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									                                                World Federalist
                                                  NEWS                                                                           Fall 2004 - ISSUE 48
           IN THIS ISSUE                     New Challenges to World Federalism
                                             By William R. Pace and Angela Edman
                                               This is a tumultuous year – one of the most difficult                   end up on front pages all over the world. Thousands
                                             and disturbing in a long time for the World Federalist                    more terrorists emerge. The case for “humanitarian
                                             Movement. Sadly, we lost a beloved and wise president                     intervention” has, as a result, been set back perhaps
                                             in Peter Ustinov’s passing. But, it has been the politics                 decades. Do world leaders understand how the people
                                             of 2004 that have caused the greatest depression.                         of Darfur are now victims of the invasion of Iraq?
                                               Though spotted with countless individual tragedies,                       As we continue to watch the daily destruction of
                                             reversals and self-inflicted wounds, the world                            innocent civilian lives, packaged more neatly as
Special Adviser on the prevention of geno-   community as a whole seemed to be progressing steadily                    “collateral damage,” we also watch as our leaders
cide Juan Méndez                             since 1988, out of the “mutually-assured-destruction”                     expect civilians in Iraq and elsewhere to understand
- Page 3                                     of the Cold War towards a new international order.                        when they hear, “We are occupying your country to
                                               Democracy and freedom rained from the heavens                           promote freedom.” It reminds us of a poster from
                                             – in Eastern Europe, in Latin America, and in Africa.                     1968 that read, “Why do we kill people who kill
                                             Military tyrants were themselves being disappeared.                       people to show people that killing people is wrong?”
                                             International democracy was also growing – in                               The new politics of fear are taking an ugly shape
                                             world conferences, in new global environmental and                        inside the U.S.A. as well, suppressing civil liberties and
                                             economic agreements, in the historic developments                         unraveling original federalist structures. Can suicide
                                             in international law and justice. As a leader in the                      bombers really be allowed to undermine fundamental
                                             establishment of the International Criminal Court,                        political and governance principles and institutions
                                             WFM enjoyed a front row seat for the unfolding agenda                     – even nations – worldwide? Democracies rarely go to
                                             for peace.                                                                war against each other. This, we believe, is because
John Prendergast, John Washburn, and           Yet these hard-won triumphs for humanity have                           democratic systems have the rule of law, independent
other NGO leaders respond to the crisis      been violently obstructed in the face of recent geo-                      courts, separation of powers, and the checks and
in Darfur                                    political challenges. The new politics of fear, hate and                  balances to ensure accountability and fairness. When
- Center Spread                              division are devastating. September 11th, terrorism,                      democracies decide to act undemocratically against
                                             the “war on terror,” Afghanistan, Iraq, Chechnya.                         their enemies, against their allies, against international
                                             We cannot recall a more dangerous and divided time                        law… the very fabric of civilization is threatened.
                                             since 1968.                                                                 But the fact that nations advocating democracy
                                               The “alliances” that helped win the Cold War are                        and the rule of law at times fail to live up to their
                                             being undone; old allies are at each others’ throats.                     own standards does not invalidate the fundamental
                                             Unbelievably, the greatest threat to the United                           principles of democracy.
                                             Nations, to international law, and to outlawing                             President Bush when describing what kind of
                                             aggressive war, at this time, comes not from military                     constitution could bring freedom and democracy to
                                             dictatorships, but from some of the world’s most                          Iraq said it must be “democratic” and “federal.” This
                                             powerful democracies. It is very difficult for an                         is true, but you cannot militarily impose democracy
Assembly of States Parties to the Rome       organization that promotes democracy and peace                            and federalism.
Statute meet in The Hague                    to watch global disasters being perpetrated by these                        Do people believe that military might can vanquish
- Page 4
                                             democracies. As the international political landscape                     hatred and violent religious fundamentalism? Are
                                             becomes increasingly dominated by unilateralist                           people willing to sacrifice all their freedoms and
                                             policies forged in the name of democracy, the work of                     democratic principles to military choices? Are we
                                             WFM seems to be getting turned on its head.                               ready to settle for the belief that military might is
                                               The “war on terror” strategy is creating more wars                      better than civilian law?
                                             and more terrorists. The “intelligence” justifying                          This, as the reader can tell, is a personal column.
                                             the invasion of Iraq was proven wrong. Yet the U.S.                       We cannot prove that democracy and the rule of law
                                             and the U.K. governments took their nations, and 30                       are stronger than the rule of might and fear. But, as
                                             other countries, to war on this intelligence. Soldiers                    Einstein asked so long ago, which world do you want
                                             torture prisoners, and these images captured on film of                   to live in?
Debating the Tobin Tax, edited by James      blatant disregard for human life and international law
Weaver, Randall Dodd, and Jamie Baker
is one of three books reviewed                 William R. Pace is Executive Director of the World Federalist Movement – Institute for Global Policy, and Convenor for the NGO Coalition for
- Beginning on Page 10                         the International Criminal Court. Angela Edman is Program Associate and WFM News Editor.
          Table of Contents                       WFM Announcements
                                                  WFM Council Meeting
                                                   The World Federalist Movement 2004 Annual Council
      New Challenges to World Federalism          Meeting will take place from 22-24 October in The Hague,
                      1                           Netherlands. The WFM International Secretariat is organizing
                                                  this year’s meeting in cooperation with Wereld Federalisten
                                                  Beweging Nederland (WFBN), our Dutch national member
             WFM Announcements                    organization.
                                                    The Hague is a beautiful city behind the dunes and today is
                                                  still known as “the largest village of Europe.” It is also home
   The New Special Adviser on the Prevention      to the Peace Palace where WFM will be hosting its Public Day
     of Genocide: A Chance to Prevent the         event.
                                                    The theme of this year’s public day event will be: “Peace and
                                                                                                                      World Federalist News
                      3                                                                                                       is a publication of the
                                                  Justice in the 21st Century: What are the Major Challenges to the       World Federalist Movement
                                                  Advancement of International Justice? Views from the Leaders of           International Secretariat
     UN Report Stating “Engaging with Civil       the ICC, ICJ, and ICTY”                                                 708 Third Avenue, 24th Floor
                                                                                                                            New York, NY 10017 USA
   Society is a Necessity not an Option” Raises                                                                              Phone: 1-212-599-1320
             Questions among NGO’s                Overview of the Program:                                                     Fax: 1-212-599-1332
                         3                        Friday, October 22                                                           email:
                                                  All Day: Public Day Event                                              
                                                  Evening: EC Meeting
                                                                                                                       World Federalist News is edited by
    The “Responsibility to Protect” in Action                                                                           Angela Edman and Peter Deitz.
                       4                          Saturday, October 23
                                                  All Day: Council Meeting                                              WFM is an international non-profit
                                                  Evening: Dinner hosted by WFBN                                      and educational organization with UN
                                                                                                                              Consultative Status.
     Third Session of the Assembly of State
          Parties to the Rome Statute,            Sunday, October 24
                                                                                                                            Staff and consultants
       The Hague 6-10 September 2004              Morning: Council Meeting
                        4                         Afternoon: EC Meeting                                                       William R. Pace
                                                                                                                           WFM Executive Director
                                                  WFM International Secretariat’s New Office
   UEF Supports the European Constitution:          After a decade at the United Nations Church Center, the World                Staci Alziebler
   Next Round of Reforms Must Start in 2008
                                                  Federalist Movement is moving to a new location that will serve              Désiré Assogbavi
                 at the Latest
                                                  the needs of our growing staff. We greatly appreciate the work                 Joanna Barrett
                                                  of the building staff, and have enjoyed collaborating with fellow                Amal Basha
                       5                                                                                                        Caroline Baudot
                                                  Church Center-based organizations. We will still be in close
                                                  proximity to the United Nations and our colleagues. Our new                  Fátima da Camara
                                                                                                                             Gloria Ester Catibayan
                                                  address is 708 Third Avenue (corner of 44th Street), New York
                                                                                                                                  Francis Dako
                                                  NY 10017. WFM and the NGO Coalition for the International                        Peter Deitz
     NGO’s Speak out on the Crisis in Darfur
                                                  Criminal Court will be on the 24th floor.                                       Nicole Deller
                Center Spread
                                                                                                                                  Katrina Dorn
                                                  Next WFM Congress Meeting                                                      Astrid de Vries
                                                   WFM is considering locations for its next Congress Meeting.                  Sally Eberhardt
  Democratic Global Governance highlighted
                                                  We urge Council members to communicate to the International                    Angela Edman
    at UBUNTU’s 2004 Universal Forum of
                                                  Secretariat any thoughts or suggestions for the Meeting.                     Stephanie Getson
                  Cultures                                                                                                     Tanya Karanasios
                     9                                                                                                      Cecilia Nilsson Kleffner
                                                  Sir Peter Ustinov Memorial Service
                                                    The family of Sir Peter Ustinov is organizing a memorial                   Spencer Lanning
                                                                                                                                  Luisa Mascia
                                                  service in his honor. It will be held in London on Thursday,
                Book Review:                                                                                              Benson Chinedu Olugbuo
                                                  November 18, 2004. WFM Executive Director William R.                     Mariana Rodriguez Pareja
             Debating the Tobin Tax
                                                  Pace will be among the many attendees. Pace will present a                      Rita Patricio
                                                  speech celebrating the life of our former president and a great                 Leila Rachidi
                                                  world federalist.                                                       Irune Aguirrezabal-Quijera
                                                                                                                                  Shantha Rau
                  Book Review:
                                                                                                                              Joydeep Sengupta
         The Politics of World Federation                                                                                      Lene Schumacher
                         10                          “Today we must look again into our collective conscience,               Evelyn Balais Serrano
                                                     and ask ourselves whether we are doing enough… Each                      Ramin Shahzamani
                                                     generation has its part to play in the age-old struggle to                   Brigitte Suhr
                   Book Review:                      strengthen the rule of law for all–which alone can guarantee                 Esti Tambay
     Revitalizing the United Nations: Reform         freedom for all. Let our generation not be found wanting.”                  Colette Tamko
            through Weighted Voting                                                                                            Erik van der Veen
                                                                                                                                Francesca Varda
                        11                           - H.E. Secretary General Kofi Annan, address to the General
                                                                                                                                  Sonia Wright
                                                     Assembly, September 21, 2004

Page 2                                                                                                                               WFM News • Fall 2004
 The New Special Adviser on the Prevention of                                                                                      missions on the ground did not lead
 Genocide: A Chance to Prevent the Preventable                                                                                     to timely action from New York and
                                                                                                                                   the member states. This is part of a
 By Clive Baldwin                                                                                                                  much wider problem in that there
    The announcement of the              been at the centre of how the world                                                       is an extremely wide ocean between
  appointment of Juan Méndez to          has come to understand genocide                                                           the UN in New York, its human
  the new position of Special Adviser    in the last 50 years. One of the                                                          rights mechanisms in Geneva and
  on the Prevention of Genocide,         first UN international conventions                                                        its field missions, with knowledge
  has the potential to be one of the     was in 1948 on the Prevention                                                             and recommendations from one
  major legacies of Secretary-General    and Punishment of the Crime                                                               part of the UN rarely leading to
  Annan in moving the UN to a            of Genocide. This both defined                                                            action elsewhere.
  culture of prevention of atrocities.   the crime and committed each
  However, in order for this not to be   state party to take action both to                                                        Key elements of an effective
  another false dawn, the office, from   prevent and punish what became                                                            mechanism to prevent genocide
  its inception, should be clear about   acknowledged as the crime of crimes.                                                        It is clear that effectively preventing
                                                                                  Special Adviser for the Prevention of Genocide
  why it is needed, what it should do    However very little was done to          Juan Méndez                 Credit:
                                                                                                                                   genocide requires four basic steps,
  and how civil society in particular    develop the international capacity to                                                     all of which the new office could
  can support it.                        recognise, prevent and punish this       have secured convictions for the                 lead the world on:
                                         crime, despite the appointment of        crime of genocide and more fully
  The UN and Genocide                    a Special Rapporteur on Genocide         defined the term) and now with                   1. Ensuring a basic understand-
    It was not surprising that the       in the 1980s (Ben Whitaker, then         the International Criminal Court.                ing of what genocide is, what its
  appointment of the Special Adviser     Director of MRG).                        However, it has taken much                       causes are, and what steps can
  marked the 10th anniversary of the       It has only been with the              longer to begin developing a much                normally be taken to prevent it.
  genocide in Rwanda. That genocide      genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia-          more effective mechanism so that                   It is clear from recent discussions
  showed how the UN and member           Hercegovina that action was taken        the UN and its member states                     in the world about Darfur, that
  states fail to understand genocide,    to develop, at least, the mechanisms     can ensure their overwhelming                    much of the world’s leading media,
  to heed early warnings about it,       to ensure punishment of the crime,       duty     to   prevent    genocide.               governments and NGOs, whilst
  and therefore fail to take effective   notably through the International          The key lesson for the UN from                 acknowledging the importance of
  action to prevent it.                  Criminal Tribunals on Former             Rwanda was that early warning of                 the term genocide, fail to understand
    This is despite the UN having        Yugoslavia and Rwanda (which             genocide from Geneva and UN                                  Special Adviser continued on Page 8

 UN Report Stating ‘Engaging with Civil Society
 is a Necessity not an Option’ Raises Questions
 among NGOs
 By Lene Schumacher
    On June 21, 2004, the Panel          state actors in enhancing democracy
  of Eminent Persons on United           and reshaping multilateralism. It
  Nations-Civil Society Relations        emphasizes that civil society is a
  released their report, ‘We the         necessary partner in effective global
  peoples: civil society, the United     decision-making and places the issue
  Nations and global governance.’        of civil society participation high on
  The Panel, headed by former            the UN’s agenda. However, it also
  Brazilian     president    Fernando    leaves many questions unanswered
  Henrique Cardoso, was appointed        and creates uncertainty among the
  by UN Secretary-General Kofi           NGOs as to what these proposals
  Annan in February 2003 to review       will entail.        From numerous        Panel Chairman Fernando Henrique Cardoso, with Panel Members: Ambassador Bagher Asadi (Iran),
                                                                                  Dr. Manuel Castells (Spain), Ms. Birgitta Dahl (Sweden), Ms. Peggy Dulany (USA), Ambassador
  the relationship between the UN        consultations WFM has learned that       Andre Erdos (Hungary), Mr. Juan Mayr (Columbia), Ms. Malini Mehra (India), Mr. Kumi Naidoo
  and civil society and suggest new      many NGOs are skeptical. They            (South Africa), Ms. Mary Racelis (the Philippines), Mr. Prakash Ratilal (Mozambique), and Ms.
  and better ways of engagement with     question whether, if implemented,        Aminata Traore (Mali).                                                   Credit: United Nations
  civil society. Through numerous        the proposals will strengthen or         all of these actors as ‘constituencies’          the two groups will not only create
  consultations with civil society       weaken NGOs’ current position in         of the UN’s processes.                           confusion about civil society vis-
  organizations, the business sector,    the UN.                                    Particularly, the Panel’s focus                à-vis the for-profit sector, but also
  parliamentarians and governments,        First of all, the Panel goes beyond    on the business sector as a ‘key                 reduce the space of civil society. It
  the Panel came up with 30 proposals    just recommending an enhancement         constituency for partnerships’ has               is no secret that with the amount
  for change of practices for civil      of the relation between the UN           been the source of great concern                 of economic resources and lack
  society participation in the UN.       and civil society. It advocates          for NGOs. They question the                      of accountability that businesses
    This innovative report, known as     engagement with a wider range of         objectives of business when                      represent, their participation in
  the Cardoso Report, addresses many     actors – business representatives,       engaging with the UN, given that                 the UN could result in damaging
  relevant areas for improvement         parliamentarians, local authorities      businesses are driven by profit and              imbalances of power within the
  of UN/civil society relations.         and indigenous people. In the            not by UN values or social, cultural             Organization.
  It reaffirms the importance of         support of diversity, the Panel          and environmental concerns. By                     The World Federalist Movement’s
  involving civil society in UN          argues that policy-making can            bringing the business sector on                  main concern in this regard is
  processes and acknowledges the         be more effective if all parties are     board as a constituency, the NGOs                that the Report advocates an
  role and growing influence of non-     involved and accordingly identifies      fear that the asymmetries between                             Cardoso Panel continued on Page 9

WFM News • Fall 2004                                                                                                                                                     Page 3
 The “Responsibility to Protect” in Action                                                     of genocide in early 2004;
                                                                                               the commemoration of
 By Nicole Deller
                                                                                               the Tenth Anniversary
   WFM-IGP’s project “Responsi-              The very term “Responsibility to                  of the Rwanda genocide;
 bility to Protect-Engaging Civil          Protect” has great value for NGOs                   and during debates of
 Society” (R2P-CS) is building a           and other parties working to                        the Security Council on
 network of organizations that are         address humanitarian crises. These                  issues such as protection
 working toward changing the re-           three words invoke an obligation                    of civilians and the crisis
 sponses of governments, the United        on the part of the state as well as                 in Darfur. Further details
 Nations and regional organizations        the international community. It                     on these discussions can
 to emerging humanitarian crises.          is an obligation that may not be                    be found on our website.
   The network seeks to bring to-          ignored because of competing
 gether groups from diverse sectors        national interests or because of                    Language versus action
 of civil society–including human          traditional notions of sovereignty.                   Although       familiarity
 rights and humanitarian organiza-         One goal of the R2P-CS project is                   with and use of the phrase
 tions, faith-based groups, human          to see this term used consistently                  “Responsibility to Protect”
 security campaigns, and women’s           by NGOs, governments, UN                            is growing, the crisis in the
 rights–that support “Responsibil-         representatives and regional actors                 Darfur region of Sudan,
 ity to Protect” (R2P) principles          to describe the fundamental                         which has been labelled
 set forth in the report of the In-        norm that drives their responses                    a genocide by the U.S.
 ternational Commission on In-             to emerging humanitarian crises.                    government and several
 tervention and State Sovereignty.           “Responsibility      to     Protect”              prominent NGOs, reflects
   Specifially, these groups support       language is being used more regularly               that     true    acceptance
 the concept that with sovereignty         by experts and government and                       of these principles has
 comes the responsibility of the state     international officials in discussions              not been achieved. For
 to protect its citizens from threats of   about preventing genocide and                       months, few words were
 genocide and crimes against human-        other large-scale crimes against                    written about Darfur, and
 ity, and that when states are unable      humanity. R2P was invoked at the                    there were fewer official
 or unwilling to ensure protection,        September 2004 General Debate                       outcries. By the time the
 the responsibility to protect falls       of the UN General Assembly, the                     world’s focus turned to this            The R2P-CS brochure can be downloaded or ordered at
 to the international community.           Stockholm forum on the prevention                   R2P In Action continued on page 8

 Third Session of the Assembly of States Parties to                                            was the adoption of the Budget of                  met twice in 2004 to review past
 the Rome Statute, The Hague 6-10 September 2004                                               the ICC for 2005. This is an issue
                                                                                               close at heart for NGOs considering
                                                                                                                                                  and current budgetary processes,
                                                                                                                                                  and to consider the draft budget
                                                                                               that the Draft Budget sets the                     for 2005. At its last meeting, in
 By Cecilia Nilsson
                                                                                               blueprint for what the Court wants                 August 2004, the Committee
   On 6-10 September, 2004, the 94         simultaneous informal working                       to do and how it intends to operate.               had recommended a number of
 States Parties to the Rome Statute        groups. This caused difficulties, in                The adopted budget sets the limits                 reductions in the Court’s Draft. The
 of the International Criminal Court       particular, for small and/or non-                   and the framework for its operations.              recommendations were considered
 (ICC) met in the Netherlands              English speaking delegations, as well               The subsidiary body of the Assembly                by the Assembly and while a number
 Congress Centre in The Hague for          as for observing states and NGOs.                   on budgetary issues, the Committee                 of recommendations were approved,
 its Third Session. This was the first       The primary issue on the agenda                   on Budget and Finance (CBF), had                   the Assembly chose to reject some
 Assembly meeting not organized by                                                                                                                reductions with regards to victims’
 the United Nations Secretariat at                                                                                                                representation, investigation and
 the UN Headquarters in New York.                                                                                                                 outreach – decisions that were
 Instead, this meeting was organized                                                                                                              very much welcomed by NGOs.
 by the Secretariat of the Assembly of                                                                                                            The final product is a budget of
 States Parties, which was set up in                                                                                                              around €67 million. Furthermore,
 The Hague in the beginning of 2004.                                                                                                              the Assembly decided to establish a
   The meeting was not only attended                                                                                                              contingency fund of €10 million to
 by States Parties, but also a number                                                                                                             meet unforeseen costs, including the
 of non-States Parties, such as Japan,                                                                                                            possible establishment of two field
 China, Russia and Cuba that chose                                                                                                                offices. The decision to establish
 to participate as observers. Further,                                                                                                            an ICC-ASP liaison office in New
 between 200 and 300 representatives                                                                                                              York was deferred for one year.
 of non-governmental organizations                                                                                                                  The Assembly approved the Draft
 (NGOs) had registered to observe                                                                                                                 Relationship Agreement between the
 the deliberations of the Assembly,                                                                                                               United Nations and the ICC, which
 under the coordination and                                                                                                                       was subsequently adopted by the
 facilitation of the Coalition for                                                                                                                United Nations General Assembly
 the International Criminal Court.                                                                                                                on 13 September. A number of
 The agenda of the Assembly was                                                                                                                   elections took place during the week
                                           At the start of the Third Session of the Assembly, delegates paused for a moment of silence in honor
 overwhelming, which meant that a          of the many victims of atrocities around the world. (l-r) ICC President Judge Philippe Kirsch, ASP     in The Hague. First, Ms. Fatou
 large number of decisions had to be       President HRH Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein, Director of the ASP Secretariat Dr. Medard            Bensouda from The Gambia was
 dealt with in a rushed way by various     Rwelamira, and Legal Officer of the ASP Secretariat Mr. Renan Villacis.                                elected as Second Deputy Prosecutor
                                                                                                          Credit: ICC-CPI/Wim Van Cappellen
                                                                                                                                                      Third Session of ASP continued on Page 11

Page 4                                                                                                                                                             WFM News • Fall 2004
 UEF supports the European Constitution: Next round of reforms must start in 2008 at the latest
   Since 1997, the UEF has led its “Campaign
 for European Federal Constitution,”
 culminating in the UEF’s involvement
 in the work of the European Convention
 convened to draft the first European
 Constitution. The following is a declaration
 by the UEF Bureau regarding its support
 of the European Federal Constitution.
 UEF is an associated member of the World
 Federalist Movement.

 The Union of European Federalists,

 A. Assessment of the Constitution adopted by the Heads of States and        B. Ratification of the constitutional Treaty
                                                                               7.    Insists on the need to make known this important move
    1.   Welcomes that the Heads of States and Governments of the                    forward to the European citizens and to the parliaments of the
         25 member states have come to an agreement on the European                  member states, with a view to the national ratifications and
         Constitution at their summit in June 2004;                                  especially the referenda to be held in several member states;
    2.   Underlines that the adoption of this Constitution is an act of        8.    invites the European Parliament to give its assent on the
         great political importance and a symbol towards the political               Constitution before any national ratification;
         unity of Europe;
                                                                               9.    invites the European Parliament and the national parliaments
    3.   Is of the opinion that the Constitution represents a considerable           to convene a “Congress of the parliaments of the EU” to help to
         progress when compared to the Nice Treaty and that the                      ensure that the Constitution enters into force;
         European Convention made a very decisive contribution to the
         Constitutional process;                                               10. asks the member states to coordinate the dates of the national
                                                                                   ratifications by the parliaments and the peoples of the member
    4.   Regrets, however, that the final text of the Constitution                 states in order to stimulate a genuine trans-national debate;
         adopted by the Heads of States and Governments falls a long
         way behind the Convention’s draft Constitution;
                                                                             C. Federalists involvement in the ratification process
    5.   Welcomes in particular the following achievements of the
         Constitution;                                                         11. commits itself to actively take part in the campaign for the
                                                                                   ratification of the Constitution;
           a.   the incorporation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights
                thus making it legally binding,                                12. calls upon the activists of the UEF constituent organisations to
                                                                                   form a broad coalition together with elected representatives on
           b.   the clarification of the values, principles and objectives         local, regional and national levels and civil society organisations,
                that form the common ground for the Europeans,                     including political parties, to promote the achievements of the
           c.   the simplification of the legal and political foundations          Constitution;
                of the EU construction as well as the clarification of the
                competences of the EU,                                       D. Revision of the Constitution and transformation of the EU into a
           d.   the strengthening of the democratic legitimacy of the        European Federation
                EU by giving the European Parliament the right to elect        13. calls upon the Heads of State and Government of the member
                the Commission President and the co-decision-power in              states to
                most of EU legislation,
                                                                                        a.   create a framework for a democratic and transparent
           e.   the creation of the post of a European Foreign Minster                       public debate on the Constitution;
                and a European diplomatic service,
                                                                                        b.   commit to convening another Convention no later
           f.   new mechanisms for common activities in the field of                         than 2008 to revise the Constitution and adopt further
                security and defence,                                                        reforms to strengthen the democratic legitimacy the
           g.    considerable progress on justice and home affairs.                          Union and the effectiveness of its instruments;
                                                                                        c.   agree that future amendments to the Constitution
    6.   Nevertheless criticizes that the Constitution falls short of what                   should be adopted by qualified majority voting rather
         is needed in many respects, mainly                                                  than by unanimity;
           a.   by not abolishing the unanimity rule in many important         14. repeats its demand that if only one or two member states
                fields where more effective decision making and thus               are unable to ratify the text, the other member states should
                majority voting would have been necessary, in particular           proceed nevertheless with the entering into force of the
                in foreign, security and defence policy and for the multi-         Constitution;
                annual financial framework,                                    15. calls upon the European Parliament and the parliaments of
           b.   and by not introducing a procedure that makes the                  the member states to pass political resolutions in favour of the
                entering into force of the Constitution possible when all          revision of the Constitution by a new Convention no later than
                but one or two member states have ratified the text.               2008.

WFM News • Fall 2004                                                                                                                               Page 5
NGO’s Speak out on the Crisis in Darfur:                                                                                                 When asked what th
                                                                                                                                         the humanitarian cr
  John Washburn*                                    ensure immediate and effective
  Convener, AMICC (American                         response they should put
  NGO Coalition for the ICC)                        pressure on the Government
                                                    of the Sudan to allow
    “The protection of civilians                    humanitarian access to all and
  and opening the way for                           provide security to protect the
  humanitarian assistance to                        innocent through the African
  reach them in Darfur requires                     Union monitors. With the
  soldiers: lots of them and very                   security provided the people
  quickly. It is the duty of UN                     would not be afraid to return to
  members to provide them or                        their villages or even the camps
  to provide equipment and                          to receive the help that will be
  services to them. The Security                    provided. The rebels too should
  Council and the international                     be pressurized to negotiate in
  community must do this NOW.                       good faith so that a political
  Waiting for sanctions to work                     situation is reached.                         Sudanese refugees                                       Credit: United Nations
  or for the government of Sudan                      At the same time that pressure
  to act means thousands more                       is brought on the government                     suffering of vulnerable people      building after conflict, should
  deaths.                                           of the Sudan and the rebels to                  - who form part of our common        be added to the mission.
    Civil society must put the                      negotiate a settlement, the civil               humanity -through death and          African civil society research
  heat on governments to fulfill                    society organizations should                    dislocation. Located at the          groups and collectives such
  this duty. This means pressure                    work to build the capacity of                   southern tip of Africa we have       as the African Civil Society
  on governments at the U.N. It                     the community leaders, sheiks                   particular concern for the           Forum should also be included
  also means intense lobbying by                    and Imams for reconciliation                    danger to women and children         in the mission.
  citizens and their organizations                  among the various tribes in                     in the Darfur region, who              We applaud the advocacy being
  at home.”                                         Darfur that are fighting each                   always seem to pay far too high      done by the WFM in alerting
                                                    other.                                          a price wherever armed conflicts     civil society to the situation
   * This represents the viewpoint of                 The      psychosocial     issues              occur in the world and no            in Darfur and think that the
   the author and is not representative
   of AMICC or its members.                         need to be addressed now as                     less so in Africa. We view the       international and African
                                                    the humanitarian access is                      presence of 80 African Union         media can play a practical role
                                                    provided.”                                      military observers protected         by publishing a weekly for the
  Emmanuel LoWilla                                                                                  by 300 soldiers as woefully          world to see what the countries
  Reconcile International                                                                           inadequate to have an impact         that committed themselves
  Kampala, Uganda                                                                                   on the injustices perpetrated in     to providing assistance with
                                                    Ruth de Bruyn
                                                                                                    Darfur. This mission should          regard to Darfur at the recent
    “The African tribes of Darfur                   Executive Director,
                                                                                                    be augmented as a matter of          UN Security Council meeting
  have been killed, displaced,                      Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy
                                                                                                    urgency. Civil society structures    in New York have in fact
  disenfranchised and maimed                        Centre Braamfontein, South
                                                                                                    in Africa can lobby the African      provided.”
  within a short time by the Arab                   Africa
                                                                                                    Union through ECOSOC and
  tribes through the Janjawed.                                                                      its substructures.
  They deserve protection so that                     “At   Tshwaranang      Legal                                                       John Prendergast
                                                                                                      We note that the Pan African
  they live.                                        Advocacy Centre we view                                                              Special Adviser to the President
                                                                                                    Parliament whose members have
    The International community                     with great concern the events                                                        International Crisis Group
                                                                                                    taken an oath to defend the
  at the moment has the political                   in Darfur and the slow
                                                                                                    people of Africa has committed
  will to do something to protect                   response from the international                                                        “The key to protecting civilians
                                                                                                    itself to sending a fact finding
  the civilians in Darfur. To                       community to prevent further                                                         is to get an international force
                                                                                                    mission to Darfur. We urge
                                                                                                                                         into Darfur with a specific
                                                                                                    the international community
                                                                                                                                         mandate to protect civilians.
                                                                                                    to make good on its promises
                                                                                                                                         That will require the consent
                                                                                                    at the recent Security Council
                                                                                                                                         of the Khartoum government,
                                                                                                    meeting of the UN and
                                                                                                                                         which means the international
                                                                                                    provide the required assistance
                                                                                                                                         community, particularly the
                                                                                                    to allow this mission to take
                                                                                                                                         Security Council, must apply
                                                                                                    place as speedily as possible.
                                                                                                                                         much more pressure on the
                                                                                                    We further urge that female
                                                                                                                                         government of Sudan to allow
                                                                                                    Pan African Parliamentarians
                                                                                                                                         this to happen. The way to
                                                                                                    should comprise 50% of the
                                                                                                                                         increase leverage is to begin
                                                                                                    mission group and that women
                                                                                                                                         imposing punitive measures
                                                                                                    representatives from civil society
                                                                                                                                         on the Khartoum regime,
                                                                                                    organizations in Africa that
                                                                                                                                         lifted only when they comply.
                                                                                                    are involved in peace-making,
                                                                                                                                         Impunity cannot be tolerated.”
A World Food Programme aircraft roars over the cloudy Sudanese sky, dropping relief supplies of
                                                                                                    conflict prevention and peace
sacks of grain, 16 tons at a time.                                     Credit: United Nations
he international community, particularly civil society can do to address
risis in Darfur, representatives of NGO’s gave the following responses.
      Görel Bogarde                              Furthermore, the Security
      UN Representative, Save the              Council should specifically
      Children                                 address the issue of child
                                               protection in future deliberations
        “We would stress that children         on Sudan and, pursuant to
      are particularly vulnerable to           paragraph 14 of resolution 1539,
      the effects of insecurity and            request the Secretary-General to
      for them the situation remains           ensure that subsequent reports
      dire.                                    on Sudan include the protection
        Overall, the crude mortality           of children as a specific aspect.
      rate for the displaced in Darfur           Child protection advisers
      is three times the expected rate         should be deployed in UN
      in Africa as a whole. Children           mandated and African Union
      across Darfur also continue to           protection and monitoring
      suffer through attacks by militia        forces, to undertake monitoring
      on a weekly basis, including             and reporting of violations
      high incidence of sexual and             against children, including
      gender based violence.                   gender based violence, and               Elfatih Mohamed Ahmed Erwa, Permanent Representative of the Republic of the Sudan to the
        The first step that the                ensure that specific child               United Nations, at a recent Security Council meeting.             Credit: United Nations

                                                                                            security and peace throughout                        encourage new donors, in
                                                                                           Darfur.                                               addition to the EU, UK and US
                                                                                             There must be a unified                             to launch a response.
                                                                                           platform and common strategy                            Finally, all parties to the
                                                                                           in the international and                              armed conflict must cease all
                                                                                           humanitarian community for                            use of children and facilitate
                                                                                           safe and dignified return for                         their immediate release, and the
                                                                                           Internally Displaced People                           Government of Sudan should
                                                                                           according to the Guiding                              undertake specific activities
                                                                                           Principles as soon as security                        designed to reintegrate them into
                                                                                           permits, as well as the restoration                   civilian life (with a particular
                                                                                           of law and order as a matter of                       emphasis on education, skills
                                                                                           urgency.                                              training and provision of long
                                                                                             Funding commitments should                          term economic livelihoods) and
                                                                                           be long-term and address both                         ensure that there is a process
                                                                                           the immediate humanitarian                            for monitoring those children’s
    Sudanese refugees collect water in Chad.               Credit: Human Rights Watch      crisis and post-conflict recovery                     demobilization from armed
                                                                                           and pressure should be placed                         groups in order to prevent re-
      international community could            protection requirements are fully           on donors to meet the shortfall                       recruitment.”
      take to ensure the protection            addressed in all peacemaking,               in the UN appeal, and to
      of     civilians,    particularly        peacekeeping and peacebuilding
      children and other vulnerable            operations.
      populations, is to hold the                A political solution must
      government of Sudan and all              be found to the crisis that
      parties to the conflict to the           addresses issues of long-term
      obligations they have made               marginalization of groups
      under      international     law,        involved in the conflict, as well
      especially with respect to the           as its regional nature.
      protection of children. The                The international community
      government of Sudan is a party           should support and make a
      to the Convention on the Rights          commitment to the immediate
      of the Child, under Article 38           expansion of African Union’s
      of which they are obligated to           presence and mandate to include
      “take all feasible measures to           the protection of civilians from
      ensure child protection and care         attack by all armed forces
      of children who are affected by          operating in the area, including
      armed conflict.” The Council             those of rebel groups and the
      must also ensure that Sudan is           Government of Sudan with a
      compliant with the provisions            corresponding increase in size
      of Resolution 1556 and 1564.             that is consistent with providing        Villagers, young and old, gather around the air strip with their gourds ready to collect from the spilled
                                                                                        sacks of grain.                                                                 Credit: United Nations
 Special Adviser                             However, simply warning is not
                                           enough, as Rwanda showed. The
                                                                                     tiny budget and staff for what is
                                                                                     supposedly the most important
                                                                                                                               the right information is collected
                                                                                                                               and not duplicated. Assessment of
 Continued from page 3
                                           office will also need to be able          issue for the UN will need a lot of       what should be done and by whom
 what the term means, let alone how        to learn from past situations to          support. However, civil society can       requires more work, which is why
 to spot and prevent approaching           develop specific solutions to each        assist at each of the 4 steps. First in   the basic understanding is needed
 genocides. The new UN office could        situation, including what should          developing a greater understanding        and a network of specialists can be
 therefore take the lead in promoting      be done within the country and            of genocide, its causes and how           developed to assess each potential
 such an understanding and being           communities concerned and by the          to prevent it. There is increasing        genocidal situation.
 a resource to the world. Critical         outside world.                            academic knowledge on this,                 Finally in campaigning for action
 to this will be an understanding                                                    which could be translated into            to prevent genocide, the role of
 of minority rights, as potential          4. Ensuring that such solutions           action. At the same time, whilst          NGOs and the Special Adviser
 genocides are invariably indicated        are carried out.                          very few international NGOs               should be complementary. NGOs
 by massive violation of minority            This of course is the most              could claim to be specialists in          may well feel freer to conduct more
 rights.                                   difficult, as solutions will depend       genocide, there is a grouping of          public campaigning, particularly
                                           on those with power inside the            like-minded organisations called          using the media, but both the
 2. Providing early warning of             country concerned as well as the          the International Campaign to             Special Adviser and NGOs should
 potential genocides.                      key member states of the UN.              End Genocide, (of which MRG               have enough trust to understand
   To prevent genocide, one must           However, the office will need to          is part), which could play a major        what the other is doing.
 have the systems in place to look         adopt a campaigning strategy to           role in providing information and            In conclusion, the new Special
 for and acknowledge the signs of          ensure its recommendations are            assessments to the Special Adviser.       Adviser is an extremely welcome
 approaching genocide (as well as          taken into account rather than              At the level of providing knowledge     development – in theory. In
 the ability to understand them).          remaining as mere reports to              of and assessment of specific             practice, one person with a handful
 The office will need access to on-        stay on the shelf, perhaps to be          situations, much knowledge can            of staff cannot hope to prevent the
 the-ground information about, in          discovered by researchers into why        be gathered increasingly quickly.         destruction of entire communities
 particular, the situation of threatened   future genocides occurred. “Quiet”        In this, it is clear that cooperation     without the organised support of
 minorities, to be able to assess if       behind the scenes campaigning may         between those in a position to            global civil society. The challenge
 there is a serious risk of genocide.      often be the most effective for a         get information on the ground             for those NGOs who have to deal
 It will then need to be able to warn      UN mechanism, but every method            (i.e. local NGOs, and sometimes           with genocide is to ensure that such
 those with the power to prevent it.       should be considered.                     international NGOs, UN and                support can be provided in the most
                                                                                     member states’ missions, whether          effective way possible.
 3. Providing solutions to                 Role of civil society                     development, peace-keeping, human
                                                                                                                               Clive Baldwin is Head of International Advocacy,
 prevent potential genocides.               Naturally an office         with    a    rights or others) will ensure that        Minority Rights Group International.

                                           impunity. Clearly, lessons from past      whether a situation
 R2P In Action                             tragedies have not been learned.          is genocide, “but
 Continued from page 4                       R2P-CS is monitoring several            precisely to give ad-
 catastrophe, the scale of the crisis      initiatives that are aimed at             vanced warning be-
 grew so significantly that hundreds       addressing the failures of members        fore they get to that
 of thousands of lives are now at risk.    of the international community            point.” Beyond his
   The Security Council, which             broadly – and the Security Council        early warning role,
 bears primary responsibility for          in particular – to uphold their           the Special Adviser
 maintenance of peace and security,        responsibility to protect.                is a potential source
 is now seized of the Darfur crisis.         One      development        is    the   of pressure on the
 However, the Security Council’s           appointment of a Special Adviser          Security Council to
 record on addressing threats of           on the Prevention Genocide by the         remain focused on
 genocide is weak; Rwanda and              UN Secretary-General (see Special         conflicts that pose
 Kosovo are two notable examples.          Adviser article, page 3).                 a risk of genocide.
   The      Council     passed     two       Juan Méndez, an Argentinean               Another initiative is
 resolutions on Darfur, but the most       human rights lawyer, was appointed        the High Level Pan-
 recent resolution, passed September       to the position with a mandate            el on Threats, Chal-
 18, only warns that the Council will      of:     collecting information on         lenges and Change.
 “consider” sanctions and does not         acts that might lead to genocide;         This 16 member
 demand an international presence          providing early warning to the            panel, convened by
 large enough to ensure protection         Secretary General and through him         the Secretary-Gen-
 of civilians. Stronger language was       to the Security Council; making           eral, is examining a
 removed due to the intransigence of       recommendations to the Security           range of challenges:
 at least one veto-wielding member.        Council (through the Secretary-           socio-economic threats like disease       been reported that the High Level
 Even with weaker language in place,       General) on actions to prevent or halt    and poverty; inter-state conflict;        Panel has reached an agreement
 four Council members abstained on         genocide; and working to improve          intra-state conflict and state-led        to support the R2P principles.
 the resolution.                           the UN’s information management           violence against civilians; terror-         Initiatives such as these are central
   The Council’s actions have              and analysis relating to genocide.        ism; organized international crime        to the development of a R2P-CS
 proved insufficient; UN Special             Mr. Méndez describes his role as        and weapons of mass destruction.          network working toward acceptance
 Representative on Darfur Jan Pronk        “basically to track conflict situations     The panel’s findings are due in         by the international community
 concluded that, as of the beginning       around the world” that could evolve       December 2004, and are expected           of its responsibility to protect.
 of October, there was no systematic       into situations of genocide. Accord-      to include recommendations on             Nicole Deller is WFM Program Advisor for the
 improvement of security in Darfur,        ing to Mr. Méndez, his mandate is         changes necessary to ensure collective    Preventing Conflicts -- Protecting Civilians
 nor was there progress on ending          not to make the determination of          action to address these threats. It has

Page 8                                                                                                                                            WFM News • Fall 2004
  Cardoso Panel                                 Partnership Development Unit is                  very supportive of this initiative.             consultative arrangements for NGOs
 Continued from page 3                          proposed to provide management                     The Report also acknowledges                  to the General Assembly such as the
                                                and operational support to UN                    what the NGO community has been                 right to attend open meetings and
 enhanced involvement of business               staff for the development of multi-              discussing for years: the problem               receive documentation handed out
 sector representatives without                 stakeholder partnerships. This will              of the politicized accreditation                to Member-States. It does not call
 outlining a framework for rules of             evidently lead to a greater focus on             process in the NGO Committee of                 for NGO speaking rights or rights
 engagement. If the UN wishes to                partnerships within the UN system;               ECOSOC. As a solution the Panel                 to circulate written statements, but
 extend its partnerships with for-              however, WFM emphasizes that the                 suggests moving the procedure out               merely advocates the right to observe.
 profit stakeholders, specific rules of         focus should go beyond the mere                  of the hands of the ECOSOC and                  The Panel’s proposal however is
 engagement should be established to            establishment of partnerships and                the DPI section and entirely into               of a smaller scale. It talks about
 ensure transparency, accountability            also include an assessment of the                the hands of the General Assembly.              ‘carefully planned’ participation
 and eligibility of the business                structure and effectiveness of such              The Secretariat should create a UN              of chosen NGOs, but in doing so
 entities. WFM is addressing these              partnerships.                                    Accreditation Unit to screen and                it recognizes the relevance of civil
 issues and has raised its concerns               Noticeably, the Panel has been                 research the incoming accreditation             society engagement in General
 to the Secretary-General who is                very innovative with regards                     applications and submit application             Assembly processes.
 in charge of the follow-up of the              to the participation of national                 reviews to the General Assembly                   The Panel suggests new specific
 Report. If business entities are to be         parliamentarians.       The Panel                for approval. However, one has to               structures as a way of enhancing
 seen as “constituencies” to the UN,            suggests the creation of a new                   question whether or not this model              civil society participation. It
 we need to make sure that they at              Elected Representative Liaison Unit              of accreditation would ensure                   encourages the Secretary-General
 least operate within the values and            to ensure greater involvement of                 a depoliticized and time/cost                   on his own authority to convene
 principles of the UN.                          parliamentarians in UN processes.                efficient procedure, moving it from             multi-constituency public hearings
   In an attempt to maximize synergy            In addition, the Panel proposes to               the hands of the 19 Member-States               as a means of reviewing progress
 and coherence among the identified             bring a global dimension into the                on the NGO Committee to the                     on globally agreed commitments.
 constituencies, the Panel calls for            mechanism of national functional                 191 Member-States in the General                Likewise, the Panel suggests that
 the creation of an overarching                 parliamentary      committees     by             Assembly.                                       the Secretary-General initiates
 Office of Constituency Engagement              establishing Global Public Policy                  The Panel reintroduces the issue of           multi-stakeholder advisory forums
 and Partnerships, headed by a new              Committees within the UN. These                  non-state actors’ participation in the          on emerging issues. However,
 Under-Secretary-General. It would              Committees should be regionally                  processes of the General Assembly.              WFM questions whether or not
 provide strategic guidance to UN               representative and comprised of                  WFM highly supports this and                    these multi-stakeholder advisory
 staff on constituency matters as               parliamentarians from 30 national                has brought to Secretary-General                forums are meant as a supplement
 well as foster networking among                parliaments. Even though WFM                     Kofi Annan’s attention the General              or a replacement of the preparatory
 constituencies, which each would be            is somewhat hesitant regarding the               Assembly NGO Resolution which                   processes of UN conferences.
 represented by an independent unit             selection of parliamentarians for                WFM and INTGLIM drafted in                      Member States have intermittently
 within the Office. Additionally, a             these committees, we are generally               2000. It is a moderate call for limited         expressed dissatisfaction and little
                                                                                                                                                 appetite for global conferences and
  Democratic Global Governance highlighted at                                                Security Council to the World                       even though the Panel expresses
                                                                                             Trade Organization.                                 support for the conference model,
  UBUNTU’S 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures                                                    In addition to the five-months                    the Report does indicate that the
                                                                                             long ‘Dialog’ the Barcelona Forum                   expanded use of expert panels
  By WFM Staff                                                                               included a global fair of exhibits                  might substitute the global
   WFM        Executive    Director, State of the World Forum; Brigitta                      on habitat, environment, war,                       conferences of the last decades.
 William R. Pace, was a speaker at Dhal, Swedish parliamentarian                             and literally thousands of art and                  This would be a major setback for
 the Universal Forum of Cultures and member of the Cardoso                                   cultural events. “World Federalists                 civil society, depriving it of the
 –Barcelona 2004. Pace                                                                                                  would           have     unique opportunity to engage and
 was invited to speak at                                                                                                been amazed to           contribute to UN decision-making
 the conference on Reform                                                                                               find hundreds            processes. If the global conference
 of the United Nations                                                                                                  of dialogues             mechanism is abandoned the
 and other International                                                                                                on peace and             participatory space of civil society
 Organizations. It was                                                                                                  democratic               will be reduced perceptibly.
 organized by UBUNTU,                                                                                                   g l o b a l                The Cardoso Report is the
 a global civil society                                                                                                 governa nce,”            first step, hopefully out of many,
 network as part of the                                                                                                 Pace            said.    towards improving civil society
 World Campaign for In-                                                                                                 “The              city   engagement in the UN. The next
 Depth Reform of the                                                                                                    government               step will be the General Assembly’s
 System of International                                                                                                of Barcelona             deliberations during its 59th session.
 Institutions. WFM has                                                                                                  has            given     on the follow-up report by the UN
 been a key member of the                                                                                               the world an             Secretary-General. How the process
 UBUNTU process for the                                                                                                 extraordinary            evolves from thereon is uncertain,
 last two years.             Mireia Belill, Forum Dialogues Director, presents the Dialogues closing events that took
                                                                                                                        present.” Pace           but WFM is seriously advocating
   Pace spoke in the forum place on September 26, 2004.                                                                added             that    for an establishment of a follow-
 track on universalizing                                                     Credit: Forum 2004/J. A. Roca de Viñals interest in and             up framework with modalities for
 world justice. Richard Falk, author Panel; Jonathan O’Donohue from                          respect for issues WFM has been                     input and participation of civil
 and professor of International Law Amnesty International and many                           raising for six decades have never                  society. In the spirit of the Cardoso
 at Princeton University; Guido other distinguished speakers joined                          been greater.                                       Report, NGOs must be part of the
 di Marco, former UN General in extraordinary series of panels                               Visit site for more
                                                                                                                                                 realization of these proposals if they
 Assembly President,; Kumi Kaidoo dealing with major international                           information.                                        are to be effective and successful.
 of CIVICUS; Jim Garrison of the organization reforms from the                                                                                   Lene Schumacher is WFM Program Associate.

WFM News • Fall 2004                                                                                                                                                                 Page 9
 Book review: Debating the Tobin Tax, Edited by James Weaver,
 Randall Dodd, and Jamie Baker
 By Lene Schumacher
   The identification of new sources        markets.                                 it will enhance
 of finance is seen as a determining          Debating the Tobin Tax is a            the power of
 factor for the implementation of           collection of papers presented at a      domestic mon-
 the UN Millennium Development              conference in January 2003 hosted        etary policy and
 Goals by 2015. As a result, the            by New Rules for Global Finance          reassert national
 debate about taxation of currency          Coalition, complemented with two         economic sover-
 transactions has become even more          primers designed as introductions        eignty. In agree-
 vigorous. With the global currency         to the Tobin tax and related issues.     ment with the
 trade amounting to approximately           With its informative compilation         need for regu-
 US$1.3 trillion per day, a modest          of supporting and opposing papers,       lation of finan-
 currency transaction tax at 0.1%           the book gives good justice to the       cial     markets,
 could generate annual revenue in           debate. The papers are interlinked       the opponents,
 the billions, even considering the         in such a way that they seem             however, argue
 reduction in trade volume it could         to respond to each other. To its         that the Tobin
 bring. Accordingly, the feasibility        advantage, the book does not take        tax would not
 of such a tax is the source of great       a stand on the question of the           accomplish its
 debate.                                    desirability, effect or feasibility of   purported goal
   The book Debating the Tobin Tax          the Tobin tax. Instead, it provides      of     stabilizing
 explores the arguments for and             the reader with an overview of the       financial mar-
 against the currency transaction           complexities involved.                   kets. Instead,
 tax: the Tobin tax. The tax proposal         As Jo Marie Griesgraber, Chair         they envision
 is named after its inventor in 1972,       of New Rules for Global Finance,         that it would re-
 the late Noble Laureate economist          states in her summarizing conclud-       sult in lower fi-
 James Tobin, whose intention was           ing chapter of the book, the debate      nancial market stability and higher
 to reduce disruptive speculation           is dominated by ongoing disagree-        volatility in prices and capital flows.   an increasing interest in the issue
 in foreign exchange markets by             ment about the desirability, effects     They also question its technical and      has arisen among politicians;
 imposing a small tax on dealings           and feasibility of the Tobin tax.        administrative achievability.             however, ensuring the necessary
 in foreign currency. Unattended            The proponents argue that the To-          In addressing the technical             global political will for realization
 for decades the Tobin tax saw              bin tax will reduce currency volatil-    economic aspect of feasibility,           of the Tobin tax is the great
 resurgence in the 1990s when it            ity and thus damaging speculation        the book leaves out the other and         challenge ahead.
 was recognized as a mechanism to           while efficiently raising significant    posssibly the most crucial aspect:
 achieve greater stability in financial     tax revenue. They also argue that        the tax’s political viability. Lately,    Lene Schumacher is WFM Program Associate.

 A Major New Definitive Work: The Politics of World Federation
 by Joseph Preston Baratta
 Reviewed by Barbara Walker
   The Politics of World Federation         shape of a postwar international         “a great novel work of
 the recently published, (December          security organization until October      statecraft is before us.”
 2003), two volume set – Vol. 1             1943, and the Baruch plan for the        For those embarking on
 United Nations, U.N. Reform, Atomic        international control of atomic          this “novel work,” Barat-
 Control and Vol. 2 From World              energy.                                  ta is clear that the goal
 Federalism to Global Governance – is         Volume 1, The United Nations,          of world federal govern-
 a must for all federalists, citizens for   U.N. Reform, Atomic Control takes        ment is “the necessary
 global solutions, internationalists        the reader through precursors of the     instrument to establish
 and anyone else searching for              idea of world federal government,        peace and justice.”
 sensible and reasonable solutions          from Dante to Wilson. Then it cov-         Joseph Baratta, who
 to current world dilemmas.                 ers the development of the United        served four years as Ex-
 These books detail a history of            Nations and federalists’ response,       ecutive Director of the
 the “practical, political efforts to       as well as Hiroshima, Baruch, the        World Federalist Move-
 establish a constitutionally limited,      formation of United World Feder-         ment, currently teaches
 democratically         representative,     alists and the Truman Doctrine.          history and international
 federal world government in                Volume 2, From World Federalism          relations at Worcester
 order to effectively abolish war”.         to Global Governance highlights          State College in Mas-
 They trace the influence of a              Albert Einstein, Robert Hutchins,        sachusetts, USA. He
 generation of internationalists on         Cord Meyer, World Federalism in          has written many pub-
 world policy, citing particularly          the US, the Korean War and World         lications on the United
 Winston Churchill’s proposal               Federalists in the Cold War. In a        Nations, Peace Keeping and U.N.           resource for world federalists.
 of Anglo-French union of June              conclusion to both volumes assert-       Reform.      His bibliography on
 16, 1940, deliberations in the             ing that the idea of the rule of law     “Strengthening the United Nations”        Barbara Walker is WFM Assistant Treasurer,
                                                                                                                               Executive Committee member and Honorary
 U.S. State Department on the               has not died, Baratta points out that    has been a valuable and important         Board Member.

Page 10                                                                                                                                           WFM News • Fall 2004
                                                                                     joining Canada
 Book Review: Revitalizing the United Nations:                                       to the US- its
 Reform through Weighted Voting by Joseph E.                                         neighbor- who
                                                                                     after all does not
 Schwartzberg                                                                        need this addi-
                                                                                     tion. Also, as
 Reviewed by Dr. Hanna Newcombe                                                      former Canadian
   In Joe Schwartzberg’s excellent         Non-Arab Islamic State [of Central        Prime Minster
 proposals for UN reform, each             and Southwest Asia], 11 M, 4.21           Pierre Trudeau
 nation would be assigned a weighted       (Pakistan .99, Turkey .70, Iran .62);     once said, “who
 vote (WV) equal to the average of         Northern Europe, 7 M, 4.60 (United        wants to get in
 its share of the total UN population      Kingdom 2.33, Sweden .56); South          bed with an el-
 (almost the whole world), plus its        America 10 M, 5.02 (Brazil 1.91,          ephant?”
 share of the contribution to the total    Argentina .69); Southeast Asia, 11          The Schwartz-
 UN budget (almost proportional to         M, 5.29 (Indonesia 1.38, Philippines      berg scheme has
 each nation’s GNP), plus its share of     .64, Vietnam .61, Thailand .61);          some similarity
 the total UN membership (1/191;           Southern Europe, 8 M, 4.88 (Italy         to the proposal
 the only significant exceptions are       2.16, Spain 1.23); Western Africa,        by Italian World
 Taiwan, Palestine, Puerto Rico            21 M, 5.18 (Nigeria .90, Ghana            Federalist Lucio
 and Western Sahara). Thus, each           .29); and Western Europe 5 M,             Levi for a UN
 nation’s WV would be based on             4.89 (France 2.62, Netherlands .84,       Security Coun-
 its population, its wealth, and its       Switzerland .63 and Belgium .60.)         cil composed of
 existence as a sovereign nation.            29 states are not part of any bloc      regional associa-
   Schwartzberg’s weighted voting          in this scenario. Major omissions         tions, such as the
 formula would be applicable to a          are Russia, Canada, Australia and         European Union, African Union,          membership, a requirement that
 reformed UN Security Council and          Bangladesh. Schwartzberg’s second         Organization of American States,        would be difficult for any resolution
 General Assembly, but one is not a        hypothetical formulation envisions        Association of South-East Asian         to achieve. The Schwartzberg
 precondition for the other. In this       a 15-year transitional phase during       Nations and CIS (Russia plus its        scheme is more permissive.
 article, I will focus on the Security     which Russia, France and the UK,          ‘near abroad,’ or the former So-          A fuller consideration of a number
 Council (SC).                             which would not qualify as members        viet Union). But the Levi scheme        of weighted voting schemes (and
   Schwartzberg proposes that nations      in their own right, would retain          would leave even more unaffiliated      related political variables) is
 whose WV would equal or exceed            their membership on the Council.          “orphans,” and also contain some        provided in my book, Design for
 4.0 would automatically have a seat       During that period the Russian            overlaps (e.g. North African states     a Better World, (University Press
 (but without a veto) on a reformed        economy might grow sufficiently to        belonging to both African Union         of America, 1983). My own
 SC.                                       push it over the WV 4.0 threshold,        and Arab League).                       scheme, based on population and
   Nations that would qualify under        alone or perhaps through some re-           There is also some similarity         GNP (only two factors), is not as
 this rule would be the U.S (9.1), China   constituted Commonwealth of               with Richard Hudson’s Binding           good as Schwartzberg’s; a humble
 (7.7), Japan (7.3) and India (6.0).       independent States.                       Triad, in the three factors chosen      statement for an author to make.
 Nations that don’t make it would be         Amendments (mine mainly);               and in making GA votes binding.
 free to form blocs or coalitions whose    Russia would somehow have to be           However, Hudson’s scheme requires       Dr. Hannah Newcombe works with the
 combined weighted votes would add         guaranteed a seat. It is the world’s      simultaneous       2/3   majorities     Peace Research Institute-Dundas. For more
 up to 4.0 or more. Blocs would be         second biggest nuclear-weapons            on population, GNP, and UN              information on Schwartzberg’s monograph,
                                                                                                                             please contact WFM-IGP.
 based on negotiations, political          state (I hate to say that, but politics
 affiliations,     existing     regional   intrude) a big (and the earliest)
 associations, common culture or           space power, and (more rationally)        Third Session of ASP
                                                                                     Continued from page 4                   programs of the Fund) would serve
 some combination thereof. One or          the world’s largest nation.
 more seats would be reserved for            Additionally, we absolutely must not    by an overwhelming majority.            as a reference point for further
 election by the General Assembly          leave out Canada, many times already      Second, Ambassador Bruno Stagno         work. The Bureau was asked to
 from among nations that do not            serving on the Security Council and       (Costa Rica) was elected future         consider in more detail the draft
 join a bloc or individually qualify       active in UN peacekeeping. Canada         ASP President, starting his term        regulations for adoption at the 4th
 for a seat at the table.                  could either join the Scandinavian        of office on the first day of the       session. Second, the establishment
   Schwartzberg        proposes     two    bloc (Northern Europe, renamed            4th Assembly. Third, six members        of and the budget for a Victims
 illustrative schemes. The first has       Nordica). Or we might form                of the CBF were re-elected to sit       Trust Fund Secretariat were
 the following twelve hypothetical         “The Old Commonwealth” (UK,               another term on the Committee.          discussed. A core Secretariat was
 blocs (for each of which I provide        Canada, Australia, and New                  With regards to the Victims Trust     established under the authority of
 the total number of members (M),          Zealand), which would get rid of          Fund (VTF) of the ICC, three issues     the Board but within the registry
 including micro-states and total          two more “orphans,” Australia and         were at stake; first, the adoption of   for administrative purposes. A
 weighted vote and list, in rank order,    New Zealand. These countries are          the Regulations of the VTF was          budget of €470,000 was adopted
 the two leading member nations and        of course not contiguous, in fact         on the agenda. Unfortunately, the       for its work. Third, voluntary
 any others with WV’s over 0.50):          are geographically very distant           States Parties did not feel ready       contributions to the VTF were
 Arab League, 20 M, 5.59 (Egypt            from one another. However, they           to adopt the Regulations in their       subject of debate. Four States
 .56, Saudi Arabia .48); Central,          are connected by several strands,         entirety, not even provisionally. The   Parties pledged contributions
 Eastern and Southern Africa, 23           history, language, similar UN             first two parts of the Regulations      to the Fund at the meeting:
 M, 6.13 (South Africa .55, Ethiopia       voting (in General Assembly), UN          were adopted provisionally (those       France      €150,000,      Finland
 .54); Eastern Europe, 17 M, 4.22          peacekeeping, common membership           regulating the management and           €100,000,      the    Netherlands
 (Poland .51, Ukraine .45); Meso-          in several treaties, presence of native   oversight of the Board and receipt      €100,000 and the UK ₤25,000.
 America, 23 M, 5.43 (Mexico               peoples and general culture.              of funds). It was decided that Part
                                                                                                                             Cecilia Nillson is Associate Legal Advisor for the
 1.08, Dominican Republic .30);              We should definitely not consider       III (regulating the activities and      CICC in The Hague.

WFM News • Fall 2004                                                                                                                                                   Page 11
OUR NEW HOME                                                                                                   708 THIRD AVENUE
AS OF NOVEMBER 1, 2004                                                                                    SEE PAGE 2 FOR DETAILS
            WORLD                                                Coalition                                          RESPONSIBILITY
            FEDERALIST                                           for the International                              TO PROTECT -
            MOVEMENT                                             Criminal Court                                     ENGAGING CIVIL SOCIETY

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