Ch. 25, History Life on Earth, Quiz (rev. 1/31/09) Name__________________________
1) Which gas was least abundant in Earth's early atmosphere, prior 1) ______
to 2 billion years ago? _
A) O2 B) CO2 C) NH3 D) CH4 E) H2O
2) Which of the following is the correct sequence of these events in 2) ______
the origin of life? _
I. formation of protobionts
II. synthesis of organic monomers
III. synthesis of organic polymers
IV. formation of DNA-based genetic systems
A) II, III, I, IV
B) I, II, III, IV
C) III, II, I, IV
D) IV, III, I, II
E) I, III, II, IV
3) The first genes on Earth were probably 3) ______
A) DNA produced by reverse transcriptase from abiotically
B) oligopeptides located within protobionts.
C) auto-catalytic RNA molecules.
D) RNA produced by autocatalytic, proteinaceous enzymes.
E) DNA molecules whose information was transcribed to RNA
and later translated in polypeptides.
4) RNA molecules can both carry genetic information and be 4) ______
catalytic. This supports the proposal that _
A) RNA was the first hereditary information.
B) RNA is a polymer of amino acids.
C) protobionts had an RNA membrane.
D) RNA could make energy.
E) free nucleotides would not have been necessary ingredients
in the synthesis of new RNA molecules.
5) What probably accounts for the switch to DNA-based genetic 5) ______
systems during the evolution of life on Earth? _
A) RNA is too involved with translation of proteins and cannot
provide multiple functions.
B) Replication of RNA occurs too slowly.
C) DNA forms the rod-shaped chromosomes necessary for cell
D) Only DNA can replicate during cell division.
E) DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer
errors (mutations) than RNA.
6) The synthesis of new DNA requires the prior existence of 6) ______
oligonucleotides to serve as primers. On Earth, these primers are _
small RNA molecules. This latter observation is evidence in
support of the hypothesized existence of
A) the delivery of organic matter to Earth by meteors and
B) earlier genetic systems than those based on DNA.
C) a snowball Earth.
D) the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
E) the abiotic synthesis of organic monomers.
7) Several scientific laboratories across the globe are involved in 7) ______
research concerning the origin of life on Earth. Which graph _
below, if the results were produced abiotically, would have the
greatest promise for revealing important information about the
origin or Earth's first genetic system?
8) If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that ha s one-
sixteent 8) __
h the __
9) Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend? 9) ______
A) 3,500,000,000 years
B) 6,000 years
C) 6,000,000 years
D) 5,000,000,000,000 years
E) 3,500,000 years
The following questions refer to the description and figure below.
The figure represents a cross section of the sea floor through a mid-ocean rift valley, with
alternating patches of black and white indicating sea floor with reversed magnetic polarities. At
the arrow labeled "I" (the rift valley), the igneous rock of the sea floor is so young that it can be
accurately dated using carbon-14 dating. At the arrow labeled "III," however, the igneous rock is
about 1 million years old, and potassium-40 dating is typically used to date such rocks. NOTE:
the dashed horizontal arrows indicate the direction of sea-floor spreading, away from the rift
10) Assuming that the rate of sea-floor spreading was constant during 10) _____
the 1-million-year period depicted above, Earth's magnetic field _
has undergone reversal at an average rate of once every
A) 250,000 years.
B) 100,000 years.
C) 25,000 years.
D) 10,000 years.
E) 1,000,000 years.
11) An early consequence of the release of oxygen gas by plant and 11) _____
bacterial photosynthesis was to _
A) change the atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing.
B) prevent the formation of an ozone layer.
C) cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust
D) make life on land difficult for aerobic organisms.
E) make it easier to maintain reduced molecules.
12) Which free-living cells were the earliest contributors to the 12) _____
formation of Earth's oxidizing atmosphere? _
13) Which of the following statements provides the strongest 13) _____
evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes? _
A) Liposomes closely resemble prokaryotic cells.
B) meteorites that have struck Earth
C) The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.
D) the primitive structure of plants
E) abiotic laboratory experiments that produced liposomes
14) What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events, from 14) _____
earliest to most recent, in the evolution of life on Earth? _
1. origin of mitochondria
2. origin of multicellular eukaryotes
3. origin of chloroplasts
4. origin of cyanobacteria
5. origin of fungal-plant symbioses
A) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
B) 3, 4, 1, 2, 5
C) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5
D) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
E) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5
15) Recent evidence indicates that the first major diversification of 15) _____
multicellular eukaryotes may have coincided in time with the _
A) switch to an oxidizing atmosphere.
B) melting that ended the "snowball Earth" period.
C) origin of prokaryotes.
D) massive eruptions of deep-sea vents.
E) origin of multicellular organisms.
16) Which event is nearest in time to the end of the period known as 16) _____
snowball Earth? _
A) evolution of mitochondria
B) Permian extinction
C) Cambrian explosion
D) oxygenation of Earth's seas and atmosphere
E) evolution of true multicellularity
17) Bagworm moth caterpillars feed on evergreens and carry a silken 17) _____
case or bag around with them in which they eventually pupate. _
Adult female bagworm moths are larval in appearance; they lack
the wings and other structures of the adult male and instead
retain the appearance of a caterpillar even though they are
sexually mature and can lay eggs within the bag. This is a good
A) allometric growth.
C) changes in homeotic genes.
D) adaptive radiation.
E) sympatric speciation.
18) As rat pups mature, the growth of their snouts and tails outpaces 18) _____
growth of the rest of their bodies, producing the appearance of _
sexually mature males. It is found that sexually mature female
rats prefer to mate with mutant, sexually mature males that
possess snouts and tails with juvenile proportions. Which of the
following terms is (are) appropriately applied to this situation?
A) allometric growth
C) sexual selection
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C
19) A hypothetical mutation in a squirrel population produces 19) _____
organisms with eight legs rather than four. Further, these mutant _
squirrels survive, successfully invade new habitats, and
eventually give rise to a new species. The initial event, giving rise
to extra legs, would be a good example of
B) species selection.
C) punctuated equilibrium.
D) habitat selection.
E) changes in homeotic genes.
20) An explanation for the evolution of insect wings suggests that 20) _____
wings began as lateral extensions of the body that were used as _
heat dissipaters for thermoregulation. When they had become
sufficiently large, these extensions became useful for gliding
through the air, and selection later refined them as flight-
producing wings. If this hypothesis is correct, insect wings could
best be described as
D) examples of natural selection's predictive ability.
E) isolating mechanisms.
21) In the 5—7 million years that the hominid lineage has been 21) _____
diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes, dozens _
of hominid species have arisen, often with several species
coexisting in time and space. As recently as 30,000 years ago,
Homo sapiens coexisted with Homo neanderthalensis. Both
species had large brains and advanced intellects. The fact that
these traits were common to both species is most easily
explained by which of the following?
B) species selection
C) sexual selection
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C