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					                 Unit 9 Mark Twain—The mirror of America
I. Teaching Objectives
1. Get to know Mark Twain‟s life experience and his remarkable works
2. Identify and appreciate rhetoric devices aptly employed in the text
3. Learn to write the elliptical, short, loose sentences and the compound-complex sentences to
   achieve certain effect
4. Learn the writing skill of direct quotations

II. Teaching Tasks and Time Distribution
1.   Pre-reading questions (0.5 period)
2.   Background knowledge (0.5 period)
3.   Detailed Study of the text (3 period)
4.   Text Analysis (1 period)
5.   Follow-up discussion (0.5 period)
6.   Exercise and Homework (0.5 period)

III. Important and Difficult Points
1. Compound nouns and compound adjectives
2. Paraphrasing some sentences
3. Identifying figures of speech
4. Translating some sentences

IV. Important Words and Expressions
    father, idyllic, lasting, fever, epidemic, strike, ring, dash, project, all over, entry, shot, sorely,
trend setting, starry-eyed, acid-tongued, artery, commerce, westward expansion, drain, cast,
cosmos, feud, soak with, flotsam, be acquainted with, diligently, succumb, to flirt with, hone,
debunk, to find expression in, to shape…into, to have no choice but, to be obsessed with, to teem
with, every bit as…as, to sb‟s horror, to sb‟s satisfaction.

V. Exercises and Homework
1. Why is Mark Twain one of America‟s best-loved authors?
2.Give a brief account of Mark Twain‟s experience before he became a writer.
3. What story did he write that made him known as “the wild humorist of the Pacific slope”?

VI. References
4.   《高级英语》学习指南 第一册
5.   《高级英语》教师用书 第一册
6.   《马克·吐温》by Frorrest G. Robinson, 上海外语教育出版社。
7.   Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain.
8.   Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain.
I.Pre-reading Questions:
(1). Give a brief account of Mark Twain's experience before he became a writer.
(2). Why did the author adopt Mark Twain as his pen name?
(3). What story did he write that made him known as "the wild humorist of the Pacific slope"?
(4). Why is Tom Sawyer as sure to be studied in American schools today as is the Declaration of
(5). Why did Twain become bitter late in life?
II.Background Information
(1).Mark Twain was the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), America‟s most
famous humorist and the author of popular and outstanding autobiographical works, travel books
and novels. The first 36 years of Clemens' life as a boy in a town in Missouri, as a steamboat pilot
on the Mississippi, as a reporter on the far western Fortier and as a traveler abroad supplied him
with copious material which he used later for his best and most successful writings, and among his
well-known works are Innocents Abroad (1869), Tom Sawyer (1876), and Huckleberry Finn
(2).The Realistic Period: The period ranging from 1865 to 1914 has been referred to as the Age of
Realism in the literary history. It can be described as by a works of Mark Twain „The Golden Age‟.
The three dominant figures of the period are William Dean Howells, Mark Twain, and Henry
III.Detailed Study of the Text
1. Mirror of America: Metaphor. A mirror reflects or reveals the truth of something or somebody.
2. Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father...
Father: metaphor. Endless: hyperbole.
The whole sentence: parallelism.
Mark Twain is famous to most Americans as the creator of Hack Finn and Tom Sawyer. Hack's
sailing / voyage / journey / travel on the river was so pleasant, lighthearted, carefree, simple and
peaceful that it made his boyhood seem to be infinite, while Tom's independent mind and his
exciting and dangerous activities made the summer seem everlasting.
3. idyllic: [i / ai] adj. of idyll, a simple happy period of life, often in the country, or a scene from
such a time, a description of this, esp. a poem.
idyll [„idil, / aidl] n. short piece of poetry or prose that
describes a happy and peaceful scene or event, esp of country life
an idyllic setting, holiday, marriage
4. cruise: A cruise is a holiday during which you travel on a ship and visit lots of places. When it is
used as a verb, it means to move at a constant speed that is comfortable and unhurried.
He was on a world cruise.
cruise missile: a missile which carries a nuclear warhead and which is guided by a computer as it
flies. It can be launched from the land, sea or air.
They spend the summer cruising in the Greek islands.
The taxi cruised off down the Chang'an Avenue.
cruiser: a large fast warship.
aircraft carrier, helicopter carrier, battleship, flagship, destroyer, speedboat, torpedo boat, etc.
5. every bit as: infml, just as, quite as
He is every bit as clever as you are.
I'm every bit as sorry about it as you.
6. cynical: A cynical person believes that all men are selfish. He sees little or no good in anything
and shows this by making unkind and unfair remarks about people and things.
cynic: n a. person who believes that people do not do things for good, sincere or noble reasons, but
only for their own advantage
b. Cynic: member of a school of ancient Greek philosophy that despised ease and comfort
a cynical remark, attitude, smile
They've grown rather cynical about democracy, ie no longer believe that it is an honest system.
7. deal, dealt: to give , to give out, to strike, to distribute
Who deals the cards next?
to deal sb. a blow
Pay attention to the sentence structure of this part: Saddened by the profound personal tragedies
life dealt him, he grew cynical, bitter.
8. obsess: fill the mind continuously, AmE, to worry continuously and unnecessarily. If sth
obsesses you or if you are obsessed with it or by it, you keep thinking about it over a long period
of time, and find it difficult to think about anything else.
He became absolutely obsessed with a girl reporter on television.
She is obsessed by the desire to become a great scientist.
cf: preoccupy: to fill the thoughts or hold the interest of sb. almost completely, esp. so that not
enough attention is given to other (present) matters.
9. frailty: a weakness of character or behaviour.
One of the frailties of human nature is laziness.
That chair looks too frail to take a man's weight.
There is only a frail chance that he will pass the examination.
10. tramp: a person who has no home or permanent job and very little money. Tramps go from
place to place getting food and money by taking occasional job or begging. A woman who is
thought to have sex with a lot of men is cursed to be a tramp. When used as a verb, tramp means
to walk heavily in a particular direction or along roads or streets.
There's a tramp at the door begging for food.
We tramped for hours through the snow.
Don't tramp about so noisily, you'll wake everyone up.
cf: 盲流,     ”blind flow”, unauthorized move, persons who move without government sanction
11. pilot: a person who with special knowledge of a particular stretch of water, esp. the entrance of
a harbour, and who is trained and specially employed to go on board and guide ships that use it.
A pilot is also a person who is trained to fly an aircraft.
12. Confederate States of America (1861-65), also Confederacy. the government established by the
southern states of the US after their secession / official separation from the union. When president
Lincoln was elected (Nov. 1860), seven states --- South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Florida, Alabama, and Texas, seceded /si'si:d/. A provisional government was set up at
Montgomery, Ala, and a constitution was drafted. Later four more states--- Arkansas, North
Carolina, Virginia, and Tennessee--- joined. Richmond, Va., became the capital, and Jefferson
Davis and A.H. Stephens were elected president and vice president. The story of the Confederacy
is the story of the loss of the Civil War. The Confederacy fell after Gen. Robert Edward Lee's
surrender in Apr. 1865 to Gen. Grant at Appomattox (town in cent. Va) Courthouse.
13. guerrilla (guerilla): a member of an unofficial fight group which attacks the enemy in small
groups unexpectedly.
Song of the Guerrillas
14. prospector: a person who examines the land in order to find gold, oil, etc.
15. starry: full of stars in the sky, indicating sparkling, glowing, and flashing. starry-eyed: full of
unreasonable or silly hopes. If you are starry-eyed, you are so full of dreams or hopes or idealistic
thoughts that you do not see how things really are.
We were all starry-eyed about visiting London.
16. acid-tongued: If sb. is acid-tongued, he makes unkind or critical remarks.
Notice that the first four expressions refer to the job he did and the last two expressions imply the
characteristic feature of his personality.
17. range: to travel without any definite plan or destination, a fairly literary use.
cf: wander, range, saunter, stroll
Wander implies the absence of a fixed course or more or less indifference to a course that has been
fixed or otherwise indicated. The term may imply the movement of a walker whether human or
animal, but it may be used of anything capable of direction.
His eyes wandered over the landscape.
His mind wandered and he was unsure of himself.
Range may be preferred when literal wandering is not implied or when the stress is on the sweep
of territory covered rather than on the form of locomotion involved.
He spent the summer ranging the world.
Animals range through the forests.
Saunter stresses a leisurely pace and in idle and carefree mind.
Stroll differs from saunter chiefly in the implications of an objective, (as sight-seeing or exercise)
pursued without haste and sometimes with wandering from one place to another.
strolling (around) in the park
18. digest:
a. When you digest food, the food passes through your stomach and is broken down so that your
body can use it.
Don't give the baby meat to eat, because he cannot digest it.
b. If you digest information, you think about it, understand it, and remember it.
The report contains too much to digest at one reading.
He reads rapidly but does not digest very much.
c. A digest is a collection of things that have been written, which are put together and published
again in a more concise form.
The leading magazines in the U.S. include Golf Digest, Reader's Digest, and Soap Opera Digest.
19. adopt: to take and use as one's own
The US government decided to adopt a hard line towards terrorists.
Congress has adopted the new measures.
I adopted their method of making the machine.
adopt a name, a custom, an idea, a style of dress
Having no children of their own they decided to adopt an orphan / dog.
Paul's mother had him adopted because she couldn't look after him herself.
her adopted country, ie not her native country but the one in which she has chosen to live
adept: ~ (in sth); ~ (at/in doing sth)
She's adept at growing roses.
He's an adept in carpentry.
adapt ~ sth (for sth) make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc; modify sth
This machine has been specially adapted for use underwater. This novel has been adapted for TV
from the Russian original. Our eyes slowly adapted to the dark.
20. navigable: deep and wide enough to allow ships to travel.
21. popularity: the quality of being well liked, favoured, or admired
22. attest: to show to be true, to give proof of, to declare solemnly
Historic documents and ancient tombstones all attest to this.
23. main artery of transportation in the young nation's heart
artery and heart: metaphors
artery: blood vessel (a tube in your body) that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
vein: 静脉 any of the tubes carrying blood from all parts of the body to the heart
Royal blood ran in his veins.
blood vessel
Geographically, the great valley of the Mississippi River was the centre of the country which had a
very short history. And most of the transportation was conducted on the river.
24. keel: a long bar along the bottom of a boat or ship from which the whole frame of the boat or
ship is built up.
25. raft: floating platform made from large pieces of wood, oil-drums, etc, that are tied together.
Also rubber raft.
26. commerce: the buying and selling of goods, trade. Here commodities. This is a synecdoche
since it involves the
substitution of the genus for kind or whole for part.
Keelboat, flatboats and large rafts conducted the transportation of commodities in the early years
of the country.
27. lumber: tree trunks, logs or planks (a long, usu. heavy piece of board, esp. one that is 2 to 6
inches thick and at least 8 inches wide) of wood that have been cut for use, but only roughly, AmE.
In BrE, it is the same as timber.
28. delta country: Delta is the 4th letter of the Greek alphabet, (with 1st: alpha, 2nd: beta, 3rd:
gamma, 16th: pi , last or 24th: omega ) which is shaped like a triangle. Therefore anything in the
shape of a delta, esp. a deposit of sand and soil formed at the mouth of some rivers is called a
29. molasses (uncount) a thick dark to light brown syrup that is separated from raw sugar in sugar
cf: syrup: a thick sticky solution of sugar and water, often flavoured
30. westward expansion:
The massacre of the native Indians: The 1803 Louisiana Purchase (which extended from the
Mississippi R. to the Rocky Mts. and from the Gulf of Mexico to British North America, doubled
the area of the US) from Napoleon's France.
The 1845 Texas Annexation (which provoked the Mexican War and resulted in the acquiring of
California and most of the present Southwest).
The push into Oregon in 1846 after a peaceful settlement with Britain.
Also the California Gold Rush in 1848. The discovery of gold brought more than 40,000
prospectors and adventurers there within two years. (Other gold rushes took place in Australia,
1851-53; South Africa, 1884; and the Klondike Canada 1897-98).
31. basin: A basin of a large river is the area of land around it. From the basin water and streams
run down into the river. the Yellow River Basin.
The basin made up 3/4 of the populated area of the US of that time.
32. drain: to flow off gradually or completely, to cause to become gradually dry or empty. Here,
metaphor, to concentrate.
33. cub: the young of various types of meat-eating wild animals, such as lion, bear
34. cast of characters: the cast of a play or a film consists of all the people who act in it
35. cosmos: the whole universe considered as an ordered system.
36. feud: long-lasting and bitter quarrel or dispute between two people or groups
the feud between Romeo's family and Juliet's
37. piracy: robbery of ships on the high seas, robbery carried out by pirates, persons who sail the
seas stopping and robbing ships.
copy right piracy
pirate: a robber on the high seas
To pirate video compact disk, video tapes, cassettes or books is to copy, publish and sell them
without the right to do so.
38. lynch: (esp. of a crowd of people) to attack and put to death, esp. by hanging, (a person
thought to be guilty of a crime), without a lawful trial.
39. slum: an area of a city where living conditions are very bad and where all the houses are
overcrowded and need to be repaired.
40. ...with the language that he soaked up with ...
soak up: to draw in by or as if by suction or absorption. If sth soaks up a liquid, it absorbs it.
The soil soaked up a huge volume of water very rapidly.
He absorbed and digested the colourful language with an astonishing good memory which seemed
to be able to record things like a phonographic (gramophone).
41. Steamboat decks teemed with the main current of ...
(teem with...the main current, not very suitable)
teem with: If a place is teeming with animals or people, it is very crowded and the animals or
people are moving around a lot.
The water teems with fish / thousands of organisms.
His mind teems with plans.
main current of pioneering humanity: metaphor, people with pioneering spirit who forms the
majority, the main part of them were people with devotion/ dedication to open up new areas and
prepare ways for others.
42. humanity: human beings in general
43. flotsam: metaphor. rubbish, wreckage such as bits of wood, plastic, and other waste materials
that is floating on the sea, parts of a wrecked ship or its cargo found floating in the sea
44. hustler: a person who tries to earn money or gain an advantage from any situation they are in,
often by using dishonest or illegal method. infml AmE. (US sl) prostitute
hustle: push (sb) roughly and hurriedly; jostle; shove
The police hustled the thief out of the house and into their van.
I was hustled into (making) a hasty decision.
(US sl) work as a prostitute
45. thug: a person who is very violent and rough, esp. a criminal violent criminal or hooligan,
46. keen:
a. sharp
He handed me a spear with a keen point.
b. (with the 5 senses, the mind, the feelings) good, strong, quick at understanding
My hearing is not as keen as it used to be.
He has a keen brain.
He is a keen observer.
c. (AmE) wanting to do sth. very much or wanting sth. to happen very much; having a great deal
of enthusiasm for sth.
He takes a keen interest in his work.
They are keen on art.
I am not very much keen on detective stories.
47. perception: natural understanding
extra sensory perception
perceive: realize, notice, see or hear sth. esp. when it is not obvious to other people
He now perceived his error.
Only an artist can perceive the fine shades of colour in the painting.
Just as a good artist must have good perception of colour, a good musician must have good
perception of sound.
48. trade: job, esp. one needing special skill with the hands.
What is your trade?
Several different trades are taught in this school.
They work in the cotton / tourist / shoemaking / jewellery trade.
trade union
49. acknowledge: recognize the fact, agree to the truth. If you acknowledge a fact or situation, you
accept or admit that it is true or that it exists.
He acknowledge his fault.
This is a fact even our enemies abroad have to acknowledge.
Lu Xun is acknowledge as China's best writer.
He is an acknowledged expert on antique-examination.
The president stood up to acknowledge the cheers of the crowd.
Acknowledge implies making known sth. which has been concealed or kept back
acknowledge a secret marriage / one's complete ignorance of maths
Admit stresses reluctance in agreeing to the fact but not necessarily the view point
Confess implies that one feels sth. to be wrong
confess a crime / one's sin
50. acquaint: know, cause to know personally, make familiar with,
be acquainted with the mayor
You must acquainted yourself with your new duties.
I have heard about your friend but I am not acquainted with him.
I have few acquaintances there.
make acquaintance of sb. / make sb's acquaintance
Where did you make his acquaintance?
Very pleased to have made your acquaintance.
nodding acquaintance / bowing acquaintance
cf: to make friends with
51. motley: of many different types of people or things, having or composed of many different or
clashing elements, varied. suggesting odd and capricious arrangement
motley coat, eg one worn by a joker
wearing a motley collection of old clothes
a motley crowd / crew, ie a group of many different types of people
a motley coat, eg one worn by a jester (formerly man whose job was to make jokes to amuse a
court or noble household, the court/king's/queen's jester in former times)
52. band: a group of people joined together for a common purpose (derog.)
52. succumb: (fml) stop resisting (temptation, illness, attack, etc); yield
a. yield. If you succumb to sth. such as persuasion or desire, you are unable to stop yourself being
influenced by it.
He finally succumbed to the temptation to have another drink.
The city succumbed after only a short offense.
Several children have measles(麻疹), and the others are bound to succumb to it.
b. to die (because of)
He succumbed to the disease / illness.
53. epidemic: the occurrence of a disease which affects a very large number of people living in an
area and which spreads quickly to other people.
an influenza epidemic
Football hooliganism is now reaching epidemic proportions.
54. flirt: make love without serious intention.
a. If you flirt with someone, you behave as if you are sexually attracted to them, in a not very
serious way.
Don't take her seriously, she is only flirting with you.
She flirts with every man in the office.
b. If you flirt with the idea of doing or having sth. , you consider doing or having it, without
making any definite plans. We flirted with the idea of going abroad but decided against it.
55. rebuff: If you rebuff sb. or sb's suggestion, you refuse to listen to them or take any notice of
what they are trying to say to you, even though they are trying to be helpful.
cf: refuse
The friendly dog was rebuffed by a kick
He refused / rebuffed the suggestion.
He can't refuse (vi.) / *rebuff (vt.) if you ask politely.
56. broke: adj. sl. complete without money, penniless. bankrupt.
57. to literature's enduring gratitude: If you say that sth. happens to one's surprise, relief,. horror,
etc. you mean that feelings of surprise, relief, horror, etc are caused by what happens.
endure: continue to exist without any loss in quality or importance.
Certain relationships endure longer than others.
His fame will endure for ever.
Mining Strike: sudden discovery of mine
Strike: sudden discovery
58. hone: n. a stone used to sharpen knives and tools.
v. to sharpen, to hone one's wit
59. scathing: (of speech or writing) bitterly cruel in judgement, harsh, sharp and hurtful; cutting,
She could be...scathing in her criticism.
His scathing rejection of violence.
60. column:
a. tall pillar, usu. round and made of stone, either supporting part of the roof of a building or
standing alone as a monument
b. one of two or more vertical sections of printed material on a page
Each page of this dictionary has two columns of text.
c. an article by a particular writer, that regularly appears in a newspaper or magazine
the fashion / motoring / financial, etc column
columnist: journalist who regularly writes an article commenting on politics, current events, etc
for a newspaper or magazine a political columnist
61. ring familiarly in modern world accustomed to trend setting on the West Coast: produced a
familiar impression on people in modern world. People in the modern world (people in the settled
United States, people on the East coast and along the Mississippi River) are now used to following
the ways of doing things of the West Coast.
be accustomed to: be in the habit of, be used to, be familiar with
He is accustomed to working hard.
You will soon get accustomed to that kind of thing.
He was not accustomed to LEAVE home during the winter.
be (get, become, grow) accustomed to = be used to + n., pron.,
a. be accustomed to + v:
He was not accustomed to leave home during the winter.
He is not accustomed to work under such noisy condition.
b. accustomed can be used as an attribute:
He sat in his accustomed chair.
her accustomed smile, his accustomed attitude of optimism
c. accustom oneself
He has to accustom himself to the cold weather.
62. trend: a general direction or course of development movement attitudes fashion etc. tendency.
Today's trend is toward less formal clothing.
Young women are always interested in the trends of fashion.
If someone sets a trend, they do something that becomes accepted or fashionable, and that is
copied by a lot of other people.
trendy: very fashionable and modern
He was into jazz long before it became trendy.
63. It was that population that gave to California a name for getting up...
get up: arrange, or perform. If you get something up, you organize something such as a public
event, esp. with very little preparation. a rather old-fashioned expression.
Who is going to get up the concert?
The students got up a countrywide campaign in support of the nuclear disarmament.
64. astound: to shock with surprise
65. enterprise: a plan, business, task, something daring and difficult, undertaking
66. rush through: to complete (a job) hastily.
We will try to rush the contract / your order through before Saturday.
67. dash: a combination of bravery and style, a mixture of stylishness, enthusiasm and courage,
vigorous and spirited She conducted the orchestra with a great deal of fire and dash.
Other meanings:
100-meter dash
The dash is longer than the hyphen.
68. recklessness
reck: (negative or interrogative only) care or mind
They recked little of the danger.
reckless: Someone who is reckless shows a complete lack of care about danger or about the results
of their actions. A reckless person is one who does things without thinking about what the results
might be.
Some of the young motorcyclists are very reckless.
69. consequence: result, outcome
CONSEQUENCE suggests a direct but looser or more remote connection with a cause than
RESULT, sometimes implying an adverse or calamitous effect and often suggesting a chain of
intermediate causes or a complexity of effect.
The consequence was that he caught a bad cold.
The rise in lung cancers is a consequence of cigarette smoking.
CONSEQUENCE may mean 后果:
The consequence of the flood is still under estimation. Some films may have / produce bad
Do you know what consequence of your decision will be?
Someone or sth. that is of consequence is important or valuable.
RESULT implies a direct relationship with an antecedent action or condition, usu. suggests an
effect that terminates the operation of a cause, and applies to concrete objects.
His limp was the result of an automobile accident.
The results of the research are to be published soon.
The fire was the result of carelessness.
The result of the match was 1 - 0.
OUTCOME, though often interchangeable with result, may put less stress on the notion of finality
than result.
These were a direct outcome of the strike.
The outcome of the war was doubtful.
This book was the outcome of a tremendous amount of scientific work.
What was the outcome of your interview?
Five minutes from the end, the outcome of the match was still in doubt.
When meaning something that happens or exists because of sth. else that has happened, result is
equal to consequence.
The result / consequence was …
Twice he followed his own advice, with disastrous results / consequences.
When meaning the final situation that exists after a public event, result is equal to outcome.
The consequence of the war is doubtful.(后果)
The outcome of the war is doubtful. (结局)
Consequence: (fml) importance
He may be a man of consequence in his own country, but he‟s nobody here.
70. all over: in every respect, thoroughly, what one would expect of the person specified
She is her mother all over.
That sounds like my sister all over.
It was these pioneers that brought California a reputation. California was made famous for
organizing / starting / establishing surprising businesses / undertakings and developing /
completing them with magnificent / great bravery and courage, without caring cost or outcome /
effect / result. And California keeps this fame until now. When she makes plans for a new surprise,
the dull, solemn, dignified people in other parts of the States smile as usual and say: "Well, That's
typical of California, That's just like California."
71. notations: a brief note jotted down, as to remind one of something
The Duchess found the notation left by the Duke.
In this text notation and entry, are used synonymously.
72. genius: (pl. geniuses) exceptionally great mental or creative ability
a man of genius
Einstein was a mathematical genius.
He is hard-working and able, but no genius.
73. celebrated: well-known, famous, stresses reception of public notice or attention and frequent
a celebrated actress, writer, pianist, etc
Burgundy is celebrated for its fine wines.
a. mark (a happy or important day, event, etc) with festivities and rejoicing
celebrate Christmas, sb's birthday, a wedding anniversary, a victory, success, etc
b. enjoy oneself in some way on such an occasion
It's my birthday, let's celebrate! eg with alcoholic drink.
c. (fml) to praise (sb/sth); honour
Odysseus's heroic exploits are celebrated in `The Odyssey'.
celebrity: famous person
celebrities of stage and screen
74. slope: surface that is at an angle of less than 90 to the earth's surface or a flat surface, an area
of rising or falling ground
mountain slopes
the slope of a roof
a slight / steep slope
ski slopes
The field slopes (away) to the east.
Does your handwriting slope forwards or backwards?
75. distinct: easily heard, seen, felt or understood; definite
The footprints are quite distinct; they must be fresh.
~ (from sth) different in kind; separate
Although they look similar, these plants are actually quite distinct.
Mozart's style is quite distinct from Haydn's.
76. sort: group or class of people or things (which are alike in some way); type
He's the sort of person I really dislike.
What sort of paint are you using?
We can't approve of this sort of thing / these sorts of things/things of this sort.
of a sort / of sorts: (infml. derog.) of a poor or inferior type
They served coffee of a sort.
It was a meal of sorts, but nobody enjoyed it.
a sort of sth: (infml) vague, unexplained or unusual type of sth
I had a sort of feeling he wouldn't come.
sort of (infml) to some extent; in some way or other
I sort of thought this might happen.
You sort of twist the ends together.
77. -logue: (also) -log.
a. Forming nouns with the senses “talk, kind of discourse” as dialogue, monologue, etc., and
(occas.) compilation? as catalogue etc.
b. = -LOGIST, as ideologue (ideologist) 思想家, Sinologue Sinologist,汉学家 etc.
78. sore: (of a part of the body) hurting when touched or used; tender and painful; aching, hurting,
irritated, serious, severe
a sore knee, throat, etc
My leg is still very sore.
She feels sore about not being invited to the party.
Your financial help is sorely needed.
She was sorely missed at the reunion.
79. unimpressed: If you are unimpressed by sb. or sth, you do not think they are very good, or
worth your attention.
impress: ~ sb (with sth) have a favourable effect on sb; make sb feel admiration and respect
The sights of the city never fail to impress foreign tourists. The girl impressed her fiancé‟s family
with her liveliness and sense of humour.
We were most impressed with / by your efficiency.
80. debunk: (infml) to point out the truth about (over-praised people, things, ideas, etc). You
debunk an idea or belief, you show that it is false or not important.
debunk fashionable opinions
bunk: sl. nonsense
Don't talk bunk!
de: to remove from
debunk: to remove the nonsense
bunk: narrow bed built into a wall like a shelf, eg on a ship; also bunk bed, one of a pair of single
beds, fixed one above the other, esp for children
81. revered: (fml) to give great respect and admiration to
He was a revered figure with a great national reputation.
They revered him.
reverend: (only used before the noun it modifies)
His Venerable Reverend Chairman Mao
the Very / Right / Most Reverend John Morris (respectful address to a catholic father, bishop or
reverie: jolting me out of my sad reverie (dreamy thinking)
82. version: a form of sth in which certain details are different of have been changed from the
previous forms.
Did you read the short or full version of the book?
There have been several translations of the Bible, including the Authorized Version and the
Revised Version.
83. innocent: simple, not able to recognize evil. An innocent is a person who is inexperienced and
ignorant about the more complex, evil or unpleasant aspects of life.
He was a financial genius but a political innocent.
One is innocent before found guilty.
a trusting innocent child
84. earnest: determined and serious, perhaps too serious. Someone who is earnest is very sincere
and serious in what they say or do, believing that their actions are important and often unable to
see when something is funny or ridiculous.
She was an earnest but clumsy nurse.
Are you joking or in earnest?
It soon began to snow in real earnest. (very hard)
85. classic: n / adj. having the highest quality; of the first or highest class or rank; serving as a
standard, model, or guide, well know, esp as the best example
classical: being in accordance with ancient Greek or Roman models in literature or art, simple but
good. classical music as opposed to popular, jazz, or folk music.
四书(大学,中庸,论语,孟子): The Four Books (The Great Learning, The Doctrine of Mean,
The Analects of Confucius and Mencius)
五经(诗经,书经,易经,礼记,春秋): The Five Classics (The Book of Songs, The Book of
History, The Book of Changes, The Book of Rites, and The Spring and Autumn Annals)
86. shape: outer form or appearance; outline of an area, a figure, etc.
a dress that hasn't got much shape
He's a devil in human shape.
She's in good shape after months of training.
What shape is the team in after its defeat?
I've been jogging a lot to get myself into shape.
You'll never be in shape until you eat less and take more exercise.
87. mischievous: irresponsibly playful, eager to have fun, esp. by embarrassing people or by
playing harmless tricks (sometimes appreciative)
naughty: behaving badly and disobediently
cheeky: (infml) rude and disrespectful
cunning: showing or having cleverness in deceiving
A mischievous child is often naughty but does not do any real harm.
He was continually being called in before the principal for his mischievous deeds.
88. ingenuity: skill and cleverness in making or arranging things
The boy showed ingenuity when solving the difficult maths problem.
in‟genious: clever at finding new or simple solutions for complex problems
So you fitted that wire through that little hole there: that's very ingenious!
ingenious at solving difficult crossword puzzles
an ingenious device, gadget, etc. such as a pencil sharpener, a can opener, a water melon seeds
cracker, etc.
89. puritan: (ad. / n. usu. derog) a person who has rather hard fixed standards of behaviour and
self-control and thinks any kind of pleasure is unnecessary or wrong.
member of the party of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who wanted simpler
forms of church ceremony
(usu derog.) person who is extremely strict in morals and who tends to regard pleasure as sinful
90. flight: action or process of flying through the air; ability to fly
the age of supersonic flight
movement or path of a thing through the air
the flight of an arrow, a dart, a missile, etc
~ (of sth) number of birds, insects, etc flying together or of arrows released together
a flight of geese / a flight of arrows
series of stairs between two floors or landings
There was no lift and we had to climb six flights of stairs.
91. panorama:
a. a complete view of a wide stretch of land
b. continuously changing view or scene
c. a thorough representation in words or picture
This book gives a panorama of life in Shenzhen.
92. pace: speed, esp. of walking or running
at a good, fast, slow, walking, etc pace
     She slowed down her pace so I could keep up with her.
He gave up his job in advertising because he couldn't stand the pace, ie found the pressure of work
too great.
rate of progress or development, esp of an activity, rhythm
the pace of change in the electronics industry.
This novel lacks pace, ie Its plot develops too slowly.
Are wages keeping pace with inflation?
93. energy-sapping
sap: gradually weaken sb/sth by taking away (strength, vitality, etc)
I was sapped by months of hospital treatment.
She's been sapped of her optimism.
Stop sapping her confidence!
Lack of planning is sapping the company‟s efficiency.
94. clamour: a continuous loud strong demand or complaint, din. It stresses the psychological
effect of noises. It usu.
implies disturbance and is applicable to a combination of sounds or a scene that is excessively
The government made that decision in defiance of the public clamour.
a clamour for revenge
The public are clamouring for a change of government.
The baby clamoured to be fed.
95. edge: sharp cutting part of a blade, knife, sword, or some other tool or weapon
a knife with a sharp edge
(line marking the) outside limit or boundary of a solid (flat) object, surface or area
the edge of a coin, plate, record
He fell off the edge of the cliff.
Don't put that glass on the edge of the table.
give sb / get the (rough) edge of one's / sb's tongue: (infml) speak to sb / be spoken to by sb
angrily, rudely, critically, etc
Her pupils often got the rough edge of her tongue when they disobeyed her.
renew our edges: to remodeling, resharpening our edges, or to recharge the battery
96. haunt: to visit, appearing in a strange form, be always in the thought of. A ghost or spirit
haunts a place or a people. it appears in the place or is seen by the person and frightens them.
The old house is said to be haunted by a headless ghost.
A spirit haunts the castle.
This is one of the cafes I used to haunt.
The memory still haunts me.
This pub is a favourite haunt of artists.
97. -itis: disease or inflammation
bronchitis, appendicitis, hepatitis (of liver), gastritis (of stomach), nephritis (of kidney)
98. 'epilepsy: a disease of the brain which causes sudden attacks of uncontrolled violent movement
and loss of consciousness
99. Bitterness fed on the man who…
Bitterness consumed the man, exhausted, used up all the energy of the man…
Here a personification or metaphor is involved.
feed on sth: be nourished or strengthened by sth
Hatred feeds on envy. 因妒生恨
100. pad: to protect or make sth more comfortable by covering or filling with soft material
a jacket with padded shoulders
He padded the seat of the chair with some foamed plastics.
n. anything made or filled with a soft material used to protect sth. or make it more comfortable, or
to fill out a shape Get a pad to sit / lie on.
The football player wore a pad on his knee.
a shoulder pad
a writing pad
101. Now the gloves came off with biting satire.
glove / mitten
the gloves are off: sb is ready for a fight
(be) hand in glove: working in close association
He was found to be hand in glove with the enemy.
an iron fist/hand in a velvet glove: an appearance of gentleness concealing severity, determination,
If you describe sb. as having an iron fist in a velvet glove, you mean that they hide a firm and
determined personality behind a gentle and quiet manner.
glove puppet: kind of puppet worn on the hand and worked by the fingers
a. cut into with the teeth
That dog just bit me in the leg.
Stop biting your nails!
badly bitten by mosquitoes / a snake
Once bitten, twice shy.
I tried to sell him my old car, but he wouldn't bite, ie he
b. criticize sb angrily (and often unfairly)
I was only five minutes late but she really bit my head off.
biting: causing a smarting pain
a biting wind
(of remarks) sharply critical; cutting
biting sarcasm
satire: Satire is ridicule or irony or sarcasm that is used, esp. in plays and novels, to show how
foolish or wicked some people's behaviour or ideas are.
Now Mark Twain threw away the pretended softness and gentleness he used to adopt and became
very candid, frank, outspoken, ruthless, merciless, bitter and sarcastic.
102. illusion: the condition of seeing things wrongly
An illusion is an idea or belief which you think is true but is in fact false.
The magician made us think he cut a woman in half, but it was an illusion.
Perfect happiness is an illusion.
Love is a big illusion.
103. vanish: to disappear, go out of sight, cease to exist
Vanish implies a complete, often mysterious, and usually sudden passing. It commonly suggests
absence of all trace or of any clue
The thin mysterious woman passenger vanished.
The ship vanished over the horizon.
As soon as you put the dog-skin plaster on, your pain will vanish.
Our hope vanished suddenly.
Disappear stresses only the passing from sight or thought.
I watched him until he disappeared from sight.
Fade, often with out or away, implies a gradual diminution in clearness and distinctness until the
thing becomes invisible. The blue rug has faded over the years.
As evening came the coastline faded into darkness.
His hopes faded.
104. crumble: be broken or rubbed into very small pieces
    crumble one's bread,
The bricks slowly crumbled in the long frost.
The great empire began to crumble.
Their marriage is crumbling.
105. lament: If you lament sth., you express your sadness, regret or disappointment about it.
They lamented the death of their mother.
We could hear her laments through the closed door.
His examination results were lamentable.
a lamentable performance
106. vary: differ
People vary very much in their ideas.
Opinions vary on this point.
These apples vary in size from small to medium
Vary and differ
People vary / differ very much in their ideas.
Differ stresses the fact of unlikeness in kind or nature or in opinion, but does not indicate (except
through the context) the extent or degree of divergence.
Vary, though often interchangeable with differ, may call attention to readily apparent differences
and sometimes suggests a range of differences.
Wisdom differs from cunning.
They differ from us, they stand for capitalism.
It varies from the original.
This marigold(金盏花)varies from the norm in being giant-sized.
(Vary is not often found to be followed by from except in the above cases.)
A varies with B: A changes when B changes.
Our style will vary with our changes in mood.
The colour of the fruit varies with age.
I differ with you in this matter.
He differs with the other members of his party on this issue.
The two parties differ very sharply from each other over the correct remedies to apply.
If one varies sth., he deliberately makes changes in them.
You can vary the pressure at will.
You should vary your diet.
vary between …and / vary from …to
Consumption of domestic fuel oil varies between / from 150 gallons a month at the height of
winter and / to practically nothing in July-August.
Differ: If people differ about sth., they don‟t agree with each other about it.
We differ about moral standards.
This is basically where we differ.
If people agree to differ, they agree to accept the fact that they will never have the same opinion
about it.
You say “I beg to differ” when you want to say politely that you disagree with someone.
variant: different form, as of a word, phrase, or part of a story or piece of writing
The plant is a variant of the common type.
The song is just a variant of an old folk tune.
"Favor" is the American variant of the British "favour".
a. changeable, not steady, not staying the same (connotation: uncertainty, unpredictability)
His mood / temper is variable.
The winds today will be light and variable.
b. able to be changed deliberately, that can be intentionally varied
The amount of heat produced by this electrical apparatus is variable at will by turning a small
a variable standard
variation: an example of change
There are many variations of this story.
It was a variation from my usual work.
a. difference of condition or quality
We demand more variety for our food.
b. type
There are several varieties of red roses.
varied: when meaning different, the stress is on laid on "full of change"
He had had a varied training, had held many offices.
There is a dining-room that will seat 200 persons, and the menu is varied and cheap.
various: when meaning different, the stress is on "difference"
His reasons for leaving were many and various.
We have various types of radios.
IV.Structural and stylistic analysis
Part 1: (the first para.)
The first paragraph serves as an introduction of the whole text. It provides an general appraisal of
Mark Twain, the father of Hack and Tom, the nation's best-loved author, and the good news and
bad news.
The author adopted some rhetorical devices to illustrate
the picture, and also some very emphatic adjectives, adverbs, such as eternal, endless, every bit,
profound, etc.
The first paragraph is highly conclusive.
Part 2: (Tramp printer...renew our edges)
Section 1. (Tramp printer... the settled United States)
the setting, background knowledge
Section 2. (Young Mark...that invented retreating)
early years of life on the Mississippi and as a Confederate guerrilla
Section 3. (He went
On his way to success.
Section 4. (At the age...renew our edges.)
Comment on his best works.
Part 3: (Personal tragedy...forget them forever.)
Personal tragedy and conclusion.
V.Devices of figuration
Mark Twain --- Mirror of America
saw clearly ahead a black wall of night...
main artery of transportation in the young nation's heart
the vast basin drained three-quarters of the settled United States
All would resurface in his books...that he soaked up...
Steamboat decks teemed...main current of...but its flotsam
When railroads began drying up the demand...
...the epidemic of gold and silver fever...
Twain began digging his way to regional fame...
Mark Twain honed and experimented with his new writing muscles...
...took unholy verbal shots...
Most American remember M. T. as the father of...
...a memory that seemed phonographic
Hyperbole: through eternal boyhood and ...endless summer of freedom...
The cast of characters... - a cosmos.
Most Americans remember ... the father of Huck Finn's idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood and
Tom Sawyer's endless summer of freedom and adventure.
life dealt him profound personal tragedies...
the river had acquainted him with ... literature's enduring gratitude... entry that will determine his course forever...
the grave world smiles as usual...
Bitterness fed on the man...
America laughed with him.
Personal tragedy haunted his entire life.
...between what people claim to be and what they really are...
...took unholy verbal shots at the Holy Land...
...a world which will lament them a day and forget them forever
Euphemism:'s final release from earthly struggle
...the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths stayed at home
...with a dash and daring...
...a recklessness of cost or consequences...
...his pen would prove mightier than his pickaxe
Keelboats,...carried the first major commerce
VI.Written Homework:
Why does the writer consider Mark Twain a mirror of America?

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