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					DSpace and E-Learning
                 William Reilly
                 MIT Libraries
   Digital Library Research Group (DLRG)

 Presenting on behalf of several colleagues…



              DSpace and E-Learning
                  June 2, 2006
            Agenda (high level)
• Another Domain… Libraries
  – Scholarly record
  – Digital Archives, Institutional Repositories
• Introduction to DSpace
• DSpace and E-Learning
• Sakai and DSpace



                  DSpace and E-Learning
                      June 2, 2006
Digital Archives (agenda cont., 1 of 4)

• Open Archives Information System
  (OAIS) Reference Model
• JISC Repositories Deposit API

• RAMLET (IEEE LTSC) Packaging



              DSpace and E-Learning
                  June 2, 2006
       DSpace per se (2 of 4)
• DSpace in General
  – Audiences, purposes, uses
  – DSpace architecture, information model
  – History
  – DSpace Federation, governance board
• DSpace and E-Learning
  – CWSpace (OpenCourseWare)
  – Stellar Images Tool

                DSpace and E-Learning
                    June 2, 2006
        Sakai-related (3 of 4)
• Sakai + Repositories generally
  – Sakaibrary, Twin Peaks, Fedora, OKI
• DSpace + Sakai Integration Points
  – Forthcoming whitepaper, Univ. of
    Cambridge's CARET
     • Centre for Applied Research in Educational
       Technologies http://www.caret.cam.ac.uk/




                  DSpace and E-Learning
                      June 2, 2006
      Other Speakers (4 of 4)
• Carnegie Foundation for the
  Advancement of Teaching
  – Olga Trusova
  – Knowledge Media Lab: KEEP Toolkit


• DSpace + Sakai Integration
  – Ian Boston
  – Early initiatives at Univ. of Cambridge's
    CARET
                 DSpace and E-Learning
                     June 2, 2006
Scholarly Information Life Cycle




          Scholarly Information Life
                    Cycle




                           DSpace and E-Learning
                               June 2, 2006
"Cosmic" View of the
 Repositories Space




      DSpace and E-Learning
          June 2, 2006
     Neil McLean's Observations
• The many different permutations of potential
  contexts are rarely articulated in a coherent
  fashion
• Some tension between managed and
  unmanaged environments
• No common methodologies as yet to deal
  with multiple permutations of context
 http://www.ecdl2004.org/presentations/mclean/n-mclean.ppt
 As linked to from JISC(UK)/DEST(Aust.):
 http://www.e-framework.org/events/conference/programme/repositories/



                          DSpace and E-Learning
                              June 2, 2006
    Archives "Reference Model"
                                        (OAIS)




•    Information Packages: SIP, AIP, DIP = Submission IP,
     Archival IP, Dissemination IP
http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0b1.pdf
                                   DSpace and E-Learning
                                       June 2, 2006
        Repositories: Variety.
          Convergence?
JISC Deposit API
  – http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/index/Deposit_API
· WebDAV                  EPrints
· OKI OSID                DSpace
· JSR 170 & 283           Intrallect
· SRW Update              ARNO
· Flickr Deposit API      Fedora
· Fedora Deposit API      Greenstone
· ECL                     HarvestRoad
· Etc.                    aDORe - LANL
                          OCLC Digital Archive



                       DSpace and E-Learning
                           June 2, 2006
           JISC Deposit API

Repository                   Deposit interface
Stores, manages and
  makes available content    •Intelligence: Data format,
                              packaging standard.
  and metadata               •Data in: Deposit request
• Deposit interface           (content, metadata, etc.)
                             •Data out: Deposit status
• Delete interface
                              (success, failure, pending,
• Search interface            etc.) and content identifier
• Harvest interface
                             Format checking, editorial
• Obtain interface            control, quality assurance
                              mechanisms, etc.
                   DSpace and E-Learning
                       June 2, 2006
                 Universe of Content
- WWW
• University
   – Academics: CLE, Depts
       • Video Audio
       • Image collection
   – Libraries
       • Licensed Content $$
           – E-Serials, Journals
           – Vendor Databases
       • Locally-Owned Content
           – E-Reserves: digitized, scanned
           – Digital Library Collections
           – Image collections
           – Institutional Repository / Digital Archive
                » E-Scholarship
                » Image Collections
           – Learning Objects Repository
                » Courseware
                » Learning Objects

                                   DSpace and E-Learning
                                       June 2, 2006
World View…




  DSpace and E-Learning
      June 2, 2006
          DSpace: Visually Explained
• Submission: Files | Metadata
• Organization: Bundle | Item | Collection | Community
• Curation: Preservation | Rights Mgt. | Admin.
• Use: Search | Browse | Disseminate | Retrieval




                              http://www.dynamicdiagrams.com/case_studies/mit_dspace.html

                                               DSpace and E-Learning
                                                   June 2, 2006
Information Model
                            • Item can
                              be mapped
                              to more
                              than one
                              Collection
                            • Bundles
                              organize
                              Bitstreams
                            • Little in
                              way of
                              associating
                              Items




    DSpace and E-Learning
        June 2, 2006
DSpace Architecture




     DSpace and E-Learning
         June 2, 2006
   Current development model
                   Contributions                             Accepted
                    (“Patches”)                             contributions




                                                              Committer
                                                             development


                                    Committer Group
                                                                             Main DSpace
                     Feedback                                                 Code Base
                                                                            (SourceForge)

DSpace Community


                                              Non-contributing users




                                   DSpace and E-Learning
                                       June 2, 2006
                            How Did We Get Here?                                    Mar 2005            Feb 06
                                                               Mar 2004          DSpace workshop     DSpace UG
                                                       First user group meeting Bangalore, India    meeting, Sydney
                                                      120 attendees, 7 countries




      Nov 2000 - Nov 2002                   Nov 2002 - Mar 2004                      Mar 2004 -
HP-MIT development of DSpace 1.0            HP/MIT development;               Open Source community
                                             community support                 research/development




                                Nov 2002                       Apr 2004                    Jul 2005
                            DSpace 1.0 Released          Committer group formed     2nd user group meeting
                                                                                  140 attendees, 22 countries

                                                                                                          Mar 2006
                                                                                                     Governance advisory

                                                               Fast!!                                  board meeting




                                                  DSpace and E-Learning
                                                      June 2, 2006
    DSpace Federation Governance Advisory
           Board Formed (March 2006)
•   Digital Curation Centre, UK               "The governance board was
•   Australian Partnership for Sustainable    convened to draft a
    Repositories                              recommendation for
•   Biomed Central, UK                        governance and funding
•   University of Rochester                   mechanisms…
•   Rice University                           …to advance the DSpace
•   University of Michigan                    community and ensure that the
•   Coalition for Networked Information       technology platform remains
•   University of Toronto                     sound, protecting the
•   Harvard Business School                   investment that institutions
•   Indian Statistical Institute              have made."
•   HP Labs
                                           http://wiki.dspace.org/DspaceGovernance
•   Carelliance BV, Netherlands
•   MIT Libraries

                                 DSpace and E-Learning
                                     June 2, 2006
           Board Decisions (Mar. 31, 2006)
• Drafted a statement of mission
• Made a decision to form an independent
  foundation and initiated a planning process to
  accomplish that end
• Formed an interim steering committee
  chaired by Chris Rusbridge (Director, Digital
  Curation Centre, UK)
• Addressed the need for a technical working
  group and initiated a road map and white
  paper process to support that effort

                  DSpace and E-Learning
                      June 2, 2006
     Statement of Mission (Mar. 31, 2006)
The draft mission of the DSpace foundation is:
• to lead the collaborative development of open source
  software for digital repositories that enables services
  for access, provision, stewardship and re-use of
  digital assets with a focus on educational and
  research materials;
• to promote the adoption of this technology; and
• to provide a platform for innovation in these areas
  with an overarching goal of promoting the
  dissemination and future utility of information and
  knowledge.

                     DSpace and E-Learning
                         June 2, 2006
DSpace In Use

 Little world tour…




    DSpace and E-Learning
        June 2, 2006
DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
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DSpace and E-Learning
    June 2, 2006
    CWSpace Overview
MIT iCampus project, nearing completion

 Goal: Archive MIT's OpenCourseWare to
  MIT’s DSpace
    – Also: Make content available to CLEs *
                * CLE = Collaborative Learning Environment


 Method: Interoperability of systems
   – Use Content Packaging standard
   – Use Web Services standard


               DSpace and E-Learning
                   June 2, 2006
       OCW Materials in DSpace =
                       New Ground Archive
       Educational Materials    Digital
New kind of content: educational,      POLICY - Cost/merit evaluation of
teaching, learning                     archival treatment. Preservation and
                                       IP considerations
New emphasis (ideally) on re-use,      GRANULARITY - Challenge to
re-purposing: aggregation,             digital archive; how flexible can it
disaggregation                         be? (cf. CMS)
New kind of structure, composition:    COMPLEXITY - Need to package
website, compound digital object,      multi-file content, plus metadata
rich metadata


New needs for system-to-system         BACK-END / FRONT-END - Need
access: CLEs, Image Tools              for networked access

                            DSpace and E-Learning
                                June 2, 2006
       OCW Materials in DSpace =
                       New Ground Archive
       Educational Materials    Digital
New kind of content: educational,      POLICY - Cost/merit evaluation of
teaching, learning                     archival treatment. Preservation and
                                       IP considerations
New emphasis (ideally) on re-use,      GRANULARITY - Challenge to
re-purposing: aggregation,             digital archive; how flexible can it
disaggregation                         be? (cf. CMS)
New kind of structure, composition:    COMPLEXITY - Need to package
website, compound digital object,      multi-file content, plus metadata
rich metadata
                                       Content Packaging
New needs for system-to-system         BACK-END / FRONT-END - Need
access: CLEs, Image Tools              for networked access
                                       Web Services
                            DSpace and E-Learning
                                June 2, 2006
    OpenCourseWare as Content
•   Normalized data model (out
    of chaos)
     – "Sections" fit well to
       publication organization
•   Normalized content files
    (.PDF)
     – Reduced ability to
       disaggregate, re-purpose




                                  DSpace and E-Learning
                                      June 2, 2006
Package Interchange File (PIF)




 IMS Content Package (IMS-CP) uses a .ZIP file
   with a Manifest XML file and all content files.
          http://www.imsglobal.org/content/packaging/cpv1p1p4/imscp_bestv1p1p4.html
                             DSpace and E-Learning
                                 June 2, 2006
                            "RAMLET"
• Resource Aggregation Model
  for Learning Education and
                                                        Various Standards:
  Training                                              • IMS Content
     – IEEE Learning Technology                           Package
       Standards Committee (LTSC).                      • METS
• "Conceptual model for digital                         • MPEG21-DIDL
  aggregates of resources for                           • XFDU
  learning, education, and
  training applications."
                                                        •…

http://ieeeltsc.org/wg11CMI/ramlet/



                                DSpace and E-Learning
                                    June 2, 2006
Interop: What’s Achievable




         DSpace and E-Learning
             June 2, 2006
Interop: Challenges




     DSpace and E-Learning
         June 2, 2006
InterOp: Possible Resolution?




         DSpace and E-Learning
             June 2, 2006
DSpace dev: LNI & PKGers




        DSpace and E-Learning
            June 2, 2006
DSpace Mapped to WebDAV




        DSpace and E-Learning
            June 2, 2006
         WebDAV Methods in LNI
• PROPFIND - very powerful request with multiple functions:
   – list names of properties
   – return property values
   – recurse through 1 or more levels of a "collection" resource.
• PROPPATCH - changes value of or deletes properties on one
  resource.
• GET - retrieves contents of a resource
• PUT - replace or add a new resource to a collection
• COPY - map a resource ("Item") to a different Collection.

   As noted, equivalent SOAP methods are provided

   Not Implemented: Locking, Versioning.

                             DSpace and E-Learning
                                 June 2, 2006
        Stellar Image Tool

• Dspace as "back-end" to Teaching &
  Learning application
• Stellar add-on tool + OKI + SRW +
  DSpace

• Also note: Sakai Tool (Berkeley) + t.b.d.
  (OKI?) + Fedora's Web Services

                DSpace and E-Learning
                    June 2, 2006
  Sakai + Fedora Integration
     Posts (April 2006)
• Intersection between Sakai and Fedora
  – Idea: "…to make Fedora the content repository for
    Sakai, as opposed to a Sakai
    search/browse/retrieve/edit tool for Fedora."
     • Peter Murray, OhioLINK
        – http://bugs.sakaiproject.org/confluence/x/ikE




                             DSpace and E-Learning
                                 June 2, 2006
    Further Discussion: Sakai +
      Repository Integration
• JSR-170? No longer.
• "You must implement ContentHostingService API"
  – Wide implications
  – Plugin pattern better idea
• OKI OSID DR = secondary interface to repositories
• Alternative: Extend ContentHosting… repository
  gateway
  – Implementation at CARET (IMS-CP player)


                       DSpace and E-Learning
                           June 2, 2006
Sakai Content:
  Resource
     Tool




   DSpace and E-Learning
       June 2, 2006
Sakai Content: "The" Repository




            DSpace and E-Learning
                June 2, 2006
Sakai Content: External
     Repositories




        DSpace and E-Learning
            June 2, 2006
Sakai + DSpace Integration
   forthcoming whitepaper




        DSpace and E-Learning
            June 2, 2006
        Sakai + DSpace:
  Integration Report (CARET)
Preliminary ideas from a forthcoming
  whitepaper - Univ. of Cambridge CARET
• Background, sources
• Focus group results: Areas of interest
• (Use Cases)
• (Models)
• Tools, Projects
• Roadmap, Recommendations
    Source: Univ. of Cambridge CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                         DSpace and E-Learning
                             June 2, 2006
     Where to "Intervene"?

• Background to Integration Report
  – Case studies reviewed
  – Projects interviewed
  – Interventions: technical, non-technical
  – For DSpace, for Sakai
  – Gaps, enabling technologies identified


                Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                 DSpace and E-Learning
                     June 2, 2006
Current View

                                           Web
                                           Services
                                           exposed, not
                                           (yet)
                                           exercised
                                           (extensively)




  Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
  DSpace and E-Learning
      June 2, 2006
E-Learning View?

                                             For a
                                             CLE/CMS,
                                             what is exact
                                             relation of
                                             "Repository"
                                             notion to
                                             "Storage"
                                             needs … ?




    Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
    DSpace and E-Learning
        June 2, 2006
Peer Systems View
                                             Web
                                             Services for
                                             loosely
                                             coupled
                                             peer
                                             systems

                                             Note the
                                             CMS W/S
                                             point to
                                             Repository
                                             business,
                                             not storage.




    Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
     DSpace and E-Learning
         June 2, 2006
       Focus Group Results
                                 • Continued importance
• Time pressure, chaos
                                   of face-to-face
• Search within CMS; not           meetings
  web                            • Overoptimistic re: own
• Hurdle in publication            preservation
  process                        • "Disinterest" in
• Multi-homed work                 repositories, archives
• Imaging and                    • Repository "fear"
  visualization tools            • Metadata fear
  valued

                  Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                   DSpace and E-Learning
                       June 2, 2006
    Related Topics of Interest
• Cross-pollination              • Metadata quality
  talks: CLEs and IRs              mismatch
• "Rebranding" of                • Breaking the preprint
  repository svcs.                 model
• "Unrolling" repository         • Supporting informal
  svcs. (separating                meetings (PPW
  out)                             Personal
• Policy Manifestation             Professional
  transferability                  Webpage)

                  Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                   DSpace and E-Learning
                       June 2, 2006
       Some Guiding Principles
• Tools available at                        • Permit librarians to
  multiple locations                          manage metadata of
• Authors should feel in                      differing quality
  control:                                  • Convey to depositors
   –   Preservation                           nature of qualified
   –   Dissemination                          acceptance of some
   –   Metadata                               materials
   –   Availability, access
• Metadata implicitly
  collected where possible


                          Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                              DSpace and E-Learning
                                  June 2, 2006
  Options for Tools, Projects
                           5.    Showcase Tool
                           6.    Bibliography Tool
1. Extending Sakai         7.    Learning Object Creation
   Resource Tool                 Tools
                           8.    Search Tool
2. Site Archive            9.    PPWs
                           10.   Ad hoc Collections
3. Collections
                           11.   Realtime Discovery
   Workflow                12.   Sakai-delegated
                                 Permission
4. Policy                  13.   Erobots
   Manifestation           14.   Item History
                           15.   Migration Services

             Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
              DSpace and E-Learning
                  June 2, 2006
             1. Extending Sakai
                 Resource Tool
(briefly)
• Ian Boston, CARET, will describe…
    – http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.cms.sakai.devel/2870/
"…a plugin into ContentHostingService
… Once it 'owns' the node, it takes responsibility for providing
  ContentResources for that node and all child nodes.
…implemented an IMS-CP plugin, that 'plays' IMS-CP files
…could use to 'mount' a repository"


                            DSpace and E-Learning
                                June 2, 2006
         2. Site Archive

(briefly)
• Dan Sheppard, CARET, may
  implement
• Leverage CWSpace




             DSpace and E-Learning
                 June 2, 2006
        3. Collections Workflow
• Motivation: need to accept submissions of varying
  quality. Partitioned to separate collections; not all
  visible
• Put Items into workflow: maintains a state re:
   – Dissemination, preservation guarantees
   – Metadata quality requirements
• Events trigger workflow actions
   – Add to OAI-PMH set
   – Migration
   – Add to or retract from public catalogue
• Extends existing DSpace Workflow to fuller lifecycle

                        Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                         DSpace and E-Learning
                             June 2, 2006
       4. Policy Manifestation (1 of 3)
(not briefly (!))
• "Handshake" at beginning of Web Services
  connection
   – Layer above LNI or DR OSID
• Machine-readable exchange of policies
   – Available collections
   – Restrictions on Epersons
   – Collections using specialist tools
   – Required notices, agreements to/from Sakai user
   – Copyright, licensing, preservation, dissemination
     requirements
   – Required metadata, mandatory keys, acceptable ranges
   – Extra metadata searches by collection
                       Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                       DSpace and E-Learning
                           June 2, 2006
    4. Policy Manifestation (2 of 3)
• Fragments: simple, uncontroversial action-based
  policy snippets
   – E.g. Creative Commons license four constraints
• Expressed in RDF = extensible
• Example ideas:
   – Special structure or contents of collections
       • Contact details for collection's maintainer
       • Programs under which collection is managed
   – Repository status
       • E.g. Patches available for special image gallery handling




                          Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                           DSpace and E-Learning
                               June 2, 2006
     4. Policy Manifestation (3 of 3)
• Sakai functionality:
   – Ability to display (repository-defined) notices to user at ingest
   – Ability to display (negotiated) drop-downs, re: collections,
     metadata
   – Ability to check Sakai IP properties are consistent with
     repository IP
   – Ability to modify search per abilities of search tools
   – Ability to associate items pulled notices (e.g. bibliography
     tool)
   – Ability to fulfill license requirements (CC and metadata fields)
• "Sticky" folders could help with implicit or default
  values inheritance…


                         Source: CARET Whitepaper (forthcoming)
                          DSpace and E-Learning
                              June 2, 2006
Summary
 Table
       (1 of 2)

 • Variety of
   quite
   preliminary
   ideas
   surfaced…



Source: CARET Whitepaper
       (forthcoming)
                           DSpace and E-Learning
                               June 2, 2006
Summary
 Table
       (2 of 2)

 • Some work to be
   commissioned
   this summer




Source: CARET Whitepaper
       (forthcoming)
                           DSpace and E-Learning
                               June 2, 2006
  DSpace and E-Learning:
Other Observations…
 Olga Trusova, Carnegie Foundation for the
         Advancement of Teaching
 Ian Boston, Univ. of Cambridge (CARET)




             DSpace and E-Learning
                 June 2, 2006
       DSpace and E-Learning:
Discussion, Questions
                       William Reilly
                       MIT Libraries
         Digital Library Research Group (DLRG)
      Presenting on behalf of several colleagues…
MacKenzie Smith, Julie Walker, Rob Tansley, Larry Stone


                  v. 20060602_1000 PDT

                  DSpace and E-Learning
                      June 2, 2006
                   DSpace & E-Learning: Abstract
•   An introductory presentation to DSpace, the digital archive system and
    open source community.
•   The precise relation of a digital archive to a collaboration and learning environment (CLE)
    like Sakai is a topic very much in development. Preliminary ideas on potential
    integration points will be presented, from a forthcoming whitepaper [1]. These will be
    discussed within the context of recent Sakai discussion group activity on closely related
    topics (e.g. Sakaibrary, Twin Peaks, Fedora, OKI, repositories generally).
•   Comparison of "repository" as a component of the architectural stack of a CLE (akin to
    Sakai's Resource Tool and ContentHosting API), vs. "repository" or digital archive as a
    peer system to a CLE, whereby interoperation is achieved via Web Services.
•   General topics include: DSpace's architecture, information model, its other (non E-
    Learning) audiences & purposes, its open source community, and the DSpace Federation
    governance board.
•   E-Learning-related topics include: CWSpace: archiving MIT's OpenCourseWare (OCW) to
    DSpace; and the Stellar Image Tool, using DSpace as backend.
•   Contributing speakers to include some remarks from Indiana University vis-a-vis repositories
    as they relate to the current scope of Sakaibrary; remarks from Univ. of Cambridge initial
    experiments with Sakai and DSpace integration; and a report from the Carnegie
    Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching exploration of DSpace as candidate back-
    end and dissemination platform (non Sakai-related) for their KEEP Toolkit (see Technical
    Demos).
•         [1] Univ. of Cambridge, CARET, "DSpace/Sakai Integration Report"
•         (draft May 16, 2006)         DSpace and E-Learning
                                        June 2, 2006

				
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