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					Ch. 25, History Life on Earth, Quiz (rev. 1/31/09)                Name__________________________

      1) Which gas was least abundant in Earth's early atmosphere, prior     1) ______
         to 2 billion years ago?                                                _
           A) O2           B) CO2   C) NH3         D) CH4       E) H2O

      2) Which of the following is the correct sequence of these events in   2) ______
         the origin of life?                                                    _
             I. formation of protobionts
             II. synthesis of organic monomers
             III. synthesis of organic polymers
             IV. formation of DNA-based genetic systems
           A) II, III, I, IV
           B) I, II, III, IV
           C) III, II, I, IV
           D) IV, III, I, II
           E) I, III, II, IV

      3) The first genes on Earth were probably                              3) ______
           A) DNA produced by reverse transcriptase from abiotically
              produced RNA.
           B) oligopeptides located within protobionts.
           C) auto-catalytic RNA molecules.
           D) RNA produced by autocatalytic, proteinaceous enzymes.
           E) DNA molecules whose information was transcribed to RNA
              and later translated in polypeptides.

      4) RNA molecules can both carry genetic information and be             4) ______
         catalytic. This supports the proposal that                             _
           A) RNA was the first hereditary information.
           B) RNA is a polymer of amino acids.
           C) protobionts had an RNA membrane.
           D) RNA could make energy.
           E) free nucleotides would not have been necessary ingredients
              in the synthesis of new RNA molecules.

      5) What probably accounts for the switch to DNA-based genetic          5) ______
         systems during the evolution of life on Earth?                         _
           A) RNA is too involved with translation of proteins and cannot
              provide multiple functions.
           B) Replication of RNA occurs too slowly.
           C) DNA forms the rod-shaped chromosomes necessary for cell
           D) Only DNA can replicate during cell division.
           E) DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer
              errors (mutations) than RNA.

      6) The synthesis of new DNA requires the prior existence of            6) ______
         oligonucleotides to serve as primers. On Earth, these primers are      _
         small RNA molecules. This latter observation is evidence in
         support of the hypothesized existence of
            A) the delivery of organic matter to Earth by meteors and
            B) earlier genetic systems than those based on DNA.
           C) a snowball Earth.
    D) the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
    E) the abiotic synthesis of organic monomers.

7) Several scientific laboratories across the globe are involved in         7) ______
   research concerning the origin of life on Earth. Which graph                _
   below, if the results were produced abiotically, would have the
   greatest promise for revealing important information about the
   origin or Earth's first genetic system?




8) If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that   ha s one-
sixteent 8)                                                                       __
h the                                                                             __
normal                                                                            __
proporti                                                                          _
on of
14 to
           A) 11,200
           B) 16,800
           C) 2,800
           D) 22,400
           E) 1,400

      9) Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend?        9) ______
           A) 3,500,000,000 years
           B) 6,000 years
           C) 6,000,000 years
           D) 5,000,000,000,000 years
           E) 3,500,000 years

The following questions refer to the description and figure below.

The figure represents a cross section of the sea floor through a mid-ocean rift valley, with
alternating patches of black and white indicating sea floor with reversed magnetic polarities. At
the arrow labeled "I" (the rift valley), the igneous rock of the sea floor is so young that it can be
accurately dated using carbon-14 dating. At the arrow labeled "III," however, the igneous rock is
about 1 million years old, and potassium-40 dating is typically used to date such rocks. NOTE:
the dashed horizontal arrows indicate the direction of sea-floor spreading, away from the rift

                                            Figure 25.1

     10) Assuming that the rate of sea-floor spreading was constant during        10) _____
         the 1-million-year period depicted above, Earth's magnetic field             _
         has undergone reversal at an average rate of once every
           A) 250,000 years.
           B) 100,000 years.
           C) 25,000 years.
      D) 10,000 years.
      E) 1,000,000 years.

11) An early consequence of the release of oxygen gas by plant and      11) _____
    bacterial photosynthesis was to                                         _
      A) change the atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing.
      B) prevent the formation of an ozone layer.
      C) cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust
      D) make life on land difficult for aerobic organisms.
      E) make it easier to maintain reduced molecules.

12) Which free-living cells were the earliest contributors to the       12) _____
    formation of Earth's oxidizing atmosphere?                              _
      A) endosymbionts
      B) cyanobacteria
      C) chloroplasts
      D) seaweeds
      E) mitochondria

13) Which of the following statements provides the strongest            13) _____
    evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes?                    _
      A) Liposomes closely resemble prokaryotic cells.
      B) meteorites that have struck Earth
      C) The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.
      D) the primitive structure of plants
      E) abiotic laboratory experiments that produced liposomes

14) What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events, from    14) _____
    earliest to most recent, in the evolution of life on Earth?             _
    1. origin of mitochondria
    2. origin of multicellular eukaryotes
    3. origin of chloroplasts
    4. origin of cyanobacteria
    5. origin of fungal-plant symbioses
      A) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
      B) 3, 4, 1, 2, 5
      C) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5
      D) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
      E) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5

15) Recent evidence indicates that the first major diversification of   15) _____
    multicellular eukaryotes may have coincided in time with the            _
     A) switch to an oxidizing atmosphere.
     B) melting that ended the "snowball Earth" period.
     C) origin of prokaryotes.
     D) massive eruptions of deep-sea vents.
     E) origin of multicellular organisms.

16) Which event is nearest in time to the end of the period known as    16) _____
    snowball Earth?                                                         _
      A) evolution of mitochondria
      B) Permian extinction
      C) Cambrian explosion
      D) oxygenation of Earth's seas and atmosphere
      E) evolution of true multicellularity
17) Bagworm moth caterpillars feed on evergreens and carry a silken         17) _____
    case or bag around with them in which they eventually pupate.               _
    Adult female bagworm moths are larval in appearance; they lack
    the wings and other structures of the adult male and instead
    retain the appearance of a caterpillar even though they are
    sexually mature and can lay eggs within the bag. This is a good
    example of
      A) allometric growth.
      B) paedomorphosis.
      C) changes in homeotic genes.
      D) adaptive radiation.
      E) sympatric speciation.

18) As rat pups mature, the growth of their snouts and tails outpaces       18) _____
    growth of the rest of their bodies, producing the appearance of             _
    sexually mature males. It is found that sexually mature female
    rats prefer to mate with mutant, sexually mature males that
    possess snouts and tails with juvenile proportions. Which of the
    following terms is (are) appropriately applied to this situation?
      A) allometric growth
      B) paedomorphosis
      C) sexual selection
      D) B and C only
      E) A, B, and C

19) A hypothetical mutation in a squirrel population produces               19) _____
    organisms with eight legs rather than four. Further, these mutant           _
    squirrels survive, successfully invade new habitats, and
    eventually give rise to a new species. The initial event, giving rise
    to extra legs, would be a good example of
      A) allometry.
      B) species selection.
      C) punctuated equilibrium.
      D) habitat selection.
      E) changes in homeotic genes.

20) An explanation for the evolution of insect wings suggests that          20) _____
    wings began as lateral extensions of the body that were used as             _
    heat dissipaters for thermoregulation. When they had become
    sufficiently large, these extensions became useful for gliding
    through the air, and selection later refined them as flight-
    producing wings. If this hypothesis is correct, insect wings could
    best be described as
      A) mutations.
      B) adaptations.
      C) exaptations.
      D) examples of natural selection's predictive ability.
      E) isolating mechanisms.
     21) In the 5—7 million years that the hominid lineage has been        21) _____
         diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes, dozens        _
         of hominid species have arisen, often with several species
         coexisting in time and space. As recently as 30,000 years ago,
         Homo sapiens coexisted with Homo neanderthalensis. Both
         species had large brains and advanced intellects. The fact that
         these traits were common to both species is most easily
         explained by which of the following?
           A) uniformitarianism
           B) species selection
           C) sexual selection
           D) A and B only
           E) A, B, and C
  1) A
  2) A
  3) C
  4) A
  5) E
  6) B
  7) C
  8) D
  9) A
 10) A
 11) C
 12) B
 13) C
 14) C
 15) B
 16) C
 17) B
 18) E
 19) E
 20) C
 21) B

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