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Japanese Internment in the U.S. By: Peter Park Period 3 How could such a tragedy have occurred in a democratic society that prides itself on individual rights and freedoms?...I have brooded about this whole episode on and off for the past three decades... -Milton S. Eisenhower Pearl Harbor & Racism -After Pearl Harbor, Americans all over the country became furious. “Japs”, and Yellow Journalism " spread more throughout the west part of the United States. -Many Japanese Americans lost their jobs or were forced out of their position. • - Japanese Americans were threatened and assaulted by prejudice Americans. Chinese had to wear a “I’m not Japanese sign around.” General John DeWitt • In charge of the army’s Western Defense Command. At the time, DeWitt was 62 years old and " was a head strong general believing that Japanese people pose a threat to the Nation. "General DeWitt claimed to have heard many signals coming from the Pacific and day by day, was passing on these, “false” facts to his superiors. "DeWitt passed many “letters” to the president with the help of Stimson. The letter was about the “Evacuation of Japanese & other Subversive Persons from the pacific Coast.” Getting Ready for E-Day • Valuable household items were in risk of being stolen if taken to camp. • Items sold for fraction of their original price. Japanese became frustrated. of what terror could have •Thinking happened in Pearl Harbor, some Japanese decided to evacuate willingly. •Notmany, but some veterans of World War I or just prideful citizens just that just couldn't afford to lose their shops and leave commited suicide. E-day • Finally the time has come. Certain regions had certain curfews to be at their relocation centers. • About 25% of all evacuees were children. Only the seriously ill were allowed to remain behind. •Armedsoldiers were watching the Japanese evacuate always. •Children and Adults had to wear ID tags in case they got lost. The Camps • There were 10 camps set up for Japanese Americans during World War II. • Among the popular was Manzanar, CA, Tule Lake, CA, & Topaz, UT. •The WRA was in charge of the camps. The food in the camps were provided by the WRA. Still costed money though. •The camps, even though not as brutal as Nazi camps, it was still a prison. The "Typical" Camp • 9 wards, 4 blocks per ward, 24 barracks per block. • Mess Hall, Laundry Rooms, Bathrooms, showers, kitchens. • Hospital, Fire Department. • Work available for abled people. • "Unsanitary" • Watchtowers, signs, barbed wire, search lights, & armed soldiers. The "Typical" Education • Education was a problem. • Shortage in textbooks, non- experienced teachers. • Disadvantage in college. • Grade school has school in empty barracks. • Poor features. • Starts late, ends early. • Kids who ditch. Life in Camp • Many don't even think of escaping. • Furniture hand-made. • Trouble at Manzanar. • Frequent trouble at Manzanar. Trouble at Manzanar • Angry food mob, Manzanar Dec. 6 1942. • Girl Scouts, baseball. • "Informers" led to serious strikes and beatings. Typical Japanese Home A Sudden Opportunity • In February 3rd, 1943 the U.S. army activated the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. • Over 10,000 young ”Nisei" men joined the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. • 442nd Regiment becomes honored by President Truman that they fought for honor and prejudice after World War II. Manzanar & Tule Lake • Among all the other camps, Manzanar and Tule Lake were the most trouble. • While and angry crowd was fired at by the MP's in Manzanar, Tule Lake was occupied by the army because of the demonstration. Finally Over • After the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, President Harry Truman lifted the Executive Order 9066. • Following the Japanese surrender on August 15, 1945 - 1947 all camps closed down. • Many Japanese Americans had nowhere to go and were placed in shelters. • On August 10, 1988 the H.R. 442 is signed by President Ronaled Reagan giving $20,000 to each surviving internee. And an official apology to the Japanese people was signed later by President Clinton.
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