Feb. 21.                          France recognizes the kingdom of Italy,                        l'residential term fixed at seven years.
             lives lost, Dec. 25-28.                                                       Boii;l:arte         made      "Consul        for       Life,"               The second republic proclaimed, Feb. 20.                                 June 24.                                                  Bazaine sentenced to twenty years im-
     1885 Resignation of the miinistry, in conse-                                      Aiug. 2.                                                                        Thile provisional governm.ent succeeded by                            Meeting of the Emperor and King of                              prisonment for surrender of Metz, Dec.
              quence of the determination of the king                         I S3,  Bank of France established.                                                          an executive commission, named by the                                 Prussia, at      'Compiegne,Oct. 6.                          12.
             to visit cholera-stricken districts, June                              War with England declared, May 22.                                                    Assembly, May 7.                                                  Convention        between       France,      OGreat IS74 Execution of communists.
             20.                                                               1804 Consplracy of Moreau and PIichegru                                                 Louis Napoleon elected to the National                                   Britain and Spain concerning interven-                    Escape of General Bazaine, Aug. 11.
          Terrible ravages of cholera in Valencia                                     against Bonaparte fails.                                                            Assembly from the Seine and three                                     tion in Mexico.                                           Payment of the German debt, September.
             and other points.                                                      Execution of the Duke d'Enghien, March                                                other departments, June 13.                                       Embarrassment          in     the    Government     1873 The legislative body reorganized, and two
          Spain greatly excited over the occupation                                             21.                                                                    Outbreak of the Red Republicans in                                       finances.                                                    Chambers created.
             of the Caroline Islands by Germany.                                    The empire formed and Napoleon pro-                                                   Paris, June 23.                                                   Achille Fould made minister of finance.                       Passage of a bill for the construction of
          Announcement that of 22.3.5>46 persons at-                                  claimed Emperor, May 18.                                                 1849    Severe fighting in Paris, June 23 to 2f:                      1862   The Mexican expedition begun.                                    a tunnel under the English channel.
             tacked by cholera 82,619 had died, Aug.                                Crowned by the Pone, Dec. 30.                                                         16,000 persons killed, including the                              The French conquer the province of                  1870 Meeting of the new Chambers, March 7.
             31.                                                              1805 Napoleon crowned King of Italy, May 26.                                                Archbishop of Paris.                                                  Bienhoa, in Annatm.                                       Amnesty for communists.
     1886 Alfonso XIIT. King, with Maria Christina                                  Destruction of the French fleet, Oct. 21,                                          Surrender of the insurgents, June 26.                                Six provinces in ('ochin China conquered                      New ministry formed by Jules Simon. '
             as Regent, May 17.                                                       by Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar.                                            Gen. Cavaignac at the head of the gov-                                   and ceded to France.                            187- Death of M. Thiers, Sept. 8.
     1891 Reciprocity between Cuba and the United                                   Battle of Austerlitz.                                                                 ernment, June 28.                                                 The British and Spanish forces withdraw                       MacMahon dissolves Chamber of Deputies,
             States, May.                                                           Austria totally defeated, Dec. 2.                                                  Louis Napoleon takes his seat in the                                     from the Mexican expedition.                                 June 25.
     1893 Riotous demonstrations of Republicans                                     Treaty of Presburg, Dec. 26.                                                          Assembly, Sept. 26.                                               War declared against Mexico.                                  Gambetta prosecuted, Aug. 25.
             suppressed by the police.                                        1806 Confederation of the Rhine ratified at                                              The Constitution of the republic solemn-                             Peace effected with Annarm.                         1878 International Exposition at Paris opened
          Cargo of dynamite explodes at Santan-                                       Paris, July 12.                                                                     ly proclaimed, Nov. 12.                                           New commercial treaty with Prussia,                              May 1.
             der, killing and wounding several hun-                                 Fourth coalition of the Great Powers                                               Louis Napoleon elected president of the                                  Aug. 2.                                         1879 Resignation                of      President      MacMahon,
             dreds of people.                                                         against France; Prussia declares war,                                               French Republic, Dec. 11.                                         Great distress in the manufacturing dis-                         Jan. 2.
     1895 Cuban patriots rise again in arms to free                                   Oct. 8.                                                                          Hie takes the oath of office, Dec. 20.                                   tricts in consequence of the civil war                    M. Jules Grevy elected President by the
             their native land.      Marshal Campos                                 Defeat of the Prussians at Jena, Oct. 14.                                  1850    Death of Louis Philippe, at Claremont, in                                in the United States.                                        Senate, Jan. 30.
             sent with a large army to suppress the                                 Capture of Erfurt by the French, Oct. 15.                                             England, Aug. 26.                                          1863   Commercial treaty with Italy.                                 Gambetta becomes                  President of the
                insurrection.                                                 1S07 Russians defeated at battle of Eylau,                                               Freedom of the press curtailed.                                      Convention with Spain for the rectifica-                         Chamber.
     1898     War with United States; Spanish fleet                                   Feb. 8.                                                                  1851    Electric telegraph between England and                                   tion of the frontier.                                     Waddington forms a new ministry.
                destroyed in Manila Bay, May 1, by                                  Alexander and Napoleon meet at Tilsit,                                                France opened.                                                     Growing power of the opposition in the                       Communist amnesty bill passed, Feb. 21.
                Commodore Dewey's fleet.                                              June 26.                                                                         The Coup d'Etat.                                                         Chambers and throughout the country.                      Bill to abolish Jesuit colleges introduced
              Cevera's Spanish fleet destroyed off San-                             Treaty of peace signed, July 7.                                                    Napoleon dissolves the Assembly and pro-                             The elections resullt in the choice of                           by M. Ferry.
                tiago de Cuba, July 3.                                              The Milan decree published, Dec. 17.                                                  claims universal suffrage.                                            many opposition deputies, including                       Prince Louis Napoleon killed in Zululand,
     1S09     Peace treaty with U. S. ratified, Feb. 6.                       180S New nobility of France created.                                                     Calls for an election of President for ten                               Thiers, Favre, Ollivier and others.                          Africa, June 1.
     1006     King Alphone married.                                                 The beginning of the Peninsular war.                                                  years.                                                            Napoleon proposes a European Confer-                          M. De Freycinet forms new ministry, to
     1007     Heir to throne born.                                                  Abdication of Charles IV. of Spain.                                                Declares Paris in a state of siege.                                       ence for the settlement of the ques-                        succeed Waddington's, Dec. 21.
     1910     June 11 the government issued an im-                            1809 Napoleon defeated at Aspern and Essling.                                            Arrest of the prime minister, Thiers, and                                 tions of the day, Nov. 9.                        1880 Rejection of educational bills of M. Ferry,
                perial decree of ecclesiastical reform                              Victorious at Wagram.                                                                   180 members of the Assembly.                                     England declines to join the proposed                           March 9.
                placing all religions on practically                                Entry of Napoleon into Vienna, May.                                                The President crushes the opposition,                                    Conference, Nov. 25.            The French                Jesuit, and other orders, dissolved by na-
                equal    footing.                                                   Treaty of Vienna, Oct. 14.                                                            with great loss of life, Dec. 3, 4.                                    army conquer Mexico and occupy the                          tional decree.
                                                                                    Divorce of the Empress Josephine, Dec.                                             The Coup d'Etat sustained by the people                                   capital.                                                 General amnesty bill passed, July 3.
                                                                                       15.                                                                                at the polls, and Louis Napoleon re-                       1864   Treaty between France and Japan.                              New ministry formed by Jules Ferry,
                                                                              1S10 Napoleon marries Marie Louise of Aus-                                                  elected President for ten years, Dec. 21,                          Commercial treaty with Switzerland.                             Sept. 20.
                                                                                       tria, April 1.                                                                     22; affirmative votes, 7,473,431; nega-                            Convention with Italy respecting the               1881 Elections favorable to the government.
                                                                                    Union of Holland with France.                                                         tive, 644,251.                                                         evacuation of Romne, Sent. 15.                           $200,000,000 loan taken up three times
                                                                              1SI Birth of the King of Rome, afterward                                         1852     President Louis Napoleon occupies the                                Establishment of the Mexican empire,                            over.
                                                                                       Napoleon II.                                                                       Tuileries, Jan. 1.                                                     with Maximilian, of Austria, as Em-
                         FRANCE.                                               ]S12 War declared with Russia.                                                          The new constitution published, Jan. 14.                                  peror.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          France invades Tunis, and treaty with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bey signed, May 12, by which the re-
                                                                                    Napoleon invades Russia.                                                           Banishment of 83 memnbers of the As-                                  Death of Marshal Pelissier, Duke of                             public gains virtual suzerainty.
     1769     Beginning of the power of Madame du                                   Great victory of the French at Borodino,                                              sembly, and transportation of nearly                                  Malakoff.                                                 Ratification by Senate, May 23.
                 Barry.                                                                Sept. 7.                                                                           600 persons for resisting coup d'etat.                     1865   The clergy prohibited from reading the                        Great excitement produced in Italy.
     1770     Tihe l)auphine marries Marie Antoinette,                              Disastrous retreat of the French from                                              The property of the Orleans family con-                                   Pope's Encyclical in the churches.                       Gainbetta enthusiastically received at Ca
                 of Austria.                                                           Moscow, October.                                                                   fiscated.                                                          Treaty with Sweden signed.                                       hors, May 25.
     1774     Death of Louis XV.; accession of Louis                          lI>l; The Concordat treaty with the Pope.                                                The birthday of Napoleon I., Aug. 15,                                The plan of Minister Duruy, for compul-                       Rejection of serntin de liste, May 9.
                 XVI.                                                               Alliance of Austria, Russia and Prussia                                               declared the only national holiday.                                    sory education, rejected by the Assem-                   Gambetta            premier on resignation of
     1776      Dismissal of Turgot from office.                                        against Napoleon, March 16.                                                      Organization of the Legislative Cham-                                   bly.                                                          Ferry's cabinet.
     1777     Necker becomes Minister of Finance.                                   Battle of Leipzig.                                                                    bers, the Senate and Corps Legislatif,                             Death of the Duke de Morny.                        1882 Resignation of Gambetta's ministry, Jan.
     1781      Necker resigns as Minister of Finance.                               Napoleon defeated, Oct. 16-18.                                                        March 29.                                                         Visit of the Emperor         to Algeria.                          30.
              The torture abolished in legal proceed-                               The Allies invade France from the Rhine;                                           The President visits Strasbourg.                                      The English fleet visits Cherbourg and                       Freycinet Prime Minister; resigns, July
                 ings.                                                                the English from Spain, under Welling-                                           M. Thiers and the exiles permitted to                                     Brest.                                                      29.
     1783     Treaty of Versailles; peace with Eng-                                   ton, Oct. 7.                                                                        return to France, Aug. 8.                                         The French fleet visits Portsmouth.                           Rejection of vote of credit to protect
                 land and Spain.                                              1814 Surrender of Paris to the Allies, March                                             The Senate petitions the President for                                The Queen of Spain visits the Emperor                           Suez Canal.
     1785     "Diamond necklace affair" occasions in-                                  30.                                                                                "the reestablishment of the hereditary                                 at Biarritz.                                             Disastrous floods in France, Aug. 6.
                 tense excitement.                                                  Abdication of Napoleon I. in favor of his                                             sovereign power in the Bonaparte fam-                             Students' riot in Paris.                                      Duclerc succeeds in forming a new min-
     17.7     Meeting of the Assembly of Notables;                                    son, Napoleon II., April 5.                                                         ily," Sept. 13.                                                   Napoleon expresses his detestation of the                        istry, Aug. 7.
                 controversy over taxes.                                            Napoleon goes to the Island of Elba, May                                           The President visits the Southern and                                     treaties of 1815, May 6.                                 Death of Louis Blanc, aged 71, Dee.                 6.
     17 S     The Second Assembly of Notables.                                        3.                                                                                  Western Departments, September and                                 Proposed peace conference in conjunction                     Death of Leon Gambetta, aged 42, Dec.
              l:cappointmnent of Necker.                                            Louis XVIII. enters Paris, May 3.                                                     October; at Bordeaux utters his famous                                with England and Russia for the                              24.
     17,t8!   Mleeting of the States General, May 5.                                The Bourbon dynasty restored.                                                         expression, "The Empire is Peace."                                    settlement of the troubles between              1883 Arrest of Prince Napoleon charged with
              The Deputies of the Tiers Etat organize                                      The        Constitutional      Charter       established,                   The      President   releases  Abd-el-Kader,                              Prussia, Italy and Austria. Austria re-                     sedition, Jan. 16; released, Feb. 9.
                 themselves as the National Assembly,                                         June 4-10.                                                                  Oct. 16.                                                               fuses to join in it.                                     Resignation of the Duclereministry.
                 June 17.                                                     1815         Napoleon leaves        Elba and lands at                                    Measures for the re-establishment of the                              France declares a "Watchful Neutrality"                      M. Faillieres Prime Minister, Jan. 29.
     17,9>     Destruction of the Bastile, July 14.                                           Cannes, March 1, and proceeds to Paris,                                     empire inaugurated, October and No-                                   as to the German-Italian war.                             Death of Gustave Dore, aged 50, Jan. 23.
              The beginning of the French revolution.                                          where he is joined by all the army.                                        vember.                                                           Napoleon demands of Prussia a cession                         Passage of the expulsion bill, Feb. 1.
              The king and queen compelled by a mob                                        Louis XVIII. leaves Paris; restoration                                      The empire re-established by the popu-                                   of a part of the Rhine provinces.                         Jules Ferry forms a new ministry, Feb.
                 at Versailles, to go to Paris, Oct. 6.                                        of the empire.                                                             lar vote, Nov. 21; yeas, 7,839,552;                               His demand is refused.                                           21.
              The National Assembly meets at Paris,                                        The Allies form a league for his destruc-                                      nays, 254,501; the President declared                             Austria cedes Venetia to France, who                          Commencement of hostilities with Mada-
                 Oct. 9.                                                                      tion, March 25.                                                              Emperor, and assumes the title of Na-                                transfers it to Italy.                                       gascar; bombardment of Majunga, May
              The National Assembly change the royal                          1815         Napoleon      abolishes the slave trade,                                       poleon III., Dec. 2.                                              The French occupation of Rome termin-
                 title to "King of the French," Oct. 16.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16; bombardment of Tamatave, Mada-
                                                                                              March 29.                                                        1853    Napoleon marries Eugenic de Montigo,                                     ated, Dec. 11.                                               gascar, June 13.
              Clerical property confiscated.                                               Leaves Paris for the army, June 12.                                            Countess of Teba, Jan. 29.                                        Congress at Paris on Roumanian affairs.                       Blockade of Tonquin by French fleet,
              The division of France into 83 depart-                                        iHe invades Belgium, June 15.                                              The Emperor releases 4,312 political of-                      1867   Settlement of the Luxemburg question by                          September.
                 ments, Dec. 22.                                                           Final overthrow of Napoleon at battle of                                       fenders, Feb. 2.                                                      the London Conference.                                    Apology offered by President Grevy to
     17. 0    King Louis accepts the work of the rev-                                         Waterloo, June 18.                                                       Bread riots in Paris, and other cities.                              The great international exposition at Paris
                 olution, Feb. 4.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            King Alfonso, Sept. 30.
                                                                                           Napoleon reaches Paris, June 20.                                    1853    Death of F. Arago, the astronomer, Oct.                                  opened April 1. Visit of manay crowned                    Gen. Thibaudin resigns office of Minister
              Titles of honor and hereditary nobility                                      Abdicates in favor of his son, June 22.                                        2.                                                                    heads.                                                       of War, Oct. 5.
                 abolished.                                                                 Hie reaches Rochefort, where be intends                                    Attempt to assassinate the Emperor.                                  Attempted assassination of the Czar of              1884 Treaty between France and China signed,
              Confederation of the Champs de Mars;                                            to embark for America, July 3.                                   1854    Beginning of the Crimean war.                                            Russia, June 6.                                              May 11.
                 the king takes the oath to the consti-                                    Entry of Louis XVIII. into Paris, July 3.                                   Treaty of Constantinople, March 12.                           1868   Riots in Bordeaux and Paris, in March                         France commences hostilities by bom-
                 tution, July 14.                                                          Napoleon goes on board the "Bellero-                                        War declared with Russia, March 27.                                      and June.                                                    bardment and capture of Kelung, Aug.
     1791     Flight of the king and queen from Paris,                                        phon" and claims the "hospitality" of                            1855    Emperor and Empress visit England,                            1868   Treaties with Italy, Prussia and Mecklen-                        6.
                 June 20.                                                                      England, July 15.                                                         April.                                                                 burg signed.                                              Serious outbreak of cholera at Toulon.
               Imprisonment of the king and queen in                                       Upon reaching England he is transferred                                     Industrial exhibition opened at Paris,                        1869   Serious election riots in Paris.                    1885 Langson, China, captured by the French,
                 the Tuileries; they are arrested at                                           to the "Northumberland" and sent a                                        May 15.                                                            Great radical successes in the elections.                        Feb. 12.
                  Varennes, June 21.                                                           prisoner to St. Helena, Aug. 8, where                                   Pianori attempts to assassinate the Em-                              The Emperor makes new concessions in                          Peace concluded with China, April 6, arnl
              Louis sanctions the National constitution                                       he arrives Oct. 15.                                                        peror, April 28.                                                        favor of the constitutional government.                     treaty signed of Tientsin, June 9.
                 Sept. 15.                                                                 Execution of Marshal Ney, Dec. 7.                                           Bellemarre attempts to assassinate the                               Celebration of the one hundredth birthday
               Diszolution of the National Assembly,                                                                                                                     Emperor, Sept. 8.                                                      of Napoleon the Great.                          1885 Death of Victor Hugo, aged 83, March 22.
                                                                              1816         The family of Napoleon forever excluded                                                                                                                                                              1887 Burning of the Theatre Comique, 100
                  Sept. 29.                                                                    from the throne of France.                                              Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visit                                Death of Lamartine, Feb. 28.
     17!)2    First coalition against France.                                                                                                                            France, August.                                                    Resignation of ministry, Dec. 27.                                lives lost, May 2.,
                                                                              1820         Assassination of the Duke de Berri, Feb.                                                                                                                                                                       Fall of President Grevv. Dec. 2.
              Cornmencemlent of the great wars.                                                13.                                                             1856    Birth of the Prince Imnperial, March f1;.                     1870   Victor Noir shot by Prince Picrre Bona-                       M. Sadi Carnot elerted President, Dec. n.
              War with Austria declared April 20.                                                                                                                      Close of the Crimean waN, and the                                         parte, Jan. 10.                                1888 Remains of Napoleon III. and the Prince
              Battle of Valmy; the Prussians defeated,                        1821         Death of Napoleon I. at St. Helena,                                           treaty of Paris, March 30.                                          Great riots in Paris, Feb. 8, 9.
                and France saved from invasion, Sept.                                          May 5.                                                                  Terrible inundations in the Southern De-                              I)iscovery of plots against the Emperor's                       Imperial removed to Farnisborough.
               20.                                                            1824         Death of Louis XVIII., Sept. 16.                                              partments.                                                              life.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lSS9Centennial of French revolution cele-
              Attack and capture of the Tuileries by a                                     Charles X. becomes king.                                            1857 The Archbishop of Paris (Sil)our) as-                                   Trial and acquittal of Prince Pierre Bona-                       brated, May 5.
               mob; the royal family imprisoned in the                        1827         National Guard disbanded.                                                  sassinated by a priest named Merger,                                       parte.                                                   Paris Exposition opened, May 6.
                Temple, Aug. 10.                                                           War with Algiers.                                                          June 3.                                                               The Plebiscitum on change of Constitu-              IS90       ('Cabinet,     with Frn-ycinet, March l,.
              Massacre in the prisons of Paris, Sept.                                      Serious riots in Paris.                                                  Conference    on    Neuchatel      difficulty,                               tion; affirmative vote secured for 'l1-        1891 Russia bestows deoraititn on President
                 2-5.                                                                      Seventy-six new peers created.                                             March 15.                                                                 hiscite, May 8.                                              Carnot, March.
              Opening of the National Convention,                             1829         The Polignac administration organized.                                   Conspiracy to assassinate the Emperor                                   Nomination of Prince Leopold for Spanish                S19a Panama             Canal     fraudls     exposed,   many
                 Sept. 17.                                                    1830         Chamber of Deputies dissolved, May 16.                                     detected, July 11.                                                         throne creates warlike feeling.                             prominenlt men imuprisoed.
              The Convention abolishes royalty, Sept.                                      Capture of Algiers by the French, July 5.                                Visit of the Emperor and Empress to                                      Prince Leopold       withdraws.                              Court of Cassation quashed the senten(,
                 21.                                                                       Revolution and barricade of streets in                                     England.                                                               Refusal of Prussia to give guarant,. s t,,                      of the Panama Canal swindlers,                and all
              Meeting of the Legislative Assemrbly,                                            Paris, July 27.                                                      Death of Gen. CavaiUgnac, Oct. 28.                                           France.                                                      released from jail, (exept Chas. de Lcs-
                 Oct. 1.                                                                   Flight and abdication of Charles X., July                                The Emperor Napoleon mreets the Em-                                     War with Prussia deelart:l, July 1i.-.                           seps.
              France declared a republic, Sept. 22.                                            31.                                                                    peror of Russia, at Stuttgart, Sept. 25.                               English mediation refused, 3ly 20.                           Fraince gives Si;am an ultinatutl, which
              Trial and condemnation of King Louis,                                        Unpopular ordinances passed regarding                               1S5S Orsini and others attempt to kill the                                    Prussians blow up briilge of Kchl.                               was accepted. June 29.
                 Nov. 12 to Dee. 1.3.                                                          the election of deputies and the press,                                Emperor by the explosion of thri,,                                     The Emperor takes eonilnanld of til arl...   r                Marshal MacM ahn, ex-president,                    diied,
     1793     I.Louis XXI. beheaded, Jan. 21.                                                  July 26.                                                               shells; two persons killed and several                                 Severe and ul(decisive e ngageintit at S.Iar-                    Oct. 17.
              War against England, Spain and Hol-                                          Dukle of Orleans becomes King Louis                                        Pwounded, Jan. 24.                                                         buck, Aug. 2-4.                                1S9       t 'Pesiident Sadi Carnet assassinated at
                 land, declared Feb. 1.                                                        Phillipe I.                                                          Passage of the Pub1lic SSafety Bill.                                                                                                         T-yons    by 'ITI anarchist.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Defeat of the French at AWoerth ald 'For-
              Insurrection in La Vendee begins, March.                                      Poligmac and the ministers of Charles X.                                   Trial     of the Count          de M-mtalembert.                          bach, Aug. 6.                                               (C.simir-PI'riireletead president, t                iut
               Proscription of the Girondists.                                                  sentenced to perpetual imprisomment.                                   The Emtpire divided into five military de-                           Strasburg invested, Ang. 10.                                       siund sho            ,rtly after was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and           succeelded
               Rlobespierre becomes l)ictator March 25.                       1S31          Creat riots in Paris, Feb. 14 and 15.                                                                                                            Bittlh (of Courcelles, Aug. 14.                                         I.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Fcix FIure.
               Beginning of the Reign of Terror, May 31.                                   The hereditary peerage abolished.                                           Republicain outbreak at Chalons erusihed.                              )Decisive victory at Gravelottc, Anu. 1S.         ] 1 .5 Fre n'ltch       armuy stucceeds in capturing Mada-
              Charlotte     Corday   assassinates Marat,                      183°2        Insurrection in Paris suppressed.                                           Orsini and P'ietri ex euted for attempt-                              Bazain,'s army shlt up in Metz, Aun-.21.                          as,,a r.
                  July lo.                                                                  Death of N.poleon II., Duke of Reich-                                        ing to ;s-;assinate the Emperor.                                     lRepulse of ( ;rmans Verilun, Auli. 25.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      at                                ol)ryfils c
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ls'~)                       ease
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cre:Itec great excitement.
              Execution of Marie Antoinette, Oct. 1f.                                           stadt, July 22.                                                        Visit of the Quecn of England to Cher-                                Great vitory of Irmssi.ns at batth- of                              ('it. D)reyfs pa.rdoned, Sept. 19.
               Siege of Toulon; first victory of Bona-                                     Attempted assassination of the RKing,                                         b-urg.                                                                  Sedan, Sept. 1.                                          Ertile          TIoulbt ellcted President, Feb.          tS.
                  parte.                                                                        Dee. 27.                                                                                                                                     The Eiipcr-r       N;,Ibl rn anl the French         1I!o        '{'lr(      :tre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Francais. Paris,     Im     lrned,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         March       8.
                                                                                                                                                                      C'nference, at Paris, r-spcctinff thle con-                                                                                         Sa ntos-Dun i onit winsprize for steerabl,
              The Duke of Orleans, Phillipe Egalite,                          18:,4         Death of Lafayette, May 20.                                                 dlition of the l)Daiuhian principalitics.                               airmiy         pade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              prison-rs of war. Srpt. 2.         ]9o]

                  beheaded, Nov. 6.                                           1835.         Fieschi attempts. with an infernal ma-                               FS59 France de(]cl.ares w.r azBinst Austria,                               lRevtlutim in l'nris. andl fall of tih !      }.t-l                      illooi   .November.
               Madame Roland executed, Nov 8.                                                   chine, to kill the Kling, July 28, and i-                               ;antl sends an army to the aid of Italy,                                rire'. F-li'lIt (of thi l :ihn!r * l:I,.ge li,',
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Is                 I.t;    C.        .\. FaIllieTsr elect ed            Presid(nt     of
               Vendee revolt suppressed, Dec. 12.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ('.lr . 'p
                                                                                                executed, Feb. 6, 1836.                                                  May.                                                                 Sept. 7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I                                                                                                                         if
                                                             I                 I{l~l
                                                                                { l        II                                                              l                          Illl{~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                                                                                                                                              SUPPLEMENT                  XVIII.

                                                                                                            ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL                                        AND MODERN HISTORY.

                                                             :::   i -

1910   French     steamer   "General     Chanzy"
                                                         I     18S2      The principle im.inisterial responsibility

                                                                                                                                  1520   Sweden revolted from the foreign yoke                                 1863 The Lower llouse closed, for the second
         wrecked, 156 persons drowned.                                     adopted in the imperial government.                              and under Gustavus Vasa, her future                                       time, by William I.
       The Seine river flood at Paris; damage                            Great reduction of the army.                                      king, became independent in 1523.                                        German states, except Prussia, meet at
         estimated at over $200,000,000.                                 A personal liberty (a kind of habeas cor-                         Gustavus Vasa died in 1560.                                                Frankfort, and approve a plan of fed-
1912   French senate adopted military aviation                             pus) bill passed.                                      1523   Lutheran religion established in Den-                                        eral reform.
         program to cost $5,000,000 a year.                              Serious inudations throughout the empire.                         mark.                                                              1864 The quarrel with Denmark results in war
                                                             1863        Unsuccessful insurrection in Poland.
                                                                         Transylvania accepts the constitution and
                                                                                                                                  1537   Catholoceism suppressed and church lands
                                                                                                                                           annexed to the crown.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with that kingdom.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The Danes are defeated and forced to sur-                                                  PRUSSIA.
                                                                           sends deputies to the Reichsrath.                      1611   Gustavus Adolphus, the Lion King of the                                      render the duchies.
                                                                         German sovereigns meet at Frankfort.                              North and Bulwark of Protestantism                                       Peace restored, Oct. 30.                                                1780    Death of Frederick the Great, Aug. 17.
                                                                         Federal Constitution reformed.                                    in Germany, became king of Sweden.                                 1865 The Gastein convention.                                                  1792    War with France in consequence of the
                                                             18S64       Galicia and Cracow declared in a state                             lie was an important factor in the                                     It gives great offence to the German                                               French revolution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Battle of Valrmy, Sept. 20.
     AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.                                                      of siege.
                                                                         War with Denmark, about Schleswig-
                                                                                                                                           Thirty Years' War and was killed at
                                                                                                                                           the battle of Lutzen in 1632.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Prussia and Austria called upon to give                                          Decisive defeat of the Prussian army of
                                                                           Holstein; meeting of the Emperor with                  1664   Charles XII. became king of Sweden.                                         up Holstein, which they refuse.                                                   invasion.
1772   Austria acquires Galicia, and other prov-                           King of Prussia, June 22;            peace with                                                                                                                                                                  1793   Prussia seizes Dantzie and acquires Po-
          inces, from Poland.                                                                                                               After engagin,              in successfiul       war with         1866 War between Prussia and Austria, and                                               sen.
                                                                           Denmark, Oct. 30.                                               Russia he wias defeated by l'tier the                                      their respective allies.
 1785 Vassalage abolished in Hungary.                                    Austria supports the German Confedera-                            Great at Pultowa in 1709 and became                                     Austria defeated.                                                        1795 Warsaw ceded to Prussia in the partition
 1792 War with France begins.                                              tion in the dispute respecting the                              a fugitive.                                                             Saxony and Holstein invaded by Prus-                                               of Poland.                            -
 1793 The Austrians victorious at the battles                              duchies.                                               1792   Gustavw s III. assassinated and sneceededl                                   sia.                                                                  1797 Frederick William III., of Prussia, bz2
         of Neerwinden and Quesnoy.                            IS65      Great financial difficulties in the empire;                       by Gustavus IV. The latter bing in-                                     Prussia makes peace with the several                                              colmes Emperor of Germany.
1795 The Austrians defeated at the battle of                                reforms resolved upon.                                         sane, was dethroned.                                                       German states.                                                        1801 Prussians seize Hianover.
         Loano.                                                          Concessions made to Hungary, and a                       1809   Charles XIII. succeeded to the throne of                                  North     German Confederation     formed,                               1805 Treaty of Vienna.
1796 Disastrous      defeats   sustained  against                          more liberal manner of governing the                             Sweden.                                                                   Aug. 18.                                                                     Downfall of the German Empire.
         Bonaparte at Montenotte, Lodi, lBad-                              empire introduced.                                     1810   For want of a legitimate heir, Berna-                                1867 Formation of the new Zollverein includes                                 1806 Prussia seizes llanover, Posen.
         stadt, Roseredo, and elsewhere.                                 Convention of Gastein with Prussia for                            dotte, prince of Ponte Corv)o, one of                                      Bavaria, Wurtemburg,     Baden, Hesse,                                       Prussia joins the alliance against France.
1797 Treaty of Campo Fornlio.                                              the disposal of the Danish duchies.                             Napoleon's marshals, was elected crown                               4     Darmstadt, and Prussia.                                                      Battles of Jena and Auerstadt.
      The Emperor surrenders Lombardy to                                 Austria receives the temporary govern-                            prince of Sweden.                                                  1868 Soulth German military commission ap-                                           Prussia succumbs to Napoleon.
         Napoleon, and obtains Venice.                                     ment of Holstein, and the pronmise of                  1814   Norway taken from Denmark and given                                          pointed.                                                                     Napoleon issues the Berlin decree.
1799 Additional defeats at Zurich and Bergen.                              2,.500,000 Danish dollars from Prussia.                         to Swedien as indemnity for her losses                             1870 France declares war against Germany.                                     1807 Peace of Tilsit.
18U00 Defeat of Austrians by the French at                               Rescript of the Emperor suppressing the?                          in Finland by the allies, and Lauren-                                   Munich, Stuttgart, and other cities, de-                                        Napoleon restores one-half of his do-
         the battles of Engen, May 83; Monte-                              Constitution for the purpose of grant-                          berg was given to Denmark in ex-                                          clare for union with North Germany.                                             minions to the King of Prussia.
         bello, June 9; Marengo, June 14; Hoch-                            ing independence to Hungary.                                     change.                                                                Bavaria, Wurtenibnrg, Hesse, Darmstadt                                   1808 Convntion of Berlin.
         stadt, June 19; Hohenlinden, Dee. e;                            The Emperor visits Pesth, Hungary.                       1818   Bernadotte ascended the throne of Sweden                                        and Baden support          Prussia.                                       Serfdom abolished in Prussia.
         and Mincio, -.                                                  Dissatisfaction in the rest of the empire.                         and Norway, where his descendants are                                     Invasion of France by the Germans. Un-                                1812 Prussia concludes an alliance with Rus-
1801 Treaty of Luneville; loss of more Aus-                    1SC3      Quarrel with Prussia, Bavaria, llesse-                             still seated.                                                               paralleled success  of   the German                                          sia and Austria.
         trian territory.                                                  C'assel, Saxony, Hanover, Wurtemburg.                  1863   Insurrection in Sehleswig-Ioelstein and                                         troops.                                                            1813 The French evacuate Berlin, March 4.
1804 Francis 11. of Germany becomes Francis                                and Hesse-Darmstadt on the Holstein                             Laurenberg, assisted by Prussia and                                        The Emperor Napoleon IIlf. andl two                                          The War of Liberation begun.
         I. of Austria.                                                    question.                                                        Austria, resulted in the loss of these                                      French armies made prisoners by the                                        Uprising of the people.
1805 War with France declared by Francis.                                Nassau and Frankfort allied with Aus-                             provinces to Denmark.                                                         Germans.                                                                  The "Landwehr" formied.
      General Ney defeats Austrians at Elchin-                              tria.                                                        Christian IX. crowned king of Denmark.                                    North German Parliament opens at Ber-                                           Battle of Leipsic, Oct. 16.
         gen and Ulhn.                                                   The German-Italian war between Austria                   1872   Oscar II. ascended the throne of Sweden                                     lin, Nov. 24.                                                          1814 The allies invade France.
      Capture of Vienna by Napoleon.                                        enters Silesia.                                                and Norway.                                                             The German empire formed.                                                       Complete defeat of Napoleon.
      Battle of Austerlitz,.                                             The Italians defeated by the Archduke                    1893   Viking ship built at Christiana, Sweden,                                  The Imperial Crown offered to the King                                          The Prussilans occ'Ly the French capital.
      Complete defeat of Austrians and Rus-                                 Albrechlt, June 24, at battle of Custova.                      and sailed for the World's Fair at                                        of Prussia, Dec. 10.                                                          Treaty of Paris.
         sians.                                                          The l'rnssians occupy Saxony and in-                              Chicago, April 9. Dr. Nansen, the Arc-                             1871 King William 1., of Prussia, proclaimed                                  1815 Congress of Vienna; Germanic Confedera-
1805 Treaty of Presburg.                                                   vade lBohemia.                                                  tic explorer, sailed from Christiana,                                     Emperor of Germany at Versailles.                                               tion formed.
      Austria surrenders the Tyrol and Venice.                           Defeat of the Austrians at battle of                              June 24.                                                                   Prince      Bismarck becomes       Chancellor.                               Prussia enters the IHoly Alliance.
      The French evacuate Vienna.                                          Nachos, June 27.                                       1906   Frederick VIII succeeded to the throne of                                    Successful close of the French war.                                   1817 Establishment of the Ministry of Educa-
      The Germanic Confederation dissolved.                              Battle of Skalitz; decisive defeat of the                          Denmark, Jan. 29.                                                         The Gcrmranz occupy Paris, and deprive                                         t ion.
      The Austrian King abdicates.                                          Austrian army, under Benedek, at Sa-                  1911   Discovery of              South Pole by Capt.          Roald                   France of Alsace and Lorraine.                                       ISS118Formation of the Prussian Zol'verein.
1809 Battle of Ahensberg; defeat of Austrians.                             dowa, July 3.                                                   Amundsen.                                                                  Treaty of peace with France ratified,                                 1819    Congress of Carlsba.d.            Death of Marshal
      Second capture of Vienna, by the French                            Venetia ceded to France, July 4, and in-                 1912   Frederick VIII. died; and Christian X.                                          May 16.                                                                      Blucher, Sept. 12.
        the city restored Oct. 24.                                         tervention requested.                                           proclaimed king of Denmark, May 15,                                     Triumphal entry of the victorious German                                 1840 Accession of Frederick William IV., of
1810 Marriage of the Archduchess Maria Louise,                           Great victory by the Austrian fleet over                          at Copenhagen.                                                             army into Berlin, June 16.                                                   Prussia.
        daughter of Francis II., to Napoleon I.,                           the Italian fleet, at Lissa, July 20.                                                                                                   German Parliament opened by the tnm-                                     1844 Attempt to assassinate the King of Prus-
         April 1.                                                        An armistice agreed upon between Aus-                                                                                                        peror, Oct. 16.                                                              sia.
1814   Downfall of Napoleon.                                               tria and Prussia, July 22; peace of                                                                                                1872 The Jesuits expelled from the empire,                                    1848 Revolution of 18i8.
       Congress of sovereigns at Vienna.                                   Nicholsburg, Aug. 30.                                                                                                                      July 5.                                                                    Berlin declared in a stage of siege, Nov.
1815   Treaty of Vienna.                                                 Hanover,       Hesse-Cassel,   Nassau    and                                                                                              Meeting of the Emperors of Germany,                                             12.
       Austria regains her Italian provinces,                              Frankfort gained by Prussia.                                                                                                               Russia, and Austria, at Berlin, Sept. 6.                                   The Constituent Assembly meets in Bran-
          with additions.                                                Austria retires from the German Con-                                                                                                      Bismarck resigns the premiership of                                             denburgh Castle, Nov. 29. The King
       The Lombardo-Venetian kingdom estab-                                 federation.                                                            GERMANY.                                                           Prussia.                                                                     dissolves the Assembly, and issues a
          lished.                                                        Baron Von Beust made prime minister.                                                                                                 1873 National Liberals succeed in the elections.                                      new Constitution, Dec. 6.
1825   Hungarian Diet assembles.                                                                                                  1765   Joseph II. becomes Emperor.                                                                                                                        1849 The German National Assembly offer the
                                                                         The Emperor makes great concessions to                   1766   Lorraine ceded to France.                                                 Troubles    with   the Roman       Catholic                                     Imperial Crown of Germany to the
1835   Death of Francis I.; Ferdinand I. suc-                              Galicia.                                               1769   Convention between Prussia and Austria.                                     church.
         ceeds him.                                          1867        A new and very liberal Constitution for                                                                                                   Monetary reform law passed, June 23.                                            King of Prussia, March 28. lie de-
1838   Treaty of commerce with England.                                                                                           1772   Germany shares in the partition of Po-                                                                                                                       clines it,    April 29.
                                                                           the empire adopted.                                             land.                                                                   Germany receives the last payment of the
       Ferdinand I. crowned Emperor at Milan.                            Hungary       constituted    an independent                                                                                                  French indemnity, Sept. 5.                                                   Martial law declared throughout the
1848   Insurrection at Vienna.                                                                                                    178S   War with Turkey.                                                                                                                                            kingdom, May 10.
                                                                           kingdom.                                               1790   Leopold 1I. becomes Emperor.                                         1874 Civil marriage bill passed.                                                     Occupation of Carlsruhe by the Prussians,
       Flight of Prince Metternich, March 13.                            Andrassy elected President of Hungarian                                                                                                   New military and press laws.
       Insurrections in Italy, which are crushed.                                                                                 1791   Conference between the Emperor and                                                                                                                          June 23.
                                                                           Diet.                                                           Frederick of Prussia.                                                   Attempt to assassinate Prince Von Bis-                                          The revolution in      Baden completely
       Another insurrection at Vienna.                                   The Emperor and Empress of Austria                                                                                                          marck, July 13.
       The Emperor flees to Inspruck, May 15-                                                                                     1792   Accession of Francis II. of Austria.                                                                                                                         crushed.
                                                                           crowned King and Queen of Hungary,                     1793   Revolt in the Rhenish provinces.                                          Bismarck resigns chancellorship, Dec. 16f;.                              1850   The King takes the oath to the new Con-
         17.                                                               at Pesth, June 8.                                                                                                                            Resignation        withdrawn    upon      receiving
       The Archduke John appointed Viear-Gen-                                                                                            Prussians    seize Dantzic and acquire                                                                                                                      stitution, Feb. 6.
                                                             1868        The clergy of the Roman Catholic church                           Posen.                                                                       a vote of confidence.                                                      Attempt to assassinate the King, May 22.:
         eral of the Empire, May 29.                                       made amenable to the civil law.                                                                                                    1875    The Imperial Bank bill adopted.
       A Constitutional Assembly meets at                                                                                         1795   Warsaw ceded to Prussia in the division                                                                                                                   Treaty of peace with Denmark.
                                                                         Civil marriage authorized.                                        of Poland.                                                                 Visit of the Emperor to Italy, Aug. 17.                                      Prussia refuses to join the restricted Diet
         Vienna, July 22.                                                The State assumes the control of secular                                                                                                     Government aid withdrawn from Catholic
       Third insurrection in Vienna.                                                                                                     War with France.                                                                                                                                            of Frankfort.
                                                                           education.                                             1797   Accession of Frederick William III., of                                        clergy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Prussia warns Austria of her intention
       Count Latour murdered, Oct. 6.                        1869        Serious outbreaks in Dalmatia against                             Prussia.                                                           1876    Germany takes part in the Eastern ques-
       War with Sardinia.                                                  conscription.                                                                                                                                tion.                                                                        to uphold the Constitution in Hesse-
       Revolution in Hungary.                                                                                                     1801   Prussians seize Hanover.                                                                                                                                     Cassel, Sept. 21.
                                                             1870        The Concordat repealed.                                         Treaty of Luneville; Germany loses the                                       Visit of Queen Victoria to Berlin.                                           The Prussian army occupies Hesse, Nov.
       Imperial troops capture Raab and defeat                           Neutrality declared in the Franco-Prussian                        Netherlands, the Italian states and ter-                                   Trouble with Roman Catholic Church.
         Hungarians, at Szikiszo and Mohr.                                                                                                                                                                            Inulndations in Prussia.                                                        12.
                                                                           war.                                                            ritories west of the Rhine.
       The Emperor Ferdinand abdicates in fa-                            Bitter contest between national and fed-                                                                                                     The Czar of Russia visits Germany.                                         The Prussian troops withdraw from Ba-
         vor of his nephew, Francis Joseph.                                                                                       1804   Francis II. renounces the title of Em-                                                                                                                    den, Nov. 14.
                                                                            eral parties.                                                  peror of Germany, and assumes that of                              1877    Code of laws enacted March 21.                                             The Convention of Olrnutz removes the
1849   Sardinia forced to make peace.                        1871        Further reforms in the government in-                             Emperor of Austria.                                                        Second resignation of Bismarck; resigna-
       Constitution granted.                                                stituted.                                                                                                                                   tion again withdrawn.                                                       cause of the trouble, and restores peace
       Hungary declares independence, April 14.                                                                                   1805   Treaty of Vienna.                                                                                                                                          to Germany, Nov. 29.
                                                                         Measures adopted looking to the repre-                          Napoleon establishes the kingdoms of                                 1S78    Attempt to assassinate the Emperor Wil-                               1851 Visit of the King to Russia.
       Kossuth proclaimed       Governor.                                   sentation of all the nationalities em-                         Wurtemburg and Bavaria.                                                      liam by Hlodel, a socialist, May 11. A
       Total defeat of Hlungarians at Szegeden.                             braced in the empire.                                                                                                                       second attempt to assassinate the Em-                               1852 The King re-establishes the Council of
       The revolution in Hungary suppressed,                                                                                      1806   Dissolution of the German Empire.                                                                                                                         the state as it existed prior to 1848.
                                                                         Austria recognizes new German Confed-                           Formation of the Confederation of the                                          peror, who is wounded.                                              1853 Plot against the government discovered
          after a severe struggle.                                          eration.                                                       Rhine.                                                                     The Crown Prince takes charge of the
       Count Bathyany executed.                                          Old Catholic movement at Vienna.                                                                                                               empire.                                                                     in Berlin.
1850   Convention of Olmutz.                                                                                                             Prussians seize Hanover.                                                                                                                           1854 Wavering policy of the government re-
                                                                         IRivalry between Slavonian conservatives                        War declared against Napoleon, Sept. 24.                                     Death of King George of Hanover, June
1851   The Emperor revokes the Constitution of                              and German constitutionalists; over-                                                                                                        12.                                                                         specting the Eastern question.
          1849.                                                                                                                          Battles of Auerstadt and Jena; French                                                                                                                   Prussia remains neutral in the Crimean
                                                                            throw of Beust.                                                 enter Berlin, Oct. 21.                                                    The Berlin Conference of the Great
1852   Trial by jury abolished in the Empire.                            Andrassy appointed Minister of Foreign                                                                                                         Powers.                                                                      war.
1853   Libenyi attempts to assassinate the Em-                                                                                    1807   The kingdom of Westphalia established                                                                                                                   Prussia enters into treaty with Austria.
                                                                            Affairs.                                                       by Napoleon.                                                               Suppression of many newspapers and                                    1855 Prussia not allowed to take part in the
         peror.                                              1872        Change in the Electoral Law.                                    Treaty of Tilsit between France and                                            clubs.
       Commercial treaty with Prussia.                                   Meeting of the Emperors at Berlin.                                                                                                           Regency of the Crown Prince.                                                 Conference at Vienna.
                                                                                                                                            Prussia.                                                                                                                                        1856 Takes part in the Conference at Paris.
1854   The Austrians enter the Danubian prin-                1873        Visit of the Emperor of Germany and                      1808   Serfdom abolished in Prussia.                                        1879    The Emperor resumes the government.                                        Crown Prince becomes Regent in Prus-
         cipalities.                                                       King of Italy to Vienna.                               1810   North Germany annexed to France.                                             Protectionists' bill adopted, May 9.
1856   Amnesty   granted   to    the   Hungarian   po-                   International    Exhibition  at Vienna,                                                                                                      Meeting of Bismarck and Andrassy, at                                         sia.
         litical offenders of 1848, '49, by the                                                                                   1812   An alliance concluded with Austria and                                                                                                                  Quarrel with Switzerland about Neuftcha-
                                                                            opened May 1.                                                  Russia.                                                                      Vienna, September.
         Emperor.                                                        The federalists defeated in the elections.                                                                                                   Code of laws passed in 1877 goes into                                        tel.
1857   Quarrel with Sardinia, and diplomatic re-                                                                                  1818 The War of Liberation, against Napoleon,                                                                                                                  Prussia relinquishes her claim for a pe-
                                                             1874        Reforms in the empire.                                           begins.                                                                       operation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cuniary      compensation.
         lations suspended.                                              Visit of the Emperor to Russia.                               The French evacuate Berlin, March 4.                                   1880    Small states outvote Prussia, Saxony and                                                                                 '
       The Danubian provinces evacuated.                                 Ecclesiastical laws of Austria condemned                                                                                                       Bavaria on stamp duties. Bismarck                                   1857   Serious illness of the King.
                                                                                                                                       War declared against France, March 16.                                                                                                                      The Prince of Prussia, Emperor William
       Visit of the Emperor and Empress to                                  by the Pope.                                               Silesia invaded by Napoleon, May 31.                                             resigns a third time, and the states                                         I., made Regent.
         Hungary.                                                        Death of Ferdinand -, ex-Emperor.                             Ney defeated by Blucher at Katzbach,                                             yield.                                                              1858   Prince Frederick William, son of the
1859   War with France and Sardinia.                         1875        Visit of the Emperor to Italy.                                   Aug. 16.                                                                    "New Liberal"         party formed, August.
       Austrians cross the Ticino and enter Pied-                        Great financial crisis.                                                                                                              1881 German Reichstag opened, Feb. 16.                                                 Crown Prince, married to the Princess
                                                                                                                                       Allies completely defeat Napoleon at                                                                                                                          Royal of England.
         mont.                                                           Change in the bed of the Danube.                                 Leipsic, Oct. 16.                                                        The Liberals successful in the October                                   1859   Franco-Italian war.
       Austrians defeated at Montebello, May                 1876        New marriage      law   proclaimed.                      1814 France invaded by the allies.                                                 elections.                                                                    Prussia remains neutral, but threatening
          20; Palestro, May 30, 31.                                      Austria takes a leading part in the east-                     Battles of Brienne, Creon, and Laon.                                   1882 Imperial rescript of Jan. 4 asserts ex-
       Napoleon III. declares war with Austria,                            ern question.                                                                                                                             treme rights of the Emperor, and slight                                1860   Federal Diet maintains Hesse-Cassel Con-
                                                                                                                                  1815 Congress of Vienna.                                                                                                                                           stitution against Prussia.
          May 31.                                                        Neutrality declared in Servian war.                           Final overthrow of Napoleon.                                                  constitutional restraints; rescript modi-                              1861
       Battles of Magenta, June 4; Melegnano,                                                                                                                                                                        fied by explanation.                                                          William I. becomes King upon the death
                                                             1877        Austria remains neutral in the Turkish                        Formation of the Germanic Confedera-                                                                                                                          of his brother, Frederick William IV.,
         June 8, and Solferino, JunTe 24, in all                           war.                                                           tion.                                                                    Disastrous floods in Germany, Dec. 6.
          of which Austria suffers defeat.                                                                                                                                                                    1883 Grand celebration in Berlin upon the                                              Jan. 2.
                                                             1878        Andrassy represents Austria in the Ber-                  1817 Insurrection in Breslau put down.                                                                                                                           National Association meets at Heidelberg.
       Death of Prince Metternich.                                         lin Conference.                                        1818 The      Zollverein  (commercial   union)                                     twenty-fifth anniversary of the mar-                                          Becher, a Leipzig student, attempts
       Armistice between the Austrians and the                           Occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,                                                                                                       riage of the Crown           Prince and                                                                                 '
                                                                                                                                           formed.                                                                                                                                                     assassinate the King.
         allies agreed upon, July 6.                                       and war with the former.                               1819   Anti-revolutionary Congress of Carlsbad.                                       Princess.
       Meeting of the Emperors of France and                 1S79        Resignation of Cotunt Andrassy.                                                                                                              The Emperor appoints the King of Spain                                       The King and Queen crowned at Konigs-
                                                                                                                                  1832   Death of Goethe, German poet.                                                                                                                               berg.
          Austria, July 11.                                  1SS1        The Archlduke Rudlph marries the Prin-                   1833   Other German states join the Zollverein.                                       to the ecommand of the Schleswig-lol-
       Peace of Villa Franca, July 12.                                                                                                                                                                                  stein Uhlhn regimenrt, Sept. 27.                                    1862   The National Asembly at Berlin declares
                                                                           cess Stephanie, Belgiunm.                              1834   Thuringia and Saxony join the Zoll-                                                                                                                         in favor of Unification.
       Austria surrenders Lombardy to Sar-                   1SS3        Raah, Hlungary, inundated by the rising                           verein.                                                                    Death of William Rt. Wagner, German
         dinia.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The government defeated in the elections.
                                                                           of the Danube; many lives lost, Jan. 9.                1840   Accession of Frederick William IV., of                                         composer, aged 69, Feb. 13.                                                Count Bismarck Schonhausen made Pre-
       Further troubles in Hungary; fears of                 ISS4        Burning of the Stadt Theatre, Vienna,                             Prussia.                                                           1884    Conference o)f the Great Powers upon                                           mier. The Chamber infornied by him
         a revolution.                                                     May    16.                                             I844   Attempted assassination of the Prussian                                        Egyptian finances, Aug. 2.                                                   that the Budget is deferred until 1863;
       The Emperor grants increased privihlges               185         Meeting of the Enmperor and the Czar of                           King.                                                                      Germany occupies the Caroline Islands,                                         protest of the deputies against this as
         to the Protestants.                                               Russia at Kremsicr, Aug. 25.                           1848   Insurrection in Berlin. and revolutionary                                      Aug. 20.
       Treaty of Zurich, Nov. 10; permnanent                             Meeting of the Ermperor with the Enm-                                                                                               of Prince Frederick Charles of                                          unconstitutional, Sept. SO).
                                                                                                                                           mlovenments             throughout Germany.                                                                                                             The Budget passed by the Chamber of
         peace with France and Salrdini..                                  peror of Germany at Gastein, Aug. 6.                          Germ1an        National         Assemblty       meets      in                  P'russia, aged 57, ,Jme15.                                                   Peers without the amendment of the
1860   The Emperor removes the disabilities of               1889        Crown Prince suicidles, Jan. 30.                                  Frankfort.                                                                 Convention     between       Prussia and     Austria.                           Chamber
         the Jews.                                                       Emperor Francis Joseph visits Berlin,                    1849   The German National Assembly elects the                              1887    Septennate army bill passed, March 11.                                       The Chamber declares the act of th"
       The meeting of the Reichsrath, the great                            Aug. 12.                                                        King of Prussia Emperor of Germany,                                        Ecclesiastical bill passed, April 27.
         imperial council or diet, May 31.                                                                                                                                                                    1888    Death of Emperor William. March 9.                                             Peers unconstitutional, Oct. 11.
                                                             1S90        The Rothschilds protest against the per-                          March 28.                                                                                                                                               Close of the session of the Chambers bv
      Austria protests against the annemxation                             secution of the Jews, May 11.                                 Hle declines the honor, and recalls the                                      Frederick III. becomes Emperor, March                                          the King, Oct. 13.
        of the Italian duchies by the King of                tS91        Austro-GCerman new commercial treaty,                             Prussian mnlemers of the Assembly.                                           11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1863   Continuation of the quarrel between the
        Sardinia.                                                          April 2.                                                      Frankfort Assembly removes to Stnttzarrt.                                 Wilhelm I., Emperor, June 18.                                                     Government and the Chamber.
      The liberty of the press further retained;             1!)04       Members     Hungarian     IHouse wrecked                        Austria protests against alliance of lPrus-                          1889 Samnoan Agreement signed, June 14.                                              The King      closes the session a second
        renewed troubles in Hungary.                                       Chamber in riot, Dec. 13.                                       sia and smaller (crnman States, 1S.50.                             1S90 Von Caprivi succeeds Bismarck as chan-                                            time, and resolves to govern without
      The Reichsrath granted legislative powers,             1IS98       Elizabeth, Empress of Austria, assas-                           Treaty between   Blavlria,  Saxo)ny    and                                   cellor. March 19.                                                              a Parliament, May 27.
        the control of the finances, etc.                                  sinated, Sept. 10.                                              Wurtemburg, Fetb. 27.                                                   Ileligoland transferred to Germany by                                    1863   Severe restrictions imposed upon the
1861 Amnesty granted for political offenses in               1908        Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by                         Parliament meets at Erfurt.                                                  England, Aug. 9.                                                               press, June 1.
         Hungary, Croatia, etc.                                            Austria-Hungary,      October.                                The     (Ge-rarl Confederation m-ets                       at        1S91 The Empress Friedrich visits Paris, Feb.                                        The Craown       Prince disavows participa-
      Great disaffection throughout the Empire               1909        Threatened war with Servia, averted after                         Frankfort, Sept. 2.                                                                                                                                       tion in the recent action of the min-
        caused by the reactionary policy of the                            war preparations had been made.                               Ilesse-Cassel invaded by the f(orces                       of                Rigiid     pascsport regulations         enforced        in                    istry, Juine 5 : decree recalled .
        court.                                                                                                                             Austria, Bavaria, and                Prussia, Nov. 12.                       Alsace Lorraine.                                                    1864   War with      l)enmark about the Danish
      The new Constitution for the Austrian                                                                                       1851   Reassembly of l)iet of German Confed-                                        Death of Gen. Von Moltke,            April 24.                                  duclies.
         monarchy published.                                                                                                               eration at Frankfort.                                              1893    Princess Mlargaret, sister of        the Emperor,                            1lolstein invaded by Prussia.
      Civil and political rights granted to                                                                                       1853   Insurrectionary plot in 1Berlin dis,-ovrerd.                                   weds     Prince Charles           Frederilck of                            Demnark           blockaded.
         Protestants throughout the Empire, ex-                                                                                   1857   Revision of the German Confetd(ratiln.                                          Hesse. Jan. 25.                                                           Denmark forced to give up the duchies,
        cept In Hungary and Venice.                                                                                                      Meeting     of an           assiebly     of   the    (;<rm:1i                Unveilin,- of tlhe statte of       Willianm I. at                              and make peace.
1861 No deputies present fronm Hungary, Cro-                                                                                               Confederation at Frankfort, at the call
        atia, Transylvania, Venice, or Istria, at
        meeting of the Reichsrath, April 29.
                                                                             SCANDINAVIA.                                                  of Austria.                                                        1894
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Caprivi resigns the chancellorship            of the                  IS65
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Treaty signed, Oct. 30.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Quarrel between the government and the
                                                                                                                                         Troubles in           llesse-Cassel.                                           Empire and is succeeded by Prince von                                         Chambni)er    of   Deputies         over    the     army
      The Hungarians demand the restoration                              Most of Norway was united Indcr ITnqr-                          The elector restored by the Confedoeratim.                                     Ilohenlobe.                                                                    1budget.
        of the Constitution of 1848.                                      old ttaarfager about the end of the   1859                     Bavaria, and other               (Grman states, mani-                1895    Grand celhTbration       )by Cerman veterans of                              Tlhe   lludget ing rejeet,,d thle king pro-
      The new liberal Constitution for the em-                             ninth century.                                                  fest a willingness to assist Austria                                         the twenty-fifth       anniversaries of           t;rav-                       roenes the parliamenr., nd declares
         pire fails to satisfy Hlungary.                     1365 Albert of Mecklenburg became king of                                     against the French in Italy.                                                 etlotte. Sedlan,    etc.                                                      hc will rnle with,)ut it.
      Military levy taxes in Hungary.                               Sweden.                                                       1860   Quarrel with I)enmark about the Danish                                       Celebration :ad navwl dmonstr:itiI at                                        The King arblitrariy sei-',s alnd                  disposes
      Entire independence refused Hungary by                 1385 Margaret, the Semiramis of the North.                                    duchies begins.                                                              Kiel on a'celrot of the ,pening of th                                         of the rovyne,   .Iluly 5..
         the Emperor, July 21.                                      become Queen of Denmark. This great                                  Federal     l)iet maintains liese-Cassel Con-                                  great canal connecting the Baltic with                                     Conivention      of       ,last,
      The Diet of Hungary protests, Aug. 20,                        princess died in 1412.                                                 stitution against             llPrussia.                                     the North Sea.                                                            Bismarck     visits Napolelon     lit.. at
         and is dissolved, Aug. 21.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             P:u'is.
                                                             1387 Norway and Denmark became confederate                                 tlolstein-Sehleswit dispute with Denmnrk.                             I 898   Prince Bism.Irck died, July 30.                                        186V The    Diet deani!           le i.       rrleu rh     of
      The magistrates at Pesth resign.                              kingdoms, under one ruler, and re-                            1861  Death of Frfe1iri(k William IV.; aces-                                1l0.O   Great coal strike, Januar y.                                                    Holstein by Prussia alnd Austria, whichli
      Military government established in Hun-                       mained so until 1814.                                                  sion of William I.                                                  910    Crea:t flood in Ahr valley, June 12; 200                                      thev refui~e.
         gary, in December.                                  1407 By the Treaty of Calmnar, Sweden join-ed                              National Assembly imeets at tleidlberg.                                         lives lost.                                                               Prussian treaty with tlmiini.
 1862 Amnesty granted to Hungarian revolu-                          the confederacy or Scandinavian kingdom.                            Attempted assassination of the Kim.                                   1912    German fleet made friendly visit to United                                  Attempt on llismarek's lif-, 'ayiv 7.
         tionists.                                           1448 Christian 1. of Oldenburg became king                           158,2 The National Assmbl)y, at Berlin, de-                                           States.                                                                   War w ith Austri'l              i,,r allies.
      Cessation of prosecutions, Nov. 19.                           and added Schleswig and Holstein to                                    clares in favor of unification.                                            (Gr.ater Berlin's first mayor elected.                                       Battle of Sadiowa,       total defeat of          Aus-
      Ministry of Marine created.                                   the kingdom,                                                        Bismarck becomes Prime Minister.                                              Great coal strike.                                                            trians.
                                                         I                                                     --

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      IIllll    IllI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I    . 1     I     I    Xl   I     Ill   l   I
                                                                                                                                           SUPPLEMENT            XIX.
                                                                                                                                                                                       SUPPLEMENT  ~      ~
                                                                                                                                                                                                       XIX.~            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~--------
                                                                                                         ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY.

                                                                            Birth of William M. Thackeray;        died          The government of the East India Com-
                                                                                                                              1858                                                                 1878  Several changes in the ministry.                                  1900 Transvaal republic annexed to Great
    1868    Treaty of peace with several German                                                                                    pany ceases, Sept. 1.                                                 Earl of Leitrim shot in Ireland,                                          Britain, Sept. 1.
               states and Austria.                                             1863.
            Formation of the North German Confed-               1812        English     storm Ciudad,     Redirgo and      1859 England declares her neutrality in the                                   Beaconsfield and Salisbury represent Eng-                         1901 Queen Victoria died, Jan. 22.
               eration, under the leadership of Prus-                          Badajos.                                            Austro-Italian war.                                                     land in the Berlin Conference.                                       King Edward VII, ascends throne.
               sia.                                                         Lord Liverpool Premier.                             Derby ministry defeated on the reform                                    Great commercial depression in England.                           1902 Boer War, in South Africa, ended in May.
            Hanover annexed to Prussia.                                     Assassination of Mr. Percival, the Prime               bill.                                                                 British Afghanistan war.                                          1905 Post Office began to receive messages for
                                                                               Minister, by Bellingham, in the Hlouse.            Organization of volunteer forces.                                      General Roberts' victory at Piewas Pass,                                  wireless transmission to ships at sea,
    1987    Extraordinary session of the Prussian                                                                                                                                                          Dec. 2.                                                                 Jan. 1.
               Diet                                                         Beginning of the second war with the                Palmerston-Russell ministry formed June
            First meeting of the new German Parlia-                            United States, June 18.                             18.                                                                  Jellalabad occupied by the British, Dec. 20.                       1908 Old age pension act passed Aug. 1.
               ment.                                                        Birth of Charles Dickens; died 1870.                Lord Palmerston resigns and returns.                               1879 Yakoob Khan recognized as Ameer of                                 1910 Death of King Edward, May 6.
                                                                            Birth of Robert Browning.                           Lord Stanley Secretary for India.                                          Afghan, May 9; retirement of British                                 Accession of King George IV. to the
    1868    Prussia passes the Rhine navigation                                                                                                                                                            troops; treaty of peace signed, May 30;                                throne, May 7.
              treaty.                                           1814        Peace with France.                            1860 Commercial treaty with France.
                                                                            Peace with the United States.                       Peace effected with China, Oct. 24.                                        British residents at Cabul massacred,                           1912 Great coal strike on; woman suffrage
    1870    France declares war against Prussia.                                                                                                                                                           Sept. 3; Gen. Roberts reaches Cabul,                                   agitation.
            Prussia receives the support of German                          Birth of Charles Reade.                             The Prince of Wales visits the United
                                                                            Treaty of Ghent, Dec. 14.                             States and Canada.                                                      Sept. 28 abdication of Yakoob han,                                    Asquith introduces Home Rule bill.
               States.                                                                                                                                                                                    Oct. 19; British defeat Afghans at                                    White Star Line steamer "Titanic" sank
            France invaded by the German army un-               1815        France renews war with the allies.            1861 Death of the Duchess of Kent, the Queen's
                                                                            Battle of Waterloo, and final overthrow                        mother.                                                        Sherpur, Dec. 23.                                                       after collision with iceberg; 1,635
              der command of King William, of Prus-                                                                                                                                                     Zulu, South Africa, war; British troops                                   people drowned; 705 were saved and
              sia.                                                            of Napoleon I., June 18.                                   Complications with the United States over
                 (See Germany and France.)                                  Peace with France.                                             the seizure of Messrs. Mason and Slidell,                       enter Zululand, Jan. 12; massacre of                                   carried to New York on Cunarder "Car-
                                                                            Insurrection in Tipperary, Ireland.                            from a British mail steamer. by the                             Isandula, Jan. 22.                                                     pathia," April.
            The King of Prussia elected Emperor of                                                                                                                                                      Victory at Kambula, March 29; Prince
              Germany.                                                      Princess Charlotte marries Prince Leo-                         U. S. steamer "San Jacinto," Nov. 8.
    1871    King William proclaimed Emperor of                                pold of Saxe-Coburg.                                         Theyare released by the U. S. govern-                          Louis Napoleon, son of Emperor Napol-
               Germany and crowned at Versailles,               1816        Agricultural and Weaver riots.                                 ment, Dec. 28.                                                 eon IlII., killed by Zulus, June 1; Sir
              Jan. 18.                                          1817        Specie payments resunied.                                    Death of Albert, the Prince Consort, Dec.                         Garnet Wolseley takes command, June
            Trouble with the Roman Catholic clergy.                         Habeas Corpus act again suspended.                             14.                                                             23; battle of Ulundi, total defeat of the
    1872    Creation of the new peers by the govern-              )         Death of Princess Charlotte, Nov. 6.                         The Queen proclaims neutrality in Amer-                          Zulu king, Cetewayo, July 4; capture
                                                                            Trial of Lord Howe and acquittal.                              ican war.                                                      of Cetewayo, Aug. 28.
              ment to carry its measuresin parlia-
              ment.                                             1818        Birth of J. Anthony Froude.                   1862           Great distress in the cotton manufactur-                       Great distress and famine in Ireland.                                          AUSTRALIA.
    1878    Troubles with the Roman Catholic bish-              1819        Queen Victoria born, May 24.                                   ing districts in consequence of the civil                    Parnell visits the United States in behalf
              ops. The stamp tax.                                           Peel's Currency Act.                                           war in America.                                                of the Land League.                                              1770   Captain Cook, Sir Joseph Banks and
                                                                            Birth of Ruskin.                                             Confederate "Alabama" sails from Eng-                          Anti-rent agitation in Ireland.                                             others land at Botany Bay and name
    1874    Troubles with the Roman Catholic bish-                                                                                                                                                 1880 Continued fighting in Afghan; Shere All                                     the country New South Wales, April 28.
              ops.                                              1820        Death of George III., Jan. 29.                                 land.
            The Old Catholic bishops given salaries                         Cato Street conspiracy discovered, Feb.                      Second international exhibition, May 1.                          made Governor of Candahar; Yakoob                                1773 Explorations of Furneaux.
              by the government.                                              20.                                                        Marriage of Princess Alice to Louis of                           Khan attacks Candahar and repulses                               1774   Capt. Cook explores Australia and New
            Attempt to assassinate Bismarck, July                       Trial of Queen Caroline.                                           Hesse, July 1.                                                 Gen. Burrows, July 27; sortie from                                        Zealand.
              13.                                                       Birth of Herbert Spencer.                                        Prince Alfred declines the throne of                             Candahar     fails, Aug. 16; Gen. Roberts                        1777 Capt. Cook makes a third voyage of ex-
                                                                        Birth of George McDonald.                                          Greece, Oct. 23.                                               relieves Candahar, Aug. 31; defeats                                       ploration.
    1875    Conference of the Rorman Catholic bish-                                                                                      Serious riots in Ireland.                                        Yakoob Khan, Sept. 1.                                            1788 First landing of English convicts at Port
              ops at Fulda.                                             Death of Queen Caroline, Aug. 7.
            Religious agitation in Prussia.                             Great outrages in Ireland.                        1863           Continued distress in cotton districts.                        Resignation of the Beaconsfield Ministry,                                   Jackson.
                                                                1821    George IV. crowned, July 19.                                     Marriage of the Prince of Wales to Prin-                         April 22; Gladstone forms a new min-                                    Phillips, first Governor, founds Sydney,
            Government aid withdrawn from Cath-                                                                                                                                                           istry, April 29.                                                          with 1,039 persons, Jan. 26.
              olic clergy.                                      1822    King George IV. visits Scotland.                                   cess Alexandra, of Denmark, March 10.
            New Constitution adopted by the Pro-                        "Whiteboy" outrages in Ireland.                   1864           Birth of a son to the Prince of Wales.                         Compensation for Disturbance Bill re-                              1789-'92 Voyage of Bligh.
              testant State Church.                                     Suicide of Castlereagh.                                           Visitof Garibaldi.                                              jected.                                                          1790 Distress, owing to the loss of the store-
                                                               1823     First Mechanics' Institute held.                                 The Ionian Islands ceded to Greece.                            Lord Montmorris shot, Sept. 25.                                             ship "Guardian."
    1876    The German made the official language                                                                                                                                                       "Boycotting" practiced.                                            1793 First house for public worship erected.
              in Prussian Poland.                                       Agitation about tests and corporation                            Powers as to Confederate privateers dis-
            Deposition of Catholic bishops in Mun-                         acts.                                                           cussed.                                                      Arrest of Parnell, Healy and others on                             1795 First publication of Government Gazette.
                 sterand Cologne.                              1824     English-Burmese war.                                             European Conference, at London, on the                           charge of conspiracy to prevent pay-                             1798 Bass' Straits discovered, by Bass and
                                                                        Death of Lord Byron in Greece.                                     Schleswig-Holstein question.                                   ment of rent.                                                             Flinders.
            Great inundations in Prussia.                                                                                                                                                          1881 Duke of Argyle resigns from cabinet,                               1800-'05 Explorations and surveys of the coast
                        (See Germany.)                         1825     The great commercial crisis.                      1865           Cattle plague in England and Ireland.
                                                                        First railroad in England.                                       Fenian troubles in Ireland; arrest of                            April 8.                                                                  of Australia, by Grant and Flinders.
                                                                        Thames tunnel comnmenced.                                          James Stephens, "Head Center," Nov.                          Death of Lord Beaconsfield.                                        1802 First brick church built.
                                                                        Birth of Wilkie Collins.                                           11; escape of Stephens, Nov. 24.                             Lord Salisbury the Conservative Leader.                            1803 Van Dieman's Land, now Tasmania, estab-
                                                               1827     Lord Canning Prime Minister.                                     Russell-Gladstone ministry.                                    Bradlaugh excluded from House of Com-                                       lished ; first settlement made at -Port
                                                                        Lord Palmerston Foreign Secretary.                               Death of Richard Cobden, April 2.                                     nlons.                                                               Philip.
                                                               1828     Battle of Navarino.                                              Death of Lord Palmerston, Oct. 18.                              Coercion Act for Ireland passed, March                            1804 Insurrection of Irish convicts repressed.
                                                                        The allies defeat the Turkish and Egyp-                          Important commercial treaty with Aus-                              21.                                                            1808 Gov. Bligh deposed for tyranny and sent
    GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND                                   1829
                                                                           tian fleets.
                                                                        Roman Catholic Relief Bill passed, April          1866
                                                                                                                                           tria, Dec. 16.
                                                                                                                                         Defeat of Lord Russell's reform bill, June
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Irish Land Bill passed, Aug. 16.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Yakoob Khan routes the Ameer and en-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    horne; succeeded by MacQuarrie.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1817-'23 Explorations into the interior of Aus-
                                                                           13.                                                             18.                                                              ters Candahar.                                                          tralia, by Wentworth, Lawson, Bloxand,
    1765    American Stamp Aet passed, March 22.                                                                                                                                                         Parnell arrested under Coercion Act.                                       Oxley and others.
            Death of the Pretender, at Rome.                            Great riots in London.                                           Resignation of Russell ministry, June 26.
            Percy's Reliques published.                        1830     Death of George IV.                                              Derby forms his third cabinet, July 6.                             Oct. 13.                                                       1826 Settlement of        King George's     Sound
                                                                        William IV. mounts the throne, June 26.                          Cattle plague continues, causing great                          Land League declared illegal, Oct. 20.                                     formed.
    1766    Birth of Isaac Disraeli; died 1848.                                                                                                                                                          Yakoob Khan defeated by the Ameer,                                1828 South Australia explored by Stuart.
    1768    Bruce's travels.                                            Ministry of the Duke of Wellington.                                loss.
            Academy of arts founded.                                    Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester                Princess Helena marries Prince Christian                                      Sept. 22.                                                     1829 West Australia made a province; a Legis-
                                                                           railway.                                               of Schleswig-Holstein, July 5.                                         Agrarian outrages in Ireland.                                              lative Council established and Capt.
    1769    Letters of Junius.                                                                                                                                                                     1882 Attempt on the Queen's life by McLean,                                      Sterling appointed Lieutenant-Governor.
            Watt's engine.                                     1831     The new London bridge opened.                          Atlantic cable pronounced a success.
    "I      Arkwright's Jenny.                                          The reform bill rejected by the Lords,                 Habeas corpus suspended in Ireland.                                          March 2.                                                       1830 Stuart further explores South Australia.
            Birth of the painter, Lawrence; died 1830.                     Oct. 7.                                             Fenian invasion of Canada.                                                State trial of McLean, who is adjudged                                   Fifty ships, with 2,000 emigrants, arrive
                                                                        Riots in Bristol, Oct. 29.                        1867 New reform act passed.                                                        insane.                                                                in Western Australia.
    1770    Lord North's ministry.                                                                                                                                                                       Prince Leopold married to Princess Hel-                           1831 East Australia explored by Sir T. Mitchell.
            Cook's voyages in the South Sea.                            Earl Grey's ministry.                                  War with Abyssinia begins, caused by im-
    1771    English debates reported.                           1832    Passage of the English Reform Bill,                       prisonment of British subjects.                                           ena of Waldeck, April 27.                                      1834 Boundaries of the province of South Aus-
                                                                           June 1.                                             Sir Robert Napier commands expedition.                                    Earl Spencer appointed Lord-Lieutenant of                                   tralia fixed.
            Birth of Sir Walter Scott; died 1832.                                                                                                                                                            Ireland.                                                      1835 First Roman Catholic bishop arrives.
    1772    Warren Hastings in India.                                   Death of Sir Walter Scott, Sept. 2.                    Fenian outbreaks in Ireland.
                                                                        Passage of the Irish Reform Bill, Aug. 7.              Disraeli's reform bill.                                                   Lord Frederick Cavendish appointed Chief                                 Port Philip, now Victoria, colonized.
    1774    Suicide of Lord Clive.                                                                                                                                                                           Secretary of Ireland.                                         1836 South Australia a province.
    1775    Commencement of the American Revolu-                1834    Slavery ceases in the colonies.                        The Dominion of Canada formed.
                                                                        Trades union and repeal riots.                    1868 Derby ministry resigns, Feb. 25.                                          Lord Cavendish and Mr. Burke, Under Sec-                                 Arrival of first Church of England Bishop.
               tion (see United States).                                                                                                                                                                     retary, assassinated, in Dublin, May 6.                              Adelaide founded.
            Birth of Charles Lamb; died 1835.                           Lord Melbourne's ministry.                             Disraeli forms new ministry, Feb. 25.
                                                                1835    Corporation Reform Act passed, Sept. 9.                Gladstone's bill for disestablishment of                                  Otto Trevelyan succeeds Lord Cavendish.                                  Eyre's expedition overland from Adelaide
    1776    "Wealth of Nations" decline and fall.                                                                                                                                                        The Repression of Crime bill passed,                                        to King George's Sound.
    1777    Royal Marriage Act.                                         8ir Walter Peel Prime Minister.                           Irish Church passes the House, April
            Birth of T. Campbell; died 1844.                    1837    Death of William IV.                                      30.                                                                       July 11.                                                              Melbourne founded.
            Death of the Earl of Chatham.                               Victoria succeeds to the throne, June 20.              Scotch and Irish reform acts passed,                                      John Bright resigns, July 15, as a mem-                           1838 Explorations of Capt. Gray in northwest
    1778                                                                                                                                                                                                     ber of Gladstone's Cabinet, owing to                                    Australia.
            Relief bill forIrish Catholics passed.                      Hanover separated from Great Britain.                     July 13.
                                                                1838    Queen Victoria crowned, June 28.                       Dissolution of Parliament,Dec. 10.                                            Egyptian policy.                                              1839 New South Wales and Tasmania explored
            Birth of H. Hallam; died 1859.                                                                                                                                                               The "Cloture" bill passed, permitting                                       by Count Stizelecki.
    1779    Rodney's victories.                                         Irish Poor Law bill -passed, July 31.                  Resignation of Disraeli ministry.
                                                                        Viscount Melbourne's ministry.                         Gladstone forms new ministry, Dec. 9.                                         closing of debate by majority vote.                                  Alleged discovery of gold in Bathurst kept
            Eliot at Gibraltar.                                                                                                                                                                          Fiftieth anniversary of Gladstone's entry                                   secret by Gov. Gipps.
    1780    Lord George Gordon's "No Popery" riots,             1839    England at war with China.                             Successful termination of the Abyssinian
                                                                        Assassination of Lord Northbury in Ire-                   war.                                                                       into public life, Dec. 13.                                           Suspension of transportation.
               in London.                                                                                                                                                                                Prayers offered in the Mosques of Cairo for                       1840 Eyre explores West Australia.
            Birth of Channing; died 1842.                                  land.                                               The suicide of Theodore, King of Abys-
                                                                1840     Penny postage inaugurated.                               sinia, April 13.                                                           the Queen, Dec. 13.                                                  Stizelecki explores the Australian Alps.
    1781    Trial and acquittal of Gordon.                                                                                                                                                               Fire in Hampton Court Palace, Dec. 14.                            1841 Census, 87,200 males; 43,700 females.
    1782    England acknowledges the independence                       The Queen marries Prince Albert of Saxe-          1869 Convention on "Alabama Claims" signed;
                                                                           Coburg, Feb. 10.                                       it is rejected by the United States.                                   Arrears of Rent bill passed.                                      1842 Incorporation of the City of Sydney.
               of the United States, Nov. 30.                                                                                                                                                            Married woman's property assessed.                                        Discovery of the Burra-Burra copper
            Lord Rockingham's second ministry.                           Oxford's assault on the Queen, June 10.               Earl Spencer appointed Lord-Lieutenant
            Grattan's Irish Constitution.                       1841    Birth of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales,                  of Ireland.                                                            Anglo-Turkish Military Convention in-                                       mines, in South Australia.
                                                                              Nov. 10.                                         Irish Church bill receives the royal as-                                      formally signed, Sept. 6.                                     1844-'48 Explorations of Leiehhardt, Stuart,
    1783    Coalition ministry.                                                                                                                                                                          War in Egypt (q. v.).                                                        Mitchell, Gregory and Kennedy.
            England wars with Tippoo-Saib.                                  Ministry of Sir Robert Peel.                          sent, July 26.
    1784    Settlement of Upper Canada.                         1842        John Francis attempts to kill the Queen,           Death of the Earl of Derby, Oct. 23.                                 1883 The assassins of Mr. Burke and Lord                               1846 Fitzroy made Governor-General.
            Birth of Sheridan Knowles; died 1862.                              \May 20; a second attempt by Bean,         1S70 Measures adopted for the spread of pri-                                       Cavendish identified, Feb. 10.                                       Census, 114,700 males; 74,800 females.
                                                                               June 3.                                                     mary education.                                               Opening of the Royal College of Music,                            1847 Bishopric of Adelaide founded.
    1785    Birth of De Quincy; died 1860.                                                                                                                                                                   May 1.                                                        1848 Leichhardt starts on second exploration;
    1786    Attempted assassination of the King by                          Income tax established, August.                              Land bill of Ireland receives royal as-
                                                                            Peace with China, December.                                    sent, Julyv 8.                                                The Marquis of Lansdowne appointed                                          party never heard of again.
                Margaret Nicholson (insane).                                                                                             Edu.:cation bill.                                                    Governor-General of Canada.                                         Kennedy killed by natives.
            Birth of Dr. Chalmers; died 1842.                   1843        Queen Victoria visits France.
                                                                1844        The Emperor of Russia and King of the                        Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war pro-                          New Parcel Post first in operation, Aug.                                 Gregory explores the interior.
    1788    Trial of Warren Hastings.                                                                                                                    Jly 19.                                               1.                                                          1849 Great agitation against transportation.
            Birth of Lord Byron; died 1824.                                    French visit England.                                       claimledl,
            London Times founded.                                           Trial of O'Donnell, at Dublin, for sedi-                     Ne:trality     of Belgium guaranteed, Aug.                       Annexation of territory on African west                          1850 Port Philip erected into the province of
            Birth of Sir H. Davy; died 1829.                                   tion; his conviction, fine and imprison-                    11.                                                              coast proclaimed, Aug. 23.                                                Victoria.
                                                                               ment, and subsequent release fromi                        Resignation of John Bright, Dec. 20.                             Surrender of Cetewayo to the British resi-                       1851 Gold discovered, near Bathurst, by Ed-
    1790    Boswell's Johnson published.                                                                                                                                                                    dents, Oct. 6.                                                           ward Hargreaves; intense excitement in
    1791    Birmingham riots.                                                  prison, September.                                        Death of the Earl of Clarendon, June 26.
            Paine and "People's Friend."                        1845        Sir Robert Peel's new tariff.                     IS71       Princess Louise marries the Marquis of                           Sir J. 11. Glover appointed Governor of                                    the provinces; great rush to the gold
                                                                            Great famine in Ireland.                                        Lorne, March 20.                                                 Newfoundland, Dec. 19.                                                  regions.
    1792    First coalition against France.                                                                                                                                                        1884   New Patents Act goes into operation,                             1854    Sir William      Dennison appointed   Gover-
    1793    England begins war with France.                                 Puseyite or Tractarian controversy.                          Black Sea Conference, March 13.
                                                                            Anti-corn law agitation.                                     Treaty witlh the United States regarding                           Jan. 1.                                                                  nor-General.
    1794    Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act.                                                                                            Alabama claims, May 8.                                        Departure           of     Gen.       Gordon   for    Egypt,     1855 Gregory's expedition into the interior.
            English expedition to Dunkirk; Lord                             Great railroad speculations.
                Howe's victory over the French fleet.           1846        Repeal of the corn laws, June 26.                             The Irish Church Disestablishment bill                            Jan. 18.                                                       1858-'62 J. McDonald Stuart's expeditions.
                                                                            Great commercial panic.                                         goes into effect.                                             The Queen visits Darmstadt, April 16.                                   Death of Archdeacon Cowper, after near-
    1795    Acquittal of Warren Hastings, April 23.                                                                                      Meeting of the Alabama Claims Comnmis-                           Death of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany,                                   ly fifty years' residence, aged 80.
            Birth of Carlisle; died 1881.                                   Food riots in Tipperary.
            Cape of Good [lope doubled.                                     Russell forms new ministry.                                     sion at Geneva,                                                 March 28, aged 29.                                             1859 Province of Queensland established, Dee. 4.
                                                                1847        Death of O'Connell, May 15.                                  University tests abolished; army purchase                        Monster reform demonstration in London,                          1860 Burke and Willis and two others cross
            Prince of Wales marries Caroline of                                                                                             abolished.                                                      July 21.                                                                 the continent, starting from Melbourne
                Brunswick.                                                  $50,000,000 expended by the government
                                                                               for relief of Irish sufferers.                            The Ballot Act passed.                                           Jubilee of the abolition of Slavery cele-                                   Aug. 20; all perish on the return, next
            Orange clubs formed in London.                                                                                                                                                                  brated in London, Aug. 1.                                                year, except John King.
    1796    England takes the Spice Islands.                    1848        Chartist demonstrations in London.                           Serious illness of the Prince of Wales.
                                                                            Irish rebellion, headed by Smnith, O'Brien,                  Scott centenary at Edinburgh.                                    Serious anti-Salvation riots, at Worthing,                              Sir John Young, Governor of New South
             Birth of Princess Charlotte.                                                                                                                                                                   Aug. 17.                                                                  Wales.
    1797    Cash payments suspended, Feb. 27.                                  Meagher, and others, suppressed, and                      Great riots in Dublin.
                                                                               the leaders condemned to death, Oct. 9.        1872       Supplemental      trieaty with the United                        Earl of Dufferin appointed to the Vice-                          1861 Stuart and M'Kinlay cross from sea to
             Death of Edmund Burke, July 29.                                                                                                States     concerning   Alabama claims,                         Royalty of India, Sept. 10.                                               sea.
             "The Anti-Jacobin."                                            Cholera in Ireland.
                                                      of        1849        Sentence of Irish insurgents commuted                           Feb. 3.                                                       Greenwich adopted as the universal prime                         1863 Recovery of the remains of Burke and
    1798    Battle of the Nile; great victory                                                                                            A national thanklgi-ivii     for recovery of                          meridian, Oct. 13.                                                     Willis.
                Lord Nelson over the French fleet.                             to transportation.
                                                                            Irish Encumbered Estates Act passed.                            the    lPrince   of Wale(,   Feb. 27.                         Portuguese fire upon the British ship                            1864 Generail resistance throughout the prov-
             Habeas Corpus Act again suspended.                                                                                                                                                             Tyburnia, at Madeira. Dec. 3.                                             inces against transportation.
            Sidney Smith at Acre.                                           Cholera reappears in England.                                O'Connor threatens the Queen, Feb. 29.
                                                                            The Queen visits Ireland.                                    Settlement of the Alabama claims, Sept.                          Anti-Mormon riot in Sheffield, Dee. 7.                           1865 Death of Morgan, a desperate bush-
             Great Irish rebellion; defeat of the                                                                                           14.                                                           Attempt to blow up London Bridge, Dec.                                      ranger and murderer.
                Irish.                                          1850        Death of Sir Robert Peel, and the Duke
                                                                               of Cambridge.                                             Scotch educational bill.                                           13.                                                                   Cessation of transportation to Australia
             Battle of Kilcullen, May 23.                                                                                                Commercial treaty witl France, Nov. 5.                           Lord Rea appointed Governor of Bombay,                                      in three years announced.
             Battle of Antrim; victory of the English.                      Pate assaults the Queen.
                                                                1851        The first "Great Exhibition" opened,                         Serious riots in Belfast.                                          Dec. 13.                                                              Settlemrent of boundary between New
    1799     Irish rebellion completely suppressed.                                                                                      Abolition of tests in the Irish Universities.             1885   Attempt to blow up the House of Com-                                         South Wales and Victoria, April 19.
    1800     Hatfield attempts to assassinate the                              May 1.                                         1873
                King.                                                       First gold arrives from Australia.                            Payment of the Geneva award.                                      mons, Westminster Hall and Tower of                             1866 Population of Australia, natives exclud-
             Malta taken.                                       1852        Death of Wellington, Sept. 14.                               Dea'lh of Lord Lytton, Jan. 18.                                    London, Jan. 24.                                                           ed, 1,298,667.
             Birth of Lord Macaulay; died 1859.                             Great riots in Belfast.                                      Defeat of the Dublin University bill.                            The fall of Khartoum, and death of Gor-                           1867 Capt. Cadell explores South Australia;
                                                                            Aberdeen becomes Prime Minister.                             Resignation of the Gladstone ministry,                                 don, Jan.          26.                                                 discovers mouth of river Roper.
    1801     Union of Great Britain and Ireland.                                                                                            March 13; ministry resumes office,                          Opening of the Mersey tunnel, Feb. 13.                                     Meeting of Convention from Colonies at
             Nelson's victory at Copenhagen.                    1853        English and French fleets enter the Bos-
                                                                                photnis, Oct. 22.                                           March 17.                                                   The reserve forces and militia forces called                                   Melbourne, to arrange postal communi-
             Habeas Corpus again suspended, April 19.                                                                                                                                                      out, March 26.                                                              cation with Europe.
             Peace of Amiens, Oct. 1.                                       Protocol between England, Austria, France                    The Shah of Persia visits England.
                                                                                and Prussia signed, Dec. 5.                              Passage of the Judicature bill, Aug. 5.                        The revised Bible published, May 18.                                1S71 Delegates fromn the Colonies meet to pro-
    1802     Birth of Landseer, painter; died 1873.                                                                                      War with the Ashlantees; Sir Garnet                            Princess Beatrice marries Prince Henry,                                        test against imperial interference with
    1803     War declared against France.                       1854        Alliance between England, France, and
                                                                                Turkey, March 12.                                           Wolseley placed in command.                                    of Battenburg, July 23.                                                     their mutual fiscal arrangements, Sept.
             Mahratta India War.                                                                                                                                                                        Death of Sir Moses Montefiore, aged 101,                                       27.
             Emmet's insurrection in Ireland.                               War declared against Russia, March 2S.            1874       Irish educational bill fails.
             Execution of Emmet, Sept. 20.                                  Crvstal Palace opened by the Queen,                          Marriage of the Duke of E'dinbrgh to                              July 28.                                                         1872 Telegraphic communication            with Eng-
                                                                              June 10.                                                       3MarieAlexandrovwa of Russia, Jan. 23.                1885 Grant nmemorial services at Westminster,                                       land.
    1805     Battle of Trafalgar, Oct. 21; victory and                                                                                   Celebrated Tiehborne trial, F(b. 28.                               Aug. 4.                                                                Synod of the Church of Australia and
                 death of Nelson.                                           Treaty with the United States, regarding
             Birth of Lord Beaconsfleld.                                      fishery claims.                                            Defeat of Ashantees, Jan. 31, and treaty                  1886 Parnell's land bill defeated, Sept. 21.                                        Tasmnania held at Sydney, Oct. 25,
                                                                 1S55       Resignation of the Aberdeen ministry,                           of peace signed, Feb. 13.                              1887 Queen's Jubilee inaugurated, June 21.                               1876 Willshire explores Daly andi Victoria riv-
    1806     Birth of William E. Gladstone.                                                                                              Disraeli becomes Prime Minister.                               Irish Crime Bill passed, July S.                                                ers.
             Deaths of William Pitt and Charles                               Jan. 2.
                                                                            Lord Palmerston appointed Prime Minis-            1875       Reopening of the Eastern question.                             Irish National League proclaimed, Aug.                              1879 International         Exhibition    at   Sydney
                 James Fox.                                                                                                                                                                                    19.                                                                      opened Sept. 17.
    1807     Orders in Council against the Berlin                             ter.                                                       The Prince of Wales visits India.
                 Decree, Jan. 7.                                       Visit of the Emperor and Empress of                               France passes the English Channel Tunnel                  1888   First White Chapel murder, April 2.                               1880 Melbom'rne       1txhibition opened Oct. 1.
                                              abolished,                 France to England.                                                 bill.                                                         U. S. Fishery (Commission treaty signed.                                 Tahiti nnexed to France.
             The African       slave trade                                                                                                                                                                Marriage of Princess Louise of Wales,                                    The Queensland government authorizes
                 March 25.                                             The Queen and Prince Albert visit                      1876       Great revival nnder Mood y and Sankey.                    1889
                                                                         France.                                                          England     purelha es the Siez canal.                             July 27.                                                                  the construction of the trans-conti-
             Death of Cardinal Henry Stuart, claim-                                                                                       O'(Connell centenary in Ireland.                         1890   Rejection of overtures from the Pope,                                        nental railway, to bring the colonies
                 ant of the English Crown.                       1856 Peace with Russia proclaimed, April 19.
                                                                       War with China (q. v.)                                             Quezen of England proclaimed Empress of                            Aug. 11.                                                                  within thirty days of England.
     1809    Wellesley passes the Duro.                                                                                                                                                                   Split in the Irish Parliamentary Party,                           1881 Railroad completed from Sydney to Mur-
             Battle of Corunna, Jan. 16.                               England at war with Persia.                                          India, March 1.
                                                                       Herat taken bv Persians, Oct. 25.                                  Bulgarian     atrocities produce      intense ex-                  Dec. 6.                                                                    ray River, connecting with Melbourne.
             "Quarterly Review" founded.                                                                                                                                                           1891   Newfoundlalnd fishery dispute, March-May.                                Inter-colonial conference at Sydney to
             Impeachment of the Duke of York.                          English take Bushire, Dec. 10.                                       eitement in England.
             Walehcren expedition, August.                        1857 Beginning of the Indian mutiny (see In-                     Defeat of '-"eoe Rule" for Ireland.                                    U. S.         World's          Fair    invitation    accepted,                consider federal action.
                                                                         dia).                                                     Disraeli raised to the peerage as the Earl                              Mfay.                                                                   Maj,)rity vote in favor of a tariff come
              Death of Sir John Moore.                                                                                                                                                               S93 Battlehship "Victoria" sunk by the "Caim-
                                                                                                                                                                                                    18                                                                                  mission and the establishment of an
              Investigation into conduct of Princess                   Great commercial panic; it is relieved by                     of Beaconsfield.
                                                                         the sutspension of the Bank Charter Act                   Endgland takes part in the Eastern ques-                                perdown," off the Syrian c(oast, 400 mleu                                    Australian Court of Appeal.
                  Caroline.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1882 Terrible        miniing accident at Creswiek
             Birth of C. Darwin; died 1882.                              of 1844.                                                    tion.
              Birth of Alfred Tennyson.                                Persian war closed by treaty of Teheran.               1877 Great Britain expresses her disapproval of                            The Duke of York married Princess Mary                                         Talhot. Victoria, Dec. 14.
                                                                       Herat restored.                                               the Russo-Tiurkish war, but decides to                                or Teek, July 6.                                                  1883 Confeledertion of the colonies and an-
    1810     The King declared insane, Nov. 3.                                                                                                                                                           lManchester Ship ('anal opened, Dec. 7.                                      nexation of P'apuia, New Cuinea.
              Great financial crisis.                            1858 Marriage of the Princess Royal to Prince                              remain      neutra]l.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Opening of the New TUniversity of South
              Irish agitation for repeal of the union.                   Frederick William of Prussia, Jan. 25.                      Dulke of Marllb.oroegh      ,madeLord-Lieu-                    1S95 Defeat of the Liberal party and fall of
                                                                       Derhv-Disraeli ministry formed, Feb. 26.                        tenant of IrelI.nd.                                                  the lloseliry (.abinwt; is sueceedl,I by                                 Wales :and Monmouithshire, Oct. 24.
     1811     The Prince of Wales declared Regent,                                                                                   Rejection of (Gladstone's resolutions in re-                           the Earl of Salslisbury and a new Radical                       1885   New Soulth Wales contingent leaves Syd-
                 Feb. 5.                                               Jewish disabilities removed, July 23.
                                                                       The     Conspiracy   and Vohlnteer bills                        gard to Turlkvy.                                                    Cabinet.                                                                  ney for the Soudan, March 3.
              Suddite riots, Nov.                                                                                             1878 I Russian advance ,n (O.mstantinople pro-                        1899 lBeginini   of the Boer War in So. Africa,                         1890   Fire in Sydnev causing a loss of $7,500,-
              The Roman Catholic Board formed by                                     . pa s       sed.
                                                                                                                                       duces great excittement in England.                                      Oct.    11.                                                          000, Oct. 2.
                 Daniel O'Connell, Dec. 26.                                  The India Bill passed, Aug. 2.
                                                                                                         _   X                                                                                                                                                                .
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                                                                                                                                                                                                       SUPPLEME:NT                XX.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sl-l'l'LF.Stl:NT          XX.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~                                                                                                    -
                                                                                                                                                     ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY.

                                                                                                                                                             I                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1780 Delegates                  assemble at Annapolis,                        :ll- 1 1813      The "Pearock," a Briti-h ship, csptured
        1891      Feeeration Convention draft a Co                                   nstitu- 1858 Ottawa, formerly Bytown, made the                                         Feat 1769 The Governor of Virginia dissolves the                                                                                                                                                     fly the -"Hornet,"       I t.    23.
                                                                                                            of the provincial govrrnment by Q4ue-n                                                 House                   ot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     B-rgess.                                                                r,,oiiirniend a C.onv-etion to revise ar-
                     tion for the Commonwealth of Aus-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ticles of Confederation.                                                      The iuia-gturatiiin of            .lumrd Madison as
                      tralia, April 3.                                                                      Victoria;          the opposition defeat, this                                     The assembly                  of North Carolina dfl-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           17S 7 Meeting of Convention at Philadelphia,                                                               d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Presi int,      M._ri-h 4.
        189S Serious floods in Queensland, property                                                         scheme.                                                                               solved by the Governor.                                                                                                                                                 The Creck            ltIdians shbdued by Gen.
                                                                                                                  of the Prince of Wales to Canada.                                            Goods sent to Boston from Great Britain                                                      George Washington presiding.
                      and life lost.                                                            I860 Visit                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Jackson.
                                                                                             1861 Great fire in Quebec, June 7.                                                                   refused and sent back.                                                               Constitution of the United States adoptel
        1S95 Great panic                    the money market; many
                                           in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sept. 17.                                                                     The American coast blockaded by the
                      bankg       and business houses fail.                                             Commencemlfen1t             of the civil war in thw                                    First paper mill erected at Milton.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           I7 SS Constitution ratified by all the Stat                                      f's              British.
        1901 New Commonwealth of Australia                                           pro-                   United States;                 fears of hostilitiswiin                   3770 Boston massacre, March 5; British sol-                                                                                                                                                                                       and     Col.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 our                        except Rhode Island and North Caro-                                           Duel between Gen. Jackson
                     claimed at Sydney.                                                                     that nation.                                                                          diers kill three and wound f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            lina.                                                                           Benton.
            1903 Bombala N.               S.W chosen as capital.
                                                   .                                                    Lord Monck                    made         Governor-GCneral                               zens.                                                                                                                                                                   York (now Toronto) in Upper Canada.
                                                                                                            Nov. 28.                                                                                         of the duties on tea.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Repeal                                                                       Emancipation of slaves by the Quakers
        1910 Bill passed providing for a Federal note                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of Philadelphia.                                                                taken by the Americans, under Gen.
                      issue of $85,000,000.                                                             British troops sent to Canada                          onaccount                   1 17Insurrection in North Carolina against
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           17 S9 First Congress meets at New York.                                                           Pike, who was killed, April 27.
        3911 Commonwealth of Australia celebrated its                                                       of "Trent" affair.                                                                    the government officers by regulators;                                                                                                                                  The "Chesapeake" frigate taken by the
                                                                                                                                            ministry;        l        Ladonaldl                   rebellion suppressed May 16, by Gov-                                                  George Washington                  eleted first PreSi-
                      tenth anniversary              by approval of site                                Resignaati           on of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          British frigate "Shannon," June 1.
                                                                                                            forms new a                cabinet.                                                   ernor Tr von and six regulators hanged.                                                   dent of the United States.
                      for federal capital in district of Yass-                                                                                                                                                                                                                         North Carolina ratifes the- Constitutiol.                                          First rolling mill at Pittsburgh.
                           canberrra                                                            1SG2 Death            of Sir Allan M'Nah.                                            i-        The'72 British man-of-war Gaspee burned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               b y Americansm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        y                 1790 Death of Benjamin Franklin, April 17.                                                      Stereotyping first introduced into Amer-
                                                                                                ]S      Delegates assemble at (Quebee                         to discuss                          in        Narragansett Ba
                                                                                                                                                                                                   from Providence.                                                                    Rhode Island ratifies the Constitution.                                                 ica.
                                                                                                            confederation              of American               colonies,                                                                                                                                                                                                leath       of Capt. Lawrenc*, of the "thesa-
                                                                                                            Oct. 10.                                                                 1773 First              American              Methodist        Cofe-rene,                          Hlamilton's financial rchfimes proposed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   consisting of ten ministers, all of for-                                1791 Bank of the United States established,                                                      peake."
                                                                                                        Confederate           refugees intake a raid from                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Battle of Fort                    Mav S7.
                                                                                                            Canada on St. Albans,                              Oct. 39:
                                                                                                                                                            *t.,                                   eign birth.                                                                              at Philadelphia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vermont           admitted      as       the fourteenth                           British attack on Sackett's Harbor re-
                                                                                                            Canadians arrest them upon their re-                                               Blind Asylum. established at Williams-                                                                                                                                        pulsed, May 28.
                                                                                                            turn, followed by their discharge, Dec.                                                burg, Va., the first in America.                                                         State.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Indians defeat St. ("lair.                                                        Forts Meigs and               Stephenson attacked
                                                                                                            14 ;    General Dix proclaims reprisals;                                           The cargoes of the tea-ships in Boston
                                                                                                                                                                                                   thrown into t                   harbor by masked men,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     he                                      792 'entuicky
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I                             admitted       as       the       fifteenth                      by the British and Indians.
                                                                                                            order rescinded bv President Lincoln.
                                CANADA.                                                      I1 ];. Parliament agrees to a confederation.                                       7                  D
                                                                                                                                                                                                   . (e.               I6.                                                                  State.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Cohnlubia  river discovered by Cap-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The U. S. brig "Argus" taken by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             British sloop "Pelican,"             Aug. 14.
                                                                                                        Great fireat Quebec.                                                         1774 Boston Port Bill deprives Boston of it,                                                      The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            tain Grey.                                                                    The British brig "Boxer"                  -ilptiirod   by
           1767 English Stamp Act aeeeptedby Canadian                                                   Canada Parliament vote i:.0,0f0                                forde-                      port rigthts, March 22.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Washington City             chosen          the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   :s          aepital oi                    the U. S. brig "Enterprise," Sept. 4.
                      provinces.                                                                            fense of the Dominion, March 23.                                                   Meeting of tile First ContinenlItl or See-                                                                                                                                 The British fleet,          63 guns, on Lutke Erie,
                                                     Covernor.                                          Canada consenrts to                      iuion of the           prov-                     ond       Colonial Congress, at Philadelphia,                                              the republic.
        1768 Sir Guy Carleton                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1 !73 Invention of t                 bw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cItton        gin by Whitney,                             captured by the American fleet, 56
                  Great fire in Montreal.                                                                   ilces,    Aprl         1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sept.          i5                                                                   resulting in the revolutionizing of the                                         guns, under Commodore                Perry, Sept.
        1 77 4 Roman Catholic citizensof Canada con-                                                    First Parliament of tihe Doiinioi meets
                                                                                                    ; ;lf;                                                                                     Congress issues a Declaration of Rights,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Nov. 4.                                                                                  culture of cottm,.                                                               10,
                      firmed in their political rights an<                                                  at Ottawa, J.u1ne 7.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Massacre of Fort Mimms, Ala., by the
                                                                                                                                  gold in Hlastings, County,                         1175 Comnmencemiient                       of      the       Revolutionary                        Trouble withl thin. French Ambassador,
                      property.                                                                         Discovery of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Indians, Aug. 30.
                                                                                                            November.                                                                              War.                                                                                      Genet.
          77.5 Legislative council of 2:' members ap-
           1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 7'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -.I      Washington's selond term as Pesident           ;                                    Rattle of Williamsburg, Nov. 11.
                      pointed.                                                                          Teriiiinati;i' of the                     lRciproclty Treaty                           Battle              Lexioigton,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      off                April 19; Britis
                                                                                                                                                                                                   retreat.                                                                                 begins.                                                                        Burning of Newark, Canada, Nov. 12.
                  Commencement of                  the      Amenwrlcan       War of                         with the Unitede States.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Buffalo burned bv the British, Dec. 13.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Perpetual Union of the Colon( sies fo d,                                                Whisky rebellion                       l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ia Pennsyhainia.
                       Independence.                                                                                   iUvIisiII threatened.
                                                                                                                 tFenian                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The British capture Fort                Niagara, Dec.
                                                            l, tU; Americ-ans,                          Fenians,          mniilr O 'Xill, cross into Can-                                          May 20.                                                                              Frcnce recalls Ge-et.
                  Invasion of Cana 'da                                                                                                                                                                                                          Comnmander-in-   .                       .lay's treaty with Great Britain.
                      under Montgomery a u.d                         l. Alil.                               ada; C anadian volunteers drive them                                               General              Wasrlington                                                                                                                                               29.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              June         'I7», '> Congress ratifie.s Jay's treatsy.                                                     Niagara       frontier ravaged by the British,
                  Fort St. John taken                      liy M ntg,),nery, I                              back     and disperse them.                                                            Chief of the Continental forces,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 l7i 9iTennessee adhnitted us                      tlo       sixteenth                        Dec. 30.
                       Nov. 3.                                                                          Habeas Corpus suspended.                                                                   15.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Americans under Etban Alten talke ti-                                                         State.                                                                       Gen. Harrison, after having crossed into
                  Montreal captur,,d, Nov. 12.                                                          M71r. Galt's new tariff.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Canada,        defeats      and     dispers-s;     the
                                                                           rqpulsed,                                          of thie Dominion of Canada                                                 condero-a, Mav 10.                                                              IResignation of George Washington.
                  Arnold's          attack        on           (2In> !(c                        ( i7 Form 'I tiilu                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           British army under Gen. Proctear, near
                                                                                                            by the confedri-tioni of Canada, New                                               Generals 'Howe.                   Clinton and B tirgoyn-                     I7!i        John Ad(]ramis inaugurated as Prsilent.
                       Nov. 14.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Treaty with Frlnce annulled.                                                         the River Thames; death of Tecumseh,
                  Arnold and Montgomnery                         :tt.tck Qebeec,                            Brunsvvwick and Nova Scutia, -March 29.                                                arrive fro,                  England.
                                                                                                                                                                 July    -2.                   Defeat of tle               AmneriCans at      3t Buner Hill                17S Wair withi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -                         France threatened.                                                  Oct. 5.
                       December 31.                                                                     Lord        Nfo-k appointed Vicerov,                                                                                                                                                                                            Mt. Vernon,             1814      The frigate "Essex"              captured, at Val-
                                           attack and death of Mont-                                                     Railwa yLoan act passed, April
                                                                                                                  na-diimiini                                                                      after          stl0,b-n resistance,                    17.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .]iine       .     17>9 Death of WVashington, at
                  Failure of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Dec. 14.                                                                        parais, by two British vessels.
                       gomery.                                                                              12.                                                                                Washington assnles                       commnand at          Cmiii-
                                                                                                                                                                                                   bridge, July 3.                                                                                                   removed             fro)n Phila-                      Battle of Horse Shoe Bend, March 20.
            76 The
           17                  Americans         retreat          fromi Cliada ,              *(iGS Sir John Youmg becomes Governor-Cwn-
                                                                                                1                                                                                                                                                                                lSlO0 The Government
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The "1'pervier,"           a British vessel, cap-
                       June 18.                                                                             eral, Nov. 27.                                                                     Continental Fast Day, July 20.                                                                delphia to Washington.
                                                                                                                                                                                               FalmnO             llh blrned by the British, Oct.                   17.                      Treaty signed with France.                                                      tured hy the "Peacock," April 21.
           1784 Settlement            of Upper Canada.                                       1 S6!) ll9H lson lB.ay territories                        psurchlsed         for                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and taken by the
                                                                                                                                                                                               GenCerals Montgomry and Arnold invadl                                                                                                                                      Oswego bombarded
              1701Canada is given a constitution, and is                                                          A:300,000.                                                                                                                                                            General Bankrliptcy Law passed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Can;lda; capture of St. John, Nov. 3 :                                                                                             Jefferson as                            British, May 6.
                       divided into              tppler and low                 vr prov-           l l70Second Fenian rid repelled by militia:                                                                                                                                  ,1il liiiigmation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 l                             of Thomas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The "Reindeer,"            a British        vessel, cap-
                       inces.                                                                               the leader, O'Neill, captured                      l, Unlitfed                         of Montreal, Nov. 12.                       Repul       of Ar-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            lse                              President.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   nold at Quebec, Nov. 14; second                                 an     l             New York Elveni,,g Post                      est.ablisllcil.                          tured, by the "Wasp," June 25.
        1792 First                 llouse Assenbly
                                         of                    opened.                                      States troops.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Fort       rie     captured by the Am-uerican3
        1794 Toronto inade the capitalof                                 UplperCan-                     Manitoba,              formerly                 'lipert's Land,                            joint assault defeated and Montgo,-                                                  War with Tripoli commenced], Jmie 10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              under Gen. Brown, July 3.
                       ada.                                                                                 formed and becomes part of thle Do-      a                                                  erykilled, Dec. 31.                                                             Death of Benedict Arnold, June 14.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Battle of Chippewa.
        1803 Slavery abolished in Canada.                                                                   r inion of Canada,                                                        17       Destru ction of Norfolk by the Britisb,
                                                                                                                                                                                              ,G                                                                                  si);> Ohio admitted as the scventeenth State.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Brown defeats Drumnmond, July 5.
        181l2 Second war between the                           United States                            Prince       Alfred visits Canada.                                                         Jan. 1.                                                                              Port of New Orleans closed by Spain,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Battle of Bridgewater, Lundy's Lane.
                       and Great Britain.                                                    1       >71British Columbia joins the Dominion of                                                 Boston evacuated by the British in cmo-                                                       and       American vessels              forbidden        to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Brown and Scott defeat Drummond and
                  Capture of Detroit by the British,                             Aug.                       Canada.                                                                                sequence of the Americans having tak-                                                     pass down Mississippi river.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rial, July 25.
                       15.                                                                              Discussion of the Fisheries qu-stion.                                                       en possession of Dorchester Height'.                                    1.S>3 Louisiana                 purchased from the French;
                                                                                                                                                                                                   whi'h o, ,innanded the harbor, March                                                      $15i0,0,000 paid.                                                             The British bombard Stonington, Conn.,
                  Surrender of                   (eneralWo ordwofth, Oct.                       1 .721'rincee              :(-ard's Islnld becoi-s- a part                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aug. 9.
                       14.                                                                                     of tlhe 1omin1iTI;'m Canada.of                                                                                                                                           Pianos first inn.ufocturrd at Boston.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Washingiton arrives at New Yorlk, April                                                                                                   llamilton in                      Battle of Fort Erie, Aug. 1.5.
                  Va'         lerisscle-.r      apitulates, Nov. 27.
                                                    *                                                   Earl of Dlufferin                     lbecomes (Governor-Gen-                                                                                                         S0 Aaron Burr kills Alexander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             a duel, July 11.                                                              Battle of Bladensburg.
             S12 Amier icanls carry (uleelnstomvll Heights.                                                  eral.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         British General,           Ross, defeats Winder,
                                                                                                                                                               with cor-                                14.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Declaration          of Independence, July 4.                                           Frigate "President"             destroyed at Tripoli
                  Death of General Brock.                                                     1S7>Maedonald's inistry, charged
                                                                                                  -3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aug. 24.
             1S3 Americans              d&feated at Frenclhtown.                                             ruption, andtl forced to resign ;                            new                  Commissioners sent by Congress to solicit                                                     by Decatur, Feb. 4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           British enter Washington, and burn the
                  Capture of Toronto, April                               .:d
                                                                        '27,      Fort                       ministry formed by Mackenzie.                                                          a treaty with the French.                                                           Fort Dearborn, present site of Cllicago,                                              public buildings.
                                     May 27,          by        Am
                                                              (he           etrilcs.            1S7.5 Rejection of Recipro(ity Treaty by nitedl                                                 Battle of Flatbush, or Brooklyn,                                  on                         built.
                          George,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Alexandria taken by the British, Aug. 29.
                   Defeat of the British at Sadklitts 11arbor,                                               States.                                                                                Loog sland; Howe (loss 400) defeat;                                                 Lewis & Clark's expedition starts across                                                                a British vessel, captured
                                                                                                                                                                      ly fire,                       thve American generals, Putanar                            aml                           the plains.                                                                  The "Avon,"
                        May      29.                                                              ]SDi Detrution                 fit St. Il-,acinthe,                                                                                                                                                                                                                         bv the "Wasp," Sept. 1.
                   Victory of Americans at Stony Creek,                                                      Sept. 3.                                                                               Sullivan (loss 2,000), Aug. 27.                                         1s0.(> Treaty of peace with Tripoli, Jan. 4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -acuated the Americans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          by                                                                                                                               Attack on Fort Bower (now Morgan)
                        June 6i.                                                              1s77         nited Stales andl Caaflal Fishery Coml-                                              New York ev                                                                               lee first becomes an article of commerce.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            occupied by t                   British, Sept.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tbe                      1.;.                                                                                                      Ala., Sept. 5.
                   Indecisive battle of Williarilmriri, Nov. 7.                                              mission, at Halifax, awiird Canada *; ,-                                               all                                                                                 Seizure of armed American vessels by
                                                                                                                                                                                                Battle of White Plains; Howe ( (loss300                                                       England.                                                                     The British fleet on Lake Champlain, 9.>
                   Commodore                l'erry'svictory on             lake Erie   .                     500,000.i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         guns, Commodore             Downie,         captured
                                                                                                S7S Tlhe                IMarqmis L~irne,
                                                                                                                                   of                    son-iV-law          of                     or 400) defeats Washington                        (loss 300                         Jxwis and C'lark arrive at mouth of the
                   Capture of English squadron.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               by the American fleet, of 86 guns, Com-
                    Defea;t of Proctor at the Thames                               anl                         ueen)       Victoria,           ;;)polinte' Viceroy,                                 or 400), Oct. 29.                                                                         Columbia river.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    capture of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     :                                                                                                                         modore MacDonough, and their army
                        death of Tecumseh.                                                                   Oct. 1 4.                                                                             Battle of Lake Champlain                                                 'IsoG American commerce affected by blockade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              defeated at Plattsburg, by Gen. Ma-
         1S14 United States troops successful at battle                                                  Vrtme         Mt;>y oi traiges.                                                            tlhe Aimwericn.            fleet, Oct. 11-13.                                             nE French lad English coasts.
                                                                                                                                                                                          i     Fort Washington capitulates, Nov. IC).                                      ISO7           litish vessels ordered to leave United                                              comb, Sept. 11.
                        of Longwood, March 4.                                                            tUnited        St.;ts         p)iy    Fisherv     aiw rd,       Nov.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           British expelled from Pensacola, by Jack-
                                                                      'hippewa, Jtly                         21.                                                                                   English ocupy                 ,hode Island.                                                States waters.
                    Defeat of the British at C                                                                                                                                                                 u'ashinretreats beyond                  the Dcla-                                                                                                               son, Nov. 7.
                         25.                                                                             Arrival of 'Marquis of Lorne and Prin-                                                       W                                                                                 Trouble with England respecting the
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ware,Nov. 2S.                                                                       rights of neutrals.                                                          Battle on Lake Borg-e. La., Dec. 14.
                   Battle of Lundy's Lane.                                                                         essLo,,ise, 5'os. 2.5.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Battle below New Orleans, Dec. 22,
                    Naval battle on Lake Chamnphlaini.                                          Sft9 Industrial Exposition at Ottawa.
                                                                                                  1                                                                                              Congress adjourns to Baltimore, Dec. 12.                                               Attack on the American ship "(C'hesa-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of Trenton; Washitngton (loss 9)                                                 peake,"       by the British ship, "Leo-                                     Jethro Wood patents his own plow.
                   Treaty of Ghbent closes tlhe war.                                            1Ssto Eairl of Salisbur y refiss comilpensation                                        1 ,776 Battle
                                                                                                                                                                                                     defeats Hahl and his Hessians                               (loss                        pard," June 22.                                                              Perkins makes first steel, plates for en-
         1816 Sir George Sherbroke becontes Governor                                                          for Fortune Bay affair; Lord Grativill                                                                                                                                                                                                                           graving.
                        of Lower Canada.                                                                     grranrts it.                                                                            1,000),       Dec. 26.                                                               Elnabargo        on American ships declared,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           l'rinceton; Washington (lo"s                                                                                                                    Massacre at Fort Dearborn, (Chicago) by
         1817 Political agitation in Upper Canada.                                              3SS1 9i5,000 award for Fortune B;y outra ges.                                               1777Battle of                                                                                     Dec. 22.
                   Career of Robert Gourlay.                                                             Bill to construct railroad from                                                   100) defeaits Mawhood (loss 400).                                                  Acquittal of Aaron Burr on charge of
                                                                                                             to Bluzzard Inlet passed, Jtne_ 31.                                                 Battle of              I'ernnington, Vt. ; Stark (IoS.                                       conspiracy.                                                                  Attack on Baltimore.
           1818 Duke of Richmond                       appointed Governor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bombardment of Fort McHenry.
                        of Lower C'anada.                                                                Patents issued to Canadian Pacific Rail-                                                      ]o0) defeati Bainn and Bremen (los,                                   1S07 The first coast survey ordered by Con-                                                                                              Ross killed,
                                                                                                                                                                                                     C,00).                                                                                   gress.                                                                       British defeated, and Gen.
         1822 Antagonism                 between         the       French          anil                      way Company, Feb. 16.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sept. 14.
                         English inhabitants of Lower Canada.                                   SS.': The M farquis of Lansdowne appointed
                                                                                                1                                                                                                Battle of Blrandvxvine: Howe (loss 5001                                                      Jiji~tttxtion l of slaves forbiid~ln by Con-                                                                                   Britain
                                                                                                                                                                                                          daeets Washington (loss 1,000), Sept.                                               gress.                                                                       Treaty of peace with Great
           1824 Welland Canal incorporated.                                                                  Governor-General, M lay21.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        signed, at Ghent, Dec. 24.
                    Firat agitation against the Orangemen.                                               Sir John             llawley          .lover appointed G -v-                                                                                                                      lIi     Terry manufactures                 first     wooden
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ai-rival of Lafayette, who is made a                                                         clocks.                                                            1813      Battle of New          Orleans.
         1825 Agitation in Upper Canada on the al                                                              ernor of Newfoundland.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Defeat of the British, with the loss of
                        bill.                                                                   1SS4 Meeting             of the British Association, at                                              Major-General in Continental Arrmy.                                                Fulton's first successful steamboat.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Philadelphia occupied by the British,                                                                                                                                         their leader, Cen. Packenham, by Gen.
         1826 Mackenzie's printing office destroyed by                                                        Montreal, Aug. 27.                                                                                                                                             IS08 Abolition of the slave trade, Jan. 1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Sept. 27.                                                                          France orders the seizure and confisca-                                                Jackson, Jan. 8.
                            amnob.                                                                        Dynamite explosions at Quebec, Oct. 11.                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Capture of the frigate "President"                     by
         1828 Petition against miisuse of reventes.                                           "S 8       Opening conflict at Fish Creek with tlh                                                 Battls of (Gerinantown; Howe (loss 600)                                                      tion of American vessels.
                                                                                                                                                        rebels,         unxd,,                                     Washington (loss 1,200),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WIff-ats                                       Oct.                   First printing office west of the Miss-                                               the British squadron, Jan. 1a.
         1829 First agitation                     for responsible govern-                                    half-breed and Indian                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Treaty of Ghent ratified by the Senate.
                        ment in Upper Canada.                                                                Louis Riel, April 24.                                                                   3-4.                                                                                     issippi, established at St. Louis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Second battle,                   near Stillwater;                 fi'en.               First Bible Society founded, in Philadel-                                              Feb. 17.
         18S30 Lord Aylmer becomes Governor of Low-                                                      Capture, near Ilatoehe, of Louis Kiel.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            "Constitution"           captures      the       "Cyane"
                        er Canada.                                                            1 86 Opening of tlhe Canadian Pacific                                      lRail-                      Gates (loss 350) defeats Burgoyne (loss                                                  phia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     600), Oct. 7.                                                                                                                                                             and "Levant," Feb. 20.
         1832 Imperial duties surrendered to the Cana-                                                       way.                                                                                                                                                            1 S09 First woolen mills started, in New York.
                                                                                                                                                        Coercion          Bill                   Surrender of Burgoyne, at Saratoga, with                                               Embargo repealed, March 1.                                                         War declared with Algiers.
                           dian Assembly.                                                                Resolution              *aainstthe
                                                                                                                                                                                                     5,752 men, to Gates, Oct. 17.                                                      James Madison President.                                                           The "Penguin" captured by the "lHornet,"'
         1835 The Pupinean party aim at a total sepa-                                                        passed April 26.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  March 23.
                        ration from Great Britain.                                              SS8 Newfomndland
                                                                                                1                                    refuses to join Canada,                                     Articles of Confederation adopted by Con-                                              Intercourse           between       France and Eng-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     gress, Nov.              15.                                                                                                                                          Commodore Decatur sent against Algiers.
         1836        First     Canadian railway opened.                                                       April.                                                                                                                                                                          land forbidden.
                                                                                                                                                                        11.                                           independence              recognized         I)y                            confiscated American vessels sold by                                     Decatur captures Algerine frigate, June
                        lHouseof Assembly refuse supplies.                                               Lord Stantley, made Governor, J ne                                                      American                                                                       1S10 132
                                                                                              1S'4) Weldon Extradition                            Bill passed            April                       France, Dec. 1C.                                                                         Napoleon.
         1837 coercive measure of the British Parlia-                                                                                                                                                                          I-rance     oncluded, Feb. 6.                                                                                                               Hunt first manufactures axes.
                        ment.                                                                                 23.                                                                      1778      Treaty with                                                                             First manufacture of steel pens begmn.
                                                                                                                          lniversity b1,ned. Feb. 14.                                            Philadelphia evacuated by the British,                                                  First agricultural fair, held at George-                                          Terrific gale and flood in New England,
                    House of Assemrbly of TLowver Canada re-                                  1s()0 Toronto
                                                                                                                                                                                                     June IS.                                                                                                                                                                 Sept. 23.
                         fuses to tralsaet business.                                           lS!) l Government party sustained at genera]                                                                                                                                                   town.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tndiana admitted as a State.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Battle of Monmouith; Washington (loss                                                   Porcelain clay discovered in Vermont'.                                  1S16
                    "Sons of Liberty" rise in Montreal.                                                       election, March 6.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Second United States bank chartered.
                    Commercial crisis in Canada and th-                                                   General censtus taken April 5.                                                             230) defeats Clinton (loss 400), June 26.                                           Hartford Fire Insurance Company incor-
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Massacre of Wyoming Valley, July 3.                                                          porated.                                                                     Steam first applied to paper making.
                         United States.                                                       1S93 Earl of Aberdeen appointed Governor-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Election of James Monroe, President.
                    Troops withdrawn fromt Upper Canada.                                                      General, May 11.                                                                   Count d'Estaing, with twelve ships of                                       1S1l            lEngagement       between          U.        S.     frigate
                                                                                                                                                                                                     the line,             six       frigates, and French                                      "President," and British sloop, "Little                                     Mrs. Emma Willard           opens her girls'
                    Rebellion in Upper Canada begins.                                            ]S!).5 School war in MHanitoba.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              school at Troy.
                    Attempt the capture of Toronto, Dec. 4.                                   1910 Silver agitation and mining development                                                           troops, arrives.                                                                          Belt."
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Battle on Rhode Island; Sullivan (loss                                                                                                                                   This was known as the year without a
                    Totally defeated by St. Eustace, Dec. 14.                                                 in Porcupine district.                                                                                                                                                     Depredations           on American               vessels by                           summer.
                     lRebels receive aid from sympathizers in                                 1911 Duke of Connaught appointed Governor-                                                              211) defeats Pigot (loss 260), Aug. 29.                                                  France and E'ngland.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Awericans retreat from Rhode Island,                                                                                                                            1817      Illinois admitted into the Union.
                         the United States.                                                                   General.                                                                                                                                                                   Stevens devises plan for plating vessel-.                                         Pensions granted revolutionary soldiers.
                    Affair of the "Caroline."                                                 1912 Great              lnl       band1mianid influx of settlers                                        Aug. 30.                                                                           First manufacture of screws by ma-
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Savannah seized by the Britisb, Dee. 2f9.                                                                                                                                 Jackson subdues Indians in Georgia and
           1838 Sir John Colborne appointed                                 Goverior,                         in Northwest provinces.                                                                                                                                                          chinery.                                                                       Alabama.
                         Jan. 18.                                                                                                                                                                 Repulse of Aniericans at Briar Creek,                                                  Battle of Tippecanoe: Gen. Harrison de-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      MHarch 3.                                                                                                                                                             Erie Canal commenced.
                    Affair of the "Anne" and the "Sir Rob-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     feats Tcemnseh, Nov. 7.                                                     Mississippi admitted into the Union.
                         ert Peel."                                                                                                                                                     17-9 New Haven                    plundered by the British,                                      Reparation made by the British for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                      July 5.                                                                                                                                                              Harper Bros. publishing house founded.
                     E1nd of the rebellion in Upper C.anada.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   attack on the "Chesapeake."                                                 Clymer       invents    Colurnbian    printing
                    Resignation of Sir Francis Head, who ii                                                                                                                                      Fairfield and Green Farmc, in Connecti-                                                    ,reat earthquake at New Madrid,                          to.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      cut, takln by the Britisl, July 7.                                                                                                                                      press.
                            succeeded by Lord Durham.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Astor's fur company establishes post of                                           New England         Deaf and Dumb Asylum
                                                                     Canada.                                                                                                                     Stony Point taken by the Americans,
           1839 UnIlion of Upper and Lower
                    Lord Sydenhamr              appointed Governor.                                       UNITED STATES.                                                                              July 16.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Breech loading rifles invented.                                         1I18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Foundation of the new Capitol laid, at
         1840 Settlement of the clergy reserves ques-                                                                                                                                            Charleston, S. C., surrendered                                              1812 Embargo laid for ninety days.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      British, May 12.                                                                                                                                                        Washington, Aug. 24.
                         tion.                                                                  17ii. First Medical College established in Phil-                                                                                                                                         Louisiana admitted into the Union.                                                Pensacola,      Fla.,   captured   from    the
                    Responsible government established.                                                        adelphia.                                                                         B'attle of Caamden, S. C.: Cornwallis (losc                                             Congress levies a tax of $3,000,000.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      325) defeats General Gates (loss 730),                                                                                                                                  Spanish, by Jackson.
                    Death of Lord Svdenham.                                                               The       Stamp          Act passed, itl England,                                                                                                                              Additional force of 35,000 men authorized.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aug. 16.                                                                                                                                                   1819      The "Savannah," the first steam packet
                    Charles P. Thompson Governor.                                                              March 22.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   his                   Detachment of militia,                      not exceeding                            that crosses the Atlantic, makes a voy-
          1843 Sir Charles Metcalf appointed Governor.                                                    Virginia resolutions against right of tax-                                             Benedict Arnold betrays and deserts                                                           100,000 men, authorized.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      country.                                                                                                                                                                age to Liverpool.
          1844 Government removed from Kingston t.                                                             ation, May 29.                                                                                                                                                            War          declared     against         Great Britain,                          The first permanent Lodge of Odd Fel-
                          Montreal.                                                                       A congress of the colonies proposed by                                                  Major Andre captured, Sept. 23, aml                                                          June 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      hung as a spy, Oct. 2.                                                                                                                                                   lows founded, in Baltimore, April 26.
          1845 Great fire in Quebee.                                                                           Massachusetts, June 2(i.                                                                                                                                                  British orders in council revoked, June                                           Alabama admitted into the Union, Dec.
                                                                                                          Congress of 27 delegates meet at New                                          1781 Battle of Cowpens;                             American        General
          1847 Earl Cathcart Governor.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         23.                                                                             14.
                    Lord Elgin Governor-General, October.                                                      York and publish a declaration of the                                                  Morgan (loss 72) defeats Tarleton (ios,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       SOO), Jan. 17.                                                                    Van Horne defeated, Aug. 5.                                              1820t    Passage of the Missouri Conipromise.
                    Agitation         over the Rebellion Losses bill.                                          rights and rult's against the Stamp                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Florida ceded to the United States by
                                                                                                               Act, Oct. 7.                                                                       Assembling of Congress, March 2, Arti-                                                 Defeat of Miller, Au.g. 8.
          1848 Continued agitation over the Rebellion                                                                                                                                                                                                            rati-                   Gen. Hull          invades Canada, July 12; stur-                                    Spain for $5,000,000.
                                                                                                          Massachlusetts,             Rthode Island,              Del        v;-w-re                    fles of Confederation having been
                           Losses bill.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        renders Mackinaw, July 17.                                                   Maine admitted into the Union, March 15.
          3S49 Annexation to the United States advo-                                                           and Maryland unite in resiisting Stalmp                                                fied by all the States.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Defeat of General Greene by Cornwallis,                                                Hull surrenders Detroit with 2,500 falen,                                          Heated discussion in Congress on the
                          cated by the           opposition.                                                   Act, November.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 slavery question.
                                                                                               1 7i;       Dr. Franklin visits Frngland, and is ex-                                                   at Guilford.                                                                             Aug. 16.
                    Great riots in Montreal.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The "Alert,"            a British ship of war,                                     Percussion caps for guns first          intro-
                    Destruction of Parliament Houise, April                                                    amleined before the House of,                                            Battle of Eiitaw Springs; General Greene
                                                                                                               in February.                                                                            (loss 55.5)        defeats Stewart (loss 1,100),                                        captured by the "Essex," Aug. 1".                                               duced.
                          26.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The          "Guerriere,"       a       British         frirsate,                  Re-election   of James Monroe as Presi-
                    Attack on Lord Elgin.                                                                  Stamp Act repealed, March 1S.                                                              Sept. 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  The traitor, Arnold, burns New London,                                                       captured by the "Constitution"                      ("Old                      dent.
                    Subsidence of the agitation.                                                          Stage route hetween Providence and Bos-                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Petroleum first discovered in Ohio.
                                                                                                               ton established.                                                                       Sept. a.                                                                                  Ironsides"), Capt. Hull, Aug. 19.
i           IFi50    Reciprocity with United States urged.
          1951 Construction of new railways.                                                               Philip         li'wbury and Captain Webb first                                         Surrender of Lord Cornwallis,                          at Yorl-                         Gen. Harrison, takes command of the                                               eMacadamized roads first introduced.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      town, with 7,073 men, to Washington,                                                     Northwestern army.                                                           Death of Daniel Boone.
                     Cheaper postage rates introduced.                                                         introduce Methodism in America.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oct. 19.                                                                            Queenstown attacked, unsuccessfully, by                                1821       Missouri admitted into the Union, Aug. 10.
          IS5>2 Great fire at Montreal.                                                         17i7 An obnoxious tax imposed                                  or paper.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jackson takes possession of Florida, July
                                                                                                               glass, tea and painters' colors imported                                 17S2 Independence                      of       the      United        States                           the Americans, Oct. 13.
                     Government removed to Quebec.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The "Frolic," a 'British ship, captured                                               21.
           1S53 Clergy reserves                    abolished          by English                               lY the cololies.                                                                       acknowledged by Holland, April 19.
                                                                                                           Coilmies aiilq>t a non-importation agree-                                     I, S3 Independence acknowledged by Sweden,                                                             by the l.        S- sloop of war "Wasp."
                          Parliament, May 9.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Both vessels afterwards taken by the                                        Straw hats first made from American
          l?'54      (lose of Lord Elgin's administration.                                                     menl~t.                                                                                 Denmark, Spain and Prussia.
                                                                                                           Nl1.;u9 and Dixon,                sent out by the heirs                                Armistice with Great Britain, Jan. 20.                                                        "Poictiers," a British 74.                                                    straw.
                     Plrosperous condition of Canada.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The "Macedonian,"                 a British frigate,                    1822      The United States acknowledge the inde-
                     Treatv with the United States, June 7.                                                    of Wmn. i'emr and Lord Baltimore, run                                              Peace with Great Britain, at Treaty of
                                                                                                               a line to detine the boundaries of their                                                Paris, Sept. 23.                                                                         captured by the "United States," Com-                                         pendence of the South American Re-
           I .56 Sir Edmund W. lead 0overnor-Generul.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           modore Decatur, Oct. 25.                                                      publics.
          1856 Sir John A. Macdonald, the Attorney-                                                            possessions.           It afterwards became the                                    New York evacuated, Nov. 2.).
                                                                                                               acknow ledged line between the free                                                Resignation of General Washington, Dec.                                                 The "Java," a British frigate, captured                                           First English firm in California opes
                          General, becomes leader of the Con-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   by the "Constitution," Capt. Bain-                                            house at Montrey.
                          servatives.                                                                          and slave states.                                                                       23.
                                                                                                                                                                                         1784 Treaty of peace ratified by Congress,                                                             bridge, Dec. 29.                                                            Death of Maj.-Gen. Stark.
                      Opening of railway from quebec to To-                                     176S Meeting of                    a convention of delegates
                                                                                                               called by Massachusetts,                        at Fanruel                              Jan. 4.                                                                1813 At the River Raisin, the British and                                                     First cotton mill built in Lowell.
                           ronto, Nov. 12.                                                                                                                                                                                             to England as first                                      Indians surprise and defeat Winches-                                        Elliott makes first platform soles.
                     The first railway accident in Canada.                                                      Hall, Boston.                                                           17 8.) John Adamns sent
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ambassador from the United States.                                                       ter. Most of the Americana were mas-                                        War with the Cuban pirates.
                     Quebec made the seat of government.
                     I                                                                                     A military force stationed in Boston bv
                                                                                                                the British government under General                                     17M CottonT introduced into Georgia.                                                                   sacred by the Indians, who were left                                        Gas first successfully introduced in NW
           1857 Stringency in the money market causedl                                                                                                                                            Shay's rebellion in Massachusetts.                                                            unprotected by Gen. Proctor, July 13.                                         ton.
                           by the mutiny in India.                                                              Gates.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Shay'       reelo            nMsah-etF
LI  L    - -                                                                                 I
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                                                :    in -
                                                                                                                                                                SU'PP'LEMENT             XXI.

                                                                                                                    ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY.                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                           :-   ,           -               I                                                             -


                                                                 I                                                     ,---
                                                                                                                     ---      1$4S Great fire in St. Louis.   l SSD isptewithliEngland
                                                                                                                                                                 J                                                                                         respecting thle   right 1S(1                          Confederate privateer "Nashville" escapes
         1823 The Monroe doctrine, June IS.                                   Great financial crash and panic through-                                                                                                                                                                                              from Charleston, S- C., Oct. 11.
              First gas company in New York.                                    out the country.                                               Pro 'f. ebster murders Dr. P'arkmai                                    .               of searell.                                                                Repulse of Confederate ramn and five ships
              First teachers' seminary opened in Con-                         lHarnden originates the express businless.                        Nov. 23.                                                                           i-' plction of the first Atlantic telegraph,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A*mxlst.                                                                      at South West Pass., Oct. 12.
                cord, Vt.                                                     Michigan admitted into the Union.                               United States gold dollar first coined.                                                                                                                            E.scape of Mason and Slidell    fromCharles-
         1824 The principles of Robert Owen preached.                1838     First zinc produced in the country.                             California adopts a constitution prohib-                                             p, atli of Thomas tl.    Benton,April 15.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    .megress passes bill admitting Kansas urn-                                     ton.
              Pins first made by machinery.                                   Wilkes' exploring expedition to the South                          iting           sIhivery.                                                                                                                                       Battle of Fredericktown, Mo. ; flight, of
              First reformatory school founded in New                            Pole.                                                        Deathf f             .liates K. Polk, Junle 15..                                       de r pro-slavery constitution, Aug.  :{0.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Vx, iting campaign oflincoln and Douiglaa                                       Jetf Thompson, Oct. 21.
                York.                                                         United Sta)tes Bank suspends specie pay-                1S49    F'ilibiijlcring            expeditions         against       Cub.a                                                                                                 Recapture of Lexington, Mo., by Union
              Act passed to protect and encourage cot-                          ment, Oct,. 5.                                                    tforbiiddnt by tie t President.                                                     i Illinois.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Milrs t admitted as a state, May IS.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ta                                                                  troops.
                ton manufacturers.                                            Mormon war in Missouri.                                         Visit    ot I'ather Matlhew, the temperatnce                                                                                                                       Gen. Sherman appointed to the command
              Convention with Great Britain to sup-                           Intense political excit,,ment.                                    advlocate.                                                                                               "irrepressible con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S lI a :r' nnounces is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ..      h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           llt" doctrin lle.                                                       of Kentucky forces.
                press slave trade, March IS.                                  The Log Cabin eamnaign.                                          (apt. Mini,      invwnts the Minli         ciiial                                                                                                                 Battle of Ball's Bluff; Col. Baker killed,
              Convention with Russia in relation to                           Election of William lfenry Hlarrison as                             blmlht.                                                                           ;.ia,;l:s rej-ts thtl pro-Islavry consititution
                                                                                                                                                                 [)ixot'.s line surveyvt.                                             biy overwhelmi'g milajirity, Aug. 3S.         ;                              Oct. 21.
                northwest boundary, April 5.                                     President.                                                     M.,son ;nd                                                                                                                                                         Ziagonyi defeats            Confederates      at   Spring-
              Arrival of Lafayette on a visit to th-                            oodalyear invnts vulcaniized rubber.                            ( hilcra visits the' lnited Sta.e's, sever'                                        F1irltnwA   :*.ra(roys. the Allntic cablee,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      frm Vic(lria to the             Aug. 16.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              President,                                           lield,      Ae-,         Oct. 29.
                Ul. S.                                                        The first steam fire engine cotnstructel                            ;tt C'ineinnati ind St.        Iofik.                                                                                                                          Gen. Scott resigns command of the army.
                                                                                                                                               ('.if    larn Constitutiinl     foruid aIt Mon-                                                          ('aptiure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ]'eriuvians            two     Aritrit:in: v,>:l;1's.
              Election of John Quincy Adams as P'resi-                            hy Ericsson.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     C(Ilon. McClellan succeeds him.
                dent.                                                         Sulb-Treasury bill becolmes a law, I.In,,                           terey.                                                                              ]lutrini of steamshiI          Iam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            "Austria,"                                      -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      bmrg to New York; nearly 50,) lives                                        Soldiers' Aid Society formed at Detroit,
         1825 The Capitol at Washington completed.                               30.                                                          (;r,:t         riot at Astor           Place Opera        Hleuse,.                                                                                                   Nov.    1
              First edge tool manufactory established.                        First Washingtonian Socety foinded.                                New York.                                                                                       lost.                                                           Commodore Wilkes, of "San Jacinto,"
              Smith, a trapper, perform.s the first over-                     Adamns' Express Company organizd(l.                             Tie.tty with E1ngland fi)r a transit way                                     1       .S9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tlh     l.lanild San Juan, nea:r Vanciver's
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of                                                               taktes       Southern            Commissioners,       Mason
                                                                                                                                                  across Panala.                                                                                             hy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            slanld , occupiepd   rlitel       S  tatej
                land journey to California, and found                         Wilkes discovers Antarctic (ontinent.                                                                                                                                                                                           aid Slidell, from British steamer
                Folsom.                                              1841     William I11. Hiarrison inalwurated, March                       Frrneh Ambassador                      dismissed from Wash-                             troo l)s.                                                               "Trent," in West Indian waters.
              Departure    of Lafayette     for France,                          4, dies April 4: John Tyl r, Vice-Preli-                         ington.                                                                          The     lF-'ni anorganization perfected.                                Port Royal bormbarded, Nov. 7.
                Sept. 7.                                                         dent, inaulgurated P'resident, April 6.                      Death of John C. (C;lhoun,March :!1.                                                   'T'retywith Paragua.y sig,      l'd.IF0,10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Battle oi Belmont; Grant's first fight.
                                                                              McLeod difficulty.                                              Congrcess pa ssei the Oregon   Doloaiiin                                              Oregon admitted as a Stat,, Feb. 14.
         1826 Deaths of Thomas Jefferson and John                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Capture of Tybee Island, commanding
                Adams.                                                        Webster's (Noah) Dictionary first pub-                            Law.                                                                               D r;lake      bores              oil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               fil-st      wellat Tiltus il l,,                   Sawvrnah, taken Dec. 20.
              Conventiml with Great Britain concern-                             lished.                                                      Uncle Totm's Cabin                     first   puldisbhed.                              Pa.                                                                  Charlreston Harbor shut by sinking stone
                      ing indemnities.                                        Sub-Treasury hill repealed, Aug. 9.                             Watches first malde by m.achinery.                                                   Great storm in the Northern and Sowth-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ern States.                                                            fleet,         21.
                    Fiftieth anniversary of American Inde-                     lBlankruptcy Act becomes a law,. Au,-. IS.                     Fugitive Slave Law    passed.                                                                                                                                Catling gun invwnted bv J. Catling.
                      pendence, July 4.                                       Imprisonment for debts due the govern-                            iDeath Zachary Taiylor. July 9.
                                                                                                                                                     of                                                                            D-miel E }. Sickles shoots Phililp Bart.n                               Death of Sam            llouston, Oct. 8.
                    Great anti-mason excitement.                                  mient abolish(Ed.                                           Grinnell          Arctic       l-xpcidition     sails.                                   K ey,      Feb 27.    .                                             Kentuckyl        admitted         into  Confederate
                    Abduction of Willim       lMorgan.                         (reeley     establishes    the New York Tri-                   California admitted! as a Free State,                                                Kansas Free State party framesa Stat,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               States,      )Dec. 9.
                    Baron Von tlumboldt visits the United                         bllne.                                                        Sept. 9.                                                                               constitution at W yandttc.                                      !         Battle Martirnsb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of                      Va. Gen. Pope,
                                                                              R     lmgfordproduces       the   first sample     of           New Mexico and Uttah as ter-                                              Vicksburg Conlvention                  (ideclares f,i(,r (f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        reopeniing slave tradle, MaI 11.                                       Union, captures 1,300 prisoners, Dec.
                    Opening of the Erie Canal, Oct. 26.                         pure corn sta.rch.                                              ritories, Sept. 9.                                                                                                                                             18.
                    Duel between      iHenry (Clay and John                   Mutiny on United States brig o(f war                            Visit of Jenny Litnd to America, Sept. 12.                                            Publicationl of Worcester's Unilwridgel
                      Randolph.                                                "Somers" irnstigated by Midialipltt-a                                                         gun.
                                                                                                                                              Dahlgren invents the e -ast-irn)                                                         Dictionary.                                                    sf,2 Indian massacre In Minnesota.
                                                                                                                                      1S51    AppearaLnce of the grnat sea serpent.                                                 San Juarn Island occupied                              liar-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 hy (elera'l               liBattle uIf llue             ;Cap, Jan. 8.
                    Delano's first fire-proof safes.                              Spencer.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Death of John Tyler, Jan. 8.
         1]27       Treaty with Creek Indians conclnded.                      The     lFourier     community    excitemeint.                  Comhpletion of Erie railh'aud.                                                            ney, July         9.
                                                                                                                                                                              Capitol extension            laid,                    Apwpearanc, of the potato l)bug.                                       "Ericsson"       Monitor launched at Green-
                    Treaty with the Karnsas Indians, aind the                 Fremont's expedition to the ltocky Moun-                        Corner-stone            of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               point, Jan. 30.
                 great and little Osiges.                                       tains.                                                          July 4.                                                                                Eleetionof Republican oticels in K                    ansas,
                                                                                                                                              First Asylum                 for Idiots         established      in                       Dec. 6.                                                            Edwin M. Stanton, of Pennsylvania, be-
               Treaty with the Relpublic of (Colombia.                        Ashburton or first Washington Trea.ty                                                                                                                                                                                            comles Secretary of War, Sinmon Cam-
               Conitiimed intense excitemnent over the                          signed, with England, Aug. 9.                                   New York.                                                                           Cormstock            Great Bonanza Mine purchase                i
4                                                                                                                                             California           Vigilance Committee               formed.                            for an Indian pony and a quantityo'                                    cron, ofPennsylvania, retiring Jan. 13.
I                "Morgan affair."                                             Bunker       ITill monument completed.                                                                                                                                                                                       Battle of Mill Springs, Ky.; Zollieoffer
               First railroad built at Quincy, Massa-                         Termination of war with Seminoles.                              American victorious at regatta in                                                   whliisky.
                                                                                                                                                London, Eng.                                                                        Trfaty           with Mexico signed.                                       defeated by Union troops, under Gen.
                 chusetts, and operated by horse power.                       Lucifer matches first made by machinery.                                                                                                                                                                                         George 11.Thomas, Jan. 19.
I        1S2   Passage of the Protective Tariff Bill.                         P'resident vetoes bill for National Bank.                       Frightful catastrophe at public school                                                Grand Embassy from Japan, with treaty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fort lh1nry, on Tennessee River, captured
               Sandpaper and emery first made.                                Dorr rebellion in Rhode Island.                                   building, New York.                                                                    of l               etc.
                                                                                                                                              Congressional Library destroyed by fire,                                                        of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       'To.r the Prince of Wales.                                              b)v neavl forces, under Commodore A.
               First locomotive introduced front Eng-                         Bankrupt Act repealed, March 3.                                                                                                                                                                                                  li. Foote, Feb. 6).
                 lard, by the D)elaware and Hudson                             I)eath of Dr. Ch;mning, Oct. 2.                                  D)ec. 24.                                                                            thill's expedition to tle               PolarSea.
                                                                                                                                              Dispute with England about the fish-                                                  Arrival t New York of the (reat Eastriii,                                 Roanoke, N. C., captured by Gen.
                 Canal Company.                                      1843     William Miller aw.l the "Millrites."                                                                                                                                                                                              liurnside and Commodore Goldsborough,
               Baltimore and Ohio railroad commrenced.                        $30,000 voted by Congress to aid MAorseto                                eries.                                                                               Jime28.
                                                                                                                                              Expedition to Japan, under Corn. Perry.                                           T1<;0               of Mr. Pennington as Speaker
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              h(ltion                                            of            Feb. 8.
               Congress makes provision for offticers of                          establish telegraph      lines.                                                                                                                                                                                           Fort Donlson, T(enn., surrendered to Gen.
                 the revolutionary war.                                       Fremont explores Coltmbia River, Wil-                           First stret-r.ailw.ay in New York.                                                        the Hlouse.
                                                                                latiet Valley, and Khtaiath Lake.                             Deaths of Henry Clay, June 2%', and                                                   Abrahaml Lincoln                  elected President, N,-v.                    Grant, Feb. 16G.
               Denmocerat and Republican first chosen                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       c'onfedlrate. Congress rneets at Richmond,
                 by their respective political parties.                       Great comet visible during tlhe day.                                l)aniel Webster, Oct. 24.                                                              6.      South ('arolina passes the "Ordi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      nance            of    Setepsion."        lcingt   the        first           Va.,          1`Fe.18S.
               General Jackson elected President.                             Death of Noah Webster.                                          Treaty of Co0mTlerce with Chili.                                                                                                                                   Jefferson Diavis inamgurated President of
               Treaty of Peace with Brazil and Buenos                         Wilder's       patent for fire-proof safe.                      Branch mint established in Sanl Fran-                                                      Sate oftthe          tosect-(,l, Dle. 20.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Meeting of Senatorial Committee of Thir-                                      Southern Confederacy, for six years,
                 Ayres.                                              ]S44     Explsion of the giun, the "pearee-naiK-                           cisco.                                                                                                                                                              Feb. 22.                               *
               Planing mill first patented.                                     er," killing the Secretaries ot N.avy                         Franklin Pierce                  elcted President.                                       teen, Dec. 21.
                                                                                                                                               (Crystal Palace, Nrw York, opened.                                                   Major            Anderson        transfers      his comnman,                 Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark.; Gen. Mc-
         1 S29 Andrew Jackson, President, opposes the                           and State.                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Culloch killed, March 8.
                 project to recharter the Bank of the                         Commercial         treaty with China.                           Treaty with Mexico, for pur chase                                of                      from Fort Moultrie to Fort Suniter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tlhe Parrott gun invented by Robert                                     R.   Confederate ram "Merrimac" sinks "Cum-
                 United States.                                               First telegraph line froml Washington                                Arizona.                                                                                                                                                         berland"           and     "Congress,"       U. S.    naval
               Independence of Mexico recognized.                               to Baltihore.                                                 Treaty with              Russia.                                                           l'arrott.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    vessels,   in Haunpton Roads,       Va.,
                    Webster's great speech in Congress, Jan.                  First anti-slavw ry candidate nominated                         Explorations            for a transcontinental                 rail-             ISG61Mississippi secedes, Jan.   9.
                                                                                                                                                 way.                                                                               Florida secedes, Jan. 10.                                                       Mlrch 8.
                 26.                                                             for the presidency.                                                                                                                                                                                                               "Mon101itor," S. iron-clad, attacks and
               Virginia passes resolution against Tariff                      The "Midas," first American steamboat,                          Yellow fever            in New York.                                                  Alabama secedes, Jan. 11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    South Carolina troops fire upon the "Star                                       drives "Merrinac" back, March 9.
                 bill.                                                           rounds Cape of God flope.                                    Chlillren's             Aid  Society,             New        York,                                                                                                   3Manassas Junction evacuated and occupied
               First Asylum for the Blind established.                        James K. Polk eleeted President.                                     founded.                                                                           of the West."                                                                 by Union forces, March 10.
               First Hlorticultural Society formed.                            Mormnon       war     in   Illinois,    imurder   of            Walker's filibustering expedition to So-                                              Georgia secedes, Jan. 1S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Louisiana secedes. Jan. 26.                                                   Battle of Winchester, Va.; Union los,
               Removal of 700 officeholders by Jackson.                          Joseph Smith; Brigham Young se-                                 nora, Mexico.                                                                                                                                                      115          killed,     450     womunded;    Confederate
         19'30 Commercial treaty with Turkey.                                    lected as his successor.                                      Commercial Treaty with Japan signed,                                                 Texas secedes, Feb. 1.                                                          loss, 869 killed, wounded and missing,
               South Carolina asserts "States Rights."                         Copper discovered in Michigan.                                    Martch 31.                                                                           l'PeaeeConvention               assembledl at Washing-                        March 13.
               The Mormon church founded by Joseph                             Texas asks for annexation.                                                   or     Know-Nothing   Society                                                ton, Feb. 4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Provisional GoverlTnment of Confederate                                        Battle of Newbern, N. C., March 14.
                 Smith, April 6.                                               First telegraph line.                                               formed.                                                                                                                                                        Battle of Pittsburg Landing; Grant,
               Building of the South Carolina railroad.               1845     Texas annexed by Act of Congress, Mex-                          Loss of the steamship Arctic.                                                          States ateets at Montgomery, Ala., t'Feb.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Union commander; Ger. A. Sidney
               American Institute of Learning founded.                           ico takes offense.                                            Cubans seize        Amnerican    mail-steamer                                             4.                                                                         Johnston killed ; Union loss, April 6
               Great     debate   between Webster     and                      Florida and Iowva admitted into the                               Black Warrior, Feb. 2S.                                                            Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, President,                                     and 7, 13,573 ; Confederate loss, 10,699.
                  flayne.                                                        Union.                                                        First railway from Lake Michigan to the                                                 Feb. 8.                                                                    Capture of Island No. 10, by Union
         lS3I Intense Tariff and Free Trade excitement.                        War declared by Mexico, June 4.                                   Mississippi, the Rock Island.                                                      Abraham Lincoln inaglurated President of                                         forces, April 8.
               Garrison starts the "Liberator" anti-slav-                      Naval school at Annlaplis opened.                               American ship "Cayne" bombards Grey-                                                    the lUnited States, March 4.                                               Raid of Gen. Mitchell; capture of Hunts-
                 ery paper.                                                    Elias Howe produces his first sewing ma-                          town, Central America, on refusal to                                               Fort Sumnter, Charleston Hlarbor, btm,-                                         ville, Ala., and Russellville, Tenn.
               Death of James Monroe. July 4.                                    chine.                                                          pay for property destroyed, June 12.                                                  barded-being commencement of hostili-                                                               surrendered after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ties in the Civil War, April 12.                                          Fort      IPulaski, Ga.,
               Manning mowing miachines patented.                              Great fire in Pittsburg.                                        Invention of the Iron Tower for iron-                                                                                                                                 three days' bombardment, to         tUnion
               Guthrie discovers chloroform.                                   Serious fire in New York, 900 buildings                           clad vessels, by Ericsson.                                                         Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers, April                                       forces, under Gen. Gilmore, April 11.
               Hlowe invents first practical pin machine.                        burned.                                                       Reciprocity Treaty with England; settle-                                                 15.                                                                       Slavery abolished in District of Columbia,
               Buttons first made by machinery.                                Death of Justice Joseph Story.                                    ment of the Fishery question, Aug. 2.                                              Proclamation announeinfr blockade of                                            April 16.
               Western College of Teachers established.                        First manufacture of files.                                     Bill passed organizin~          Kansas     and                                           Southern ports, April 17.                                                 Bombardment of Fort Pillow, by Com-
         1832 President Jackson vetoes the Bank Bill.                           Zachary Taylor, with 4,000 troops, ad-                            Nebraska as Territories, repealing the                                            Federal troops attacked in Baltimore,                                           modore Foote, April 17.
               New protective tariff measure passed.                             vanced to Corpus Christi, Texas.                                 Compromise of 1820, which excluded                                                     April 19.                                                                Union fleet, under Farragut, passes up the
               South Carolina nullification movement.                          Negotiations toward purchase of San                                slavery from the entire Louisiana pur-                                             Destruction of stores at Norfolk Navy                                          .Mississippi river and takes New Orleans,
               U. S. frigate "Potomnac," attacks Qualla                            Domingo.                                                       chase, May 24.                                                                        Yard 1,y Union coinmmiander, April 20.                                      passing Forts Jackson and Philip,
                 Batoo, Feb. 6.                                               Death of Andrew Jackson, June 8.                                 Massachusetts Aid Society send out set-                                              Maryland refulses to secede, April 27.                                          April 24.
               First case of Asiatic cholera in U. S.                         Free Soil party originated.                                         tlers to Kansas.                                                                  Ellswortil shot at Alexandria by Jackson,                                     Gen. Butler in command at New Orleans,
                      June     21.                                       1846 Northwestern boundary fixrt at 498.                              A. II. Reader, of Pennsylvania,             ap-                                          May.                                                                        May 1.
               Black Hawk war, and his capture, Aug.                          Hostilities begin in Mexico.                                        pointed Governor of Kansas.                                                       Missouri turns over to Confederates entire                                    Yorktown evacuated, May 4.
                  27.                                                         Battles of Palo Alto, May 8, and Resaca                  i855    Territorial Legislature of Kansas meets                                                  control of financial and military re-                                     Surrender of New Orleans to Conunmmodore
               University of New York organized, Sept.                           de la Palma, May 9; victory of Gen.                              at Shawnee, July; great emigration                                                    sources of the Stalte, M.'y 2.                                              Farragut.
                  26.                                                            Taylor.                                                          to Kansas.                                                                        Government call for 42,000) three years'                                      Battle of Williamsburg, Va., May 5.
               Re-election of Andrew Jackson as Presi-                        Matamoras taken, May IS.                                         Free State men meet in convention at                                                     volunteers, May 3.                                                        Battle of West Point, May 7.
                  dent.                                                       New Tariff bill passed, July 28.                                   Topeka and form a Free State constitu-                                              Arkansas secedes from the Union, May 6.                                      Norfolk surrendered to Gen. Wool, May 10.
               Death of Charles Carroll, last surviving                       President     vetoes River Harbor bill,                             tin. Oct. 23.                                                                     ('apt. Lyon receives sirrenlder of Fort                                       Destruction of the "Merrinac," by the
                  signer of Declaration of Independence.                         Aug. 3.                                                       Hostilities between the Free and Slave                                                   Jackson, May 10.                                                            Confederates, May 11.
         1S32 Morse invents electric magnet telegraph.                        "Wilson Proviso" against extension of                               State settlers begin.                                                             Baltimore occupied by General Butler,                                         Natchez, Miss., surrenders to Commodore
               Cholera in New York, 3,400 deaths.                                slavery passes the lHouse.                                    Sioux Indians defeated by Gen. 11arnley.                                                 May I S.                                                                    Farragut, May 13.
               Fairbank's Scale first patented.                               Gun-cotton invented.                                             Paraguayans       attack      United     States                                       North (Carolina secedes from tle Union,                                      Gen. Banks defeated at Winchester, May
         183 3 The President removes the public de-                           Great fire in Louisville.                                           steaner, "Water-Witch."                                                               May 20.                                                                     25.
                  posits from thle Bank of the United                         Ethber first used as an anesthetic by Dr.                        Completion       of    Niagara      Suspension                                        lBuitler in commliand   it Fortress   fonlroe,
                                                                                 Jackson.                                                                                                                                               May 22.                                                                   Battle of Seven Pines, Va., May 29.
                  States.                                                                                                                         Bridge.                                                                                                                                                         Corinth evacuated, May 30.
               President Jackson begins his second                       1846 Gen. Kearney takes possession of New                             Court claims established.                                                              Advaince of Union forces into Virginia,
                                                                                 Mexico, Aug. 18.                                                                                                                                       May 24.                                                                   Little Rock captured, May 31.
                  term, March 4.                                                                                                               William Walker unsuccessfully invades                                                                                                                              Battle of Fair Oaks; Union loss, heavy;
               The Southern States hold a states-right                        Commodore Stockton blockades Mexican                                 Nica ragna.                                                                      Death of Stephen A. Douglas. June ..
                                                                                 ports on Pacific coast.                                                                                                                            Tennessee secedes from the Union, June S.                                       renewal of battle of Fair Oaks; success
                  Convention.                                                                                                                  Dispute with Great Britain       (cncerning                                                                                                                          of Unionists.
               Clay's Compromise Tariff law passed.                           Monterey taken by Gen. Taylor, Sept. 24.                           recruiting for the Crimea armny.                                                        East Tennessee opposing it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Battle of Big Bethel, Va., June 10.                                           Unionists lose Brashear City, June 13.
               Gayler invents first practical safe.                           Eight days' armistice granted.                           1S55    British discovery ship "Resolute" aban-                                                                                                                             Shavery abolished by all the Territories,
               Death of John Randolph, May 24.                                California expedition, under Stephenson,                                                                                                              Cong-ress            meets in        extraordinary         session,
                                                                                                                                                 doned in Arctic sea; brouglht to New                                                                                                                               June 19.
f              Removal of several Indian tribes west                             sails from New York, Sept. 2ti.                                 London.                                                                               July 4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Forts Pillow and Randolph evacuated,
                  of the Mississippi.                                         Tobasco, Mexico, bomtbarded by Perry.                    1S56     ITHoosacTunnel begun.                                                               Battle near Carthage, Mo., July 5.
                                                                                 Oct. 25.                                                                                                                                  1861     Privateer "Sumter" escapes to sea, fro                                           June 4.
                lHoe's double-cylinder printing-press con-                                                                                     Victory of John Brown at Ossawatotnie.                                                                                                                             Surrender of Memphis, June 6.
                  structed.                                                   Tampico taken by Gen. Connor, Nov. 14.                             Kan.                                                                                  New Orleans, July 7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Battle of Carrick's Ford, W. Va.; Con-                                        Repulse of Confederates, at Springfield,
               First successful reaper patented.                              Kearney defeats Mexicans at San Plas-                            Republican party formed.                                                                                                                                              Mo., June 8.
               Ericsson invents the caloric engine.                              qual, Dec. 6.                                                 Alden invents type-setting machine.                                                     federate General Garnett killed.                                            Seven days' fight before Richmond, un-
         1834 Congress passes a vote of censure against                       Col. Doniphan defeats Mexicans at Bra-                           Rock Island bridge, across the Mississippi,                                          Battle of Romney, Va., June 11.
                  the President for removing bank de-                                                                                                                                                                               West Virginia admitted as a State, Junef                                         der McClellan, June 26; Mechanicsville.
                                                                                 zito, Dec. 25.                                                  opened, April 11.                                                                                                                                                   Jun.e 26 ; Gaines' Mills, June 27 ; Sav-
                  posits; subsequently expunged.                              Gen. Taylor relieved by Gen. Scott.                              Affray at Panama between passengers and                                                   11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     age Station and Peach Orchard. Jumn
               Lucifer matches first made.                                    The Mormons driven from Nauvoo, 11.                                natives, April 15.                                                                  Battle at              Rich Mountain ; Confederates.                            28; White Oak Swamp, June 30; Mal-
               Walter Hunt invents first sewing ma-                           Iowa admitted as a State.                                                                                                                                  under Pegram,                defeated by lobsecrans,
                                                                                                                                               Page makes first wood type by ma-                                                         July 11.                                                                    vern Hlill, July 1; change of base to
                  chine, but fails to perfect and patent.                1847 Kearney victorious at San Gabriel and                              chinery.                                                                                                                                       1                    James river.
               Dr. Howe invents raised alphabet for                              Mesa, Cal., Jan. S, 9.                                        President declares creation of free state                                             Battle near Centreville, Va., Julv   R.
                                                                              Mexican Congress resolves to raise loan                                                                                                                Destruction of the Confederate "'Petrel"                                     President Lincoln calls for 300,000 vol-
                  use of the blind.                                                                                                               government in Kansas an act of re-                                                  by frigate "St. Lawrence."                                                     unteers. July 1.
         1835 Great fire in New York.                                            of $15,000,000 on property of the clergy,                       bellion.                                                                                                                                                         Murfreesborough captured       by Forrest,
               Congress establishes branch mints in                              Jan. 9.                                                       Brooks' assault upon Charles Simner.                                                  Maryland invaded by Stonewall Jackson,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      July.                                                                          July 5.
                  Georgia, North Carolina, and Louisi-                        Revolt of Mexicans in New Mexico                                 Dismissal of British envoy at Washington,                                                                                                                          Raid of Morgan in Kentucky, July 7.
                  ana.                                                           against United States, Jan. 14.                                  May 28.                                                                            Battle of Bull Run: Union forces, under                                      Surrender of Port Illudson, July 8.
               Government      purchase Cherokee bonds                         Defeat of insurgents at Canada, New                                                                                                                        MclDowvell, defeated;                 Union    killed anrl
                                                                                                                                               Introduction of sorghum, or Chinese sugar-                                              wounded. 1.490; Confederates, 1,593                                        Death of Martin Van Buren, July 24.
                  for $5,200,000.                                                Mexico, Jan. 24.                                                 cane.                                                                                                                                                           Battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., Aug. 9 :
I              New York Herald established by Ben-                            Battle of Buena Vista, Feb. 23; Taylor                           Dudley observatory, Albany, inaugurated,                                                killed anredwounded, July 21.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Gen. McClellan assumes command of arilmy                                        Utnion forces under Banks, lose l,.500
                       nett.                                                     defeats Santa Anna.                                              Aug. 28.                                                                                                                                                           killed,        wounded,         and m.issing:       Confed-
                     Death of Chief Justice Marshall, July 6.                 Battle of Sacramento; defeat of Mex-                             The government purchases the '"esolute;"                                                in Virginia and on the Potomac.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Battle of Laurel Hlill, July 22.                                                erates, tnder "Stonewall" Jackson.
                     Roger Brooks Taney, appointed Chief                         icans, Feb. 28.                                                  refitted and presented to British Govern-                                                                                                                       Raid of Phillips into Mississippi, Aug. 16.
                       Justice.                                                Gen. Kearney declares California a part                            ment.                                                                              Battle of Drug Spring, Mo., under Cen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       eral Lyon; Southern forces defeated.                                       Battle of Sulphur Springs. Va., Aug. 24.
                     Seminole Indian war renewed.                                 of the United States, March 1.                               Loom for weaving Axminster carpets first                                                                                                                           Fighting on Rappahannock under Pope:
                     Gas first introduced into Philadelphia.                   Vera Cruz taken by army and navy,                                  patented.                                                                          Batlle' ,f Athens. Mo., under Gern. Lyml:                                      Confederates under Ewell anrd Jackson,
                     Brown makes first gold pens with dia-                        March 28.                                                    Election of James Buchanan as President.                                                Confederates defeated, Aug. 5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo.; 5.:2;O                                          Aug,. 27.
                       mond points.                                            Alvarado capitulates, April 2.                          1857    Organization of the Fenian Brotherhood.                                                                                                                            Gen. Bragg invades Tennessee and Ken-
                     Guano becomes an article of commierce                     Battle of Cerro Oordo, April S; Scott                           Settlement of the Central American ques-                                                men, under Gens. TLyon    and Sigel, at-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24,000,        under       (en.    McCuill,-eh,                tucky.
                       in the U. S.                                               defeats Mexicans; also at Contreras,                                                                                                                    tack
                                                                                                                                                  tion.                                                                                Price, etc.; Lyon killed; defeat of SiLgel,                                Battle of Kettle Run, Va., Aug. 27.
                     Massacre of Maj. Dade and his command                        Aug. 20.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Battle of Groveton, Va., Aug. 29.
                       in Florida.                                             Molino del Rey taken, Sept. 8.                                  Death of Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic ex-                                                    Aug. 10.
                                                                                                                                                     plorer, Feb. 16.                                                                President Lincoln's non-intercourse prmc-                                    Defeat of Union forces at Richmond, Ky.,
          1836       The national debt virtually paid.                         Gen. Scott enters the city of Mexieo,                           Robert J. Walker appointed Territorial                                                                                                                                Aug. 29.
                     Arkansas admitted into the Union.                            Sept. 15.                                                                                                                                            lan,ation, Alug. 1f.                                                       Surrenlder of Memphis, Aug. 29.
                                                                         1S48  Death of John Quincy Adams, Feb. 21.                               Glovernor of Kansas.                                                               Gen. Butler and Commodore Stringhlim,,
                     Battle of San Jacinto, Texas; Santa                                                                                       Taney       renders  I)red Scott decision,                                                                           Ilatteras     and     (lirlk       on         Second battle of Bull Run; defeat of
                       Anna defeated and a prisoner, April 21.                 Gold discovered in California, March.                                                                                                                       Forts
                                                                                                                                                  March f>.                                                                            North Carolina coast, Alug. 2S.                                               Federals, Aug. 30.
                     Bequest of James Smithson to the U. S.                    Oneida Community, New York, estab-                                                                                                                                                                                                 Battle of Chantilly, Va.: Union Generals
                                                                                  lished.                                                       First attempt to lay Atlantic cable.                                                 Fort Morgan abandoned by Confederates,
                       of $515,169.                                                                                                             Alden secures patent for condense(d milk.                                                     Aug,. 30.                                                              Kearney anl Stevens killed, Sept. 1.
                     Smithsonian    Institute at Washington                    Wisconsin admitted into the Union, May                                                                                                                                                                                             Confederates cross Potomao into Mary-
                       founded.                                                   29.                                                           Great financial crash.                                                               lF'rr,,nont  issuies proclamation    freeing
                                                                                                                                                New York. Boston and Philadelphia banks                                                  slavs in Missouri, Aug. 31.                                                 land, at Poolsville, Md., Sept. 1.
                     Death of James Madison, June 28.                          Missoutri Compromise repealed.                                                                                                                                                                                                     Battle of South Mountain, Md.; Unioa
                     Governor Call, of Georgia, invades Sem-                   Election of Zachary Taylor as President.                           suspended, Oct. 14, 15.                                                             lBittle of Carnifex Ferrv, Gens. Rosecrans
                                                                                                                                                Banks resume specie payments, Dec. 12,                                                    and 11Floyd, Sept. 10.                                                     victory; Gen. Jesse L. Reno killed.
                       inole country.                                          Corner stone of Washington Monument                                                                                                                                                                                                }larper's Ferry surrendered, after three
                                                                                   laid.                                                         14.                                                                                 Destruction              of privateer "Judah,"                 Sept.
                     Sam Houston elected President of Texas,                                                                                                                                                                                  1:,.                                                                   days' fighting, by General Miles, Sept.
                       Oct. 22.                                                Oregon Territorial bill passed, Aug. 13.                         Murder of Dr. Burd?1l: arrest                          and trial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Rlbpulse of Confederates at Ctleat MNmn-                                        15".
                     Martin Van Buren elected President.                       First receipt of California gold at United                         of Mrs. (inniiilinh , his mistress.
                     Burning of the Patent and General Post-                       States mint, Dec. 8.                                         Fomtlering of the "Central America" off                                                       tlin, W.        Va.                                                 Battle of Antit/im. between Cen. Mc-
                                                                               Treatv signed with Mexico, Feb. 2.                                 Cape I;Ittcras; over 400 lives and $2,-                                            BaIttle of Lexington,                   [.-. ; Col. MIi.lkran                   Clellhn an.l Gen. Lee.     Ittreat of tihe
                        oDffice Washington.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (onft dferatls, Sept. 17.
                     Texas declared independent.                               Upper California ceded to United States.                           000.000 lost.                                                                               defends       for four d;Ins          against     '2;.l,)
                                                                               Mexicans unsuccessfully besiege Pueblo,                          Great religious revival throughout tile                                                    ('onfederates, but is forced to                             Battle of luka, Miss., between Gen. Rose-
                     Sam Colt invents the revolver.                                                                                                                                                                                        loss 2,5)00 prisoners, and a ht'gtO                                       ci'lns and Gen.                 Price, Sept. 19.
                     First National Temperance Convention                          held by Americans. Sept. 13 to Oct. 12.                             corntry.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            reillputitiou               ,Ferry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of Ilarper's                by Fed-
                        held at Saratoga.                                      hIuamantia taken by Amnericans, Oct. 9.                          Troubles with the Mormons in UTtah; Col.                                                   amount of gqld.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         t.ftle   st Ireenhrier. Va. : succi'ss of                                    erals, Sept.            22.
                      Adams' great debate for the right of                     Guyannes captured, Oct. 20.                                             Johnson,       with       a     military     force,     sent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Lincoln  issues   preliminary
                                                                               Great excitement at Rochester, N. Y,                                    out; Blrigham Young forbids any armiled                                          Union   forces. Oct. '.                                                    l'r ,sident
                        petition.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      l'roelamation of Emancipation, Sept. 22.
                     Death of Aaron Burr.                                          caused by "Spirit rappings."                                        force enterint Salt Lake City; Mormoni                                         Confederate "'S:vannah" captured b1y IT. S.
                                                                               Food sent to starving Ireland.                                          troops ordered to hold themselves i                                             hrig "Perry."                                                               B:(ttle of Corinth, Miss.. 1-tween Gets.
                     Sioux and Winnebago Indians removed                                                                                                                                                                              Wil-on Zoives                   repulsed at Santa l]osi                          Ieos(crarns and Price; defeat of the lat-
                       beyond the Mississippi.                                 Los Angeles, Cal., taken by Kearney,                                    readiness; martial law declared, Sept.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Island. Oct. 9.                                                         ter, Oct. 3,            4.
                     Scott subdues the Creek Indians.                               and a system of government organized.                              15.
                                                                                                             I~~~~~~                                         tlCr, Oct. 3, 4,
    it                                                               I
                                                                     I                           ~             ~~~
                                                                             I ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~
                                                                                                                                        Isl tnd. Oct. 9.
                                                                                                                                                          sIl PPIi:MisENT     XXll.

                                                                                                                  ANCIENT,                    MEDIEVAL AND} MODERN                                         HISTORY.
                                                                                                                                                                   ---                              -1

     1,862   Battle of I'er-        ilt,. N\., l twcn <;ent~.                    Assaults on Petersburg; Union firees lo-
                                                                                                                                          I   ISm;     M:i-:,c., in New Orlhans, July >0.                      1]7S     Death of Robert Dale Owen, June 24.                I     I   Ilsus         repeals the iron clad oalh law,
                Buell and hagS; c'haig^ of Phil. Sheri-                              ing 10,00o men in four days, June 16-                     :-,;7   Nt, ,i-:,i   aidmitted a.ti the thirty-ew-1th                    TtI> Cohorado Petrified (iant humbug.                            Jan. 21.
                dahn wins the day, Oct. S.                                           18.                                                                                                                                lRetirn of ltenry M. Stanley from African                     (Grmanv          returns               i,'qt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rif-Olblu          >,(    thi,
             Raid cf Corf-.tfora,              -mdhr Sttort int,                 Confederate privateer "Ahlbama" sunk b"                               T, nii.n of Office bill pased, June 4.                              explorations, August.                                           Iteolso laudatory of           Rus-kin, F.',     1;'>.
                 Pennsylwm~ia:        'Chailershlurg seized and                      the United States steamer "Keatsargo,"                            ( uifiscation and Amnesty        bill passed,                    Death of Brigham Young, Aug. 20.                              United States Supreme Court affirms- lih-
                looted, Oct. 10-12.                                                  off Cherbourg, France, June 19.                                      ·Jan. 4.                                                      Death of Oliver 1P. Morton, Nov. 1.                               constitutionality of Legal Tender Act.
             Union Gen. 0. M. Mitchel, astronomer,                               Hood attacks Hooker at Kentsaw, and                                   Purchase of Alaska, for $7,200,000, March                        Earthquake shocks in New England and                               Mairch 3.
                died at Bea-fort, S. %., Oct. :l.                                    fails, June 22.                                                      3.                                                               Middle States.                                            Mexican War pension bill passes House
             La Grange, Tenn.. occupied by Gen. Grant                            Emancipation Amendment submitted to                                   Jefferson Davis admitted to bail, in the                         Ku-Klux bill passed by Congress.                                   March 3.
                with Union furceo.                                                   the States by Congress, June 22.                                    sum of $100,000, May 1::.                                      Death of Benjamin F. Wade, March 2.                          The Senate ratifies commercial treaty with
             Battle of Fredericksbmrg, Va.                   Vnion               Butler occupies Deep Bottom, ten miles                                Soithern Statca organized asr military dis-                      Development of the telephone and phono-                           Mexico, March 11.
                 forces under Gen. Burnside defated.                                 below Richmond, June 22.                                             tricts, January.                                                 graph.                                                    lDefeat of Morrison Tariff                 hill, May 6.
                Union losses, 13.771.                                            Maryland abolishes slavery, June 24.                         I ,;'    impeachment, trial, and acquittal of Presi-                      Bankrupt Repeal Bill passed, May 10.                         C-ngress appropri:,teu $1,n1¢0,000 for New
             Battle of I.ingsti,,            '. C.    Confederates;              Repulse of Thomas and McPherson at                                       f,,nt John_-on.                                               Death of William Cuilen Bryant, June 12.                          Orleans Exposition, May S.
                 defeated, Dic. 14.                                                   K,-nes~aw, June 27.                                              I),tli     of Kit (Christopher) Carson, trup-                    Indian outbreak in Washington Territory,                     Great panic in Wll stree ; faiilure of
             Murphy surrenders Holly Springs to (;,a.                              ru'niive Slave Law of 1850 repealed by                                  l.-r   and guide. May 23.                                       July.                                                          Grant and Ward and oth~rs, May 6-14.
                 Van Dlorn, D)ec. *20.                                               {',, June 28.                                              1r. th    of James Buchanan, Jnne 1.                            C'hinese  Embassy visits the United States.                   ;',elkif expedition res-ues s-rxivors of the
             Jefferson Davis issmus a proclamation 011                           E:I:ly      hogins his raid into Maryland,                            l-0i>;h     of Matthew Vassar, June 2;1; he                      Silver Bill passed by both Houses of Con-                         :reely Arctic expedition, at Cape                       1Sa-
                 lawing Ben. Butlhr, Dre. 23.                                        July 2.                                                              dorates $800,000     for    endowment,   et,.,                                                                                  tbinc, June 2'2.
             Porter's fleet open fire tpO, Vicup u!'g,                           Wallace defeated by Earlv at Frederick,                                 of Vassair College.                                            Yellow fever in the South.                                      'r,-ident vetoes the Fitz-John Porter bill,
                 Dec. 2(.                                                            Md., July 9.                                                      Wyoming Territory organized, Jly     23.                         Gold sold at par-the first time since                              .July 2.
             Sheruan's         ...suc<'        attack    ui,,,m             Rosseau's raid into Alabama, July 10.                                 1Doath of Thaddeus Stecvens, Aug. 11.                              18c2-Dec. 17.                                               C(>r'mt-stone of the Bartholdi Statue of
                 Vicksburg, We. 27, 21-.                                         Eiarly's entire army within six miles of                              Cornell University,    at Ithtca, opened,               1 S79   Res..umption of specie payments, Jan. 1.                            Liberty laid, Aug. 6.
             Iron-(lad "Monitor" founders at s                     off
                                                                     ff,             Washington, July 12.                                                September.                                                     Death of Richard Henry Dana, Feb. 2.                          The general election resulted in ihe elec-
                 (Iape llatteras.                                                G;ld reaches highest premium, viz., 284                               Eiection of Goer. Grant as President,                            Great fire at Reno, Nev., March 2.                                 tion of Grover Clevwland, who carried
             West Virginia admitted as a Statn ,f dlh                                 per cent, July 16.                                                 Nov. 3.                                                        New Constitution of California adopted,                           20 States, securing 21:i electoral votes
                 Union, Dec. 31.                                                 G;rle,'s negotiations with Confederates,                     lye;!)   Pacific Railway completed, May 10.                                 May 2.                                                          against 182 for Jaunes (;. Blaine. N'oy.
     1863    Battle (f       Mmfr-esboro:           Rosecrans de-                    ;it N'iagara, July 18.                                            Death of Franklin Pierce, January.                               Death of William Lloyd Garrison, May 24.                          4.
                 feats Bralgg, Jhm. 1.                                           Battle aro,,nd Atlanta between forces un-                             Nolle pros.equi ends prosecution of Jeffer-                      Terrible tornado in Kansas, Nebraska and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Opening of the 48th Congress, Dec. 1.
             Emancipation Proclamation of President                                  d,-r lood, Confderate, add under Sher-                              son Davis, Feb. 6.                                               Missouri, May 30.                                I SSr     Grover Cleveland resign.s the New Yo-'~.
                 Lineoln goes into effect, liberating all                            man, Union, July 22.                                              Fifteenth Amendment passed, Feb. 2,53.                           Bill to erect a monument on site of                                governorship, Jan. 6.
                 slaves in S,,,thrn States.                                      C(limmhersburg, Pa., burned by General                                Supreme Court      pronounces Confederate                          Washington's      birthplace, passes both                   Dedication         of     the     Washington Mona-
             Death of Lyman Beecher, 1). D., aged 87,                                Stuart, July 30.                                                    currency to be worthless.                                        Houses, June 10.                                                ment, the tallest structure known, 556
                 Jan. 10.                                                        Explosion of a mine under Confederate                                 Great peace jubilee at Boston, June 15-20.                       Waterspout in Black Hills causes great
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           loss of property and life, June 12.                             feet, Feb. 21.
             U. S. steanr "Iliatteras" sunk by South-                                 works, Petersburg, July 30.                                      French frontier cabie laid, July 27.                                                                                           Occupation of Aspinwall, S. A., by United
                 ern privaiteer "Alabama,"              off Texas,               Farragut captures Mobile, Aug. S.                                     Great Wall street panic, "Black Friday,"                         Disastrous storms east and west, July.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           States troops.
                 Jan. 11.                                                          :reat naval victory, under Farragm, at                                Sept. 24.                                                      Great fire at Deadwood, Dak., Sept. 3(.                       Inauguration          of     Grover       Cleveland as
             Captuire of Ar!kansas Post by Gen. Mc-                                   Mobile, Ala., Aug. 5.                                            Death of George Peabody, Nov. 4.                                 Death of Gen. Joseph1Hooker, Oct. 31.                              President, March 4.
                 Cl(,rnaud Jan. II 11.                                           Atl;muta evacuated and occupied by Sher-                              Death of Edwin M. Stanton, Dec. 14.                              Death of Zachary Chandler, Oct. 31.                          New Orleans Exposition opened, Dec. 16.
             Confederate ram "Atlanta" captured off                                   tiwn, Aug. 31.                                          1--7o    Ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment                          Caleb Cushing dies at Madrid.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Treaty with Colombian Government, pro-
                 Sav;annah, Ga., by Union monitor "Wec-                          1.attlo of Winchester, Va.; Sheridan cap-                               by the States.                                                 "Exodus" of negroes from South to West.                            viding a joint protectorate over the
                 hawwken," Jan. 17.                                                   tures 5,000 prisoners, 5 guns, and all                           Death of Admiral David G.        Farragut,                       James Russell Lowell made Minister to                              Is1thmus, May .5.
             First t'. S. colored regiment enrolled in                                tile wounded. Sept. 19.                                            Auig. 14.                                                         England.                                                   The Revised Old Testament and complete
                 South Carolina, Jan. 25.                                        Defeats of Early, by Sheridan, in Shenan-                             Death of Gen. RI. E. Lee, Oct. 12.                               Fall elections favor Republicans.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Bible published, May 18.
             Act t, provide a national currency be-                                  doah. Sept. 19-22.                                                The Nathan murder, New York, July 28.                   1880     Death of Frank Leslie, Jan. 10.                               Dieath of Gen. I. S. Grant, at Mt. Me-
                 comes a law, Feb. 25.                                           Thirteenthl        Amendment        passed,   forever                 Proclamation of neutrality in Franco-Ger-                        City Hall, Albany, destroyed by fire,                              Gregor, N. Y., aged 63, July 23.
             Farragt rlns batteries at Grand Gulf,                                   abolishing slavery.                                                  muan     war.                                                   Feb. 10.                                                    Grant memorial services held at West-
                 April 1.                                                        Pilot       Knob      evacuated      by     Unionists,              First narrow-gauge railway built, Denver                           Terrific    tornado sweeps over parts of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           minster Abbey, London, Aug. 4.
             Corn. Porter snessfidly runs the                     )bat-              Sept. 27.                                                           &Rio Grande.                                                     Western and Southern States, April 8.                       Death of Vice-president T. A. liendricils,
                 teries at Vicksburg, April I6.                                  Death        of Chief-Justice        Roger    Brooks                Ku-Klux bill passes Congress.                                      Great forest fires in Southern New Jer-                           aged 66, Nov. 25.
             Port Gibson and Grand Gulf, on Missis-                                  Taney, Oct. 12.                                          1871 Treaty of Washington, with Great Britain.                              sey, April and May.                              184        The Presidential succession act signed,
                 sippi river, taken by U. S. Grant,                              Overwhelming defeat of Early at Cedar                               GCeat fire at Chicago; 17,450 buildings                            Collision on Long Island Sound destroys                            Jan. 19.
                 May 1.                                                              Creek, Oct. 19.                                                    destroyed;       loss about     $196,000,000,                     the      steamers     "Narragansett"       and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Controversy between the Senate and Presi-
             Col. Griefson's raid through M                   ississippi         Raid of Confederates on St. Alban,, Vt,,                               Oct. 8.                                                           "Stonington."                                                   dent over reasons for removing public
                 arrives at Baton Rouge, May 2.                                       Oct. 19.                                                       The       Yellowstone     National    Park bill                    Centennial celebration of the capture of                           officers, Jan. 25.
             Arrest of C. L. Valandigham.                                        Destruction of ram "Albemarle"                  by a                    passed.                                                          Andre, Sept. 23.                                            400 Chinamen driven from Seattle, W.
             Severe fighting between Union forces, nn-                                torpedo affixed to her by Lieut. Cush-                         Visit of the Grand Duke Alexis to the                              Garfleld and Arthur nominated by Chicago                          Ter., by a mob, Feb. 9.
                 der Hlooker, and (Confederates, tnaer                                ing, Oct. 27.                                                     U'nited States.                                                   Republican Convention, June 9 ; Han-                        Death of General Winfield Scott Hancock,
                 Lee, about Chancellorsville, Va.:; Con-                         President        Lincoln      re-elected:     Andrew                The Credit Mobilier scandal.                                         cock and English by Cincinnati Demo-                             aged 61, Feb. 9.
                 federate      Gen.      "Stonewall"       Jackson                    Johnson Vice-President, Nom. q.                          IS72 Settlement of the Alabama Claims.                                     cratic Convention.                                          Blair Educational Bill passes the Senate,
                 killed; Hooker defeated, May 2, 3, 4.                           Shermnan commences his "MartlIt to the                              Congress removes the political disability                          At the General Election, the Republican                            March 5.
             Battle of Jackson, Miss.; captured by                                    Sea." from Atlanta, Nov. I6.                                      of the Southern people.                                           candidates secured 213 out of 369 elec-                     Bill for free and unlimited coinage of'
                 Gen. Grant, May 14.                                             Incendiarism by Confederates in New                                 lIe-election of President Grant.                                     toral votes. Nov. 6.                                             silver defeated, April 8.
             Battle of         Baker's        Creek :    Pemberton                    York, Nov. 25,                                                 Great fire at Boston ; loss about $78,000,-               ]881     Electoral College vote counted, Feb. 9.                       Chicago Anarchist riot; 6 police killed
                 routed by Grant, May 16.                                        Battle of Franklin, Tenn., between Hood                                 000, Nov. 9.                                                   Three per cent.        funding bill passed,                        and 61 wounded, May 4.
             Battle of Black River Bridge; retreat :f                                 and Thomas, Nov. 30.                                           Death of Horace Greeley, Nov. 29.                                    March 2.                                                    Anarchists indicted at Chicago, May 27.
                 Pemhberton to Vicksburg, May 17.                                Battle of Nashville, under Gen. Thomas.                             Death of Samuel F. Morse, inventor of the                          Stumer "Corwin" Fails for the Arctic re-                      President Cleveland               married        to     Misa
             Vicksburg besieged by Grant, May 21.                                     Great      victory.      Confederates      under                   electric telegraph.                                              gions in search of the "Jeannette,"                              Frances Folsom, June 2.
             Colored troops first brought into action                                 Ilood retreat; Dec. 15, I;.                                    Northwestern boundary question settled by                            March 4.                                                    Oleomargarine            bill passes the Senate,
                 at Port      tuindson. May 27.                                  Saivannah, Ga., occupied by Gen. Sher-                                  the Emperor of Germany.                                        Revised New Testament issued. May 20.                              June 20.
             Battle at MillBken's Bend, June 6, 7.                                    man, completing the "March to the                              Death of James Gordon Bennett, June 1.                             Star route frauds exposed, M.ay 26.                           Morrison Tariff Bill defeated. June 17.
             Retreat of Mihroy fromn Winchester, June                                 Sea," Dec. 21.                                                 Epizootic throughout the United States.                            The great comets of 1881 first seen, June                      loiuse of Representatives passed bill re,
                 14.                                                             I'r--ident orders a draft for 300,000 more                          National Granges organized.                                          20.                                                              pealing the pre-emption, timber culture
             Invasion of Pennsylvania by Lee's entire                                 men, Dec. 19.                                                  Death of William If. Seward.                                       Sitting Bull, chief of the Sioux, surren-                          and desert land laws, June 7.
                 ariy, June 1;'2.".                                              Butler and Porter attack Fort Fisher,                        1ST3 Wreck of the Atlantic, 535 lives lost,                                 ders, July 31.                                             Bill to repeal the Civil Service law in-
             Battlei of Gettysburg, Pa. : Gen. Lee de-                                N. C., and fail, Dec. 24, 25.                                      April 1.                                                       James A. Garfield inaugurated, March 4.                            definitely postponed by the U. S. Sen-
                  feated by [nion forces, under Gen.                    IS618o5  Establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau.                             Modoc massacre, death of General Canby,                            Contest     between    Garfield and     Senator                    ate, June 18.
                 Meade, July 2, 3.                                               Fort Fiisher, N. C.. captured by Gen.                                   April 11.                                                        Conkling (N. Y.) about New York col-                        Congress requires the Treasury to issue
             Morgan begias his raid through Indiana                                   Terry and Commodore Porter, Jan. 15.                           C(lfax massacre, La., by White League,                               lectorship, May.                                                 small denomination silver certificates,
                  and Ohio, July 3.                                              Sherman leaves Savannah,                 and    starts                  April.                                                         Commercial treaty with China signed,                               July 24.
             Vicksburg surrendered by Gen. Peniber-                                   northward, Feb. 1.                                             D)eath of Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice,                            May 5.                                                      The President warns office holders against
                 ton to Union forces, under Grant,                               President's Conference with Confederate                                 May 7.                                                         Great Britain pays £15.000 award for                               attempts to control political move-
                 July 4.                                                              Commission, Feb. 3.                                            Be-her and Tilton scandal,              Brooklyn,                    damage done to American fisheries in                             ments, July.
             Port Hudson surrendered to Gen. Banks,                              Evacuation of Charleston, S. C., by Con-                                J iuly,                                                          Fortune Bay affair.                                         Death of Samuel J.                  Tilden, aged 74,
                 and Natchez occupied by Gen. Grant-                                  federates, Feb. 17.                                            The Salary Grab bill.                                              Assassination of President         Garfield by                     Aug. 4.
                  Mississippi river being thus opened to                         Its occupation by Union forces, Feb. 18.                            Failure of Jay Cooke & Co.; great finan-                             Charles J. Guiteau, at Baltimore rail-                      Chicago anarchists, to the number of 8,
                 navigation, July 8.                                             Re-inauguration           of    President    Lincoln,                   cial panic, Sept. 1.9.                                           way depot in Washington, July 2.                                 found guilty of murder, Aug. 20.
              Anti-draft riots in New tork; 2,000 riot-                               March 4.                                                       Triail and        conviction of William M.                         Death of President Garfield at Elberon,                       Earthquake at Charleston, S. C., destroy-
                 ers killed, July 13, 14, 15.                                    Confederate Congress adjourns for the last                              Tweed, Nov. 22.                                                   N. J., Sept. 19; burial at Cleveland,                           ing $5,000,000 worth of property and
             Riot in Boston, July 153.                                                time, March IS.                                                Seizure of the "Virginius," and execu-                               Sept. 26.                                                        57 lives, Aug. 30-31.
              Gen. Burnside occupies Knoxville, Te...,                           Desperate fighting commences before Rich-                               tion of a number of her passengers                             Vice President Arthur becomes President,                      Surrender of the Apache chief Geronim*
                 Sept. 3.                                                             mond. Battle of Five Forks, April 1.                              lby the Spanish authorities in Cuba.                              Sept. 26.                                                        and his band, Sept. 4.
             Confederates         evacuate        Fort     Wagner,               Gen. Grant advances upon Petersburg,                                Surrender of the "Virginius"              to the                   Special session of the Senate, Oct. 10.                       Death of Ex-President Chester A. Arthur,
                 Sept. 6.                                                             April 2.                                                           United States by Spain, Dec. 12.                               The celebrated Guiteau trial begins, Nov.                          aged 56.
             Burnside        captures         Cumberland       Gap,              Richmond and Petersburg evacuated dur-                              Death of Louis Agassiz, Dee. 14.                                     14.                                                         Bill to regulate the counting of electoral
                 Sept. 9.                                                             ing night of April 2.                                   1874 Woman's Temperance Crusade.                                          News of destruction of "Jeannette," Arc-                          votes passed, Dec. 9.
             Battle of Chickamauga: Union forces, fin-                           Flight ,f Davis from Richmond, April 2.                             Visit of Kalakaua, King of Hawaii.                                   tic exploring vessel, Dec. 30.                   1887       Interstate Commerce Bill signed, Feb. 4.
                 der Rosecrans, fall back to Chatta-                             Richmond and Petersburg occupied by                                 Compromise Currency Bill signed by the                    1882     Guiteau convicted, Jan. 25; sentenced                         House defeats the Dependent Soldier Pen-
                 nooga, Sept. 19.                                                     Union forces, April 3.                                             President.                                                       Feb. 4 ; hanged June 30.                                         sion Bill, Feb. 24.
             Quantrell raids Lawrence. Kan., Aug. 21.                            Selma. Ala., captured with large stores,                            Death of Charles Sumner, March 11.                                 Anti-Chinese bill (twenty years) passed                       Belmont Retaliation Bill passed, March 2.
             Gen.      Wheeler starts on his raid into                                April 5.                                                       Grasshopper raid in the Northwest.                                   March 23; vetoed by the President                           Bill to redeem               trade dollars passed
                 Tennessee, destroying much Government                           Battle of Sailors' Creek; defeat of Ewell                           Abduction of Charley Ross, July 1.                                   April 4.                                                        March 19.
                 property, Oct. 2.                                                    and Custis Lee, April 6.                                       A second large fire in Chicago, July 14.                           Senate passes Edmunds Anti-Polygamy                           Inter-State        Commerce          commission          ap-
             Hooker takes Lookout Mountain. Oct. 2S.                             Grant demands             the surrender of the                      Presidential election; result disputed, No-                          Bill, Feb. 16; approved March 23.                                pointed, March 22.
             First Fenian Congress held in the United                                Southern army, April 7.                                             vember 7.                                                      Apportionment bill passes the House,                          Mormon convention at Salt Lake City
                 States.                                                         Lee surrenders to U. S. Grant at Ap-                         1875 Passage of the Act for the Resumption                                  Feb. 17.                                                         adopts a constitution, July 1.
             Gen. Meade crosses the Rappahannock, Lee                                 pomattox Court House, Va., April 9.                                of Specie Payments in 1879.                                    Great Mississippi overflow, wide destruc-                     Defeat of the Scotch cutter "Thistle" by
                 retiring, Nov. 7.                                               Mobile evacuated by the Confederates,                               Colorado       admitted     into    the    Union,                    tion and loss of life.                                           the American "Volunteer" in race for
             Longstreet begins the siege of Knoxville,                                April 10.                                                          March 4.                                                       Tariff Commission Bill passes both Houses,                        "America cup," Sept. 27 and 30.
                 Nov. 17.                                                        Montgmery, Ala., surrenders to Wilson,                              Centennial celebration at Lexington, Con-                            May 6-9; approved May 15.                                   President and Mrs. Cleveland leave Wash-
             Battle of Missionary Ridge; success of                                  April 11.                                                           cord and Bunker Hill.                                          Bill extending National Bank charters                              ington for a Western trip.
                 Federals. Nov. 24.                                              President issues orders to stop drafting                            Death of Andrew Johnson, July 31.                                    passed both Houses, May 19.                                 Mormon convention of monogamists peti-
             Bepulse of Longstreet at Knoxville, Nov.                                 and further purchase of war material,                          Trial of Henry Ward Beecher for adultery.                          Violent cyclone at Grinnell, la., June 8.                          tion Congress for admission of Utah as
                 28, 29.                                                              April 13.                                                      Trial of Prof. Swing for heresy, May 5.                            Second     Anti-Chinese bill     (ten     years)                   a State, Oct. 8.
             Banks starts on his expedition into Texas,                          President Lincoln assassinated, in Wash-                            Death of John C. Breckinridge, May 17.                               passed; signed by President Arthur,                         United States Supreme Court refuses to
                 Nov. 29.                                                            ington, by Wilkes Booth, April 14.                              Military rule discontinued in the Southern                           May 6.                                                           interfere with the finding of Illinois
             Longstreet raises the siege of Knoxville,                           Attempted assassination of Seward, April                                States.                                                        Collision of the Scioto on Ohio river; 5of                        courts in anarchist cases, Nov. 1.
                 Dec. 5.                                                              14.                                                            Suspension of the California Bank, and                               persons drowned, July 4.                                   Governor Oglesby commutes death sen-
             President Lincoln issues Proclamation of                            President Lincoln dies, April 15.                                       suicide of President Ralston.                                  River and Harbor bill passed over the                              tences of Schwab and Fielden to life
                 Amnesty. Dec. 8.                                                Andrew         Johnson,      of Tennessee,       Vice-              Death of Henry Wilson, Nov. 22.                                      President's veto, Aug. 2.                                        imprisonment, Nov. 10.
     1864    Draft of 500,000 men ordered by Presi-                                  President, takes oath of office as Presi-                       Grest fire in Virginia City, Nev., Oct. 25.                        Return of the survivors of the North Pole                        alinging, at Chicago, of the anarchists
                 dent Lincoln, Feb. 1.                                               dent.                                                           Formdering of steamship "Pacific"             be-                    expedition.                                                      Parsons,      Spies, Engel and                Fischer,
             Colt's armory, at Hartford, destroyed by                            Macon, Ga., occupied by Union forces:                                  tween San Francisco           and    Portland,                  Star Route trial ended by verdict of jury,                        Nov. 11.
                 fire, Feb. 8.                                                       great amount of army stores taken,                                 Nov. 4.                                                           Sept. 11, acquitting Turner, convicting                    Republican           National       Committee          select
             Disaster to Unitn forces in Fhorida, mn-                                 April 20.                                                      Dea:lth of William B. Astor, Nov. 24.                                Miner and Rerdell, and disagreeing as                            Chicago for National Convention, June
                 der Gen. Soymour. Feb. 20.                                      Capture and death of Wilkes Booth,                                  Escape of Tweed from the custody of tlhe                             to Brady, the Dorsey brothers, and                              16, 1888.         Dec. 8.
             Kilpatrick's raid into Virginia.                  Gen.                  April 25.                                                           sheriff, Dec. 4.                                                 Vail.                                            1888      Terrible blizzard in Minnesota, Dakota
                  Dahlgren killed, Fet). 28.                                     Gen. Johnston's army surrenders to Gen.                             Great revivals. under Moody and Sankey.                            Steamer "Asia" founders on Lake Huron,                             and Iowa; 200 lives lost, Jan. 12.
     1864    General Grant made Lieutenant-General.                                  Sheriiman, April 26.                                            Grest inundation in Texas.                                           100 lives lost, Sept. 14.                                   Inter-State Commission confirmed by the
                 March 2.                                                ] S65   Jefferson Davis captured at Irwinsville,                     ]876   Opening of the Centennial Exhibition at                            Utah Commission completes registration                            U. S. Senate, Jan. 16.
             A Free State government inaugurated in                                   Ga., with part of his cabinet, May 10.                             P'hiladelphia, May 10; it closes, Nov.                           of voters, September.                                      Fisheries treaty with Great Britain signed
                 Louisiana. March.                                               Engagement at Boco Chico, between 50o                                    I 0.                                                 1882     The Pendleton Civil Service Bill passes                            at Washington, Feb. 15.
             Admiral Porter's Red River expedition,                                  Confederates and 400 Union troops, be-                          Serious difficulties between Americans and                           Senate, Dec. 27.                                            Strike of engineers and firemen on the
                 March 4.                                                             ing the last in the "War of the Re-                                (hinese in California.                                1883     Civil Service Reform Bill passes the                              C., B. &Q. R. R. began Feb. 25.
              Gen. U. S. (Grant appointed C(mrnandler-                                beltlon," May 12.                                              Burst of reservoir at Worcester, Mass.,                               [louse, Jan. 4.                                 1888       Deadlock in the House of Representatives
                  in-Chief of army of United State%                              Grand review of the armv, at Washing-                                   detroying millions of dollars worth of                         Presidential Succession Bill passed Sen-                           over the Direct Tax Bill, April 9.
                 March 12: assumes command, March 17.                                 ton, May 23, 24.                                                   property, March 3.                                               ate, Jan. 9; not considered in the                         Death of Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite.
              A call for 200,000 more men, March 15.                             G;en. Kirby Smith surrenders all his com-                           Death of Alexander T. Stewart, April 10.                             House.                                                           aged 72 years, March 23.
             Arkavsas votes to become a Free State,                                   mand, Trans-Mississippi Army, May 2t;.                         War with Sitting Bull and the Sioux.                               Burning of Newhall House, Milwaukee;                         Knights of Labor appeals to Congress for
                 March     I6.                                                   Amnesty Proclamation of President John-                             Massacre at Hamburg, S. C., June.                                     59 lives lost, Jan. 10.                                         a system of Government                     telegraph,
             Battle of Jenkins Ferry, Ark.; deft'at of                                son, with fourteen different exceptions,                       Massacre of Gen. Custer and his com-                               Great flood in Ohio River; 50,000 people                           April 12.
                  Kirby Smith. April 4.                                               May 29.                                                            mand, by the Sioux Indians, July 2.                              homeless, Feb. 10-15.                                       Death of Roscoe Conkling, ex-U. S. Sen-
              New York Sanitary Commission Fair re-                              Goergia declares slavery abolished, etc.,                           Completion of the First One ttundred                               Tariff and Tax Amendment Bill passes                               ator, aged 60 years, April 18.
                  ceipts over one million dollars.                                     Deco. 4.                                                          Years of American Independence; great                            both Houses, March 2.                                       Daily sales of U. S. bonds began, April
              Unin expedition to Mansfield, La.. foiled.                         S«'!etary Seward officially declared slav-                               rejoicing throughout the United States,                       Death of Alexander It. Stephens, aged 71,                         23.
                  April    :; Union forces,. reinforco,d. re-                          ,ry abolished throughout thie United                              July 4.                                                           March 4.
                  pulse Confederates at Pleasant Hill.                                States, Dec. 18.                                               Castle (Garden, N. V., destroyed by fire,                          Death of Peter Cooper, aged 92, April 4.                      Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois, nomi-
                                                                                                    nullified secession ordinance,                        July 9.                                                       Cyclone at Beauregard, Miss., 83 lives                             nated by the President as Chief Jus-
              Fort Pillow massacre. April 12.                                    Mi1sissippi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tice, April 30; confirmed by the Senate,
              Wessols surrenders Plymouth, N. I'., t,,                                 A\gust.                                                        Yimunzer Brothers and Northfield Bank                                lost; tornadoes in Iowa and Georgia,
                                                                                  Aalima declared ordinance of secession                                  robbery, Sept. 7.                                                April 22.                                                       July 20.
                  Confederates, April 20.
              Severe fighting between Confederites.                  ...               w.l1 and void. Sept. 12.                                       Arrest of W. M. Tweed, at Vigo, Spain,                            Opening      of the     Brooklyn    Suspension                Chinese Treaty ratified by U, S. Senate,
                  der Lee. and Union forces, undor lr'af/t.                      S.:th Carolina repealed the secession or-                               Sept. S.                                                          Bridge, May 24.                                                May 7.
                  in Virginia, in advance on Rich ...          iiiir                  dinance, Sept. 15.                                              Yellow fever in Georgia, September.                               Pendleton Civil Service       Act passes both                 Execution of murderers by electricity,
                  May 3-11.                                                       r'kirida annulled secession ordinance, Oct.                        Trial of Molly Mughires, October.                                     tlouses, July 16.                                              after Jan. 1, 1889, passes N. Y. Sen-
              Battle of the Wilderness. May 5.                                                                                                        Dastardly attempt to rob the grave of                             Steamer "Proteus" of the Greely llelief                           ate, May 8; approved by the Governor,
              Occupation of City Point by General But                            t'ritlaiation opening all ports in South-                                President Lincoln, Nov. 7.                                       Expedition crushed by ice in Smith's                            June 4.
                  ler, May 4.                                                       ern States, and ending blockade, June                             Burning of the Brooklyn Theater, 276                                 Sound, July 23.                                           The President approves of bill to invite
              Sherman begins             hii march toward At-                       2:'.                                                                  lives lost. Dec. 5.                                           Terrific tornado at         Rochester,    Minn.,                  a conference of American States at
                  lanta, May 7.                                                  Execution of assassination conspirators,                            First furnace for cremation built,              at                    many lives lost, Aug. 21.                                       Washington in 1889, May 24.
              Battle of Resaca. Ga.. between General.,                              ilarold, Payne, Atzeroth, and Mrs. Sur-                               Washington, Pa.. Dec. 6.                                      Northern Pacific Railroad formally opened,                    Lieut.-Gen. Philip It. Sheridan confirmed
                  Sherman and Johnston, May 15.                                     raft, July 7.                                                    The Ashtabula railroad horror, Dec. 29.                               Sept. 8.                                                        aa General of the Army, June 1.
              Failure of Butler to capture Drury's                               Rebel Indian chiefs sign treaty of h0valty,                   1577 ('lose of the Indian War.                                           Civil Rights Act of March 1. 1875, de-                        National Democratic Convention at St.
                  Bluff, May 16.                                                    Sept. 14.                                                         The Electoral Commntission Bill passed by                            clared Unconstitutional by IT. S. Su-                               Mouis renominates President Cleveland,
              Death of Nathaniel Hawthorne. May 1].                              Execution of Capt. Wirz. the Anderson-                                   Congress, Jan. 25, 26.                                           preme Court, Oct. 15.                                            June 6.
              Fighting between Lee and Crant at the                                ville prison commandant. Nov. 10.                                 Rutherford B. Hayes declared President,                            Gen. Sherman relinquishes command of                          National Department of Labor bill ap-
                  Nrth Anna. May 21-24.                                          Death of Bufus Choate- Jan. 15.                                          March 2.                                                         the army, Nov. I ; Gen. Sheridan sue-                            proved by the President, June 13.
              Battle of Dalton, Ga., May 28; Union                               Passage of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill.                               Blue Glass mania.                                                    ceeding.                                                   The President signed the Chinese Exclu-
                  victory.                                                          over the President's veto, Feb. 20.                               Death of Cornelius Vanderbilt, June 4.                            Two-cent letter postage goes into effect                            sion Bill, forbidding any Chinese la-
              Sheridan eapture, ('old Harbor, May 31.                            President's proclamation declaring the in-                           Great railroad riots, East and West, July                            throughout the United States, Oct. 1.                           borer who has been, or may now be, or
              Evacuation of Allt(ona Paa., Jime 1.                                  surrection ended.                                                     and August.                                                   Seritos riot at Danville. Va., between                              may hereafter be, a resident within the
              Battle of Cold Harbor, June 2, 3.                                  D'eath of Gen. Winfield Scott, May 29.                         1S7S Yellow fever epidemic along the Lower                                 negroes and white military, Nov. 3.                              I.   S., and may depart therefrom, and
              Battle of Piedmont, Va., June 5.                                   Fenians invade Canada, June 1.                                           Mississippi.                                                   Dakota adopted a constitution erecting                            who may not have returned before the
              Hunter attacks Lynchburg; retreats int,                            Fourteenth Amendment passed the Sen-                                 Meeting of the Alabama Claims Commis-                                Southern Dakota into a State, Nov. 6.                            passage of this act, to return to, or re-
                   West Virginia, June 8.                                           ate, June 8.                                                          sion, Feb. 87.                                                 Festivals in honor of the 400th anni-                              main in, the U. S.. Oct. 1.
              Army of the Potomac crosses to south                               Successful laying of the Atlantic Cable,                             F'nians attempt a          second invasion of                         versary of Luther's birth, Nov. 10-11.                    Death of General Philip H. Sheridan,
                  side of James RiMer, June 12-15.                                  July 27.                                                              Canada, May 29.                                                48th Congress organized.                                           aged 57 years. August S.

 I                                                                    I -                                                                 I-                                                               I
                                                                                                                                                            SLAq'lbMENT                 XXI\ir.


                                                                                                                     ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I           Covermor Alteld pardons Chidasra n-                                     l'1 i , *'Wirnless message sent from K.ansas City
           1888   Major-Gen. John M. Schofleld appointed                  The enlistment of Indians in the U. S.                                  ('hinese Exclusion bill signed, May I.
                     to the command of the army, August                     army authorized, March 6.                                             Terrible floods in the Mississippi     al-                                        archists, Jtle 28.                                                              to ('leveland, a dist;lance of 725 miles,
                    14.                                                   Proposed arbitration of Behring Sea dis-                                  ley, May 8-15.                                                                Extra    session of Congrgess calhd .lu,,.                                        Jan. 1.t5.
                  U. S. Senate rejects the Fisheries treaty,                pute, March 11.                                                       Wyoming appoints womnen to National                                                30.                                                                   111t; S;an   IFraniSco earthquake andl fire, April
                    Augimt 21.                                            Lynching of 11 Italians at New Orleans,                                   Republican Convention, May 7.                                                 (;ra;it fire at World's lFair, 2-1 live-                        l-I,               18-2o.
                  President's message to *"e U. S. Senate                   March 14.                                                             The Alliance party proposes a new cur-                                             July 10.                                                               l fo7 (;reat financial dhlression, Oct.
                     recommending enlarged powers under                   Nicaragua Canal Party sails, March 14.                                    rency, May 8.                                                                   lehring Sea arbitrators award in                             fai,,'   l !it     liBoyertown, Pa., thleatre ibuirned,175 lives
                    the Retaliation Act. August 23.                       American Society of Authors formed for                                  The     Pope      approves       Archbishop          Ireland's                   of England, Ans. 15,.                                                               lhst, January.
                  Floods at Augusta, Ga., destroyed $1,-                    the protection of writers, March 30.                                    Educational Policy, May 10.                                                   Great stoTIm on Soillh Atlantic ea -,                                            Nn'm. I. Tat elected President, 'Niv.          .
                     000,000 worth of property, Sept. 12.                 Recall of the Italian Minister, Baron                                   Association       of American             authors formed,                        Aug. 2S.                                                               1]0(9 D)iscovery of North Pole by Co(nIIIodure
                  Bill prohibiting coming of Chinese la-                    Fava, March 31.                                                         May 17.                                                                      Wabash railroad a(ccident at  tKillhry ,                                             P'eary.
                     borers approved, Sept. 13.                           25th anniversary of the founding of the                                 Rec.iprocity          wvith     CGuatemala      zees     into                    14 killed, 4.5 wo,,undd. Sept. 2*.                                             Payte-Aldrich lariff law approved, AugI.
                  September wheat touched $2 on Chicago                     Grand Army of the Republic, April 6.                                        effct, 5aI'Y       SO.                                                   Chicago    lDayait tthe World's Fahi,     :ai-
                     Board of Trade, Sept. 29.                            Ground broken for the Grant Monument,                                      mlg.s (L;.1laine resigis as Setretary of                                      tendancze 716,sI, Oc((t. 9.                                             1,'l     fl)¢a-statit;, flo(,dls in MNissi.sippi Valley;
                  U. S. Supreme Court sustains the con-                         New York City, April 27.                                             Stale, June 4.                                                              World's Fair closed it Chia-iro, Oct.    ": .                                        over 2'0!0,09o pvtple rendcred honileles.
                     stitattionality of the Iowa "Prohibitory      1891   ('hincse Govern'ent refuses to receive                                   lhepmlbli-can National Colnvntiio1    hold,                                   lbpeal         o(f the     Silver           llrcihase hl..l
                    Law," Oct. 22.                                           the American Minister, II. W. Blair,                                    June. 7.                                                                      Act. of        Nov. 1.
                  The "Murchison" decoy letter to Lord                       April 28.                                                            Bcnj;..min llarrlision and Whiitellasw                   lii            Is*:LI Now Yor:k ('or't of Apelals decides tl,:
                    Sackville West made public, Oct. 24.                  Fort Berthold Reservation, N. D., opened                                  nomiinated,      .Jndel0.                                                          it-n corporations m1v hold n.}
                  Lord Sackville West, British Minister, dis-                for settlement, May 20.                                               em,
                                                                                                                                                   )        ,ra Natilal
                                                                                                                                                              tic             (onvltetion                   }lid,                   (. tlate in Ne(w       Y,,k State, Janii. 16.
                     miased by the President, Oct. 2)0.                   "The Pleople's Party" formed at Cin-                                                                                                                    \Villon    Tariff       Bill ald          In-com)e TI:
                  National Election for President; the Re-                  cinnati, May 20.                                                                                                                                         aissei th     li      -use, Tain. 31.
                                                                          Statue o(i XMraham Linoln unveiled at                                      ,I zlillel¢>i
                                                                                                                                                             2             1~1 °.                                                IT.  S. WarshiI          K.itrsarge, faiiollIS as tIl,
                    publican candidates elected, Nov. 6.                                                                                            n     ,,minatcd. Jdiie 2'3.
                  Official yellow fever bulletin gave total                  Lincoln 'ark, Chicago, MNlay  23.                                     1)c)y, Arctic relief  ex)pedition sails.                                          deslro-y(r    of'      the      ('Confedierate  Al.\-
                    number of deaths 412, and of cases                    Bronze statue of General (Grant, at Ga-                                    June 27.                                                                          }atisa, wreclked on              oncada         l(reetf, ]",b.
                     4,705, at Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 10.                  lena, Ill., unveiled. June 3.                                                                                                                             2.
                  U. S. men-of-war "Galena" and "Vantic"                  The (Czar of Russia presents Stanford                                   lhlomestead. Pa., Steel Works closed,                                           Dalth of (;,o'ge W'. Childs, plilantliro-
                     sailed for Hayti to demand release of                   University with a complete collection                                    June 30.                                                                     pisit and journalit, at    lP'hiladelltlii;,
                    the Hlaytian Republican, Dee. 12.                        of R1ussiant and Siberian minerals,                                  l'rhibitioniOts           nominate        John        Bidwll                           S.
           1889    Great storm in Pennsylvania; many lives                      June     12.                                                         for Pre-idehnt, .JIly 1.                                                     (ir;eater NeXw Yo,rH    lill                   signled       )byti,
                     lost at Pittsburgh and Reading, Jan. 9.              Surrender of the Chilian ship, Itata, at                                 lPeople's lParty nominate Janies B. Wea-                                           (:overnor, FebS. S.
                  Niagara Suspension Bridge blown down at                    Iqlique, to the U. S., June 4.                                          ver for President, July 4.                                                    'President ('Clevdlm'd vetoes the BlInd
                    3 a. m., Jan. 10.                                     First shipment of block tin fromn Cali-                                 Slhmaghter of Pinkerton men at llome-                                             Silver hil,. Mari,h ">0.
                  Department         of    Agriculture  created,             fornia mines, June 15.                                                  stead, July 6.                                                              l;tlriing Sea proclatiation     issi, , April
                    Feb. 4.                                               International Postal Congress held at                                   National     Christian Endeavor Swiety                                             10.
                                                                             Vienna decides to hold next Congress                                   Convenltion at New York, July 7.                                             Ui'leonstitutioialditv  of trio Soithl ('aIrm
                  The States of North and South Dakota,                                                                                           Pennsylvania troops take poss(ession                           of                  lina l)ispenisry law d(clared. April 1l.
                     Montana and Washington, created by                      at Washington, June 25.
                                                                          Corinnercial         treaty       with     Spain    signed,                llomestead, Pa., July 10.                                                    1:,,00()0 coail miner.s ordcrd to, strike in
                    Congress, Feb. 20.                                       June 26.                                                             Bill to close the World's                  Fair on       Sun-                      Ohlio, April 2o.
                  Benjamin Harrison inaugurated President,                Transfer of the Weather Bureau to the                                      day passes both Hlouses, July ]14.                                            ('oxcy's army invadled Washilngtol,        1).I
                    March 4.                                                                                                                                                                                                         (c. April 29.
                  Oklahoma proclamation issued, May 27.                      Agricultural -Department, June 30.                                   Great storims in Minnesota, July :30.
                  Opening       of     the Oklahoma country,              $5;00.00 accepted fromnthe Itata for viola-                             The President proclaims Oct. 12 a; Na-                                            )Dr. Taltma»s's Tr:firnaeilefi i'rooi, li
                     April 22.                                               tion of the U. S. Navigation laws, July.                                tionral holiday, July 21.                                                      destroyed by     l''e. May 12.
                                                                          Libel filed against the arms ,and ammuni-                               I. C. Frick, chairman Carne(gie Steel                                           177 buildiings biroed bIy fire ;it 1oton,.
                  Centennial of Washington's inauguration,                   tion on the Itata, at San Diego, July 12.                               Co., shot by Berkman, 3,1ly 23.                                                May 15.
                     April 30.                                            Statue of Stonewall Jackson unveiled at                                 George Shiras co(, by the Senate                                        An>rl;an R1ailway Union b-yuotts Pull-
                  Murder of Dr. Cronin at Chicago, May 4.                    Lexington, Va., July 21.                                                as Associate Justice Ut. S. Supremet                                            i;ini Car (opll;ail.      Affeted >,lI>,o.
                  Destruction by flood of Johnstown, Pa.;                 SmokelesIs powder used for the first time                                  Court, July 26.                                                                mleIs of raihlrolad, .hlme 25.
                    5,000 to 10,000 lives lost; over $20,-                   by the U. S. Government, July 25.                                    Inman Steameir "City of lParis" brealks the                                    .- lr.or-plate frauds detected, June 2i.
                    000,000 worth of property destroyed,                  The "Majestic" breaks the ocean rec-                                       Ocean Record, 5d1. 15h. 5Si. .lJly 27.                                       C.   S. Couwrt enjoins strikers trmf intr-
                    May 31.                                                  ord, timle being 5d. 18lh. 8m., Aug. .                               Central Labor Union rejects anarchistic                                            fering with raihoad trains, July 2.
                  Judge D. S. Terry shot by IT. S. Mar-                   Cherokee strip in Indian Territory closed                                  resolutions, July 30.                                                         tlihroad mobs desroy p1roperty in azd
                                                                             to Whites, Aug. 13.                                                  Congress appropriatfs $2,>50).10o to the                                            ear' Chicag'o, Juy1  6;-1 {.
                    shal Nagle, defending Justice Field,                  Rain-mraking     experiment   at    Midland.                                World's Fair, A-ig. 5.                                                       Kilr'oad stril;( dclar d off. July 1:.
                    Aug. 14.                                                 Texas, Aug. 19.                                                      Chinese      sailors forbidden employmient                                       Itahli  Enablin2 .V\t sige(d, .hJly I 7.
                  International Marine Congress meets at                                                                                             on American ships, Aug. 5,                                                                                                       at
                    Washington, Oct. 16.                                  The "Teutonic" brelaks the trans-Atlan-                                                                                                                 Amn/viean tt       ;t'ii><s           l;andel                S.<->l
                  North and South Dakota admitted by                         tic record of the "Majestic," time 5d. .-                             Internatimoal 'Monetary representatives                                           (Cora, Jlly- 27.
                     proclamation, Nov. 2.                                    16h. 31m., Aug. 19.                                                    appointed by the' President, Aug. 7.                                         Wc,.rk rcsu..etl at 'llma.:m,.                   11I.,Aunt.      2.
                                                                          Inldi:m lands of Oklahoma opened, Sept.                                 Trouble amonlg East Tennessee miners,                                            Ilhwaiian        lbeiti,]ie     oqiiially          recguni.d.i,
                  Trial of Cronin suspects began Aug. 30,                     22.                                                                    Aug. 13.
                     ended Dec. 16. Coughlin, Sullivan and                                                                                  IS)    lRailroad strike of switchniin                      at Buf-                     f>Sf;actories close at Fall                    livcr,      20,n0:)
                     Burke found guilty, and received life                Dedication of Pope Leo XIII. statue, pre-
                     sentences; Kunze, imprisonment three                    sented to the Catholic University at                                    falo, great destruction ot'                       property,                       mcen idlh, Angs.          13,.
                                                                             Washington, Sept. 28.                                                   Aug. 14.                                                                      I lited Statvs reeo-, nizes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ,sovr-           the
                     years; Beggs found not guilty.                                                                                               'qhe       President           proclaims         retaliation                       eisgnty df Ni;caragua over th( MIos<iit,
                  David J. Brewer appointed a Supreme                     Leland Stanford, Jr., University at Pal,
                                                                              Alto, Cal., opened, Oct. 1.                                            against Canada on canals, Aug. 20.                                                Coast Aug. 2t;.
                     Court Justice, Dec. 4.                               Equestrian statue of General Grant at                                    Nancev IIanks          again        breaks the trotting                         New Tariff become(s a law1, without th,
                  Death of Jefferson Davis, late President                    Lincoln Park, Chicago, unveiled, Oct.                                 record, 2.051/4, Aug. 31.                                                          President's signature,              AuIK. 27.
                     of the Confederate States, Dec. 6.                       7.                                                                  Death of George William Curtis, author                                           ]E;arthqiuake with great loss of life                            :It
           1890   Appointment of Special World's Fair Com-                Commercial treaty with Germany con-                                       and journalist, Aug. 31.                                                          tUvalde, Texas. Aug. 31.
                     mittee, Jan. 18.                                         eluded, Oct. 11.                                                    Cholera brought to 'New Yorlk City by                                            teciplrocity Treaty with                  Cuba          eancelh e
                  La grippe or influenza prevalent through-               Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians sell ,he                                     liHambulrg stelamier "Monrovia," Ang. 31.                                       by Spain, Sept. 3.
                     out the Northern and Western States.                     million acres of land to the (overn-                                Nelson beats the stallion rc,,rd,                      2.l'':,                  Presid(nt Cleveland's Hlawaiian IL tte-
                  Death of Gen. Crook, at Chicago, March                      ment at 55 cents an acre, Oct. 16.                                    Aug. 31.                                                                        tirgt pubished, Sept. .5.
                     19.                                                   U. S. Government demands reparation                             3_02 l)eath of J. G. Whittier, po,,t, Sept. 7.                                         Aminesty granted pol1ganii.its irn Itahi,
                   Act approved providing for the World's                     from Chili for assault on the crew of                             Nancvy llanks again breaks the trotting                                             Sept. 27.
                     Columbian        Exposition,    at Chicago,                the     Baltimore,      Oct.   26.                                record, 2.041, Sept. 2S.                                                        Death of Prof. David Swing at Chicag-,
                      April 25.                                           Argument itn the Sayward case, to test                                Formal opening of the Chicago          Univer-                                      Oct. 3.
                   Death of Gea. Fremont, at New York                         1. S. jurisdiction over Behring Sea.                                sity, Oct. 1.                                                                   Death of Oliver WAVend(ll   ITolnes, Oct. 7.
                     City, July 13.                                          begun in the U. S. Supreme Court,                                  Dedication of the World's Fair build-                                             Covernment offers to arbitrate iin tlh
                   First execution by electricity, at Auburn,                Nov,. 9.                                                             ings, at Chicago, Oct. 21.                                                        Japan-China war, Nov. 6.
                     N. Y., Win. Kermmler, Aug. 6.                        Congress      ,met;Mr. Crisp, of Georgia,                             Fire at Milwaulkee destroys 315 Imild-                                    IS).    Famous Mora case settled with Spain.
                   First hgislature of Oklahoma nwcets,                      chosen Speaker, Dec. 7.                                              ings, with     ;$5.000,000 loss.                                                (Cotton States Exposition at Atlanta, Ca.,
                      Aug. 31.                                     1892   Stevelns (Coulnty, Kan., wNVur again breaks                           Anarchist monumsient dedicated at Wald-                                           opened.
                  Act forbidding the use of the mails for                    out, Jan. 5.                                                         heiim Cemetery, near Chicago, Nov. 6.                                   1S89(6 Itah, 45th State, admitted, J;n. 6.