Docstoc

SELF TALK

Document Sample
SELF TALK Powered By Docstoc
					  UNDERSTANDING
    SELF TALK
Damon Burton & Bernie Holliday
Vandal Sport Psychology Services
      University of Idaho
     WHAT IS SELF TALK?

  The steady stream of on-going
  thoughts or internal dialogue that
  goes on in our minds constantly.
  Your self talk influences your moods,
  emotions, and ultimately your
  behavior.

DQ 2: How constant is your self talk? Have you ever noticed a
time when your self talk was really good or bad?
THREE CHARACTERISTICS
    OF SELF TALK…
Rationality
   Trained minds learn to think more positively,
    logically, and systematically.
Specificity
   Self talk becomes conditioned to success and
    failure events, changing dramatically based on the
    mindset created in particular situations.
Automaticity
   Extensive repetition creates highly automatic
    thoughts, called beliefs.
   Automaticity of self talk is a two-edged sword
    when examining its impact on performance.
           SELF TALK ABC’S…
A = Activating Event
    No Inherently stressful situations or events.
          “We are not disturbed by things, but by the views of which we take of them” – Epictetus
B = Belief about the Event
    Athletes attach positive or negative meanings to neutral events based on their highly
     automatic belief system.
C = Consequences
    Our beliefs about the event lead to positive or negative consequences, both emotionally and
     behaviorally.
Thus, the meaning that we attach to events can positively or negatively impact
our emotions, behaviors, and ultimately our performance.
DOES SELF TALK WORK?
Self talk patterns have been shown to be
important predictors of sport success.
Positive self talk predominates in more
effective performances, while negative
thoughts more frequently accompany
poorer performances.
   Van Raalte et al. (1994) tennis study
Mental training packages that include self
talk training as part of the intervention
promote enhanced performance over 80%
of the time.
       REPROGRAMMING
         SELF TALK…
Reactive versus proactive approaches to
enhancing athletes’ self talk:
   Most athletes prefer proactive approaches to
    self talk reprogramming, rather than “old
    school” reactive approaches.
The key to the proactive approach is to
identify and create positive, facilitating
thoughts (e.g., reprogramming) that can
enhance athletes’ emotions and performance.
   Self talk scripts are effective thought
    reprogramming tools.
TYPES OF SELF TALK…
    Positive Affirmations
       Thoughts that focus on your desirable characteristics and qualities.
    Goals
       Thoughts that keep your mind positively focused on the task-at-hand, promote high
        effort, and enhance persistence.
    Appraisals
       Thoughts that determine the degree to which a situation is perceived as threatening or
        challenging.
       Self talk reprogramming promotes appraising problems as challenges or opportunities to
        learn and grow rather than threats and opportunities to fail.
      TYPES OF SELF TALK…
         Attributions
            Reasons or explanations of success and failure.
            Self talk reprogramming encourages performers to attribute success and failure to factors
             they can control and change, such as effort, ability, and degree of preparedness.
         Cue Words
            Quick reminders used during practice and competition.
            Keep the mind positively focused on process-oriented, present-focused reminders that
             should facilitate performance.




DQ 3: Which type of self talk do you feel would be most effective?
    USES OF SELF TALK…
    Elevate Motivation
      Intrinsic motivation occurs when athletes feel competent and in control. Self talk
       reprogramming should emphasize these factors.
    Enhance Focus/Concentration
      Self talk helps athletes focus on their priorities and goals, rather than on distractions.
    Manage Stress
      Controlling self talk, particularly limiting negative or self-defeating thoughts, helps to
       minimize the amount of stress athletes experience.
    USES OF SELF TALK…
Boost Self-Confidence
   Persuasive self talk can convince athletes that they possess the competence
    and preparation to be successful.
Maximize Skill Development and Performance
   Cues and goals can help athletes remain focused on performance-relevant
    cues while disregarding and avoiding irrelevant distracter cues during skill
    development and performance.
               “SMART TALK”
              COMMANDMENTS
   1.   Be an optimist, not a pessimist
             Self talk is a choice. Choose the “half full” option.
              See situations as challenges rather than threats.
   2.   Remain realistic and objective
             Think constructively, not just positively.
   3.   “Here-n-now” self talk
             Avoid “woulda, coulda, shoulda’s,” and “what if’s”
   4.   Process self talk leads to product
   5.   Concentrate self talk on controllable aspects
             Possibly the single most important factor.
   6.   Separate performance from self-worth
             We are not our performance.
DQ 4: Which commandment do you have the most trouble with? Why?
    HOW TO REPROGRAM
       SELF TALK…
Focus on appropriate positive thoughts and repeat those thoughts
frequently.
   Athletes are urged to develop self talk scripts that can target one or more
    specific needs (see slides 9-10) using a variety of self talk types (see slides
    7-8) as well as the more general guidelines outlined by the “Smart Talk
    Commandments”.
   Scripts offer athletes a tool that can be used to reprogram positive self
    talk.
     CORRECTING
UNPRODUCTIVE THINKING…
Extremely difficult to change
negative thoughts due to their
highly automatic nature.
However, irrational beliefs and
cognitive distortions are learned
behaviors, so they can be
unlearned.
  DEALING WITH
NEGATIVE THOUGHTS
D1 = Detect
     • Self-awareness of unconscious
       thought patterns.
D2 = Detour
     • Thought stopping.
D3 = Dispute
     • Reframing using counterarguments.
E = New & more beneficial effects
 DETECTING NEGATIVE
    THOUGHTS…

Cognitive distortions are general
types of faulty thinking.
Irrational beliefs are more specific,
but highly automated, negative
thoughts that create behavioral and
emotional problems for athletes.
   COMMON COMPETITIVE
  COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS
Catastrophizing
  Expecting the worst.
  Exaggerating the consequences.
Overgeneralization
  Forming conclusions based on insufficient information.
Blaming
  Not accepting responsibility for mistakes.
Musturbation
  Must’s, should’s, and ought to’s.
  A form of concrete, inflexible, and unforgiving thinking.
Polarized thinking
  Good or bad, right or wrong, succeed or fail, etc.
  Leaves little room for mistakes or being human.
 COMMON COMPETITIVE
  IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
Fear of Failure
   “It is terrible and unbearable when my game
    is not the way I want it to be.”
Social Approval
   “I must win the approval of others and
    impress everyone who sees me perform.”
        Control-based irrational belief.
         COMMON COMPETITIVE
          IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
        Perfectionism
            “I should be completely competent in every
             aspect of my game at all times, never have
             ups and downs, and never make mistakes.”
                 The team that makes the most mistakes usually
                  wins – Coach John Wooden’s philosophy on
                  playing hard and mistakes.
                 Mistakes are a normal and necessary part of
                  learning.


DQ 5: Which types of mistakes are more acceptable in sport, school, life?
   COMMON COMPETITIVE
    IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
Equity
  “Life should be fair and if I diligently work at
   my game, I should improve, play well, and get
   the rewards I deserve.”
       Life is not fair!
       Hard work increases your chances of success, but
        there are no guarantees.
Social comparison
  “The behavior and performance of other
   competitors is extremely important to me and
   can destroy my game.”
       Cannot control others’ performances nor can they
        control your own performance.
    DETOURING NEGATIVE
       THOUGHTS…
Thought stopping uses intense internal
cues such as a word, image,
kinesthetic movement (e.g., snapping a
rubber band), or some combination of
cues.
   Stop the stream of negative thoughts as
    quickly as possible so you can begin
    focusing on reframing the situation.
COUNTERARGUMENTS TO DISPUTE NEGATIVE
            THOUGHTS

Productive way to view the situation.
Put your negative thoughts on trial.
Argue why the negative belief is
irrational and unproductive and
provide a more logical and helpful
view of the situation.
Counterarguments are solutions, not
cover-ups!!
     PHASES OF SMART TALK TRAINING
               PROGRAM…

1.   Education
2.   Acquisition
3.   Practice
4.   Performance
                EDUCATION PHASE

General Education
   Understanding the mental training tool and how it
    relates to the athlete’s performance.
Personal education
   Athlete’s self understanding of their self talk
    patterns.
       Two dimensions…
           Quantity -- negative thought count on Day 1.
           Quality -- complete Smart Talk Log for Days 1-6, assessing
            three positive and three negative situations as well as your
            predominate emotions and thoughts for each situation.
           Quality – rate your daily PMA from 1-10 for Days 1-6.
           Quality -- Develop counterarguments and believability
            ratings for each negative situation on Days 1-6.
             ACQUISITION PHASE
Stage 1: Reprogramming Self Talk
   Day 7 -- develop a self talk script using the
    Smart Talk Script Development Form and
    Handout.
       Your script should take no more than five
        minutes to read (2-4 minutes, ideally).
       You may record this onto an audio cassette or
        CD and include background music.
Stage 2: Repetition to Automate Thoughts
   Days 7-12 -- read or play your script 4-5
    times daily.
            ACQUISITION PHASE

Stage 3: Reframe Remaining Negative Thoughts

Stage 4: Monitoring Improvement in Self Talk
Patterns
   Days 7-12: Stages 3 and 4 can be accomplished
    by continuing to complete the Smart Talk Log,
    PMA rating, and counterarguments/belief ratings
    while noticing similarities and changes in self talk
    patterns.
   Day 12: Complete a second negative thought
    count to examine changes in negative thought
    quantity.
PRACTICE AND PERFORMANCE PHASES…

Stage 1: Advanced Self Talk Monitoring
and Programming
   Day 13 onward: continue to monitor PMA
    daily.
       If PMA drops below 5, then identify problematic
        situations and develop counterarguments.
       If PMA drops below 5 for three straight days,
        then complete the Smart Talk Log Form for
        three subsequent days.
   Day 13 onward: continue to use script, but
    decrease the frequency to 2-3 times daily.
     PRACTICE AND PERFORMANCE
              PHASES…
Stage 2: Video Recreation of Self Talk Patterns
   Video is an effective way to enhance recall of
    thoughts and feelings during critical competitive
    moments.
Stage 3: Imagery Practice
   Day 13 onward: Develop a list of negative
    situations that you have difficulty reframing.
    Several times each week, imagine using your
    counterarguments during these moments to
    successful reframe these situations so you can
    perform your best.
        PRACTICE AND PERFORMANCE
                 PHASES…

Stage 4: Use Smart Talk in Practice and
Competition
   Use the 3D reframing strategies to combat
    any remaining negative thoughts during
    practice and competition.
       Detect, detour, and dispute any remaining
        negative thoughts.
   Modify your script to reprogram these
    thoughts using more positive and helpful
    alternative statements.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:10/14/2011
language:English
pages:28