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									   Geologic Storage of CO2 –
   Research Status and
   Trends in Midwestern USA

  Neeraj Gupta, Ph.D.
  Senior Research Leader
  Battelle Energy Technology
  gupta@battelle.org, 614-424-3820
                                                                U.S. Department of Energy/NETL




Kentucky Geological Survey Annual Meeting, May 23, 2008, Lexington, KY
                                                                                            1
Battelle’s operation of major energy labs
provides insights into energy challenges



                           Idaho
                                                 Columbus
   Pacific Northwest                                                   Brookhaven


Lawrence Livermore                                                      NBACC


                                             Oak Ridge



      National Renewable                                      BEST Center
          Energy Lab

                               $4.0 billion R&D volume
                                     20,000 staff
                              31 scientific user facilities
                                                                                    2
     Stabilization of CO2 concentrations means
     fundamental change to the global energy system
     GTSP Program
          1400                                                                                 1400
                                                                           2100                                                                                 2100
                                                                         740 ppm
                                                                                                                      History                       Future    550 ppm
                                 History                       Future
          1200                                                                                 1200


                                                                 2050                                                                                 2050
          1000                                                                                 1000
                                                               510 ppm                                                                              490 ppm
..




                                                                                     .
           800                                                                                  800




                                                                                     EJ/year
EJ/year




                                                      Today
           600                                       380 ppm                                    600                                        Today
                                                                                                                                          380 ppm

                                        1950
           400                                                                                  400
                                      310 ppm                                                                                     1950
                              1900                                                                                              310 ppm
                                                                                                                 1900
                            300 ppm                                                                            300 ppm
           200                                                                                  200
                 Preindustrial                                                                        Preindustrial
                  280 ppm                                                                               280 ppm
             0                                                                                    0
             1850          1900            1950      2000         2050        2100                1850           1900            1950       2000       2050         2100

                                           Oil                                                            Oil + CCS
                                           Natural Gas                                                    Natural Gas + CCS
                                           Coal                                                           Coal + CCS
                                           Biomass Energy                                                 Nuclear Energy
                                           Non-Biomass Renewable Energy                                   End-use Energy

                                                                                                                                                                        3
Historical Perspective for Midwest
• National CCS program is now over 10 years old
• Midwestern US has been a key area of evaluation
  under DOE and industry initiatives:
  – Started with small paper studies – literature reviews,
    modeling data from UIC wells, laboratory experiments
  – MIDCARB project – precursor to partnerships
  – AEP Mountaineer site assessment
  – MRCSP and MGSP Phases I, II, and III
  – FutureGen siting process (IL, KY, OH, WV)
  – Ohio and KY state efforts
  – Regional characterization, organic shales, ECBM studies
  – Capture studies, IGCC, oxy-fuel combustion etc.
                                                              4
Ongoing Initiatives – Progressing to
Field Implementation and Deployment
  Mountaineer
  Mountaineer                                                 FutureGen Alliance
                                                              FutureGen Alliance

                                      Regional Partnerships
                                      Regional Partnerships




                                                 Global Energy
                                                 Global Energy
Regional Reservoir Characterization
Regional Reservoir Characterization           Technology Strategy
                                              Technology Strategy
       “Piggyback Drilling”
       “Piggyback Drilling”
                                                Program (GTSP)
                                                Program (GTSP)
                                                                                   5
AEP – Mountaineer Project – Site
Assessment to Deployment?
• 1300 MW pulverized coal plant with
  NOx and SOx control
• An area of intense power
  production and future expansion
• AEP has announced a major scale-
  up and a multi-pronged CCS
  deployment at this and other sites.




                                        6
 Site-Specific Characterization
 Essential for Safe and Effective Operations
                           Seismic Survey




                           Drilling Test Well


            Ground
             level

   Possible
    storage
  formations
> 2,500 ft deep

              9,000 feet
              below the
               surface                          7
Mountaineer Storage and
Monitoring System Design
      Passive Seismic/Tiltmeters Injection Well
              Seismic/Tiltmeters

            Surface CO2 H&S Gas Meters
           Groundwater/Soil Gas

                                                                                            Periodic
                                                                                         Brine Sampling
    System CO2
   PVT Monitoring

                                                       Deep
                                                  Monitoring Wells


       Periodic
   Wireline Logging




                                                          Cros
                                                              swe             Pressure
                                                                 ll Se
                                               Rose Run               ismi
                                                                          c   Gauges
                                          Copper Ridge




                                                                                                          8
Piggy Back Program -
Leveraging the Oil & Gas Exploration Industry
• Team up with oil and gas industry to collect data
• DOE gets access to existing drilling operations – saves significant cost
  (counts as cost share)
• Oil and gas operators get detailed wireline logs
• Data go back to build regional understanding of geology and improved
  capacity assessment
                                       9000 ft deep stratigraphic test
                                       well in Tuscarawas County Ohio




                                                                             9
MRCSP’s mission: be the premier resource
for sequestration knowledge in its region
Quantifying CO2 sources, demographics
Quantifying CO2 sources, demographics                                                                                          Characterization,
and economics in the region
and economics in the region
                                                                                                                              Phase I, 2003 - 2005
                                                                                                                                          Reaching Out To and
                                                                                                                                          Reaching Out To and
                                                                                                                                          Educating Stakeholders
                                                                                                                                          Educating Stakeholders


                                                                                                                                                                           Validation,
                                                                                                                                                                       Phase II, 2005 - 2009
                                                                                                                                                                         Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                          Implementation


                           Developing a Regional Model of the                                                             www.mrcsp.org
                                                                                                                          www.mrcsp.org
                           Developing a Regional Model of the
                           Economics of Sequestration
                           Economics of Sequestration
                                                                                                            Quantifying CO22 Sinks in the Region
                                                                                                            Quantifying CO Sinks in the Region
                                    120
Net Sequestration-Based Emissions




                                    100
                                              Geologic
  Abatement Costs ($/tonne CO2)




                                              Terrestrial

                                    80



                                    60



                                    40
                                                                                                                                                                         Geological
                                    20
                                                                                                                                            Geologic:
                                                                                                                                             Geologic:
                                                                                                            Terrestrial:
                                                                                                             Terrestrial:                   •• 100s of years of
                                                                                                                                               100s of years of
                                     0
                                          0                 250        500             750           1000   •• Potential for 20%
                                                                                                                Potential for 20%              capacity for large
                                                                                                                                               capacity for large
                                                Annual Supplied CO2 Sequestration Capacity (MtCO2)             annual offset for
                                                                                                                annual offset for              point sources in deep
                                                                                                                                               point sources in deep
                                                                                                               large point sources
                                                                                                                large point sources            saline alone
                                                                                                                                               saline alone                           Terrestrial


                                                                                                                                                                                                    10
  MRCSP membership

U.S. Department of Energy/NETL




                                 11
Terrestrial Sequestration –
Three field projects being pursued
          Croplands
                            Reclaimed Minelands




                                 Wetlands




                                                  12
Croplands test sites (Ohio State Univ.)
       OH
                                          KY




        PA




                                               13
MRCSP Phase II Geologic Tests
 Michigan Basin
 Michigan Basin
                     Ohio Strat Well
                     Ohio Strat Well




                                   Appalachian
                                   Appalachian
Cincinnati Arch
Cincinnati Arch                      Basin
                                      Basin




                                                 14
RE Burger Power Plant (FirstEnergy)
                                                                     Power Plant

                                                                        Injection Test
                                                                        Well
                                                          Depth
R. E. Burger Power Plant                                 (ft bgs)
                                                               0



                                                          1,000



                                                          2,000



                                                          3,000



                                                          4,000



                                                          5,000



                                                          6,000



                                                          7,000


                                             Drill Rig    8,000
                                                                                   Storage
                                                                                   Formation

                                           (Jan 2007)
                                                          9,000



                                                         10,000



                                                         11,000



                                                         12,000



                                                         13,000




                    Seismic Survey, July 2006            8000 Foot Test Well

                                                                                               15
     Site Characterization -
     Example for R.E. Burger Plant
•10-mile seismic survey completed in August 2006
•Additional 1-mile of “quasi-3D” to investigate reservoirs and 3D options

                                                                    East-West




                                                                            North-South




                                                                                          16
Site Infrastructure, Burger
                                                              24” Borehole
                                                              20” Casing
                    Temporary CO2 Storage                     17 ½” Borehole
                                                              13⅜ ” Casing

                                                              12¼” Borehole
                                                              9⅝” Casing




                                                                               Depth (ft)
                                                              8¾” Borehole
                                                              7” casing
                          Pump and flow
                         control equipment



                                                               6⅛” Borehole




 Photos Courtesy of Praxair and BOC          Well Structure
                                                                                       17
East Bend Test Site
• Duke Energy East Bend Plant outside of Rabbit Hash, Kentucky, 20
miles southwest of Cincinnati
• Located on the western flank of the Cincinnati Arch, a regional geologic
structure between the Appalachian and Illinois basins.


                                                                                Erie
                                                      an                 Lake
                                                Michig




                                                                                         Basin ian
                                       Lake n    Basin




                                                                                           lach
                                                               ch y
                                          iga
                                      Mich




                                                             Ar dla
                                                                n




                                                                                       Appa
                                                              Fi



                                                                          Cincinnati
                                                      Ohio




                                                                                                 ou e
                                                 ana-




                                                                                                   gh
                                                                                               Tr om
                                            Indi tform




                                                                            Arch




                                                                                                 R
                                              P la           Test Site




                                             ois
                                        Illin sin
                                           Ba


                                                             Precambrian Structure Map in Midwest U.S.
                                                                 Showing Site Location Relative to
                                                                   Regional Geologic Structures

                                                                                                        18
East Bend Station (Duke Energy)




 Injection Target,
Mt. Simon Formation




                       East Bend Station
                                           Test Well Design

      Seismic Survey
      October, 2006
                                                              19
Site Characterization-
Preliminary Geologic Assessment
• Preliminary geological
assessment completed by Indiana
and Kentucky Geological Surveys     FORD, F M 1 CONNER, CECIL
                                         Boone County,
                                         KY
                                        GR                       NPHI
                                                                                      Units
                                    0        200   Depth   0.3          -0.1
                                                    (ft)

                                                                                                                             Legend
                                                                                  Kope/Clays Ferry Formation
                                                    500

                                                                                                                             Potential CO2 sinks/


• Paleozoic age sedimentary
                                                                                  Lexington (Trenton) Limestone              reservoirs in the region

                                                                                  High Bridge (Black River) Group
                                                   1000                                                                      Regional caprock-
                                                                                  Wells Creek Formation                      containment interval



rocks ~3500 ft deep and overlie                     1500
                                                                                  St. Peter Sandstone
                                                                               (Beekmantown
                                                                               Dolomite)                   Knox Supergroup
                                                                                                                             Unconformity

                                                                                                                             Mostly caprock-containment interval
                                                                                                                             but some reservoir potential locally
                                                                               (Copper Ridge


Precambrian arenite Middle Run                     2000                                                                      in part of the interval
                                                                               Dolomite)



                                                    2500
                                                                                                                             Mostly caprock-containment
                                                                                  2, 500 ft -depth limit for



Formation.                                                                        miscible injection
                                                                                                                             interval but some speculative
                                                                                                                             reservoir potential in Basal
                                                                                                                             Proterozoic sandstones
                                                   3000

                                                                                  Eau Claire Formation
                                                                                                                             Basement seal (not
                                                                                                                             penetrated in this
                                                    3500                                                                     example)
                                                                                  Mt. Simon Sandstone

                                                                                  Middle Run Formation

• Primary injection target is the                  4000




Mt. Simon estimated at a depth of
3200-3500 ft.

• This formation is a major CO2
storage target throughout the
MRCSP region.

                                                                                                                                                                    20
East Bend Test Site- Public Outreach
                 • Summer 2006:
                 - Coordinated with Duke Energy in planning
                 interactions and developing a series of
                 informational materials to introduce project
                 and describe future seismic and other
                 activities (neighbor letter, fact sheet, briefings)
                 - At request of local officials, conducted a
                 briefing for local officials and Open House for
                 nearby residents, including a series of
                 exhibits, seismic video and take-home
                 materials, as well as opportunities for one-on-
                 one discussions with technical staff
                 • Now preparing additional materials and
                 planning for an informational meeting to be
                 held prior to publication of the Notice of
                 Availability of the draft permit for public review
                 by EPA Region 4
                                                                       21
Site Characterization-
Seismic Analysis of Mt. Simon SS
• 10-mile survey in
2006
• There is a gentle
deepening to the
north west.
• No indication of any
structure through the
formation




                         Color represents travel time ranging from red (shorter) to purple (longer)


                                                                                                      22
 Site Characterization-
 East Bend Seismic Section (S N)
• A tighter bin size (55 ft) may have increased data quality in the flood plain
• Interpretation will need to be validated after drilling
• Numerous processing schemes were used to verify formation structure
                  Indiana                         Kentucky
             0
                                                                       Knox Super Group


                                                                          “Rose Run”


                                                                          Eau Claire

                                                                         Mt. Simon

            0.5                                                        Pre-Cambrian
  Seconds




                                                                                       23
Site Characterization-
Test Well Drilling and Testing
• Injection site at the East Bend Plant has been finalized and surveyed.
• Test well design and procurement has been mainly completed.
• Drilling at the East Bend site is scheduled for early summer 2008.
• A nearby monitoring well is being considered with multi-level Westbay
monitoring system.




                                                                           24
Injection System
Design




                   25
Developing Preliminary Conceptual
Models
• Conceptual models are
being developed based
on regional data on the
Mt. Simon Sandstone
and Eau Claire

• These models will be
used to provide
guidance on MMV and
permitting items.

• Models will be updated
with site specific data
once test well has been
drilled.


                                    26
Regulatory Track

• Pursuing UIC Class V injection permit under Region 4 EPA UIC
program out of Atlanta (also working with Kentucky EPPC DNR Div. of
Oil and Gas Conservation)
• Several meetings/calls have been held with Region 4 EPA, Duke
Energy to discuss project schedule and objectives
• Class V injection permit application is in preparation prior to drilling test
well.



 Large property area
 should aid in permitting
 and monitoring.




                                                                                  27
 MMV Program
 • Complete monitoring plan and
 schedule will be determined after site
 characterization efforts are finished.                                                  System Monitoring
                                                                                                                                                                    Depth
                                                                                                                                                                   (ft bgs)
                                                                                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                                                         Injection Test              Deep Monitoring
                                                                                         3950                                   140

                                                                                         3900                                   120                               Well                       Well
                                                                                                                                100




                                                                                                                                      Temperature (*F)
                                                                        Pressure (PSI)
                                                                                         3850
                                                                                                                                80
                                                                                         3800
                                                                                                                                60
                                                                                         3750
                                                                                                                                40




 • Since the injection interval is fairly
                                                                                         3700                                   20

                                                                                         3650                                   0
                                                                                                0   20   40        60   80   100
                                                                                                          Time (Days)




 thick, the monitoring approach may                                                                                                                                 1,000



 involve tracking the upward migration




                                                                                                                                                                                 T
                                                                                                                                                                               AF
 (if any) of the injected CO2 to assess




                                                                                                                                                                              DR
 CO2 behavior in Mt. Simon.                                                                                                                                         2,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Multi-level Monitoring

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure                                                                                                                                     Temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                           1620                                                                                                                                           95
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure1
                                                                                                                                                                                                           1600       Pressure2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure3
                                                                                                                                                                                                           1580       Pressure4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          85




                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure (PSI)
                                                                                                                                                                                                           1560




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Temperature (F)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80




                           Cincinnati Arch                                                                              Wireline
                                                                                                                                                                                                           1540

                                                                                                                                                                                                           1520

                                                                                                                                                                                                           1500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          75


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Temp1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Temp2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Temp3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Temp4



             Time (Months) -3 -2 -1         1      2     3   1    2     3
                                                                                                                                                                                                           1480                                                                                                                                           65


                                                                                                                                                                                                           1460                                                                                                                                           60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0    10     20            30                   40                  50                  60         70                                          0             10      20   30          40   50   60   70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Days                                                                                                                                      Days




                    Phase   Pre Demo       Active Injection Post Injection                                                                                          3,000


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Brine Chemistry




                                 FXT X
                                                                                                                                                              Storage
Injection System (PVT)                       X     X    X                                                                                                   Formation                                                                                                                                     Na




Health and Safety                            X     X    X




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    90
                              RA X




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    70




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         30
Repeat Wireline (RST, PEX)                         X         X         X




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   50
                             D X




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           40




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60
Tiltmeters                                         X    X




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         90
                                                                                                                                                                    4,000
Time Lapsed VSP                                                   X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 90             80             70              60         50        40        30             20                 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ca                                                                                                                                          K




Reservoir Sampling                      X                    X
Surface Geochemical           X    X    X    X     X    X    X    X    X




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           28
    The Michigan site has key infrastructure
    needed to support CO2 injection

          DTE’s Turtle Lake                    Core Energy’s Compression
         Gas Processing Plant                    Plant and CO2 Pipeline
                                                Reciprocating
                                                 compressor


                     Pure CO2 Being
                       vented at gas
                     processing plant




                                                                    6” Diameter CO2
  The lessons learned in operating this                             pipeline leaving
system will carry over directly to Phase III                       compression plant

                                                                                       29
At our Michigan site we completed
injection of 10,000+ tonnes of CO2 in March ‘08
          5000 Foot Deep Test Well Drilled in November 2006
                                                                                 Gas Processing Plant   CO2 Pipeline
                                                                                   Injection Test              Niagara EOR Wells
                                                                                             Well
                                                                       Antrim Gas Well
                                                                                 Depth
                                                                                (ft bgs)
                                                                                     0




                                                                                1,000




                                                                                2,000

                                                             Monitoring Well
                   180 feet of core taken
                                                                                3,000

                                    Confining Layer:                                                                   Target
                                                                                                                       Storage
                                  Amherstburg Limestone                         4,000
                                                                                                                       Formation



                                     Injection Target:
                                   Bass Islands Dolomite                        5,000




                                                                                6,000
          Injection
         Operations                                                             7,000




                                                                                8,000




                                                                                9,000




                                                                               10,000




                                            Starting Injection
                                                                                              Well Column

                                                                                                                                   30
CO2 Mechanical Integrity Testing –
Example from MRCSP MI Site
• Initial step-rate test and shut-in test completed with CO2 prior to sustained
  injection as part of UIC mechanical integrity testing, February 7-13, 2008.
• Testing provides data on hydraulic behavior of the reservoir system.

                                                                           State-Charlton 4-30 Mechanical Integrity Testing Sequence
                                                     2100
                                                                        Step Rate
                                                                          Test
                                                     2000

                                                                                     Mechanical Integrity
                                                     1900                               Injection test
                         Bottomhole Pressure (psi)




                                                                                                                    Shut-In
                                                                                                                     Test
                                                     1800



                                                     1700

                                                              Start
                                                            Injection
                                                     1600
                                                                                                                                               Open        Pull
                                                                                                                                             3-30 Well    Gauges
                                                     1500



                                                     1400
                                                        130         150             170        190          210      230         250   270          290            310
                                                                                                     Test Elapsed Time (Hours)




                                                                                                                                                                         31
CO2 Injection Testing – MRCSP MI Site
• 10,241 metric tons CO2 injected from February 18-March 8, 2008
  (including initial mechanical integrity test volume).
• Injection Rate increased from 400 to 600 metric tons/day after 1 week
  (some fluctuations in injection rate due to compression facility).
• Injection well was shut-in for 1 month after injection to track reservoir
  pressures decline and allow stabilization.
                                                    900
                                                                                           State-Charlton 4-30 CO2 Injection
                                                    800


                                                    700
                                                                            Increase to 600 tpd

                                                    600
                            Rate (metric ton/day)




                                                          Start Injection

                                                    500


                                                    400


                                                    300
                                                                                                                      Temporarily drop
                                                                                                                      injection rate to 300 tpd
                                                    200                                                               at compression facility


                                                    100
                                                                                                                                                    Stop Injection

                                                      0
                                                     2/20/08     2/22/08       2/24/08     2/26/08   2/28/08    3/1/08        3/3/08       3/5/08      3/7/08        3/9/08
                                                                                                               Date


                                                                                                                                                                              32
The Michigan monitoring suite has
worked well under adverse winter conditions




                             Monitoring Well
                        (about 500 feet from injection well)




Acoustic Array

                                        Cross Well Seismic Analysis
                                                                      33
Results from Michigan have already
allowed us to take our models to the next step
 Preliminary Modeling    Site Drilling    Site Specific       Post-Injection
Based on Regional Data   and Testing        Modeling      Calibration/Validation




                                                                                                                State-Charlton 4-30 Mechanical Integrity Testing Sequence
                                                                                       2100
                                                                                                          S tep Rate
                                                                                                             T est

                                                                                       2000

                                                                                                                        M echan ical In tegr ity
                                                                                       1900                                 I njectio n test




                                                           Bottomhole Pressure (psi)
                                                                                                                                                             S hu t-In
                                                                                                                                                               T est
                                                                                       1800



                                                                                       1700
                                                                                                Star t
                                                                                              Injection
                                                                                       1600
                                                                                                                                                                                        Op en        Pul l
                                                                                                                                                                                      3-30 Well
                                                                                                                                                                                                   G auges
                                                                                       1500



                                                                                       1400
                                                                                          130             150          170          190            210        230         250   270          290             310
                                                                                                                                            Test El apsed Ti me (Hours)




       Conceptualize                Design     Calibrate
                    Characterize         Monitor          Validate
       ---------------------------Communicate------------------------
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   34
MRCSP Phase III proposed sites
                     Primary site
TAME Ethanol Plant
                     • Host: TAME, a joint venture of The
                       Andersons and Marathon
                       Petroleum
                     • Plant operational: February 2008.
                     • Injection start: FY2010
                     • Scale: 1 million tonnes of CO2 over
                       a four-year period
                     • Target: Mt. Simon at ~3500 ft.
                     Optional site
Duke IGCC Plant
                     • Host: Duke Energy
                     • Plant operational: FY 2012
                     • Possible injection start: FY 2012
                     • Scale: Possible 2 million tonnes
                       over four-year injection period
                     • Target: Mt. Simon at ~8000 ft.
                        – Multiple injection zones and
                          caprock layers
                                                             35
Candidate site plan for ethanol site

• The TAME Ethanol plant sits on about
  80 acres
• Candidate location for compression
  plant and injection well site
• A CO2 transfer line will be needed to
  move the raw CO2 from the vent
  stack to the compression plant.




                                          CO2 Vent Stack




                                                           36
Outreach and public education is an
important part of our overall program

                                                     Our web site:
                                                    www.mrcsp.org




                           Open house at one of our geologic test sites
                                                                          37
Trends – Regional Variability in Key
Sinks Must be Understood




                                       38
Challenge – Continued Regional Geology
Mapping with Wellbore and Seismic Data




 • Extremely low data availability in deeper Appalachian,
   Michigan, and Illinois Basin is a challenge
                                                            39
Trends – Every Potential Storage
Zone is Important
• Example – Mountaineer project
  storage potential was observed
  in part of Copper Ridge
  Dolomite (B-Zone at 8100-
  8300 ft depth) based on
  detailed NMR logging and
  reservoir testing
• Similar high permeability zone
  observed in several wells,
  including one near Gavin plant.
  This is promising for regional
  storage potential
• Lesson - We have learned a lot
  about characterization tools
  and feasibility in the region



                                    40
Challenge - Mapping and Modeling
Storage in Carbonate Zones
• Example – Copper
  Ridge/Knox Dolomite at
  Mountaineer site
• Potentially thin but very
  high permeability zones
  in carbonates
  throughout the region
• Need to understand
  geologic continuity and
  geochemical behavior
• Estimating capacity in
  discontinuous
  carbonates can be
  difficult                        41
Trends – Detailed Simulations to support permitting,
outreach, MMV, and Facility Design are now Underway

                                        Stochastic
                                        Simulations




          Multiple Injectors
                                 Carbonate Reservoirs

       Water, CO2, Salt




                                                        42
Trends – Characterization 3D Seismic
Surveys and Well Logging

                                             • 3D surveys in complex
                                             topography offers numerous
                                             challenges
                                                  • Data loss across the
                                                  river
                                                  • Twisted survey lines
                                                  offer significant processing
                                                  challenges



 • Possible solutions include:
     • Taking data at the bottom of the river using modified off shore
     techniques
     • Collaboration between acquisition and processing to try and straighten
     the lines as much as possible
                                                                                 43
Trends - Integration of CCS with
Plant Operations and Site Logistics




• Logistics of drilling and
  MMV at and near
  industrial facility are a
  major challenge

                                      44
Challenge – Developing Regional
Deployment Plans
• Important for evaluating
regional capacity, pressure,
geomechanical, and brine
mobilization issues.




                                                     ”
• Will be required for regional




                                                 out
                                              nch
infrastructure planning – inter-




                                          “Pi
facility spacing and transport




                                     Run
network



                                      e
                                   Ros
• Example - Simulated
pressure buildup @ 20 million
tons/year for 20 years in 40
water injection wells in Rose
Run Sandstone
                                                         45
Trends and Challenges -
Institutional/Regulatory Aspects

• A regulatory framework is emerging for deep well
  injection through extensive interactions with federal
  and state authorities under ongoing projects
• Public utility commissions and policymakers are
  becoming increasingly aware of the technical and
  economic issues related to CCS. The CCS potential
  is discussed routinely in PUC deliberations
• Several states and other organizations are
  considering long-term liability and ownership issues
• There is a strong need for faster progress on these
  issues as we move towards large-scale testing

                                                          46
Summary of Trends – We are Now in a
Critical Phase for Future Success of CCS
• During last few years, CCS has attracted growing
  interest and support from regional industry and
  policymakers, this momentum must continue
• Emerging Issues:
  – A major effort to expedite capture technology development
    and integrated capture and storage demonstrations
  – Regional planning for transport and storage networks
  – Developing regulatory, policy, and risk management
    framework in parallel with large-scale testing
  – Building public acceptance as we proceed to
    deployment

                                                                47
Thank You




The sight and sound of 600 tonnes/day of CO2 being injected at 3,500 ft in Northern Michigan
                                                                                          48

								
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