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Ancient_India

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					What do you know about
 the country of India?
Early Civilizations in India
  Impact of Geography
• The Indian subcontinent is diverse in its geography
• Himalaya mountains in the north are highest in the
  world (Mt. Everest, 29,000ft.!)
• Ganges River valley & Indus River valley
• Eastern and western coasts are lush plains where most
  people have lived throughout history
• Monsoon: seasonal wind pattern
• Depend on monsoons to bring rain
Ganges River, very important for way of life in India today
Indus River delta, satellite image
Himalaya Mountains
Mt. Everest
Monsoon season in India brings floods, but doesn’t stop daily life
  Indus Valley Civilization
• The Indus River supported civilization from
  3000 B.C. to 1500 B.C.
• Two of the largest ruin sites are the cities of
  Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
• Historians call it the Indus or Harappan
  civilization
• Both cities were carefully planned
• Around 35,000 inhabitants in each city
• Plumbing and trash systems!
Mohenjo Daro, Aerial Photo of Ruins
Mohenjo Daro
Harappa Ruins
        Rulers & Economy
•   Rulers based power on gods & goddesses
•   Royal palace and temple same building
•   Economy based on farming
•   Wheat, barley and peas
•   Carried on trade with Mesopotamia
•   Most goods moved on ships through Persian
    Gulf
 Migration & Interaction
• How the Indus civilization ended is a
  mystery
• Found signs of gradual decay – earthquake,
  floods, change in climate, etc.
• All historians agree there was a major
  culture shift in 1500 B.C.
• New people migrated to the area
    Arrival of the Aryans
• Around 2000 B.C. a group of Indo-European
  speaking people began to move out of central
  Asia and down into India called Aryans
• Little is known about origins and early culture
• Settled into northern India and came into contact
  with Indus civilization
• Ongoing interactions and migrations of Indus
  people and Aryans resulted in new unique culture
        New Way of Life
• Aryans gave up nomadic lifestyle and began
  farming
• Around 1000 B.C. they started writing in
  Sanskirt
• Recorded legends and religious rituals
• Early writings are called the Vedas
• Reveal India was made up of small kingdoms
• Raja (prince) had own kingdom, fought with
  others
               Daily Life
• Centered on the family
• All generations lived in same house
• Patriarchal society – oldest man in family
  had authority
• Women had little rights and opportunities
• In the ritual of suttee, the wife threw herself
  on the flaming grave of her dead husband!
     The Four Varnas
1. Brahmin (priests)
2. Kshatriyas (warriors)
3. Vaisyas (commoners)
4. Sudras (peasant or servants)
           Caste System
• Social structure changed over time
• Caste system, social group based on
  occupation and family lineage
• Caste based on religious purity, higher the
  class more pure you were
• At the lowest level were the Untouchables
• Viewed to be so impure they were outside
  of the caste system

				
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posted:10/14/2011
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