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					                                            ADELPHI UNIVERSITY
                                            UNIVERSITY COLLEGE




              NON-CREDIT CERTIFICATE IN TRANSLATION (ENGLISH TO SPANISH)
                                       SYLLABUS




                                                       Marko Miletich
                                                    Program Coordinator




Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus        1
                                                          CONTENTS

Program Overview ....................................................................................................... 3

Introduction to Translation Studies Module .................................................................. 6

Spanish Composition Module....................................................................................... 6

Translation Studies I Module........................................................................................ 7

Translation Studies II Module....................................................................................... 8

Spanish Editing Module ............................................................................................... 9

Translation Process and Quality Module .................................................................... 10

Sample Translation Assignments ............................................................................... 12

Admissions Exam ...................................................................................................... 16




Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                                                          2
CERTIFICATE TITLE:
NON-CREDIT CERTIFICATE IN TRANSLATION (ENGLISH TO SPANISH):

CERTIFICATE PROGRAM MODULES: (in chronological order, modules taken consecutively)
Introduction to Translation Studies
Spanish Composition
Translation Studies I
Translation Studies II
Spanish Editing
Translation Process and Quality Control

INSTRUCTOR(S):

Marko Miletich – Program Coordinator and Curriculum Designer
Mr. Miletich is currently a Ph.D. in Translation Studies candidate in SUNY-Binghamton’s Center
for Translation Studies. Marko holds a Master’s in Liberal Arts and Translation Studies from the
CUNY Graduate Center, a Master’s in Hispanic Civilization from NYU and a BA in Spanish from
Hunter College. Marko has taught at NYU and Hunter College.

CATALOG DESCRIPTION:
The University College non-credit Certificate in Translation studies will instruct students in the
techniques and procedures of producing an accurate, efficient translation. Students will focus
translation skills in several fields such as: medical, legal, commercial, technical and literary.
Students completing this certificate will be well-prepared to take, if eligible, the American
Translators Association (ATA) Certification and be well-prepared for a career providing high
quality English/ Spanish translations. This is a non-credit certificate program. The program will
be pre-certified for prior learning credits that can be used towards University College degrees.
The program will be taught in both English and Spanish.

RATIONALE:
The demand for competent translators in today’s global society is ever increasing; however, the
supply has yet to meet the demand. A high-quality translation requires a person to have
rigorous training, a high level of accuracy and an understanding of relevant cultural issues. The
University College non-credit Certificate in Translation studies will instruct students in the
techniques and procedures of producing an accurate, efficient translation. Students will focus
on medical, legal and commercial translation skills. Students completing this certificate will be
well-prepared to take, if eligible, the American Translators Association (ATA) Certification and
be well-prepared for a career providing high quality Spanish/English translations. The program
will be pre-certified for prior learning credits that can be used towards University College
degrees. The program will be taught in both English and Spanish.

CERTIFICATE LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
  • To understand the translation methods and learn about different fields (business,
     commercial, financial, legal, medical, advertisement, literary)
  • To render a professional translation from English to Spanish.
  • Review advanced writing skills in Spanish to be able to deliver a professional translation.
  • Learn the proper editing techniques that are used by the professional translation
     agencies and in the professional environment.
  • Learn about the translation process and quality control issues.



Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                       3
PREREQUISITES:
Students must be bilingual in English and Spanish and be over the age of 21. There will be a
written admissions test and a short telephone interview to screen possible participants.

REQUIRED TEXTS:
There are no required textbooks. Selected readings will be selected and given to the students.
Texts to be translated will be provided as well.

RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS:
Bilingual Dictionary of Criminal Justice Terms Gould Publications New York
Bridging the Gap A Basic Training for Medical Interpreters The Cross Cultural Health Care
program
English-Spanish Spanish-English legal Dictionary Aspen Law and Business
García Yebra, Valentín: Teoría y práctica de la traducción, Madrid, Gredos, 1982
Gómez Torrego, Leonardo: Gramática didáctica del español, Madrid, SM, 2000
Gonzalo Martín Vivaldi, Gonzalo: Curso de Redacción, Madrid, Paraninfo
Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de dudas y usos del español actual, Barcelona, Vox, 2001
Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de redacción y estilo Barcelona, Pirámide, 2001
Martínez de Sousa, José: Manual de estilo de la lengua española, Gijón, Trea, 2000
Real Academia Española: Ortografía de la lengua española, 1999
International Dictionary Spanish-English/English-Spanish from Simon & Schuster

RESOURCES FOR TRANSLATORS:
www.accurapid.com/journal/
www.el-castellano.com/
www.el-castellano.com/vocab.html
www.encyclopedia.com/
www.europarl.eu.int/transl_es/plataforma/pagina/maletin/maletin.htm
www.rae.es/
www.rahul.net/lai/companion.html
www.wordreference.com

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Catford, J. C. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. An essay in Applied Linguistics. Oxford
University Press, 1965, Fifth Impression, 1978.
Delisle, J. L’analyse du discourse comme méthode de traduction. Cahiers de Traductologie 2.
Université d’Otawa (Translation: An Interpretative Approach. University of Otawa Press, 1988).
Derrida, J. “Des Tours de Babel”, in J Graham (ed.). Difference in Translation. Cionell University
Press (“Des Tours de Babel” in Inventions de l’autre, Paris, Galilée, 1987).
García Yebra, V. Teoría y práctica de la traducción, Madrid: Gredos, 1997, Third edition.
Hatim, B and I. Mason. Discourse and the Translator. Londres: Longman, 1990.
Hurtado Albir, A. Enseñar a traducir. Metodología en la formación de traductores e intérpretes.
Madrid: Edelsa, 1999.
—– Traducción y traductología. Introducción a la traductología. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra,
2001.
López Guix Gabriel, J y Minnet Wilkinson, J. Manual de traducción Inglés/Castellano.
Barcelona: Editorial Gedisa, 1999.
Newmark, P. A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice Hall, 1988. (Manual de traducción.
Madrid. Cátedra, 1992).
Paz, O. Traducción: literatura y literalidad. Barcelona: Tusquets Editor, 1971.
Vaquez Ayora, G. Introducción a la traductología. Georgetown Univerisity Press, 1977.


Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                      4
MAIN TOPICS TO BE COVERED IN THIS PROGRAM:
  • Comparative analysis between English and Spanish
  • Basic translation procedures
  • Advance writing skills in Spanish
  • View of major fields in translation (business, commercial, financial, legal, medical,
      advertisement, literary)
  • Editing procedures
  • Translation process
  • Quality control
  • Job opportunities (freelance vs. full time employment)
  • Certifications and Associations

OTHER REQUIRED READINGS:
Articles will be provided from web pages and publications such ATA (American Translators
Association) ATISA (American Translation and Interpreting Studies Association).

STUDENT EVALUATIONS:
This is a non-credit certificate program. Each module in the certificate will be offered pass/fail.
Students who fail a module will not be allowed to continue with the program or receive a
certificate. Students who successfully complete the program will receive a certificate of
completion from the registrar’s office.




Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                         5
INDIVIDUAL MODULE SYLLABI:

Introduction to Translation Studies

Module duration:                         5-6 weeks, 20 hours of instruction

Instructor:                              Marko Miletich

Module objectives:                       Understand the translation process and learn about different fields (legal,
                                         financial, medical, advertisement, textbook), to render a professional
                                         translation from English to Spanish.

Module requirements:                     Students must be bilingual in English and Spanish.
                                         Module is offered pass/fail.

Students are not required to purchase a textbook; however, you will need at least two of the following
dictionaries:

Bilingual Dictionary:                    Simon and Schuster’s International Spanish Dictionary
Spanish Dictionary:                      Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Real Academia Española (RAE)
English Dictionary:                      Any good “college level” English dictionary

These are only suggestions. In addition, students may need a set of dictionaries specializing in the area
in which they are translating.

Student Evaluation:
Students will be evaluated on their ability to professionally translate legal, financial, medical,
advertisement, textbook, literary texts from English to Spanish. There will be an in class final
examination which will consist of several small translations. Students will be translating different texts
under the instructor’s supervision. The final evaluation will be based on the weekly translations, class
participation and final exam. Assignments will be double-spaced with footer indicating the name of the
assignment, the name of the student and page number.

Module Activities (in chronological order):
  1. General introduction: translation resources, technique and problems, short exercises
  2. Cognates and legal translation
  3. Challenges into Spanish and legal translation
  4. General problems. Business and financial translation
  5. Sentence structure. Business and financial translation
  6. Idioms. Slang. Translation for advertisement
  7. Research and medical translation
  8. Editing and proofreading Public service announcements

     9. Review
     10. Examination and final evaluation

Spanish Composition

Module Duration:                         5-6 weeks, 20 hours of instruction




Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                                  6
.
Instructor:                              Marko Miletich

Module Objectives:                       Students will understand advanced written composition, advanced
                                         vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. Students will learn
                                         grammatical matters such as punctuation; writing clearly; Spanish
                                         spelling; elegance in the use of the language; the art of writing and
                                         various writing techniques. Course is conducted in Spanish.

Module requirements:                     Students must be bilingual in English and Spanish.
                                         Module is offered pass/fail.


Recommended reference books:
Real Academia Española: Ortografía de la lengua española, 1999.
Martínez de Sousa, José: Manual de estilo de la lengua española, Gijón, Trea, 2000.
Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de redacción y estilo, Barcelona, Pirámide, 2001.
Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de dudas y usos del español actual,Barcelona, 2001.
Garcia Yebra, Valentín: Teoría y práctica de la traducción, Madrid, Gredos, 1982.
Gómez Borrego, Leonardo: Gramática didáctica del español, Madrid, SM, 2000.
Martín Vivaldi, Gonzalo: Curso de Redacción, Madrid, Paraninfo, 2000.

Module Evaluation:
Students will have complete different written Spanish evaluation exercises each week under the
instructor’s supervision. There will be a final examination which will consist of several exercises
and a writing assignment. The final evaluation will be based on the homework, class
participation and the final exam.

Module Activities (in chronological order):
  1. General introduction: origins of Spanish language, writing, language and style. The art
      of writing. Punctuation. In-class exercises.
  2. Subject, verb, objects. In-class exercises. Description.
  3. Adjective and adverb. In-class exercises. Biography.
  4. Preposition and gerund. In-class exercises. Letters and translations.
  5. Laísmo, leísmo, loísmo. In-class exercises. Summary.
  6. Expressions used incorrectly. In-class exercises. News.
  7. Initials and acronyms. In-class exercises. Commentary.
  8. Linguistc abuses. In-class exercises. Narration.
  9. Review and review exercises.
  10. Final examination.

Translation Studies I

Module duration:                         5-6 weeks, 20 hours of instruction

Instructor:                              Marko Miletich

Module objectives:                       Understand the translation process and learn about different fields (legal,
                                         financial, medical, advertisement, textbook, literary), so that they can
                                         render a professional translation from English to Spanish.



Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                                  7
Module requirements:                     Students must be bilingual in English and Spanish and must have
                                         completed Introduction to Translation and Fundamentals of Interpreting

Students are not required to purchase a textbook; however, they will need at least two of the following
dictionaries:

Bilingual Dictionary:                    Simon and Schuster’s International Spanish Dictionary
Spanish Dictionary:                      Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Real Academia Española (RAE).
English Dictionary:                      Any good “college level” English dictionary.

These are only suggestions. In addition, students may need a set of dictionaries specializing in the area
in which they are translating.

Student evaluation:
Students will be evaluated on their ability to professionally translate legal, financial, medical,
advertisement, textbook, literary texts from English to Spanish. Students will perform several translation
assignments across those categories as assignments. Assignments will be double spaced with a footer
indicating the name of the assignment, the name of the student and page number. There will be a final
examination which will consist of several small translations. The final evaluation will be based on the
weekly translations, class participation and final exam.

Module Activities (in chronological order):
  1. General introduction: translation resources, technique and problems, in class exercises.
  2. Cognates legal translation
  3. Challenges into Spanish. Legal translation.
  4. General problems. Business and financial translation.
  5. Sentence structure. Business and financial translation.
  6. Idioms. Slang. Translation for advertisement
  7. Research. Medical translation.
  8. Editing and proofreading public service announcements.
  9. Review.
  10. Final examination.

Translation Studies II

Module duration:                         5-6 weeks, 20 hours of instruction

Instructor:                              José Dávila-Montes

Module objectives:                       To complete a single translation project and present a professional
                                         translation from English to Spanish. Review several essays about
                                         translation theory such as essays from Cicero, St. Jerome, Ortega y
                                         Gasset, Rabassa and Venutti.

Module requirements:                     Students must be bilingual in English and Spanish and have completed
                                         all other translation required modules. Students are not required to
                                         purchase a textbook; however, they will need at least two of the following
                                         dictionaries:

Bilingual Dictionary:                    Simon and Schuster’s International Spanish Dictionary
Spanish Dictionary:                      Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Real Academia Española (RAE).


Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                                 8
English Dictionary:                      Any good “college level” English dictionary.

These are only suggestions. In addition, they may need a set of dictionaries specializing in the area in
which they are translating.

Module evaluation:                       Students will be evaluated on their ability to professionally translate the
                                         project. Students will be translating parts of the text on each class under
                                         the instructor’s supervision. The final evaluation will be based on the
                                         translation of the whole project. Assignments will be double-spaced with
                                         footer indicating the name of the assignment, the name of the student and
                                         page number.

Module Activities (in chronological order):
  1. General introduction: Review of project schedule. Discussion of translation essay.
  2. Review and discuss Rabassa essay. Review of translation project progress.
  3. Review and discuss Cicero essay.
  4. Review and discuss Venutti essay. Review of translation project progress.
  5. Review and discuss St. Jerome essay. Review of translation project progress.
  6. Review of translation project progress.
  7. Review and discuss Ortega y Gasset essay. Review of translation project progress.
  8. Review of translation project progress.
  9. Turn in Final Project.

Spanish Editing

Module duration:                         5-6 weeks, 20 hours of instruction

Instructor:                              Javier Labrador

Module Objectives:                       Learn Spanish proofreading and editing techniques. Practice with
                                         exercises and correct errors, including spelling, punctuation,
                                         capitalization, formatting, word divisions and accuracy of translations.
                                         Learn to use copyediting symbols and understand how to refer to style
                                         manuals for assistance.

Module Requirements:                     Students must have passed all previous modules. Students are not
                                         required to purchase a textbook; however, the students will need at least
                                         two of the following dictionaries:

Bilingual Dictionary:                    Simon and Schuster’s International Spanish Dictionary.
Spanish Dictionary:                      Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Real Academia Española (RAE).
English Dictionary:                      Any good “college level” English dictionary.

                                         These are only suggestions. In addition, the students may need a set of
                                         dictionaries specializing in the area in which the students are editing.

Recommended Reference Books:
o   Real Academia Española: Ortografía de la lengua española, 1999.
o   Martínez de Sousa, José: Manual de estilo de la lengua española, Gijón, Trea, 2000.
o   Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de redacción y estilo Barcelona, Pirámide, 2001.
o   Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de dudas y usos del español actual, Barcelona, Vox, 2001.


Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                                 9
o      García Yebra, Valentín: Teoría y práctica de la traducción, Madrid, Gredos, 1982.
o      Gómez Torrego, Leonardo: Gramática didáctica del español, Madrid, SM, 2000.

Student Evaluation:                      Students will be evaluated on their ability to professionally edit texts in
                                         Spanish that are translations of English texts. Students will be editing
                                         different texts under the instructor’s supervision. The final evaluation will
                                         be based on the weekly translations, class participation and final exam.
                                         There will be a final examination which will consist of several small editing
                                         exercises

Module Activities (in chronological order):
1. General Introduction: Editing Symbols, Resources, Problems, Editorial Matters, Editing Steps. In-
    class Exercises.
2. Editing a Translation. In-class Exercises.
3. Cases of Edited Translation. In-class Exercises.
4. Grammar Differences in Translations. In-class Exercises.
5. Research Specific Topics. In-class Exercises.
6. Editing for Content. In-class Exercises.
7. Proofreading. In-class Exercises.
8. Computer Editing. Track Changes. In-class Exercises.
9. Review.
10. Final Examination.

Translation Process and Quality

Module duration:                         5-6 weeks, 20 hours of instruction

Instructor:                              Javier Labrador

Module Objectives:                       Students will understand the translation process as it occurs in major
                                         translation agencies. This module will pay special attention to project
                                         management and quality control.

Module Requirements:                     Students must have passed all previous modules. Students are not
                                         required to purchase a textbook; however, the students will need at least
                                         two of the following dictionaries:

Bilingual Dictionary:                    Simon and Schuster’s International Spanish Dictionary.
Spanish Dictionary:                      Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Real Academia Española (RAE).
English Dictionary:                      Any good “college level” English dictionary.

                                         These are only suggestions. In addition, the students may need a set of
                                         dictionaries specializing in the area in which the students are editing.

Recommended Reference Books:
Real Academia Española: Ortografía de la lengua española, 1999.
Martínez de Sousa, José: Manual de estilo de la lengua española, Gijón, Trea, 2000.
Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de redacción y estilo Barcelona, Pirámide, 2001.
Martínez de Sousa, José: Diccionario de dudas y usos del español actual, Barcelona, Vox, 2001.
García Yebra, Valentín: Teoría y práctica de la traducción, Madrid, Gredos, 1982.
Gómez Torrego, Leonardo: Gramática didáctica del español, Madrid, SM, 2000.


Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                                 10
Student Evaluation:                      Students will be evaluated on their ability to show their understanding of
                                         the translation process, project management and quality control.
                                         Students will perform exercises and take exams to review their
                                         understanding of the material.

Module Activities (in chronological order):
1. General Introduction: Translation process from beginning to end, an overview.
2. Choosing freelance translators and editors.
3. CAT Tools. Translation memory.
4. In house editing.
5. Computer Editing. Track Changes.
6. Editing for Content.
7. Quality management.
8. Quality control.
9. Review.
10. Final Examination.




Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                                 11
SAMPLE TRANSLATION ASSIGNMENTS

SAMPLE 1


INFORMED CONSENT FORM TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH
You are being asked to volunteer to be a subject in a research study. This form includes
information about this study.
Principal Investigator: XXXXXX Dept. Pediatrics
Tel: ( xxx) xxx-xxxx
TITLE OF RESEARCH STUDY:
Quantifying Heart Failure Severity in Pediatric Patients
SUBJECT PARTICIPATION:
____ Inpatient
  X     Outpatient
____ Other [healthy subjects, etc.] Please specify: __________________________
We estimate that approximately the following number of subjects will enroll in this study:
______110_____
Your participation will involve 2 visits, which will take place over 10-12 weeks.

Each of these visits will take the following amount of time: 1 hour
THE PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH:
It is difficult for doctors and nurses to judge how well a child's heart is able to get the blood out
to the body without performing a number of tests. The purpose of this study is to develop a way
to score heart disease severity based on physical symptoms, and to compare those scores to
blood test results. The goal of this study is to find a way of judging heart disease in children that
is accurate, sensitive, and less invasive than current methods.
THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURES WILL BE INVOLVED:
Blood Donation of 5 cc. (equivalent to 1 teaspoon).
Frequency of withdrawal: Two blood draws, 10 to 12 weeks apart Total Amount: 2 teaspoons
This study will involve 2 one-hour visits, one before medical or surgical treatment, and the other
10-12 weeks later. At each visit, information about my child's background and medical history
will be reviewed with me, and a physical examination and blood test will be performed.
I. Background Information: My child's background information and medical history will be
reviewed with me. Only xxxx, Dr. xxx, my child's doctor, and a trained study manager will have
access to the records kept for this study. All information will be kept strictly confidential.

CONFIDENTIALITY:
If I consent for my child to participate in this research, his or her personal information will be
kept confidential to the extent permitted by law and will not be released without my written
permission except as described in this paragraph. My child’s study information will be recorded
on study report forms and sent to the study sponsor. In all study forms, he or she will be
identified only by his or her initials and patient number. My child’s name will not be reported in
any publication; only the data obtained as a result of his or her participation in this study will be
made public. In addition, if my child’s participation in this research is for treatment or diagnostic
purposes, the facility in which he or she is treated may ask me to sign a separate informed
consent document for specific procedures or treatment, and that informed consent form may be
included in the medical record of that facility. The medical record is maintained by my child’s
treating physician or hospital, as applicable, and will be subject to New York State and federal
laws and regulations concerning confidentiality of medical records.



Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                         12
SAMPLE 2
                                         What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting
from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Diabetes can be associated with serious
complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take measures to reduce the
likelihood of such occurrences.

                                               The four types of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-
onset diabetes. Type 1 diabetes may account for 5 to 10 percent of all diagnosed cases of
diabetes. Risk factors are less well defined for type 1 diabetes than for type 2 diabetes, but
autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors are involved in the development of this type of
diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes was previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or
adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed
cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include older age, obesity, family history of
diabetes, prior history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, physical inactivity,
and race/ethnicity. African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, and some
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes develops in 2 to 5 percent of all pregnancies but disappears when a
pregnancy is over. Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently in African Americans,
Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, and persons with a family history of diabetes.
Obesity is also associated with higher risk. Women who have had gestational diabetes are at
increased risk for later developing type 2 diabetes. In some studies, nearly 40 percent of women
with a history of gestational diabetes developed diabetes in the future.

"Other specific types" of diabetes result from specific genetic syndromes, surgery, drugs,
malnutrition, infections, and other illnesses. Such types of diabetes may account for 1 to 2
percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.


SAMPLE 3

What is depression?

Depression is a big change in your moods. You may feel sad and blue, even hopeless. You may
not be interested in things you like to do. You may also have trouble eating, concentrating, and
getting things done.

If these feelings last for 2 weeks or more, you may have a depression that needs treatment. If
you are not treated, the depression can last much longer or become more serious.

What is the cause?

No one knows just what causes depression. It may happen because the brain chemicals you
need to feel good are not balanced. It may happen more often in some families.

You may also feel depressed because you:


Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                      13
     •    have lost a loved one
     •    have a medical illness
     •    are taking a medicine or drug that can cause depression
     •    have recently had surgery or given birth
     •    use alcohol or drugs.
     •    have lots of stress that you can not control.

What are the symptoms?

You may have depression if you have 1 or both of these 2 symptoms most of the day, every
day, for more than 2 weeks:

     •    You feel sad or blue. You may cry, feel tense, upset, or easily bothered.
     •    You are no longer interested in things you normally like to do.

SAMPLE 4

Translate the following text (279 words) into Spanish, assuming the translation is
intended for publication within the Health pages of a weekly magazine addressed to a
general audience.

Hepatitis C

By Mayo Clinic staff
An estimated 3 percent of the world's population — more than 170 million people — carry a
mysterious virus that silently attacks their livers, often without their knowledge. That's because
up to 80 percent of those infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have no symptoms at all. In
fact, most people don't know they have the disease until decades later when liver damage
shows up during routine medical tests.
Over time, HCV infection can lead to liver cancer, liver failure or cirrhosis — irreversible and
potentially fatal scarring of the liver. It ranks second only to alcoholism as a cause of liver
disease and is the leading reason for liver transplants in the United States. Unlike HIV, the virus
that causes AIDS, HCV usually isn't transmitted through sexual contact. Instead, its primary
mode of transmission is contaminated blood — through needles shared by drug users or
through blood transfusions. Nearly 4 million Americans have been infected at one time with
HCV and close to 3 million are chronically infected.
The encouraging news is that new cases of HCV have declined 80 percent since blood banks
began screening for the virus in 1992. At the same time, because standard drug treatments are
effective in only about half the people treated, the annual death toll from the disease is expected
to triple in the next 10 years.
Although vaccines exist for hepatitis A and B, no vaccine for hepatitis C has been developed,
primarily because the virus has many subtypes that change rapidly. Researchers hope to find a
medication that will inhibit the growth of the virus and prevent long-term complications, such as
cirrhosis and cancer, from developing.

SAMPLE 5

CRIMINAL CASES




Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                      14
Crimes are divided into two categories: felonies (for which a prison sentence exceeding one
year may be imposed) and misdemeanors (for which the maximum prison term is one year).
Most felonies and misdemeanors are specified in New York's Penal Law, so that the elements
of crimes such as murder, robbery and assault are clearly defined. Some crimes are defined in
other laws - the definition of driving while intoxicated, for example, can be found in the Vehicle
and Traffic Law.

Crimes may be subdivided into several degrees based on the seriousness of the conduct
involved. For example, an assault charge may be first-, second- or third-degree, depending on
the extent of the injury, whether a weapon was used, the defendant's intent and the specific
conduct involved. Categorizing crimes in varying degrees is intended to ensure that "the
punishment fits the crime."

Different procedures exist for bringing criminal charges against an individual, depending on
whether the crime charged is a felony or misdemeanor. Misdemeanor charges are brought by
filing a written accusation or complaint in a local criminal court (i.e., a town or village justice
court, district court, New York City Criminal Court or a city court having criminal jurisdiction). All
aspects of a misdemeanor prosecution, from the filing of the complaint through disposition,
including motions, hearings, trial and sentencing (if there is a conviction) take place in the local
criminal court.

Because felony charges are more serious, they must be prosecuted by indictment - a formal
accusation voted on by a grand jury - unless the defendant waives indictment. Although certain
preliminaries may take place in a local criminal court, such as the filing of a felony complaint or
the holding of a preliminary hearing, jurisdiction of the felony charge after indictment rests with a
superior court (i.e., county court or Supreme Court) for motions, hearings, trial and sentencing.

Whether the offense is a felony or misdemeanor, the written complaint must clearly set forth the
nature of the charge and the time, date and place of the alleged criminal act. The complaint, or
an accompanying bill of particulars (which provides more details about the crime charged), also
must include facts sufficient to support the elements of the offenses charged, so that the
defendant is made aware of the charge against him and can prepare his defense, if warranted.




Non-Credit Certificate in Translation (English to Spanish) Syllabus                          15

				
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