Deviance power point by qingyunliuliu


       What is deviance?
• The violation of social norms.
• Who or what determines which acts
  are considered deviant?
• Society (public consensus or
  powerful groups)
• That is to say deviance is culturally
    Is what is considered
     deviance always the
• NO!!
• An act which is considered deviant in one
  situation, may not be considered deviant in
  another situation, even in the same
• What is considered deviant, and the
  consequences of deviant acts, vary from
  society to society and from historical
  period to historical period. Deviance and
  its consequences are culturally determined.
 How does a person come
   to be considered a
• Repeating an offense?
• Committing acts that have
  serious consequences?
• A person may only need to
  commit a single act to be
  considered deviant.
 Two components of
being labeled deviant;

•1. Detection
•2. Stigmatization
•A mark of social disgrace.
•A stigma may but does
 not have to be an
 outward sign.
•A stigma is a “spoiled
 social identity.”
     Durkheim’s “Functions”
       theory of Deviance
• From the Functionalist perspective.
• Unifying the Group; An “insiders versus
  outsiders,” or “us against them,” attitude
  helps to bring groups or societies together. In
  this way deviance can enhance social
• Deviance ironically can also enhance
  conformity. Deviance can clarify norms.
  Deviance defines boundaries of acceptable
  behavior. Deviance and punishment remind
  people of norms.
 More positive functions of
• Safely releasing discontent or diffusing
  tension. Minor acts of deviance relieve
  tension without disrupting society.
• Inducing social change and or identifying
  problems in a society.
• When a particular norm is violated, by a
  large number of people, it might indicate a
  problem within the society.
• Providing jobs.
 The Cultural-Transmission Theory of
• Views deviance as a learned behavior.
• Deviance is learned the way all behavior is
  learned, through interaction.
• Differential Association; If the majority of a
  person’s interactions are with deviants, the
  person will likely be socialized into deviance.
• Cultural Transmission theory views all
  individuals as conformists. People simply
  conform to the norms of the people they have
  the greatest association with.
• Cultural Transmission is from the Symbolic
  Interactionist perspective.
 Structural-Strain Theory
• A Functionalist perspective
  on deviance.
• Proposed by Robert Merton
• Views deviance as the
  natural outgrowth of the
  values, norms, and structure
  of society.
     Structural-Strain Theory views
        deviance as the result of
     incompatible goals and means.
• All people in society are socialized to
  accept certain goals such as financial
  success, good grades etc.
• Not all people in society have the
  legitimate means to achieve these goals,
  they have been socialized to accept.
• Strain is the result of this tension between
  goals and means.
• Without access to legitimate means for
  achieving societies goals, people turn to
  illegitimate means, e.g. stealing, cheating
  Merton believed that the
strain of incompatible goals
and means produces a state
 of anomie for individuals.

• Anomie is normlessness,
  societies norms are no
  longer clear or no longer
      Merton believed that people
    respond to culturally approved
    goals, and legitimate means of
    achieving those goals, in one of
               five ways.
•   1.   Conformity
•   2.   Innovation
•   3.   Ritualism
•   4.   Retreatism
•   5.   Rebellion

•Accepts    • Accepts the
 the          approved
 cultural     norms/means
              for attaining
 goals of     societies
 society.     goals.
•Accepts    • Rejects the
 the          means of
              achieving the
 cultural     culture’s goals
 goals of     and substitutes
              new ones
 society.     (stealing,
              cheating, etc.)
•Rejects    • Accepts the
 the          norms/means
              for attaining
 cultures     goals, without
 goals        any hope of
              attaining those
 (gives       goals. Going
 up).         through the
• Rejects the   • Rejects the
  goals, has      for attaining
  no hope of      societies
  achieving       goals.
                  Doesn’t even
                  go through
                  the motions.
•Rejects      • Rejects the
 the            approved
 culture’s      means/norms
                for obtaining
 goals but      goals but
 replaces       replaces them
 them with      with new means
                and norms.
 new goals.
   Hirschi’s Control Theory
• Sees deviance as a natural occurrence.
• Conformity is the result of social control.
• Individuals with weak ties to the
  community, are likely to commit deviant
• Community members can exercise more
  social control, over members with strong
  ties to the community, because those
  members have more to lose.
• Individual with weak ties to the
  community, are more difficult to control,
  because they have less to lose.
       Conflict Theory
• Competition and social
  inequality lead to deviance.
• Social life is a struggle between
  those who have and those who
  do not have.
• People who are in power (those
  who have) commit deviant acts,
  in an effort to maintain power.
  Conflict Theory Continued
• People out of power (those who do not
  have) commit deviant acts for one of two
• To obtain economic rewards.
• Because they have feelings of
• According to the conflict theorists because
  those who have, have all the power, they
  label what will be defined as deviance and
  what will not. They control what types of
  deviance will be detected and punished.
• The deviance of the lower classes will be
  more often detected.
• Deviance is the result of class struggle.
         Power Theory
• Comes from the Conflict Perspective.
• The powerful have greater; deviant
  motivation, opportunity and weaker
  social control.
• The powerful engage in profitable
  deviance and the powerless in
  unprofitable deviance.
• Because the powerful have a greater
  deviant motivation they will be more
  likely deviant.
          Labeling Theory
• Does not focus as much on why people are
  deviant as it does on why some people are
  labeled deviant and other aren’t.
• Grew out of the interactionist perspective.
• According to the labeling theory all people
  commit deviant acts, but only some are
  labeled as deviant.
• Primary Deviance are deviant acts that are
  undetected by society and do not result in
  a person being labeled deviant.
• Secondary Deviance- are deviant acts that
  are detected and result in the person being
  labeled deviant and accepting the label as
• Once a person is labeled as deviant their
  whole life changes.
   Braithwaite’s Shaming
• Disintegrative shaming; The
  wrongdoer is punished in such a way
  as to be stigmatized, rejected, and
  or ostracized.
• Reintegrative Shaming; making
  wrongdoers feel guilty while showing
  them understanding, forgiveness, or
  even respect.
• Disintegrative shaming causes
  deviance or at least perpetuates it.

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