Chapter 10

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					Discovering Computers
    Fundamentals,
     2011 Edition
  Living in a Digital World
Objectives Overview

             Describe various types of
               network attacks, and
                                                             Discuss techniques to
            identify ways to safeguard
                                                             prevent unauthorized
               against these attacks,
                                                           computer access and use
              including firewalls and
           intrusion detection software



            Identify safeguards against                  Explain the ways to protect
               hardware theft and                        against software theft and
                     vandalism                                information theft


See Page 381                 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition          2
for Detailed Objectives                        Chapter 10
Objectives Overview

              Discuss the types of                       Identify risks and
             devices available that                    safeguards associated
              protect computers                             with wireless
              from system failure                         communications


               Discuss ways to
                                                             Discuss issues
            prevent health-related
                                                              surrounding
            disorders and injuries
                                                          information privacy
             due to computer use

See Page 381               Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition     3
for Detailed Objectives                      Chapter 10
Computer Security Risks

• A computer security risk is any event or action that could
  cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware,
  software, data, information, or processing capability
• A cybercrime is an online or Internet-based illegal act

         Hackers                Crackers                     Script Kiddies            Corporate Spies




                    Unethical
                                         Cyberextortionists                  Cyberterrorists
                   Employees


Pages 382 - 383                 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition                         4
                                                  Chapter 10
Computer Security Risks




Pages 382 - 383   Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   5
Figure 10-1                         Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks

• Information transmitted over networks has a
  higher degree of security risk than information
  kept on an organization’s premises
 Computer Virus           Worm                         Trojan Horse              Rootkit

• Affects a          • Copies itself               • A malicious            • Program that
  computer             repeatedly,                   program that             hides in a
  negatively by        using up                      hides within or          computer and
  altering the way     resources and                 looks like a             allows someone
  the computer         possibly                      legitimate               from a remote
  works                shutting down                 program                  location to take
                       the computer                                           full control
                       or network

Page 384                 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition                    6
                                           Chapter 10
Video: Attack of the Mobile Viruses




                          CLICK TO START
             Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   7
                               Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks

• An infected computer has one or more of the
  following symptoms:
       Operating system    Available memory                                       Screen displays
                                                           Files become
       runs much slower       is less than                                       unusual message
                                                             corrupted
          than usual           expected                                              or image


                                                                                    Unknown
       Music or unusual                                 Programs or files
                           Existing programs                                     programs or files
        sound plays                                       do not work
                           and files disappear                                     mysteriously
         randomly                                           properly
                                                                                     appear


                                                                       Operating system
                 System properties       Operating system
                                                                         shuts down
                      change             does not start up
                                                                        unexpectedly

Page 384                      Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition                       8
                                                Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks




Page 385      Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   9
Figure 10-2                     Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks

• Users can take several precautions to protect their home
  and work computers and mobile devices from these
  malicious infections




Pages 385 – 387    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   10
Figure 10-4                          Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks




Page 386      Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   11
Figure 10-3                     Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks

• A botnet is a group of compromised computers connected to a
  network
       – A compromised computer is known as a zombie
• A denial of service attack (DoS attack) disrupts computer access to
  Internet services
• A back door is a program or set of instructions in a program that
  allow users to bypass security controls
• Spoofing is a technique intruders use to make their network or
  Internet transmission appear legitimate
           Click to view Web Link,
           click Chapter 10, Click Web
           Link from left navigation,
           then click DoS Attacks
           below Chapter 10

Pages 387 - 388                          Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   12
                                                           Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks

• A firewall is hardware and/or software that
  protects a network’s resources from intrusion




           Click to view Web Link,
           click Chapter 10, Click Web
           Link from left navigation,
           then click Firewalls
           below Chapter 10

Pages 388 - 389                          Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   13
Figure 10-5                                                Chapter 10
Internet and Network Attacks

 Intrusion detection software
  • Analyzes all network traffic
  • Assesses system vulnerabilities
  • Identifies any unauthorized intrusions
  • Notifies network administrators of
    suspicious behavior patterns or security
    breaches
Page 389        Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   14
                                  Chapter 10
Unauthorized Access and Use




  Unauthorized access is                                    Unauthorized use is the
 the use of a computer or                                   use of a computer or its
     network without                                        data for unapproved or
        permission                                          possibly illegal activities




Page 389             Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition                 15
                                       Chapter 10
Unauthorized Access and Use

• Access controls define who can access a
  computer, when they can access it, and what
  actions they can take
       – Two-phase processes called identification and
         authentication
       – User name
       – Password
       – CAPTCHA


Pages 389 - 390        Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   16
Figure 10-6                              Chapter 10
Unauthorized Access and Use

    • A possessed object is any                          • A biometric device
      item that you must carry to                          authenticates a person’s
      gain access to a computer                            identity by translating a
      or computer facility                                 personal characteristic into
              – Often are used in                          a digital code that is
                combination with a personal                compared with a digital
                identification number (PIN)                code in a computer




Page 391                        Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition          17
Figure 10-8                                       Chapter 10
Unauthorized Access and Use

• Digital forensics is the discovery, collection, and
  analysis of evidence found on computers and
  networks
• Many areas use digital forensics
               Law                      Criminal                          Military
           enforcement                prosecutors                       intelligence


                                                      Information
                     Insurance
                                                        security
                      agencies
                                                      departments
Page 392                 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition              18
                                           Chapter 10
Hardware Theft and Vandalism



                                          Hardware vandalism
Hardware theft is the
                                          is the act of defacing
   act of stealing
                                               or destroying
computer equipment
                                          computer equipment



Page 393      Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   19
                                Chapter 10
Hardware Theft and Vandalism

• To help the reduce of chances of theft, companies
  and schools use a variety of security measures
                                                                                Cables to lock
   Physical access controls                  Alarm systems
                                                                                 equipment




                             Real time location           Passwords, possessed
                                   system                objects, and biometrics


              Click to view Web Link,
              click Chapter 10, Click Web
              Link from left navigation,
              then click RTLS
              below Chapter 10

Page 393                                    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition     20
Figure 10-9                                                   Chapter 10
Software Theft

• Software theft occurs when someone:


           Steals software                                 Intentionally
               media                                     erases programs




                                                             Illegally
           Illegally copies a                            registers and/or
                program                                     activates a
                                                             program
Page 393             Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition       21
                                       Chapter 10
Software Theft

• A single-user license agreement typically contains the
  following conditions:
Permitted to
  • Install the software on one computer
  • Make one copy of the software
  • Remove the software from your computer before giving it away or selling it

Not permitted to
  •   Install the software on a network
  •   Give copies to friends or colleagues while continuing to use the software
  •   Export the software
  •   Rent or lease the software
Page 394                     Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition     22
                                               Chapter 10
Software Theft

    • Copying, loaning,
      borrowing, renting, or
      distributing software
      can be a violation of
      copyright law
    • Some software requires
      product activation to
      function fully



Page 394           Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   23
Figure 10-10                         Chapter 10
Information Theft

• Information theft occurs when someone steals
  personal or confidential information
• Encryption is a process of converting readable
  data into unreadable characters to prevent
  unauthorized access




Page 395        Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   24
Figure 10-11                      Chapter 10
Information Theft

• A digital signature is an encrypted code that a
  person, Web site, or organization attaches to an
  electronic message to verify the identity of the
  sender
• A digital certificate is a notice that guarantees a
  user or a Web site is legitimate
       – Issued by a certificate authority
           Click to view Web Link,
           click Chapter 10, Click Web
           Link from left navigation,
           then click Digital Certificates
           below Chapter 10

Pages 395 - 396                              Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   25
                                                               Chapter 10
Information Theft




Page 395       Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   26
Figure 10-12                     Chapter 10
System Failure

• A system failure is the prolonged malfunction of a
  computer
• A variety of factors can lead to system failure,
  including:
      – Aging hardware
      – Natural disasters
      – Electrical power problems
      – Errors in computer programs

Page 396             Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   27
                                       Chapter 10
System Failure

• Two ways to protect from system failures caused
  by electrical power variations include surge
  protectors and uninterruptable power supplies
  (UPS)




           Click to view Web Link,
           click Chapter 10, Click Web
           Link from left navigation,
           then click Surge Protectors
           below Chapter 10

Page 396                                 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   28
Figures 10-13 – 10-14                                      Chapter 10
Backing Up – The Ultimate Safeguard

• A backup is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk
  that can be used if the original is lost, damaged,
  or destroyed
      – To back up a file means to make a copy of it
• Offsite backups are stored in a location separate
  from the computer site
                                                             Cloud
                                                            Storage

Page 396              Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   29
                                        Chapter 10
Backing Up – The Ultimate Safeguard

    • Two categories of                            • Three-generation
      backups:                                       backup policy
           – Full backup
                                                                    Grandparent
           – Selective backup


                                                                         Parent




                                                                             Child


Page 397                  Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition           30
                                            Chapter 10
Wireless Security

• Wireless access poses additional security risks
      – About 80 percent of wireless networks have no security
        protection
• War driving allows individuals to detect wireless
  networks while driving a vehicle through the area

 A wireless access                                   Configure a WAP
 point should not    Change the default                 so that only         Use WPA or WPA2
   broadcast a         network name                   certain devices        security standards
  network name                                         can access it



Page 397                  Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition                    31
                                            Chapter 10
Health Concerns of Computer Use

    • The widespread use of
      computers has led to
      health concerns
           – Repetitive strain injury
             (RSI)
               • Tendonitis
               • Carpal tunnel syndrome
                 (CTS)
           – Computer vision
             syndrome (CVS)


Page 398                     Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   32
Figure 10-15                                   Chapter 10
Health Concerns of Computer Use




Page 398       Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   33
Figure 10-16                     Chapter 10
Health Concerns of Computer Use

    • Ergonomics is an
      applied science devoted
      to incorporating
      comfort, efficiency, and
      safety into the design of
      items in the workplace




Page 399             Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   34
Figure 10-17                           Chapter 10
Health Concerns of Computer Use

• Computer addiction occurs when the computer
  consumes someone’s entire social life
• Symptoms of users include:
              Craves               Overjoy when                          Unable to stop
             computer                 at the                               computer
               time                 computer                                activity

           Irritable when               Neglects                               Problems at
              not at the               family and                                work or
              computer                   friends                                  school
Page 399                    Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition                 35
                                              Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

    • Computer ethics are
      the moral guidelines
      that govern the use of
      computers and
      information systems
    • Information accuracy is
      a concern
           – Not all information on
             the Web is correct


Page 399 – 401             Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   36
Figure 10-19                                 Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

 Intellectual property rights are the rights to which
 creators are entitled for their work

  • A copyright protects any tangible form of expression

 Digital rights management is a strategy designed to
 prevent illegal distribution of movies, music, and other
 digital content
           Click to view Web Link,
           click Chapter 10, Click Web
           Link from left navigation,
           then click Digital Rights
           Management
           below Chapter 10
Page 401                                 Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   37
                                                           Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

    • Green computing
      involves reducing the
      electricity and
      environmental waste
      while using a computer
           – ENERGY STAR program




Pages 401 - 402         Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   38
Figure 10-20                              Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

• Information privacy refers to the right of
  individuals and companies to deny or restrict the
  collection and use of information about them
• Huge databases store data online
• It is important to safeguard your information




Page 402 - 403   Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   39
                                   Chapter 10
Ethics and Society




Page 403       Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   40
Figure 10-21                     Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

    • When you fill out a
      form, the merchant that
      receives the form
      usually enters it into a
      database
    • Many companies today
      allow people to specify
      whether they want
      their personal
      information distributed
Page 403            Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   41
                                      Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

• A cookie is a small text file that a Web server stores on
  your computer
• Web sites use cookies for a variety of reasons:

                                                                                            Assist with
                          Allow for                          Store users’
                                                                                              online
                       personalization                        passwords
                                                                                             shopping

                                           Track how
                                                                                 Target
           Click to view Web Link,         often users
           click Chapter 10, Click Web                                       advertisements
           Link from left navigation,
           then click Cookies
                                           visit a site
           below Chapter 10

Pages 403 - 404                          Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition                 42
                                                           Chapter 10
Ethics and Society




Page 404       Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   43
Figure 10-22                     Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

    • Spam is an unsolicited
      e-mail message or
      newsgroup posting
    • E-mail filtering blocks
      e-mail messages from
      designated sources
    • Anti-spam programs
      attempt to remove
      spam before it reaches
      your inbox

Pages 404 - 405      Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   44
Figure 10-23                           Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

                                        • Phishing is a scam in
                                          which a perpetrator sends
                                          an official looking e-mail
                                          message that attempts to
                                          obtain your personal and
                                          financial information
                                        • Pharming is a scam
                                          where a perpetrator
                                          attempts to obtain your
                                          personal and financial
                                          information via spoofing


Page 405       Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition        45
Figure 10-24                     Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

• The concern about privacy has led to the
  enactment of federal and state laws regarding the
  storage and disclosure of personal data
      – See Figure 10-25 on page 406 for a listing of major U.S.
        government laws concerning privacy




Page 406              Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   46
                                        Chapter 10
Ethics and Society


 Social engineering is defined as gaining
 unauthorized access or obtaining confidential
 information by taking advantage of trust and naivety

 Employee monitoring involves the use of computers
 to observe, record, and review an employee’s use of
 a computer


Pages 405 - 407   Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   47
                                    Chapter 10
Ethics and Society

    • Content filtering is the
      process of restricting
      access to certain
      material on the Web
    • Many businesses use
      content filtering
    • Web filtering software
      restricts access to
      specified Web sites

Page 407             Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition   48
Figure 10-26                           Chapter 10
Summary


           Potential computer risks                      Wireless security risks
             and the safeguards                             and safeguards




                                                     Ethical issues surrounding
                                                        information accuracy,
           Computer-related health
                                                         intellectual property
            issues and preventions
                                                      rights, green computing,
                                                      and information privacy
Page 408                  Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition         49
                                            Chapter 10
Discovering Computers
    Fundamentals,
     2011 Edition
  Living in a Digital World



     Chapter 10 Complete

				
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