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Marching Toward Extinction
                                                                                                                  I N S I D E T H I S ISSUE
                                                                                                                                      ● Want science? Don’t look
                                                                                                                                        to this admininistation
Ensuring world’s penguins won’t perish means                                                                                          ● Program News        4
reckoning with global climate change
                                                                                                                                      ● From D.C.: Legislative

       s Mumble, the star penguin              to the 12 species and factors                                                              Update on the ESA 7
       in the animated movie “Happy            contributing to those declines,
       Feet,” tap-danced his way into          was the first step toward                                                              ● Rescuing wolves from a
the hearts of millions of movie-goers          securing Endangered Species Act                                                            politically-defined predator
over the Thanksgiving weekend,                 protection for the penguins.                                                               control program 8
the Center launched a far-reaching             Each of the 12 species faces
campaign to place 12 species of                threats ranging from introduced                                                        ● Meeting the arts: Our work
penguins worldwide on the U.S. list of         predators, disease, habitat                                                                celebrated on film and stage
threatened and endangered species.             destruction, disturbance at                                                                          11
     The penguins’ plight, as well as          breeding colonies, oil spills, marine
the campaign to save them, are all             pollution, and in some cases, direct
the more timely because ensuring               harvest of eggs or penguins, which                                                     such as anchovy and krill. Similar
the charismatic seabirds’ survival             are killed for use as fishbait.                                                        fishing fleets figure prominently
will hinge on the willingness of this              Many of the species are harmed                                                     in the misadventures of “Happy
administration – and the next – to             by industrial fisheries, either directly,                                              Feet,” which feature Emperor and
take swift and sweeping actions to             such as when individual penguins are                                                   Rockhopper Penguins, two species
significantly curb global warming.             caught and killed in trawls, nets and                                                  included in the Center’s petition.
     The Center’s Nov. 28 scientific           longlines, or indirectly through the                                                       But scientists have linked many
petition, which documents declines             depletion of essential prey species                                                    of the ocean conditions causing
                                                                                                                                      declines in penguin populations
                                                                                                                                      – such as abnormally warm ocean
                                                                                                                                      temperatures and diminishing sea
                                                                                                                                      ice – to global warming. As global
                                                                                                                                      warming intensifies, these conditions
                                                                                                                                      are projected to intensify as well,
                                                                                                                                      continuing to devastate the penguins’
                                                                                                                                      habitat and food supply.
                                                                                                                                          Unfortunately, while the film
                                                                                                                                      industry has taken note of the
                                                                                                                                      penguins’ fate (the survival heroics
                                                                                                                                      of Emperor Penguins also gained a
                                                                                            Photo by Kevin Schafer/

                                                                                                                                      spotlight in the 2005 documentary,
                                                                                                                                      “March of the Penguins”), the Bush
                                                                                                                                      administration has so far turned a
                                                                                                                                      blind eye. Indeed, the administration
                                                                                                                                      continues to block progress to
                                                                                                                                      confront global warming on the local,
                                                                                                                                      national and international levels.
                                                                                                                                          Penguins worldwide are suffering
                                                                                                                                      the consequences. Two-thirds of
Not-so-happy-fate: With two recent films depicting their heroic struggle to survive                                                   the world’s penguin species face
the brutal conditions in Antarctica, Emperor Penguins have become pop cultural                                                        extinction, including the Southern
icons. Unfortunately, the grim threats to their survival are all too real – including the                                             Rockhopper and Humboldt Penguins
overarcing threat from global warming. The Center has launched a campaign to protect
                                                                                                                                      Marching Towards Extinction continued on back page...
the Emperor and 11 other penguin species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.
   C E N T E R           F O R        B I O L O G I C A L               D I V E R S I T Y                                                     WINTER 2006/07                            1
                            ADVOCACY SPOTLIGHT
                            Julie Teel, Staff Attorney, Climate, Air & Energy Program

                          Anything But the Truth
    The Bush administration is notorious for suppressing and distorting science to suit its political
    agenda and undermine the American public’s understanding of important environmental issues.
    In doing so, it has created an ever-widening chasm between its own policies and what scientists say
    is necessary to preserve our planet.

            owhere is that chasm more          processes currently driven by nothing         indicates that more than one-third
            profound than on the subject       more visionary than political gain.           of the Earth’s biodiversity may be
            of climate change. Peer-           The Jury Is In                                committed to extinction as a result of
    reviewed scientific literature leaves                                                    climate change by the year 2050.
                                                    Anyone who has seen “An
    no doubt that global warming is real
                                               Inconvenient Truth”
    and already threatens life on Earth,
                                               is familiar with the
    and that greenhouse gas emissions
                                               documented facts:
    contribute to and are rapidly
                                               an overwhelming
    accelerating global warming.
                                               majority of the
         Not a popular topic for the oil-
                                               world’s leading
    obsessed administration that has
                                               climate scientists
    refused to join international efforts to

                                                                                                                                          Photo by Jenny E. Ross/
                                               agree that society’s
    reduce emissions. How to resolve the
                                               production of
    dissonance? The administration favors
                                               greenhouse gases
    continuing to stumble blindly down
                                               has already
    the political path and cast science to
    the wayside.
                                               significantly to
         Unfortunately, the administration’s
                                               rapid and unnatural
    choice to bury its head in the sand
                                               warming of the
    has translated into an arrogant
                                               Earth’s atmosphere.
    campaign to keep the American
                                               The government’s
    people in the dark. Obfuscate                                      The Polar Bear is just one species whose habitat melts while the
                                               own scientists at the
    science. Downplay the link between                                 administration fiddles.
                                               National Climatic
    climate change and fossil fuel                                                           Burying the Evidence
                                               Data Center recently drove home the
    consumption. Better yet, prevent
                                               point by confirming that 2006 was                  Meanwhile, the Bush
    any informed discussion of climate
                                               the hottest year on U.S. record.              administration continues its anti-
    change, and mislead the public with
                                                    What fewer people know is                science shenanigans, which have
    junk science.
                                               that there is already substantial             included blocking publication of
         And do nothing to confront
                                               and stark evidence that global                scientific research on climate change,
    global warming.
                                               warming represents the most                   removing global warming references
         Science makes it clearer everyday
                                               significant and pervasive threat to           from government agency reports,
    that to do nothing is to play with
                                               the future of biodiversity worldwide.         news releases and Web sites, and
    fire – or more literally, to play with
                                               A survey of more than 30 studies              forbidding agency scientists from
    more deadly and devastating weather
                                               of approximately 1,600 species                speaking to the media about climate
    patterns, warming oceans, rising sea
                                               discovered that roughly one-half of           change policy. (See sidebar, A History
    levels and other irreversible impacts
                                               those species were already showing            of Violence on Science)
    on plant, animal and human life.
                                               significant changes in their range                 The administration also has
    Likewise, saving species like Polar
                                               distribution (generally northward and         chosen to ignore its own obligations
    Bears, penguins, corals and others
                                               upwards in elevation) and phenology           under the Global Change Research
    that are already severely threatened
                                               (for example, earlier breeding,               Act to disclose current climate
    by global warming, will depend on
                                               flowering and migration) due to               science. Under that 1990 law,
    swift and decisive action.
                                               global warming.                               the government must issue a
         The Center’s Climate Program is
                                                    Unfortunately, the changes               comprehensive National Assessment
    working to compel the administration
                                               observed to date are relatively modest        every four years of the environmental,
    to immediate action, and to restore
                                               compared to those predicted for this          human-health and economic effects
    scientific integrity to decision-making
                                               century. A recent scientific study            of global warming on the United States.

2        C E N T E R          F O R      B I O L O G I C A L             D I V E R S I T Y            WINTER 2006/07
     Issued in 2000, the last National       to support a short-sighted political          and substantial cuts in greenhouse gas
Assessment confirmed that humans             agenda. We are determined to hold the         emissions and measures for adapting to
are contributing significantly to global     administration accountable for releasing      the inevitable degree of climate change
warming and that current global warmth       sound climate reports that can then           to which we’ve already committed.
is “unprecedented.” Its scientific           be used to achieve what the world’s
conclusions also predicted doubling          leading climate scientists, including         ••••••••••••••••••••••
or tripling of heat-related deaths,          those within our government itself,
intensified floods and droughts, and         say we desperately need: immediate
swamping of coastlines by rising seas
and fiercer storms.
     The 2000 assessment’s revelations
threatened the Bush administration’s
agenda, so the administration worked          A History of Violence on Science
to bury its findings and kill the
2004 update. Upon his March 2005              December 2006. Bush administration, while proposing to list Polar Bear as
resignation, Rick Piltz, former senior        threatened under Endangered Species Act (ESA), forced to acknowledge global
associate with the Climate Change             warming and its impacts on Arctic sea ice but refuses to acknowledge its
Science Program, blew the whistle. He         causes. Words “carbon,” “emissions” and “greenhouse gas” appear nowhere in
called the White House’s suppression of       administration’s proposal.
the 2000 assessment and subsequent
refusal to produce the 2004 report “the       December 2006. Statement by Nobel laureates and other leading scientists
central climate science scandal of the        calling for restoration of scientific integrity to federal policy-making reaches
Bush administration.”                         10,600 signatures from scientists in all 50 states.

                                              November 2006. At request of14 senators, agency Inspectors General at
Closing the Gap                               NASA and Commerce Department begin investigations into whether political
     The National Assessment is a             appointees have suppressed findings and blocked public communication by
critical tool for raising public awareness    federal climate researchers.
and concern about impacts of climate
change on the United States. It also          October 2006. Washington Post exposé reveals that high-level administration
provides Congress and agency decision-        officials repeatedly ordered government biologists to reverse scientific findings
makers with the most up-to-date               in order to deny protection for imperiled species. (See full article, page 10.)
information on which to base global
warming-related decisions. So when the        May 2006. Commerce Department officials attempt to block release of National
Bush administration denied the Center’s       Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) fact sheet discussing global
repeated request for the updated              warming’s contribution to frequency and strength of hurricanes.
assessment, we filed suit with our
partners Greenpeace and Friends of            January 2006. Climate scientist Dr. James Hansen reports to New York Times he
the Earth.                                    was warned of “dire consequences” if he continued to make statements clashing
     On November 14, 2006, the day we         with administration’s views on global warming.
filed suit, Senator John Kerry issued a
statement supporting the lawsuit and          June 2005. New York Times reveals internal documents demonstrating that White
pressing for an updated assessment.           House official Phil Cooney edited 2002 draft summary of government climate
And in December, 24 members of the            research in ways that cast doubt on link between greenhouse gas emissions and
House of Representatives signed a letter      rising temperatures. Cooney resigns two days after media obtains documents and
to the administration requesting the          soon takes job at Exxon Mobil.
assessment in order to “help Congress
shape a well-informed, forward-looking        June 2005. Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and Public Employees for
climate change policy.”                       Environmental Responsibility release survey finding 53 percent of NOAA
     The Center believes our                  Fisheries scientists surveyed said they knew of cases in which commercial
government’s resources should be              interests, through political intervention, inappropriately interfered with the
directed at saving species, including         agency’s conclusions or decisions.
our own, from the harsh consequences
of unchecked global warming – not
censoring and misrepresenting science

      C E N T E R          F O R       B I O L O G I C A L          D I V E R S I T Y           WINTER 2006/07                    3
    P ROGRAM NEWS..........
    Polar Bear proposal                That means the                                            mammals whose habitat                                    the whale and its habitat.
    marks historic moment         administration will find                                       is threatened by new                                          The Center also
                                  itself forced, finally, to                                     Bush administration                                      seeks designation of
    in mobilization against       reduce the U.S. share of                                       proposals to open areas                                  protected critical habitat
    global warming                greenhouse gas emissions                                       of the Bering Sea to                                     for Sea Otters in the
          Almost two years        that fuel global warming.                                      offshore oil development.                                Aleutian Islands and
    after the Center launched          The Center filed the                                           One of the species                                  southwest Alaska. As
    the campaign to protect       scientific petition to gain                                    at heightened risk is                                    a result of our efforts,
    the Polar Bear under                                                                         the North Pacific Right                                  this most endangered
    the Endangered Species                                                                       Whale, which – after the                                 population of Sea Otters
    Act as a result of the                                                                       announced extinction of                                  in the world was listed

                                                                Photo by Scott Schliebe, USFWS
    effects of global warming                                                                    the Yangtze River Dolphin                                as “threatened” under
    upon its habitat, the                                                                        in December – took on                                    the Endangered Species
    Bush administration                                                                          the dubious distinction of                               Act in August 2005.
    has proposed to list the                                                                     most endangered marine                                        But instead of also
    bear as “threatened.”                                                                        mammal in the world.                                     protecting its habitat
          Media across the                                                                       Devastated by commercial                                 as required by the Act,
    country have hailed                                                                          whaling, as few as 100                                   the administration
    the proposal as a           Polar bear mother with cub                                       individual whales remain.                                proposes opening that
    landmark: the first            Endangered Species Act                                             The Center’s legal                                  habitat to oil drilling.
    acknowledgement from           protection for the Polar                                      action seeks to secure                                        Because they rely
    the Bush administration,       Bear on February 16,                                          protection for the North                                 on their fur as insulation
    the Los Angeles Times          2005, the day the Kyoto                                       Pacific Right Whale under                                against the cold, oil
    notes, “that global            Protocol went into effect                                     the U.S. Endangered                                      spills can be devastating
    warming is the driving         without the participation                                     Species Act. Though                                      for Sea Otters – as
    force behind an animal’s       of the United States.                                         scientists recognize three                               evidenced by the thousand
    potential extinction.”         After the administration                                      distinct species of right                                or more that perished
          This initial victory     refused to act on that                                        whales – the Southern,                                   as a result of1989’s
    toward protecting the          petition, the Center, along                                   North Atlantic and North                                 Exxon Valdez spill.
    bears is remarkable, but       with Greenpeace and                                           Pacific – right whales in
    it also portends more          the Natural Resources                                         the Atlantic and Pacific
    landmarks to come. The         Defense Council, filed                                        are still protected and                                  Black Abalone a
    campaign to protect Polar      suit in December 2005.                                        managed as a single                                      sign of warming
    Bears, beloved worldwide,      The administration’s                                          species. And while years                                 threat to oceans
    captured the media             proposal is part of a legal                                                                                                 The Black Abalone,
    spotlight in a way that        settlement in that case.                                                                                               an intertidal invertebrate,
    left the administration             The U.S. Fish and                                                                                                 once thrived from as far
    little choice but to affirm    Wildlife Service has                                                                                                   south as Cabo San Lucas,
    the existence of global
                                                                                                                              Photo by Rick Leduc, NOAA

                                   an additional year to                                                                                                  Baja California Sur to its
    warming and its very           obtain peer review and                                                                                                 northern territory of Coos
    real consequences. That        public comment on its                                                                                                  Bay, Ore. Today, the Black
    accomplishment in and          proposal before issuing                                                                                                Abalone has declined by
    of itself has exploded the     a final listing decision.                                                                                              as much as 99 percent
    bears’ story – and the         To date, the government                                                                                                in significantly large
    issue of global warming        has received more than                                                                                                 portions of that range, and
    – onto what is perhaps the                                 North Pacific Right Whale
                                   200,000 comments in                                                                                                    continues to succumb to
    largest worldwide stage the    support of listing the        of Center efforts finally                                                                overharvest, disease and
    issue has ever enjoyed.        Polar Bear, including         resulted in the designation                                                              global warming.
          But protecting           letters from eminent Polar    of almost 36,000 square                                                                       To prevent the
    Polar Bears under the          Bear experts, climate         miles of the Bering Sea                                                                  extinction of this marine
    Endangered Species Act         scientists, and more than     as critical habitat for
    would set the stage for        35 members of Congress.       the North Pacific Right
    another historic milestone:                                  Whale, more than 15,000
                                                                                                                                                                                        Photo by Glenn Allen, NOAA

    the law would require the                                    miles of that habitat falls
    administration to actually     Bering Sea oil drilling       within an area proposed
    take action to ensure that     in habitat ups risk for       for oil and gas leasing.
    activities carried out,        two endangered animals             Listing the North
    permitted or funded by              The Center filed         Pacific Right Whale as
    the federal government         separate suits in             a unique endangered
    do not push the bear           December to protect two       species would force
    closer to extinction.                                                                                                                         Black abalone cling to rock
                                   North Pacific marine          stronger protections for
4        C E N T E R          F O R     B I O L O G I C A L                                         D I V E R S I T Y                                     WINTER 2006/07
snail, the Center filed                                             Also in December, in                                                       Endangered Species
a scientific petition in                                       fulfillment of a settlement                                                Act protection is all

                                                            Photo by William Hartley, USFWS
December to protect the                                        agreement with the                                                         the more crucial for
Black Abalone under the                                        Center and Turtle Island                                                   the White Marlin, since
Endangered Species Act.                                        Restoration Network, the                                                   NMFS recently finalized a
     Subject to periods                                        National Marine Fisheries                                                  management plan for the
of commercial and                                              Service (NMFS) announced                                                   species that allows longline
recreational overfishing as                                    a formal status review                                                     fishing to continue in
early as the late 1800’s,                                      of the White Marlin, an                                                    important spawning habitat
most populations of Black Atlantic salmon                      imperiled billfish in the                                                  for the fish.
Abalone had already                                            Atlantic Ocean
suffered severe declines by                                         In January 2003, a
1985. That year marked        Atlantic fish get help           study published in the                                                     Canyon deserves
the first detection of a      from long neglect                journal documented                                                         permanent protection
disease called “withering          Two Atlantic fish facing    a 90 percent decline                                                       from ORV abuse
syndrome,” which has          significant threats from         of large predatory fish                                                         California’s Surprise
since continued to ravage     commercial fishing and           populations worldwide as a                                                 Canyon, a rare and fragile
remaining Black Abalone       habitat destruction got a        result of overfishing. The                                                 riparian ecosystem, is
populations along southern    boost toward protection in       White Marlin is perhaps                                                    again gravely threatened
California and the Channel    December as a result of          closest to extinction, and                                                 by extreme off-road vehicle
Islands where the species     Center actions.                  continues to be caught at                                                  (ORV) users. This canyon
was once most abundant.            Together with               levels that will increase                                                  cradles one of the last
     Withering syndrome       the Conservation Law             that risk. Longline fishing                                                remaining wild streams
is exacerbated by ocean       Foundation, the Center                                                                                      in the Mojave Desert,
warming, and global           filed suit to compel the                                                                                    supporting rich riparian
warming has contributed to    government to designate                                                                                     and aquatic ecosystems in
rising water temperatures     critical habitat for the                                                                                    the Panamint Mountains
off the California and        wild Atlantic Salmon. The                                                                                   near Death Valley.
Oregon coasts. As global      government is years late                                                                                         In 2000, the
warming progresses, this      in doing so; as a result,                                                                                   Center and others sued
deadly disease is likely      populations of the fish                                                                                     the Bureau of Land
to spread to currently        have failed to recover                                                                                      Management (BLM) for
unaffected Black              beyond critically low levels.                                                                               failing to evaluate the
Abalone populations in             The wild Atlantic                                                                                      impact of off-road vehicle
the northern reaches of       Salmon was listed as                                                                                        use and other management
                                                                                                                  Photo by Chris Kassar

the species’ range.           an endangered species                                                                                       policies on endangered
     The near loss of         in eight rivers in Maine                                                                                    wildlife. As a result of the
the Black Abalone is a        in 2000. But the two                                                                                        Center’s victory, the BLM
powerful reminder that        agencies responsible for                                                                                    closed the route through
left unchecked, global        managing the Atlantic                                                                                       Surprise Canyon pending
warming threatens to                                        Surprise Canyon
                              Salmon, the National                                                                                        such analysis. Since then,
devastate our oceans.         Oceanic and Atmospheric          in particular is the largest                                               Surprise Canyon has
     Once added to the        Administration and the           threat to the species.                                                     experienced a remarkable
endangered species list,      U.S. Fish and Wildlife                The Center and Turtle                                                 recovery. Cottonwoods and
the Black Abalone would       Service, have dragged            Island filed suit in January                                               willow trees are flourishing,
join the White Abalone and    their feet on protecting its     2004 after NMFS refused                                                    and rare species such
the Elkhorn and Staghorn      habitat despite scientists’      to protect the Atlantic                                                    as Desert Bighorn Sheep
Corals as the only marine     conclusions that habitat         White Marlin under the                                                     are thriving. Endangered
invertebrates protected       loss and degradation are         Endangered Species Act,                                                    birds, such as the Inyo
under the Endangered          leading contributors to          despite findings of the                                                    California Towhee, have
Species Act. Each of          the salmon’s decline,            agency’s own scientists                                                    returned to the canyon
these species gained          and despite their own            that unsustainable harvest                                                 after decades of absence.
the Act’s protections         recovery plan calling            levels were driving the                                                         To protect Surprise
only following a similar      for improvements to the          fish toward extinction. In                                                 Canyon Creek, the Center
petition by the Center.       salmon’s habitat.                October 2005, a federal                                                    and our coalition partners
                                   The Center’s aims to        judge ordered NMFS to                                                      are seeking to intervene
                              establish a firm deadline        re-evaluate its decision.                                                  in a suit filed by off-road
                              by which the agencies will       The announced status                                                       vehicle users who want
                              designate critical habitat       review is an important step                                                to re-open the canyon for
                              for the salmon.                  toward securing protection                                                 ORV use. The suit claims
                                                               for the Marlin.

   C E N T E R         F O R      B I O L O G I C A L                                         D I V E R S I T Y   WINTER 2006/07                                          5
    PROGRAM NEWS...........
    that the sheer canyon          would spread the waste
    walls and streambed are a
    “constructed highway” to
                                   – 400,000 tons processed
                                   per year – across 160 acres
                                                                  Rare ringtones spotlight
    which the public has right-
    of-way under a repealed
                                   of pristine desert habitat.
                                       Beyond threatening         endangered wildlife
    Civil War-era law.             native animals and                   he Center made an unexpected splash – make
         To accommodate            habitat, the facility would          that hoot – on the trendy technology scene this
    off-road vehicle use in        heap more misery on a
                                                                        winter with an idea that’s time had clearly come:
    the 1990s, off-roaders         community whose residents
    cut down trees and other       have been plagued for          endangered species ringtones.
    plants, filled in portions     decades by the effects of           A new Center Web site,, offers free
    of the streambed with          toxic contamination caused     ringtones – croaks, chirps and songs of dozens of rare and
    rocks, and used winches        by hexavalent chromium 6.      endangered animals around the world – that stand apart
    to pull vehicles up near-      That chemical compound,        from the cacophony of mass-marketed tones in any crowd.
    vertical waterfalls.           used by the local energy       Featured are authentic sounds of threatened owls, tropical
         Allowing this abuse       company and discovered         birds, frogs, toads and marine mammals.
    to resume within the           in groundwater, was linked          Some, like the Mountain Yellow-legged Frog, Yosemite
    confines of this pristine      to high rates of cancer        Toad and Fringe-backed Fire-eye, are subtle. Others, like
    gorge would damage             and birth defects in the       the Blue-throated Macaw, Barn Owl and Beluga Whale, are
    its unique character,          community.
                                                                  more dramatic.
    decimating waterfalls,             Contaminants found
    cottonwood cathedrals          in sewage sludge, including         And it’s not just tech geeks who are sitting up and
    and willow woodlands that      dangerous pathogens,           taking notice.
    provide habitat for rare and   metals, pesticides and              Upon its launch the Center’s ringtones project
    endangered species.            disease-causing fungi,         quickly became a hot blog topic, made news headlines
         The Center will           could prove just as deadly.    nationwide, earned radio spots as far away as South
    continue to fight for              Additionally, the groups   America, and became one of the most e-mailed stories on
    protection of this desert      involved in the appeal are     NPR Christmas week. The haunting song of the Orca – so
    jewel to ensure that           concerned about the lack       far the most downloaded of the 40-plus tones – reached the
    Surprise Canyon and the        of public input into the       third spot on the all-time most popular ringtone list at Myxer.
    plants and wildlife that       approval process. Despite           More than 10,000 people downloaded the ringtones in
    depend on it can thrive        requirements under
                                                                  the campaign’s early weeks.
    free from the threat of        California law, there was
    off-road vehicle abuse.        neither adequate public             What makes these ringtones resonate?
                                   notice nor review of the            For one thing, they’re just plain fun. But they also
                                   proposed project, and          make for an interesting conversation starter – and a novel
    Hinkley community              environmental documents        way to educate people about the serious plight of the
    again under siege              were not provided in           endangered species behind the calls.
    by toxic threat                Spanish. Approximately              The new site encourages users to download
         The Center and            40 percent or more of          fact sheets and photos for each featured animal, and to
    other conservation and         the area’s population is       take action – with just one click – to save endangered
    environmental justice          Spanish-speaking.              species worldwide.
    groups appealed the San            Another matter of                                                      What are you
    Bernardino County Board        concern is the design and
                                                                                                         waiting for? Make
    of Supervisors’ approval of    outdated technology of
                                   the proposed facility. The                                            your phone calls
    an open-air sewage sludge                                                                            wilder today at
    treatment facility near the    county refused to consider
                                   available state-of-the-art                                   –
    community of Hinkley,
    Calif. At press time, the      techniques – including                                                and spread the word!
    board was scheduled to         an enclosed facility – to                                                  Owl ringtones
    hear the appeal Feb. 27.       reduce greenhouse gas                                                  are made available
         As if Hinkley’s toxic     and other air pollution as                                             in concert with the
    plight portrayed in the film   required by law.                                                      nonprofit Global Owl
    “Erin Brockovich” were not         The groups bringing                                               Project, a worldwide
    a big enough blow to this      the appeal are the                                                    project to identify and
    community, the proposed        Center,,
                                                                                                         conserve the planet’s
    facility would allow more      Desert Citizens Against
                                   Pollution, and the Center                                             owls.
    than 500 daily vehicle
    trips to haul up to 2,000      on Race, Poverty and
    tons of sewage sludge          the Environment.                Photo by Lynne Howes/Center for Biological Diversity
    per day. The project also      ••••••••••••••••
6         C E N T E R         F O R     B I O L O G I C A L         D I V E R S I T Y                              WINTER 2006/07
Endangered Species Act: A Legislative Update
         hen the U.S. House and Senate         leadership, no anti-endangered species       underfunded for the past six years. They
         adjourned Dec. 9, they officially     bills (which often appear under the          also can work for full implementation
         brought the 109th Congress            guise of “reauthorizing” the Act) will       of recovery plans – scientific guidelines
to a close: thus ending history’s worst        be entertained by the 110th, and that        that are meant to guide endangered
Congress and the reign of Rep. Richard         instead they are likely to hold oversight    species recovery, but that have been
Pombo, R-Calif., as the chair of the           hearings to examine the administration’s     systematically postponed and ignored
House Resources Committee. Pombo               poor implementation of the Endangered        over the course of this administration.
was the most vocal enemy of endangered         Species Act.                                 Finally, they can develop fair financial
species to ever sit in Congress, using              For example, an October 30              incentives and technical assistance to
his chairmanship to promote his                Washington Post article revealed that        landowners to encourage endangered
own corporate agenda and to attack             Department of Interior Deputy Assistant      species conservation on private lands.
conservation efforts.                          Secretary Julie MacDonald and other               The Center for Biological Diversity
     The end of the year also means that       Interior Department officials repeatedly     already is working with the 110th
H.R. 3824 – the Pombo-authored anti-           distorted scientific findings to prevent     Congress to bring these priorities to the
endangered species bill that passed the        the protection of plants and animals         front of the discussion on endangered
House in September 2005 but never              under the Endangered Species Act (see        species issues.
found a willing sponsor in the Senate – is     related articles in Advocacy Spotlight,
now officially dead. All bills that have not   this issue).
passed both houses are now defunct, and             Such actions are symptomatic of
would have to jump through all the same        a larger problem at Interior. The Bush
hoops again to come up for vote in the         administration has listed fewer species
new Congress.                                  under the Endangered Species Act than
     But that Congress began in January        any other administration since the law
with a Democratic majority, and Pombo          was enacted in 1973, in part because it            A BIG THANKS
failed to win re-election after his            has denied species protection at record
environmentally-hostile record raised          rates. Of all the endangered species                to all our members, old
public hackles and gave a decisive victory     listing decisions made under the Bush              and new, who helped us
to Democratic challenger Jerry McNerney.       administration, 47 percent denied
Pombo won’t have another chance to             protection as compared to only 13                    reach our fundraising
reintroduce his bill, and neither will he      percent during the last five years of the
chair the House Resources Committee            Clinton administration.
                                                                                                   goal of $200,000 in
that oversees endangered species issues.            The Center helped expose                       support of the Center’s
     New Democratic majorities in the          MacDonald’s shenanigans, and in
House and Senate bring other significant       the wake of these revelations, we are             Endangered Species
changes in committee leadership.               encouraging Congressional oversight and            Act Works! campaign.
     In the Senate, the Environment and        investigation into the abuse of science at
Public Works (EPW) Committee was               the Interior Department.                          We passed our goal by New
previously chaired by Sen. James Inhofe,            Even as the tide turns in
R-Okla.,a crusader against science             Congress, we must still deal with an
                                                                                                  Year’s Eve, which means
and the environment. Now it will be            administration that is extremely hostile           we earned every dollar of
chaired by Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-Calif.,       to the environment and would veto
a long-time, enthusiastic advocate for         any legislation to actually strengthen            our $200,000 matching
environmental protections. The EPW             endangered species protections. In fact,           challenge grant! Thank
subcommittee covering the Endangered           Secretary of the Interior Dirk Kempthorne
Species Act will be chaired by Sen. Joe        is expected to make rule changes to               you for keeping our shared
Lieberman, I-Conn., also a long-time ally.     weaken those protections.
     In the House, we’ve lost the driving           Nonetheless, new Congressional
                                                                                                 voice powerful as we work
force for gutting the Endangered Species       leadership means that we can promote                 for strong endangered
Act with Pombo’s ousting. Taking over          efforts to improve endangered species
chairmanship of the House Resources            recovery and implementation of the laws               species protections in
Committee is Rep. Nick Rahall, D-W.Va.,        meant to protect them. The simplest                    2007 and beyond.
who previously stood up to Pombo as            thing the new Congress can do is to
Resources Ranking Member.                      adequately fund the programs that
     Key members of Congress are               protect species and habitat, which
signaling that under the new majority          have been drastically and deliberately

       C E N T E R          F O R       B I O L O G I C A L            D I V E R S I T Y          WINTER 2006/07                   7
Resurrecting Science to Recover Wolves
After the agency charged with recovering Mexican Gray Wolves turned its back
on a scientific panel’s recommendations, the Center turns to the courts to
stop politically-motivated predator control from devastating the wolves.

       ive years after a scientific panel          Great Lakes states – where wolf numbers         and was conducted by renowned non-
       urged critical reforms to the               have grown to more than 1,000 and               governmental biologists led by Paul C.
       Mexican Gray Wolf reintroduction            3,000 animals, respectively.                    Paquet, Ph.D., urged allowing Mexican
program, the Center has filed suit                     Unlike for wolves elsewhere (or for         Wolves to roam freely just as all other
challenging the U.S. Fish and Wildlife             any other endangered species), the              species the Service manages are allowed.
Service – the very agency that convened            Service has bound itself to remove any               The rules for wolf reintroduction
the panel – for its refusal to implement           Mexican Wolf living outside a designated        to the northern Rocky Mountains
the most important of the                                                                                    require ranchers to clean
recommended reforms.                                                                                         up “attractants” (livestock
     The lawsuit will jumpstart                                                                              carcasses), and withhold predator
recovery for the animal that                                                                                 control where those carcasses
the Service itself, after having                                                                             attract wolves that then prey on
spent decades trapping and                                                                                   stock. Mexican Wolves receive
poisoning Mexican Wolves in                                                                                  no such protection – again, with
the Southwest and Mexico,                                                                                    devastating consequences for
identified as North America’s                                                                                the population.
most endangered mammal.                                                                                           From 1998 through 2000
     In planning the 1998                                                                                    the Campbell Blue Pack showed
reintroduction of Mexican                                                                                    no interest in cattle and were
Wolves into the wild, the                                                                                    even documented trotting right
Service projected that by the                                                                                by a herd of cows and calves en
end of 2006, more than 100                                                                                   route to successfully hunting elk.
wolves would roam the Apache                                                                                 But after scavenging on cattle
and Gila National Forests                                                                                    they did not kill in early 2001
in Arizona and New Mexico.                                                                                   (one of which was in an area of
According to the 1982 Mexican                                                                                the Gila National Forest closed
Wolf Recovery Plan, those                                                                                    to livestock), they began killing
                                                                                                       Photo by Gary Kramer, USFWS

100-plus wolves would                                                                                        cattle and were recaptured.
comprise one of two populations                                                                              The alpha male will never be
that together would lead the                                                                                 re-released. His mate was re-
species toward recovery.                                                                                     released in spring 2003 with a
     Far from reaching that                                                                                  new male. She abandoned him
goal, however, the population                                                                                and traveled dozens of miles
declined from 55 animals              Gray Wolves to the north are larger and differently adapted for        back to where she had first
counted at the end of 2003 to         survival than the Mexican Wolf of the Southwest. But their success     tasted beef. There she began
35 counted at the end of 2005. at recovery – while the Mexican Wolf struggles – is more a matter             hunting cattle again, and in May
The 2006 count is ongoing             of politics than morphology.                                           2003 the Service shot her – the
through January, but even with an                  area. Managing the Southwest’s                  first of so-far eight wolves shot by the
expected increase the year-end tally will          wolves according to rigid and arbitrary         government since reintroduction began.
still come in at significantly fewer than          boundaries has proved disastrous for                 The Service also has killed 20
100 animals.                                       recovery. For example, in November              Mexican Wolves unintentionally as a
     The Mexican Wolf has not reached              2001, a lone wolf outside the boundary          result of capture; dozens more have been
this initial milestone toward recovery             was chased by helicopter until he               traumatized or injured, lowering their
primarily due to government trapping and collapsed and died. And in August                         survival chances upon re-release.
shooting of Mexican Wolves on behalf               2004, the Service trapped two wild-born              To prevent wolves from becoming
of the livestock industry. The Service’s           wolves because they were on the “wrong” habituated to livestock, the science
predator control program for the Mexican           national forest; their young, dependent         panel recommended requiring ranchers
Wolf is an anomaly in the agency’s                 pups were not found.                            using public lands to remove or render
management of wolves in general; the                   The 2001 science panel, which               inedible (by lime, for example) the
Service follows different rules for wolves         comprised the Service’s official three-         carcasses of cattle and horses that die of
in the northern Rocky Mountains and the            year review of the reintroduction program       non-wolf causes.

 8         C E N T E R           F O R       B I O L O G I C A L              D I V E R S I T Y                                      WINTER 2006/07
      Fort Apache
   Indian Reservation           Blue Range
                             Wolf Recovery Area                                              Instead of following the              • To impose today’s failing
 Phoenix    Apache NF
                        Gila NF                                                         recommendations of the panel           management protocols in new areas
                                                                                        it commissioned, in July 2006          needed for the Mexican Wolf’s
             Tucson                                                                     the Service announced an even          eventual recovery.
                                                                                        more destructive direction in its          In short, the agency charged
                                                                                        management of Mexican Wolves.          with the Mexican Wolf’s recovery
                           Historic Range of                                            It pledged in writing:                 has chosen to abandon science
                          Mexican Gray Wolf                                                  • To not regulate livestock       for politically-motivated policies
                         (Canis lupus baileyi)
                                                                                        carcasses abandoned on public          that threaten to make a dire
                                                                                        lands.                                 situation worse. The Center’s
                                                                                             • To expand but not eliminate     lawsuit is necessary to compel
                                                                                        the arbitrary geographic boundaries    the Fish and Wildlife Service to
                                                                                        that confine wolves.                   adopt the recommendations of the
                                                                                             • To allow wolf shooting in       independent scientific panel – and
                                                                                        broader circumstances than those       to give the lobo a chance.
                                                                  Map by Curt Bradley
                                                                                        presently permitted.
                                                                                             • To cap the wolf population at   Article by Michael J. Robinson,
      = Wolves allowed to                                                               125 animals and allow mass wolf        Carnivore Conservation Coordinator
        roam only in this area                      Mexico City                         killing above that number.

Coalition seeks homecoming for Sky Islands’ Gray Wolves
     The Center is leading six                          evolutionary home in the range of an                             working to recover the subspecies in its
organizations in forming the new Sky                    extinct Gray Wolf subspecies. Fish and                           native range.
Islands Wolf Coalition to ensure that                   Wildlife Service regulations forbid the                              Such a move would subject the
the Mexican Gray Wolf will be allowed                   lobo to re-colonize the Sky Islands,                             Mexican Wolf to the evolutionary
to return home.                                         and a Service regulation struck down                             pressures that led to a much larger
     The Mexican Wolf, known as the                     by a court at the behest of the Center                           wolf and, over generations, shape
lobo in Mexico and along the border,                    and other groups would have redefined                            the lobo into a profoundly different
and nicknamed the desert wolf by                        the Mexican Wolf into a generic Gray                             creature. The Sky Islands Wolf
pioneering ecologist Aldo Leopold, is                   Wolf ranging all the way to northern                             Coalition will educate and advocate for
native to the Sierra Madre Mountains                    Colorado. There is still a risk that the                         returning Leopold’s desert wolf to its
of Mexico and the Sky Island                            Service will attempt to introduce the                            desert home.
Mountains of southeastern Arizona and                   Mexican Wolf to Colorado instead of
southwestern New Mexico.
     The scientist who first identified
and named the Mexican Wolf noted
its distinct dentition and smaller size
from wolves further north, and the
“remarkably abrupt” morphological
transition between the Mexican Wolf
and neighboring wolves. Although
mammals’ sizes generally decrease
with distance from the poles, these
                                                                                                                                                          Photo by Val Halstead, Wolf Haven International

precipitous changes in body type may
have had specific adaptive value for an
animal preying on the diminutive Coues
White-tailed Deer and the pig-like
Javelina in an area not populated by
larger bodied Elk – and where prickly
vegetation might impede the movement
of a larger wolf.
     In 1998, the Mexican Wolf was
reintroduced slightly north of its
                                                         Mexican Gray Wolf pair

     C E N T E R                          F O R   B I O L O G I C A L                                D I V E R S I T Y          WINTER 2006/07                                                              9
 Advocacy Spotlight   continued from page 3

Exposé reveals political interference in wildlife science

       he Center helped publicly expose         the Center, Biodiversity Conservation               Center for Native Ecosystems appeared
       a Bush administration appointee          Alliance, Center for Native Ecosystems,             in the Denver Post, Casper Star-Tribune
       for persistently interfering with        Forest Guardians, and Sagebrush Sea                 and Rocky Mountain News.
government scientists to sway decisions         Campaign called upon recently appointed                 These calls appear to be gaining
regarding endangered species protection.        Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne                  traction. The Washington Post revealed
     Julie MacDonald, Department of             to reconsider decisions made with                   that the Inspector General of the
Interior Deputy Assistant Secretary for         MacDonald’s interference, and to ask for            Department of Interior is investigating
Fish, Wildlife and Parks, repeatedly            her resignation.                                    MacDonald, and Democrats, including
overruled agency scientists in order to              A December 20 guest editorial in the           Congressman Nick Rahall, D-WVa.,
deny protection for critically imperiled        Seattle Post-Intelligencer by the Center’s          new chairman of the House Resources
species, according to an October 30             Noah Greenwald called for Kempthorne                Committee, have pledged to launch
Washington Post exposé based on                 to “clean house” at Interior by removing            a congressional investigation in this
information provided by the Center and          MacDonald, as well as recently appointed            session. Secretary Kempthorne will
other groups.                                   Second Deputy Secretary of Interior                 need to fire MacDonald and Willens
     As reported in the Post, documents         Todd Willens, formerly policy director for          and restore scientific integrity at the
obtained under the Freedom of                   ousted Rep. Richard Pombo, the most                 Department of Interior or risk these
Information Act confirm that internal           anti-endangered species congressman in              investigations bringing down his
findings by U.S. Fish and Wildlife              recent history. Similar guest editorials            administration.
Service scientists concluded that the           by the Center for Biological Diversity or           ••••••••••••••••••••••
Gunnison Sage-grouse, Gunnison’s
Prairie Dog, White-tailed Prairie Dog,
Roundtail Chub, Mexican Garter Snake               A History of Violence continued from page 3...
and a Mariana Islands plant are at risk of
                                                   March 2005. Whistle-blower Rick Piltz, senior associate from office coordinating
extinction and should be considered for
                                                   federal climate change programs, resigns declaring that political appointees
endangered species protection. In each
                                                   “impede[d] forthright communication of the state of climate science” and
case, MacDonald – an engineer with
                                                   “undermine[d] the credibility and integrity of the program.”
no biological training – or other officials
ordered biologists to reverse their findings.
                                                   February 2005. UCS survey reveals that 44 percent of U.S. Fish and Wildlife
     The Post quoted MacDonald as
                                                   Service (FWS) scientists working on endangered species reported they had been
saying that she has “mocked rank-and-
                                                   directed for non-scientific reasons to refrain from making findings to protect
file employees’ recommendations.”
     MacDonald’s interference in scientific
decisions concerning endangered
                                                   December 2004. Opinions of Julie MacDonald, Interior Department appointee
wildlife is pervasive. In response to a
                                                   with no background in wildlife biology, provided as part of source material for
2005 survey conducted by the Union
                                                   FWS panel that denies ESA protection for Greater Sage-grouse.
of Concerned Scientists, 84 Fish and
Wildlife Service scientists indicated
                                                   June 2003. White House tries to force EPA to alter section on climate change in
they were directed to exclude or alter
                                                   Draft Report on the Environment. Entire section ultimately deleted from report
scientific information in decisions.
                                                   released for public comment.
Several mentioned MacDonald by name.
     As one wrote, “I have never before
                                                   September 2002. Administration removes section on climate change from EPA’s
seen the boldness of intimidation
                                                   annual air pollution report.
demonstrated by a single political
appointee. She has modified the
                                                   May 2002. President Bush expresses disdain for State Department’s Climate
behavior of the entire agency. I believe
                                                   Action Report to United Nations that points to clear human role in accumulation
there should be a thorough investigation
                                                   of heat-trapping gases and forecasts negative consequences of climate change.
of her abuse of discretionary authority
and modification of science information
                                                   For a more complete list of the Bush administration’s misuses and abuses of
provided in FWS documents.”
                                                   science, visit the Web site of Union of Concerned Scientists at
     Echoing a call from the Union of
                                                   scientific_integrity. We acknowledge UCS for compiling much of the information
Concerned Scientists to restore scientific
                                                   reported in this timeline.
integrity to the Interior Department,

10        C E N T E R           F O R         B I O L O G I C A L                 D I V E R S I T Y          WINTER 2006/07
Meeting the Arts                                                                                                    earth
Music, theater, film and public television –
the Center saw its work celebrated across the arts                                                             Endangered Earth is the quarterly newsletter of the
                                                                                                               Center for Biological Diversity, a 501(c)3 nonprofit

this winter.                                                                                                organization dedicated to protecting endangered species
                                                                                                             and wild places through science, advocacy, education
                                                                                                                             and environmental law.
• About 300 people attended             • On Jan. 14, the Orpheum                                                       Contributions are tax-deductible.
Arizona’s premier of the Wild &         Theater in Phoenix, Ariz. screened
                                                                                                                               EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Scenic Environmental Film Festival      the world premier of “A River                                                        Michael Finkelstein
in November, raising nearly $1,500      Reborn: The Restoration of Fossil
to benefit our work and bringing        Creek.” The PBS documentary                                                                  EDITOR
                                                                                                                                Julie Miller,
environmental stories to life through tells the story of Arizona’s Fossil                                                   Publications Director
the magic of film. The mission of       Creek, which after 100 years
the film festival is to educate and     of degradation is undergoing                                                             CONTRIBUTORS
                                                                                                                 Lisa Belenky, Curt Bradley, Keri Dixon,
inspire, and the Center was             restoration thanks to an agreement                                  Julieta Gonzalez, Noah Greenwald, Chris Kassar,
thrilled to share it with our                                                                                Julie Miller, Brian Nowicki, Michael Robinson,
hometown crowd at the Loft                                                                                              Julie Teel, Melissa Waage
Cinema in Tucson.
• Singer, songwriter, activist                                                                                              aire design company
and Center member Bonnie Raitt
                                                                                                                   To become a member or give a gift
donated special tickets to her                                                                                membership, contact Keri Dixon at kdixon@
12/30 concert in Temecula, Calif.                                                                    or 520.623.5252 ext.
                                                                                                            312, or send a check or credit card number and
to benefit our work. Along with                                                                              expiration date to CBD, Membership, P.O. Box
special guests Jon Cleary & The                                                                                      710, Tucson, AZ, 85702-0710.
Absolute Monster Gentlemen,                                                                                      Or visit the “join us” page on our secure
Bonnie treated the audience                                                                                         server:
to a fantastic (sold-out!) show                                                                             On occasion, we trade our mailing list with organizations
and helped generate more than                                                                                 that share our mission. If you would prefer that your
                                                                                                                   name not be exchanged, please contact us.
$14,000 to support the Center for
                                                                           Photo courtesy of Bonnie Raitt

Biological Diversity. The reception
                                                                                                                CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
that followed brought those with
                                                                                                                              BECAUSE LIFE IS GOOD.
premium tickets face-to-face
with Bonnie backstage, where
Center staff Ileene Anderson and
Peter Galvin also spoke about the
Center’s work.
                                       Bonnie Raitt
                                                                                                                        In Memoriam
• The Center takes the stage in         between Arizona Public Service,                                          We offer sincere condolences
theater mecca New York City this        Inc. and environmental advocates                                     and gratitude to the family of Center
January and February. A production      including the Center. The                                            member Mark Saylor of Las Vegas,
                                                                                                             Nev., who passed away in 2006. As
benefiting our work opened January      documentary was produced for                                         his family suffered a tremendous loss,
10 at The Brick Theater. Inverse        Northern Arizona University and the                                  they celebrated Mark’s life and his
Theater Company presents “The           Museum of Northern Arizona by five-                                  passion for protecting wildlife. Mark
Death of Griffin Hunter,” a play        time Emmy Award-winning producer                                     was a committed supporter who chose
noir by Kirk Wood Bromley. This         Paul Bockhorst, and narrated by                                      to include the Center for Biological
                                                                                                             Diversity in his will. He left a legacy
thrilling and inventive tale about      “Cheers!” actor Ted Danson. Check                                    that will allow our conservation efforts
the Secretary of Disarmament for        your local listings or call your PBS                                 to continue long into the future. If
the United Nations takes off when       station to find out when the film                                    you would like more information about
Hunter flies to San Francisco to        may air in your town.                                                leaving a legacy for wildlife, please
sign a disarmament treaty with 90                                                                            contact our membership director, Keri
                                        •••••••••••••••••••••••                                              Dixon, 520.623.5252 ext. 312 or
nations – and quickly finds himself                                                                , or
embroiled in adventures he never                                                                             speak to your trusted financial advisor.
bargained for. For more information or
tickets, visit

        W W W . B I O L O G I C A L D I V E R S I T Y . O R G                                                   WINTER 2006/07                                   11
                                                                                                               Nonprofit Org
                                                                                                               US POSTAGE

                                                                                                               TUCSON AZ
                                                                                                              Permit No 1308

Marching Toward Extinction continued from front page

off the islands of South America, the           Listing these additional species       would vastly outweigh any costs, the
African Penguin in southern Africa, and     under the Act will provide broader         Bush administration has opposed all
the Emperor Penguin in Antarctica.          protection to penguins, including a        international and national efforts to
     For example, the Pointe Geologie       requirement that the U.S. government       make meaningful reductions
colony of Emperor Penguins featured in      may not carry out, authorize or fund       to emissions.
“March of the Penguins” has declined        any activity that would jeopardize the         The 12 penguin species included in
by 70 percent due to global warming.        penguins’ survival. Therefore, adding      the Center’s petition are the Emperor,
Krill, the keystone of the Antarctic        these penguins to the threatened           Southern Rockhopper, Northern
marine ecosystem, and an essential food     and endangered species list also           Rockhopper, Fiordland Crested, Snares
source not just for penguins but also for   would mandate that the government          Crested, Erect-crested, Macaroni,
whales and seals, has declined by as        take significant action to address         Royal, White-flippered, Yellow-eyed,
much as 80 percent since the 1970s          global warming.                            African and Humboldt Penguins. Photos
over large areas of the Southern Ocean.         The United States, with only four      and range maps for each species are
     Recent studies indicate that even      percent of the world’s population, is      available on our Web site,
under the most optimistic greenhouse        responsible for producing about one-
gas emission scenarios, continued           quarter of the world’s greenhouse gases.
warming over the next several decades       The U.S. Government Accounting Office      For more on the Center’s work to demand
will affect, dramatically and adversely,    projects that these greenhouse gas         that the administration heed scientists’
key ecosystems on which penguins            emissions will grow by 43.5 percent        warnings and take action to reduce
depend, including the Southern Ocean,       through the year 2025.                     U.S. contributions to the emissions that
Antarctica and the Sub-Antarctic islands.       Despite an overwhelming body           cause global warming, see inside article,
     The Galapagos Penguin is the only      of scientific and economic literature      “Anything But the Truth.”
penguin species currently protected by      demonstrating that the long-term
the Endangered Species Act.                 benefits of reducing greenhouse            ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
                                            gas emissions and future warming
                                                                                                                   printed on recycled paper

12            W W W . B I O L O G I C A L D I V E R S I T Y . O R G                        WINTER 2006/07

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