Management Information for Marketing Decisions3 _M

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					Management Information for Marketing Decisions (M.I.M.D.) - 3
Source: Marketing Research – An applied orientation – Naresh K. Malhotra

Research Design
Exploratory Research Design Conclusive Research Design

Descriptive Research

Causal Research

Cross-sectional Design

Longitudinal Design

Single
Cross-sectional Design

Multiple
Cross-sectional Design

Research Design - Classification
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Exploratory
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Objective: To provide insights and understanding Characteristics:
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Information needed is defined only loosely. Research process is flexible and unstructured. Sample is small and non-representative Analysis of primary data is qualitative

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Findings / Results: Tentative Outcome: Generally followed by further exploratory or conclusive research

Research Design - Classification
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Conclusive
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Objective: To test specific hypotheses and examine relationships Characteristics:
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Information needed is clearly defined. Research process is formal and structured. Sample is large and representative Analysis of primary data is quantitative

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Findings / Results: Conclusive (Through Descriptive or Causal Research) Outcome: Findings used as input into decision making.

Exploratory Research - Methods
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Survey of experts Pilot surveys Secondary data (analysed qualitatively) Qualitative research

Descriptive Research Design
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Objective: Describe market characteristics or functions Characteristics:
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Marked by prior formulation of specific hypotheses Preplanned and structured design Secondary data (analysed quantitatively) Surveys Panels Observational and other data

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Methods:
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Causal Research Design
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Objective: Determine cause and effect relationships Characteristics:
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Manipulation of one or more independent variables Control of other mediating variables Experiments

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Methods:
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Components of a Research Design
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D Data analysis plan E Exploratory, descriptive, causal design S Scaling and measurement I Interviewing forms: questionnaire design G Generate the information needed N – Sample size and plan

Descriptive Research
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A type of conclusive research that has as its major objective the description of something – usually market characteristics or functions. 6 Ws:
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Who What When Where Why Way

Cross-Sectional Designs
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Most frequently used descriptive research design A type of research design involving the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once May be either single cross-sectional or multiple cross-sectional design

Single Cross-sectional Design
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A cross-sectional design in which one sample of respondents is drawn from the target population and the information is drawn from this sample once. Case: Internet Health Care Services
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Descriptive online survey of 1000 US healthcare consumers over the age of 18. Consumers demand for a range of options to access their doctors incl. online & telephone Harris Interactive conducted the survey -> Kaiser Permanente redesigned its website

Multiple Cross-sectional design
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A cross-sectional design in which there are two or more samples of respondents, and information from each sample is obtained only once. Multiple cross-sectional designs allow comparisons at the aggregate level but not at the individual respondent level. One type of such design is Cohort Analysis.

Cohort Analysis
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A multiple cross-sectional design consisting of a series of surveys conducted at appropriate time intervals. The cohort refers to the group of respondents who experience the same event within the same time interval. E.g.: Age cohort of people between 8 and 19 years old selected and their soft drink consumption examined every 10 years for 30 years.

Longitudinal Design


A type of research design involving a fixed sample of population elements that is measured repeatedly on the same variables. The sample remains the same over time, thus providing a series of pictures, which, when viewed together, portray a vivid illustration of the situation and the changes that are taking place over time.

Panel
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A sample of respondents who have agreed to provide information at specified intervals over an extended period. Major disadvantages of panels:
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Refusal to cooperate Morality Payment

Longitudinal v/s. Cross-sectoinal Design
Evaluation criteria Cross-Sectional Design Detecting change Longitudinal Design +

Large amount of data collection Accuracy
Representative sampling Response bias

+

+ +
-

+

-

Causal Research
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A type of conclusive research where the major objective is to obtain evidence regarding cause-and-effect (causal) relationships. Causal research is appropriate:
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To understand which variables are the cause (independent variables) and which variables are the effect (dependent variables) of a phenomenon To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted

Exploratory Research Design
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Primary data: Data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem Secondary data: Data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand

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Primary v/s. Secondary Data
Evaluation criteria Primary Data Collection purpose Collection Process Collection Cost Collection Time Secondary Data For the problem at For other problems hand Very involved Rapid and easy High Long Relatively low Short

Criteria used for evaluating Secondary Data
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S Specifications: methodology used to collect data E Error: accuracy of the data C Currency: when the data were collected O Objective: purpose for which data were collected N Nature: content of the data D Dependability: overall, how dependable are the data

Secondary Data
Internal External

Published Materials

Computerized Databases

Syndicated Services

Ready to Use

Requires further processing

General Business Sources

Govt. Sources Census Data Other Govt. publications

Guides

Directories

Indexes

Statistical Data


				
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posted:8/15/2009
language:English
pages:21