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					     Gender
                basic concepts




sustainability studies   WS09/10   gender issues   libertad chavez   nov 2009
Gender & Sustainable Development

 Agenda 21 – states empowerment of women and men is
 indispensable for sustainable development


 Rio Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change, and
 Desertification – a successful implementation:
    requires understanding of gender-specific relationship to
    environmental resources, of gender-specific impacts on, and
    of, environmental degradation
    depend on the participation of affected populations, women
    and men
                                              (Lambrou/Laub 2004)

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Why Gender in SuRe?
Because of the clear linkages between Gender Issues and
       rural poverty and Sustainable Development
       (gendered patterns of vulnerability    threatened livelihoods)
       Biodiversity
       (gender-based knowledge and management)
       rural poverty and Desertification
       (access to resources, men migration)
       Climate Change
       (human dimensions of CC, causes and impacts, strategies)
                                                 (Lambrou/Laub 2004)
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Gender


  Brainstorming - What do you think
  about when you hear or read the
  word Gender?
Gender
(working definition)
    refers to the socially constructed differences and relations
    between men and women which are learned, vary widely among
    societies and cultures, and change over time.

   the term is used to characterize the differing roles,
   responsibilities, constraints, opportunities, and needs of women
   and men in all areas and in any given social context.




                                                         (ILO 2007)

                                                                      5
Gender roles
 are learned behaviours in a given society, community or other social
 group, they condition which activities, tasks and responsibilities are
 perceived as appropriate to males or females.

 conditioned by age, socio-economic class, household-structure,
 race/ethnicity, religion

 affected by geographical, economic, political and cultural contexts,
 ecological conditions

 women and men are involved to differing degrees and in different ways
 in reproductive, productive and community management activities and
 play roles within social and political groups (gender division of labour)


                                                     (ILO 2007, FAO 1997)

                                                                          6
Gender relations
 the ways in which a culture or society defines rights,
 responsibilities, and the identities of men and women in
 relation to one another


 Gender relations are also relations of power which affect who can
 access and control resources (financial, material, time, participation
 chances, bargaining and decision power)
    Building up structures of difference that operate at every level, to
     create disadvantages primarily for women (gender gap)



                                         (Bravo-Baumann 2000; ILO 2007)

                                                                           7
Gender gap
 disparity in any area between women and men in terms of their
 levels of participation, access to resources, rights, power and
 influence, remuneration or benefits


    pay gap
    access to education and employment
    participation in social institutions




                                                      (ILO 2007)

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Gender equality & Gender equity
  enjoyment of equal rights,         fairness of treatment for women
  opportunities and treatment by     and men, according to their
  men and women in all spheres       respective needs and interests
  of life                            equal treatment or treatment
  women and men do not have to       that is different but which is
  become the same, but their         considered equivalent in terms
  rights, responsibilities and       of rights, benefits, obligations
  opportunities do not depend on     and opportunities
  whether they are born male or
  female
  all human beings, both men
  and women, are free to
  develop their personal abilities
  and make choices without the
  limitations set by stereotypes
  or prejudices about gender
  roles or the characteristics of
  men and women
                                                        (ILO 2007)

                                                                   9
Women’s Empowerment
 the redistribution of unequal power relations between men and
 women can be advanced if women increase their self-reliance
 and internal strength through a process of awareness and
 capacity building


 leading to greater:
    participation
    decision-making power and control
    transformative action


                                                     (ILO 2007)

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Gender Mainstreaming
 established in 1995 - IV World Conference on Women,
 Beijing
 defined as: the process of assessing the implications for
 women and men of any planned action – legislation,
 policies or programmes in any area and at all levels.
 ultimate goal – to achieve gender equality




                                                 (ILO 2007)

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Gender Impact Assessment, GIA
 core tool for implementing gender mainstreaming
 estimate the different effects of any policy or activity
 implemented in terms of gender equality
 includes 4 gender relevant criteria:
     Participation: participation and activity rates,
     employment/unemployment
     Resources: money, time, space, information, political and
     economic power, qualifications, transport
     Norms and values, which influence gender roles and the
     gender division of labour, the attitudes and behaviour of
     women and men
     Rights: gender discrimination in any field of social, civil and
     economical life (e.g. land tenure rights)
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Analytical dimensions
in gender studies

  Individual: person’s experiences, identity constructions,
  identity shaping processes; potential differences between men and
  women regarding attitudes, values and behaviours.


  Structural: social structures, social institutions, such as
  gender division of labour, participation chances.


  Symbolical: symbolic representations such as cultural
  productions and discursive lines, ideologies and norms.


                                            (Degele and Winker 2007)

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