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Values and Ethics Instrumental Value The Market Kellert Valuation and Monetizing Biodiversity Intrinsic Value Primary vs. Secondary Ethics The Role of Human Perception Key Ethical Systems What is the difference between values and ethics? The value-neutral scientist Science and advocacy Should a conservation biologist be an advocate? Classifying values in nature Intrinsic vs. Instrumental Instrumental Value: The Market Private vs. Public goods Use value, option value, quasi- option value, bequest value, existence value Instrumental Value: Typology of Basic Values (Kellert 1996) Utilitarian Naturalistic Ecologistic/Scientific Aesthetic Moralistic Dominionistic Humanistic Negativistic Neutralistic Theistic Discussion of data collected by Kellert…………. Class discussion Use different value-based arguments from Kellert’s typology to provide justification of Endangered Species Protection for the Palouse Giant Earthworm to a class of 6th graders Instrumental Value: Economic values of biodiversity Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) Willlingness to pay (WTP) Willingness to accept (WTA) Strengths? Weaknesses? Relationship between income and environmental impact Ehrlich Identity I=PxAxT Environmental Kuznets Curve Draw curve / label axes Monetizing Biodiversity Two Studies in 1997 calculate economic benefits Goal: Raise the public/government awareness of the “hidden” economic benefits obtained from biodiversity Financial Benefits for the world Constanza et al 1997 Nature 387:253-260 $33,000 trillion (Range $16 - 54 trillion) 1.8 X Global National Product Pimental et al 1997 Bioscience 47:747-757 $2938 billion (11% GNP) Estimate $319 billion/yr US (5% GDP) Pimental et al 1997 What ecosystems are the most valuable? (Costanza et al 1997) Value per hectare/year Open ocean $252 Wetlands $14,785 Coastal $4,052 Swamps $19,580 Estuaries $22,832 Lakes/Rivers $8,400 Coral Reef $6,075 Tropical forest $2,007 Temperate $302 Grassland $232 Cropland $92 Discussion Is monetizing biodiversity a good conservation strategy? Should society (individuals or industry or government) pay for biodiversity services? Should society make decisions about development projects by comparing the value of the project to the value of the biodiversity services that would be lost? Intrinsic Value: Environmental Ethics Do humans have moral obligations towards non-human organisms? Do humans have responsibilities towards future generations? How can biodiversity be protected based on ethical values? How do we balance responsibility with needs? Anthropocentrism Judeo-Christian Stewardship Biocentrism Ecocentrism Humanity Country Community Family Me Domestic animals Other cultures Sentient animals Other species All animals Ecosystems All life Biosphere Classifying values in nature Intrinsic vs. Instrumental Is intrinsic value an illusion? Burden of proof? Monetizing Biodiversity: Examples Program of Payments for Environmental Services From Forest Ecosystems in Costa Rica. TOTAL AREA AND NUMBER OF CONTRACTS BY YEAR Paying for Ecosystem Services Monteverde Conservation League (MCL) is paid by electric company - INMAN MCL protects 3,000 ha (11.6 sq. miles) of hilly forested watershed (which was already in protection) Services? Retain/capture water Assure maintenance of water flow on Esperanza River Maintain water quality Prevent landslides, soil erosion MCL ES contract with INMAN INMAN pays $9/ha/yr or $100,000 for 4 yrs and then contract will be re-evaluated based on profits of power company MCL must: Conserve protect forest Prevent squatters Administer management of forest and forest guards Snow Leopard Incentive Programs (Mishra et al 2003 Cons bio 17:1512). India: Problem decline in natural prey and increase in predation on livestock Rangeland Protection/Resting Program Took 500ha (6%) out of grazing rotations for $425/year Used money to hire 3 villagers to guard site and for community development Result was an 3x increase in natural prey species (bharal and ibex) Insurance Program Locals pay premiums Covers 100% compensation for losses Monetary awards for small # livestock lost No snow leopards killed for 4 years, shift in values
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