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					Values and Ethics
Instrumental Value
     The Market
      Kellert
      Valuation and Monetizing Biodiversity
Intrinsic Value
      Primary vs. Secondary Ethics
      The Role of Human Perception
      Key Ethical Systems
 What is the difference between values and ethics?


 The value-neutral scientist


 Science and advocacy

   Should a conservation biologist be an advocate?
Classifying values in nature

Intrinsic vs.
 Instrumental
Instrumental Value: The Market
 Private vs. Public goods
 Use value, option value, quasi-
 option value, bequest value,
 existence value
Instrumental Value: Typology of
Basic Values (Kellert 1996)
      Utilitarian
      Naturalistic
      Ecologistic/Scientific
      Aesthetic
      Moralistic
      Dominionistic
      Humanistic
      Negativistic

    Neutralistic
    Theistic
 Discussion of data collected by Kellert………….
 Class discussion
 Use different value-based arguments from
 Kellert’s typology to provide justification of
 Endangered Species Protection for the Palouse
 Giant Earthworm to a class of 6th graders
Instrumental Value: Economic
values of biodiversity
 Cost-benefit analysis (CBA)
 Willlingness to pay (WTP)
 Willingness to accept (WTA)


 Strengths? Weaknesses?
Relationship between income and
environmental impact
 Ehrlich Identity

   I=PxAxT


 Environmental Kuznets Curve

   Draw curve / label axes
Monetizing Biodiversity
 Two Studies in 1997 calculate economic benefits
 Goal: Raise the public/government awareness of the
  “hidden” economic benefits obtained from biodiversity

 Financial Benefits for the world
    Constanza et al 1997 Nature 387:253-260
    $33,000 trillion (Range $16 - 54 trillion)
    1.8 X Global National Product
 Pimental et al 1997 Bioscience 47:747-757
    $2938 billion (11% GNP)
    Estimate $319 billion/yr US (5% GDP)
Pimental et al 1997
What ecosystems are the most valuable?
                     (Costanza et al 1997)


                          Value per hectare/year
     Open ocean          $252
     Wetlands                   $14,785
     Coastal                    $4,052
     Swamps                     $19,580
      Estuaries                 $22,832
     Lakes/Rivers                $8,400
     Coral Reef                 $6,075

     Tropical forest             $2,007
     Temperate                   $302
     Grassland                   $232
     Cropland                   $92
Discussion
 Is monetizing biodiversity a good conservation
 strategy?

 Should society (individuals or industry or government)
 pay for biodiversity services?

 Should society make decisions about development
 projects by comparing the value of the project to the
 value of the biodiversity services that would be lost?
Intrinsic Value: Environmental Ethics
 Do humans have moral obligations towards non-human
 organisms? Do humans have responsibilities towards future
 generations? How can biodiversity be protected based on
 ethical values? How do we balance responsibility with needs?

 Anthropocentrism

 Judeo-Christian Stewardship

 Biocentrism

 Ecocentrism
                              Humanity
                              Country
                              Community
                              Family


                                Me

           Domestic animals           Other cultures
     Sentient animals                     Other species
  All animals                                Ecosystems
All life                                         Biosphere
Classifying values in nature
 Intrinsic vs. Instrumental


 Is intrinsic value an illusion?


 Burden of proof?
Monetizing Biodiversity: Examples
Program of Payments for Environmental Services
     From Forest Ecosystems in Costa Rica.
TOTAL AREA AND NUMBER OF CONTRACTS
              BY YEAR
Paying for Ecosystem Services
 Monteverde Conservation League (MCL) is paid by electric
    company - INMAN
   MCL protects 3,000 ha (11.6 sq. miles) of hilly forested
    watershed (which was already in protection)
   Services?
   Retain/capture water
   Assure maintenance of water flow                   on
    Esperanza River
   Maintain water quality
   Prevent landslides, soil erosion
MCL ES contract with INMAN
   INMAN pays $9/ha/yr or $100,000 for 4 yrs and
    then contract will be re-evaluated based on profits
    of power company
   MCL must:
     Conserve protect forest
     Prevent squatters
     Administer management                     of
      forest and forest guards
            Snow Leopard Incentive Programs
                (Mishra et al 2003 Cons bio 17:1512).
 India: Problem decline in natural prey and increase in predation on
  livestock

 Rangeland Protection/Resting Program
    Took 500ha (6%) out of grazing rotations for $425/year
    Used money to hire 3 villagers to guard site and for community
     development
    Result was an 3x increase in natural prey species (bharal and ibex)

 Insurance Program
      Locals pay premiums
      Covers 100% compensation for losses
      Monetary awards for small # livestock lost
      No snow leopards killed for 4 years, shift in values

				
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posted:10/13/2011
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