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DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT PRESENTATION ON DIFFERENT MODES OF TRANSPORTATION AGENDA FOR THE PRESENTATION 1. THE DIFFERENT MODES OF TRANSPORTATION. 2. THE MERITS AND DEMERITS OF DIFFERENT TRANSPORTATION. WHAT IS TRANSPORTATION? Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans ("across") and portare ("to carry"). Transport is performed by various modes, such as air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. MODES OF TRANSPORTATION: A mode of transport is a technological solution that used a fundamentally different vehicle, infrastructure and operations. The different modes of transportations are Human-powered Animal-powered Air Rail Road Water Pipeline HUMAN POWERED HUMAN-POWERED: Human-powered transport is the transportation of person(s) and/or goods using human muscle-power. Human-powered transport has existed since time immemorial in the form of walking, running and swimming. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human-power. ADVANTAGES: 1. Cost-saving, leisure, physical exercise and Environmentalism 2. Useful in underdeveloped or inaccessible regions, 3. Considered an ideal form of sustainable transportation. DISADVANTAGES: 1. Make transportation slow 2. Transportation of heavy goods, 3. Not suitable for long distances, 4. Most time consuming mode 5. Can be influenced by the environment EXAMPLES: Bicycles, hand carts, watercraft rowing. ANIMAL POWERED ANIMAL POWERED Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the movement of people and goods. Humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles. Animals are superior to people in their speed, endurance and carrying capacity; prior to the Industrial Revolution they were used for all land transport impracticable for people, and they remain an important mode of transport in less developed areas of the world. ADVANTAGES: 1. Suitable for rural and less developed areas, 2. Economical means of transportation, 3. Require low infrastructure, 4. No fuel expenses, 5. Environmental friendly, 6. Less chances of accidents, DISADVANTAGES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Slow means of transportation, Not suitable for long distance transportation, Not suitable for transportation of heavy loads, Create problems of cleanliness and sanity in big cities, Cause traffic distortion and accidents in big cities, Considered as outdated mean of transportation, Less reliability. EXAMPLES: Donkey cart, camels, horses, elephants, Reindeer, pigeon, dogcart etc. AIRWAYS AIR A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift. A gyroplane is both fixed-wing and rotary-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft. Two necessities for aircraft are air flow over the wings for lift, and an area for landing. The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket. Aviation is able to quickly transport people and limited amounts of cargo over longer distances, but incur high costs and energy use; for short distances or in inaccessible places helicopters can be used. ADVANTAGES: 1. Quick mean of transportation, 2. Suitable for long distances, 3. Suitable for transport heavy goods. DISADVANTAGES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Not suitable for short distances, Release pollutant like Carbon Dioxide in the environment, High cost, High consumption of fuel, Require special infrastructure, Very risky in bad weather conditions, High repair and maintenance cost, High chances of technical faults. EXAMPLES: Helicopters, Jet planes, Boeing planes, parachutes, etc. RAILWAYS RAIL Rail transport is where train runs along a two parallel steel rails, known as a railway or railroad. Alternative methods include monorail and maglev. A train consists of one or more connected vehicle that run on the rails. Propulsion is commonly provided by a locomotive, that hauls a series of unpowered cars, that can carry passengers or freight. The locomotive can be powered by steam, diesel or by electricity supplied by a trackside systems. Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trains more energy efficient, though not as efficient as ships. Intercity trains are long-haul services connecting cities. Modern high-speed rail is capable of speeds up to 350 km/h (220 mph), but this requires specially-built track. ADVANTAGES: 1. Fast medium of transportation, 2. Suitable for long distances, 3. Economical medium of transportation, 4. Suitable for transportation of heavy goods, 5. Energy efficient mode of transportation. DISADVANTAGES: 1. 2. 3. 4. Requires special infrastructure, Chances of accidents are high, Require high cost, Not flexible mode of transportation. EXAMPLES: Trains, Bullet trains etc. ROADWAYS ROADS A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel; though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. ADVANTAGES 1. Provide high flexibility, 2. Allow easy travel, 3. Serve as initial and final stage of freight transport, 4. Most commonly used mode of transportation, 5. Suitable for short and medium distances. DISADVANTAGES 1. Low capacity, 2. High energy and area use, 3. Main source of noise and air pollution, 4. Cause of road accidents. EXAMPLES Cars, Buses, Trucks, Motor Bikes, Rickshaws etc. WATERWAYS WATER Water transport is the process of transport a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat, over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. The need for buoyancy unites watercraft, and makes the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance. ADVANTAGES: 1. Play major role in the international trade, 2. Effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods, 3. Less costly than air transportation, DISADVANTAGES: 1. Accident an cause water pollution and creating dangers for marine life, 2. Effected by weather conditions, 3. High fuel consumption, 4. Not flexible. EXAMPLES: Jet boats, Ship, sailboat, barge etc. PIPELINES Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air have also been used. As for gases and liquids, any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Therefore sewage, slurry, water, or even beer pipelines exist but arguably the most valuable are those transporting oil and natural gas. ADVANTAGES 1. Lower cost of transportation 2. Lower transit losses 3. Lower energy intensiveness 4. Economies of scale 5. Safety and Reliability - minimum disruptions 6. Environment-friendliness 7. Multi-product handling 8. Flexibility 9. Stationary carrier 10. Augmentation at low cost 11. Minimal land costs 12. Decongestion of surface transport systems DISADVANTAGES As easy targets Pipelines can be the target of vandalism , saboage, or even terrorist attacks. In war, pipelines are often the target of military attacks, as destruction of pipelines can seriously disrupt enemy logistics.
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