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Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology

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					   Association for the
    Advancement of
Applied Sport Psychology



 SIXTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE




      Savannah, Georgia
     October 23-27, 1991
A.A.A.S.P.                                        Association for the Advancement of Applied
                                                               Spon Psychology




                                                                     Larry Brawley
                                                              Universityof Waterloo
                                                           Departmentof Kinesiology
                                                                  Waterloo.Ontario
                                                                  Canada N2L 3G1

                            ANNUAL CONFERENCE
                                 Savannah, GA
                               October 23.27, 1991
    On behalf of the Associationfor the Advancementof Applied Sport Psychology
 I would like to welcome you to our sixth annual conference. The wonderful
 conference facility here at the SheratonSavannahprovides us with excellent
 meeting space and a host of excellentrecreation facilities. Moreover,our section
 heads have organized an outstanding program of invited speakers. symposia.
 workshops. and lectures. I think you will fmd these meetings to be an excellent
 opportunity for professional growth and developmentin a relaxing and enjoyable
 environment.
    Please do not hesitate to provide the Executive Board members with any
 feedback you may have as to how we can continue to improve the conference. In
 addition, if you are new to the organization.please feel free to introduce yourself.
    Thank you for supporting AAASP. Have a productive conference and be sure
 to experience "southern hospitality"Savannah style.
                                        Sincerely,


                                        ~~
                                        Larry Brawley. Ph.D.
                                        President. AAASP
      AAASP EXECUTIVE BOARD & SECTION COMMITTEES
                                            1991

                                          President
                                  Lawrence R. Brawley, Ph.D.
                                    University of Waterloo




     President-Elect                Secretary-Treasurer                Past-President
  Michael L.Sachs. Ph.D. I - - - t Robin S.Vealey, Ph.D.             Daniel Gould, Ph.D.
    Temple University                Miami University                 University of North
                                                                    Carotina at Greensboro

                                       I               I
                   Publications Director         Student Representative
                  Martha E. Ewing, Ph.D. ~-.---I DougP. Jowdy, M.S.
                 Michigan StateUniversity        Virginia Commonwealth
                                                        University


                  ~~
.....-------..,.".~ ~~---------.
    Health Psychology               Intervention/Performance         Social Psychology
  Bonnie G. Berger, Ed.D. I - - - t        Enhancement             Penny McCullagh, Ph.D.
     Brooklyn College                Steven J. Danish, Ph.D.        University of Colorado
                                      Virginia Commonwealth
                                             University




        Committee                          Committee                      Committee

     John Heil, Ph.D.                Debra J. Crews, Ph.D.            Diane L. Gill,Ph.D.
      Ronaoke, VA                  University of North Carolina   University of NorthCarolina
                                         at Greensboro                  at Greensboro
  Edward McAuley, Ph.D.
   University of Illinois             Bruce D. Hale,Ph.D.         Rebecca Lewthwaite, Ph.D.
                                      Pennsylvania State           University of Wisconsin,
  David Yukelson, Ph.D.                    University                    Milwaukee
   Pennsylvania State
       University                     DougP. Jowdy, M.S.           Anthony J. Piparo, M.S.
                                     Virginia Commonwealth         University of Wisconsin,
Leonard Zaichkowsky, Ed.D                   University                   MBwauk8e
    Boston University
                                   Kenneth H. Ravizza, Ph.D.        Frank L. Smoll, Ph.D.
                                   California StateUniversity      University of Washington
                                           at Fullerton

                                     Kirsten Peterson, M.S.
                                      University of Illinois

                                       AI Petitpas, Ph.D.
                                       Springfield College
             1991 AAASP CONFERENCE NOTICES
PROGRAM
  PRESIDERS                                 .
    Some programsare scheduledon an exttemely tight timeline. Therefore. it is
  absolutely necessaryfor speakersand panicipants to assist the presidersin
  adhering to these times and for the presidersto adhere to the designatedschedule.
  INTERACTIVE coMMuNICATIONS: POSTERS
         All posters are numberedin your program. The number beside your poster
  title in the conferenceprogramis your poster number. Poster set-up time is
  Friday, October 25 from 12:00- 1:30 PM. All posters should be mounted during
  this time period. The poster sessionwill take place in the foyer outside Ballrooms
  A, B. and C. At least one poster author should be available from 4:00 to 6:30 PM
  to field questions during the poster session. After the conclusionof the session.
  all posters should beimmediately removed.

  T-SHIRTS Arm PIREctORIES QE GRADUATE PROGRAMS
        T-shirts and graduateprogramdirectories will be available for sale at the
  registrationdesk. Check at the registration desk for information concerning prices.
SOCIAL EVENTS
  WELCOMING Er:m ~ CHEESE REmpTION
        On Wednesday.October23 there will be a welcomereceptionserving wine
  and cheese from 8:30 to 10:30PM in the OglethorpeI Room. Those purchasing a
  Sheraton4-nightAAASPConference packagewill receive a reception ticket at
  hotel check-in. If you did not purchasethe hotel AAASP package,individual
  tickets can be purchasedat the registration desk. J::lQ ~ will be admitted to the
  reception withoutthe appropriate ticket.
  CONFERENCE BANOUET
        The all-conference banquetwill take place on Saturday,October 26 from .
  8:00 - 10:00PM in the Oglethorpe Room. A cash bar will also run concurrently with
  the banquet. Those purchasing a Sheraton 3 or 4 night AAASP Conference package
  will receive a banquetticketat hotelcheck-in. If you did not purchasethe hotel
  AAASP package.individual ticketscan be purchased at the registration desk. ~ ~
  will be admitted to the banquet without the appropriate ticket.
MISCELLANEOUS
  MEALS
    With the exception of the all-conference banquet, no meal functions are included
  with the hotel AAASP package. However, the hotel will offer special breakfast,
  lunch, and dinner buffets on a cash basis.
  SHUTILE SERVICE·
     A shuttle van will run to the "overflow" accommodations. Please ask at the
  registrationdesk for further information and times.
                                                                                          4



Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology
                          SIXTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE
                                     October 23;'27, 1991
                                        Sava,,,,,,", GA

                          CONFERENCE PROGRAM

 TUESDAY, OCTOBER 22
   8:00AM           EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING· Winged Foot Room

 WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 23
   8:00 AM          EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING • Winged Foot Room
   NOON· 6 PM       AAASP GOLFTOURNAMENT
                    Savannah Sheraton Resort & Country Club
   3 PM • 6 PM      AAASP TENNIS TOURNAMENT
                    Savannah Sheraton Resort & Country Club
   4:00 • 7:30 PM   REGISTRATION· Main Lobby
                    DINNER ON YOUR OWN
   7:30·8:30 PM COLEMAN GRIFFITH MEMORIAL LECTURE
   Ballroom A   Presider: Dan Gould. University of Nonh Carolina- Greensboro
                Speaker: Ken Ravizza, California StateUniversity- Fullerton
                Tide: Applied span psychology: Lessons learned through field experience
   8:30· 10:30 PM WELCOMING WINEAND CHEESE RECEPTION


 THURSDAY, OCTOBER 24
   7:00· 8:00 AM AAASP FIRSTANNUAL MASTERY RUN
   8:30- 9:00 AM OPENING REMARKS
   Ballroom A    Dan Gould. University of Nonh Carolina - Greensboro, Past-President. AAASP

   9:00· 10:00 AM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT COLLOQUIUM
   Ballroom A       Presider and Organizer: Tom Hanson, Skidmore College
                    The Mental Aspects .of Hitting
                    Participant: Tom Hanson. Skidmore College
                                                                                         5



9:00-10:20AM SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURES
BallroomC      Presider: Robin Vealey, MiamiUniversity
               Using outcomeexpectancy methodin the assessment of participation motives:
               Beyonddescription
                   Wendy Rodgersand Larry Brawley,Universityof Waterloo
               Arousal.anxiety. and performance in archers:
               A case study examination of multidimensional and catastrophe theory
                   Eileen Udry and RobinVealey. Miami University
               Perceived uncertainty and importance as cognitivedeterminants of state responses
               in femalevolleyball players
                    Cun Lox. Miami University

9:00· 10:30 AM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
Ballroom B     Presider: Britton Brewer.University of Delaware
               Drugs and Alcohol Education for Athletes:
               Three Developmental Life-Skills Models for College & Elite Athletes
               Organizer: BruceHale. Pennsylvania State University
               Panicipants: Chris Carr. USOCand Ball State University
                            BruceHale. Pennsylvania State University
                            StevenDanish.VirginiaCommonwealth University
                            Al Petitpas, Springfield College
                            Rob Stainback. University of Alabamaat Birmingham

10/10:20-10:30 AM COFFEE BREAK


10:30·12 PM    INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
Ballroom A     Presider and Organizer: Shane Murphy. United StatesOlympicCommittee
               A Model Program for Consultation & Intervention with Elite Athletes
               Panicipants: Shane Murphy. Chris Carr. and Robert Swoap
                            United States Olympic Committee

10:30· 12 PM   SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
Ballroom C     Presider: Frank Smoll, University of Washington
               Burnout in Coaching: Theory, Research and Practice
               Organizer: RobinVealey,Miami University
               Participants: Robin Vealey, Miami University
                             Betty Kelley, Southern IllinoisUniversity at Carbondale
                                                                                               6


11:00-12:00     HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY LECTURES
BaliroomB       Presider: David Pargman, FloridaStateUniversity
                The measurement of barriers to exercise: Problems and a possible solution
                    Larry Brawley. University of Waterloo
                Exploration of the role of exercise in the hierarchy of corporate employees'
                everyday pursuits
                    L. Gauvin. J. Ricci. A. O'Halloran, J.C. Spence and C. Cot~.
                    Concordia University, McGill University, and Universit~ de Montreal
                Cross-validation analysis of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale
                    Charles Jackson. Old Dominion University,
                    Kenneth Kambis and Christina Jackson, College of William and Mary
12:00.1:30 PM LUNCHON YOUR OWN
1:30- 3:00 PM SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURES
Ballroom C    Presider: DavidYukelson, Pennsylvania State University
                Sources of infonnation underlying personal competence judgements of
                high school athletes
                    Thelma Horn, Miami University
                Goal setting in competitive sport: An athlete's perspective
                    RobertWeinberg. University of Nonh Texas
                    Damon Burton. University of Idaho
                    Dave Yukelson, Pennsylvania StateUniversity
                Cohesion of coacting andinteracting female intercollegiate athletes
                    Hilary Matheson and Mimi Murray, Springfield College
                Frequency of competition and aggressive behavior in professional ice hockey
                    E. J. McGuire, Chicago Blackhawks
                    W. NeilWidmeyer. University of Waterloo
                Cultural differences in the psychological characteristics of ultraendurance triathletes
                    Jerry Johnson and Claire Camburn, University of Hawaii - Hilo
1:30- 3:00 PM AAASP STUDENT MEETING· Ballroom B
1:30- 2:15 PM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT COLLOQUIUM
Ballroom A    Presider and Organizer: LanceGreen, TulaneUniversity
                A Theoretical and Applied Model for the Use of Imagery by Athletes
                Participant: Lance Green. TulaneUniversity
2:15 - 3:15PM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
Ballroom A    Presider andOrganizer: Ed Thiebe, National Collegiate Athletic Association
                NCAA Youth Sports Program
                Participant: Ed Thiebe, NCAA
313:15.3:30 PM COFFEE BREAK
                                                                                            7


3:30 - 5:00 PM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY WORKSHOP
BallroomC      Presider: Kate Hays,The Perfonning Edge, Concord, NH
               A Systematic Approach to Eating Disorders in an Intercollegiate
               Environment
               Organizer: LibbyHowell, PrivatePractice, Phoenix, AZ
               Participants: MarkAnderson, Arizona State Univ~ty
                             LibbyHowell, PrivatePractice, Phoenix, AZ
3:30 -5:00 PM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
Ballroom A    Presiderand Organizer: FrankGardner, GardnerConsulting Associates
              Four Approaches to Athlete Intervention
              Participants: FrankGardner, GardnerConsulting Associates
                            Robin Vealey, Miami University
                            Dan Gould, University of North Carolina- Greensboro
                            Jim Taylor, NovaUniversity
3:30 - 5:00 PM  SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
BallroomB       Presider: DianeWiese-Bjomstal, University of Minnesota
                Observational Learning:
                The Forgotten Method in Psychological Skill Development
                Organizer: Maureen Weiss, University of Oregon
                Participants: Maureen Weiss, University of Oregon
                              Penny McCullagh and John Noble, University of Colorado
                              Frances Flint, YorkUniversity
5:00 - 5: 15 PM BREAK(Refreshments on yourown)
5:15 -7:00 PM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY ROUND TABLE
BallroomC       Presiderand Organizer: Bortnie Berger
                Stress and Exercise: What We Know and What We Need to Know
                Participants: BrinonBrewer, University of Delaware
                              Edward McAuley, University of Illinois
                              T.C..North, North & Associates, Boulder, CO
                              David Pargman, FloridaStateUniversity
                              Michael Sachs, Temple University
5:15 -7:00 PM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT ROUND TABLE
Ballroom A      FromTheory and Research to Practice and Back
5:30 - 6:30 PM CROSS SECTIONAL ROUND TABLE
BallroomB       Presider and Organizer: Penny McCullagh, University of Colorado
                Know Your Members
                Participants: MarkAnderson, Arizona StateUniversity
                              Dan Gould, University ofNonh Carolina- Greensboro
                              Frank Gardner, GardnerConsulting Associates
                              Tara Scanlan, UCLA
                              David Yukelson, Pennsylvania State University
                *Note: Attendees must sign up for these individual sessions at the registration desk.
                         Eachsession will be limited to 10 people.
7:00 - 8:30 PM   OCTOBERFEST POOLSIDE SUNSET DINNER
                 (POOLSIDEAT PARTICIPANTS OWNCOST)
                                                                                                8



FRIDAY, OCTOBER 2S
 7:00-8:30AM    PAST-PRESIDENTS BREAKFAST MEETING (Atownexpense in hotel restaurant)
 8:30.10:ooAM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY KEYNOTE
 Ballroom A     Presider: Bonnie Berger, Brooklyn College
                Discussant: Andy Meyers, Memphis StateUniversity
                Speaker: ~ardEpstein.University of Pittsburg
                Title: Ex~ in Childhood Obesity: Treatment and Adherence Issues
 10:00·10:15/30 COFFEEBREAK
 10:15·11:15 AM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
 Ballroom B     Presider and Organizer: Wayne Halliwell, University of Montreal
                Developing and Using Videos to Enhance Athletic Performance
                Participants: Warne Halliwell, University of Montreal
                              Jodi Yambor, University of Miami
 10:30 - 12 PM    SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
 Ballroom C       Presider: Damon Burton, University ofldaho
                  The Youth Sport Enrichment Project: Coaching Behaviors and
                  Their Effects on Psychological Development
                  Organizer: Frank Srnoll, University of Washington
                  Participants: FrankSmoll, Nancy Bamettand Ron Smith, University of Washington
 10:30 - 12 PM    HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
 Ballroom A       Presider: Evelyn Hall,University of Utah
                  Social Physique Anxiety and Exercise Behavior
                  Organizer: Elizabeth Hart. University of Nonh Carolina - Greensboro
                  Participants: Elizabeth Hart,University of North Carolina - Greensboro
                                C~lie Hardy. University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
                                Christe>pherLantz, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
                                LauraRemington. University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
                  Discussant: Edward McAuley. University of Illinois
 11:15·12:15 AM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT LECTURES
 Ballroom B     Presider: KirstenPeterson, University of Illinois
                A descriptive clinical report on mental skills use: Individualized response to a
                mental skills training program
                     James Millhouse. Private Practice
                Pain response in athletes: Development & assessment of the Sports Inventory for Pain
                     Michael Meyers. A. E. Bourgeois, S. Stewart, and A. LeUnes
                     TexasA & M University
                The influence of attributional retraining upon the prepeJformance preparation of
                     juniorelitetrack andfield athletes for international competition
                     Ralph Vemacchia, Western Washington University
                  Implementing a twoyearpsychological intervention program: Anevaluation
                      EricLaMott, University of Minnesota
                      Linda Petlichkoff, Boise StateUniversity
                                                                                               9




12112:20-1:30 PM LUNCH ON YOUR OWN


1:30 - 2:45 PM   INTERVENTIONIPERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT KEYNOTE
Ballroom A       Presider and Discussant: SteveDanish, Virginia Commonwealth University
                 Speaker: Peter Roby. Head Basketball Coach, Harvard University
                 Title: Coaching as a Means to Enhance Personal Development

2:45 - 3:00 PM   COFFEE BREAK

3:00 - 4:00 PM   INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT LECTURES
BallroomB        Presider: BruceHale,Pennsylvania State University
                 Hassle Scalefor eliteathletes
                     J. G.·Albinson, Queen's University
                 Careertransition in elite and professional athletes: Three case studies of preparation
                 for and adjustment to retirementfromcompetitive sports
                      Patrick Baillie, Virginia Conunonwealth University
                 Effects of an individualized mental training program
                      Carolyn Savoy, Dalhousie University

3:00-4:00PM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY WORKSHOP
Ballroom A  Presider: Michael·SCichs, Temple University
            The Chemically Depehdent Athlete, The Coach as Co-Dependent,
            and the Sport Psychologist's Role in Their Relationship
            Organizer and Presenter: LoisQuay, Temple University

3:00·4:00 PM     INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT SYMPOSIUM
Ballroom C       Presider and Organizer: James Whelan, Memphis State University:
                 Intervention research: The good, the bad and the ugly
                 Participants: James Whelan, Memphis StateUniversity
                               Michael Greenspan,Arizona Stateuniv.ersity
                               Shane Murphy, United StatesOlympic Committee
                 Discussant: Andrew Meyers, Memphis StateUniversity
                                                                                              10


4:00-6:00PM        ALL CONFERENCE POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Ballroom Foyer
   HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
       1.    Teaching sport participants to cheat .
                   M. T. DePalma.IthacaCollegeand S. F. Madey.Cornell University
      2.     The TypeA competitive runner: At risk for injuryand psychological stress?
                  KathyGill. William Paterson College andJane Henderson. John Abbon College
      3.      Postmarathon affectin first timeandexperienced marathon participants
                   Doug Hankesand RobertWeinberg. University of North Texas
      4.      The multiple rolesof an applied sportpsychologist at the 1991 World Swimming
              Championships
                   ChrisHorsley. Australian Institute of Spon
      5.      Psychobiological characteristics of collegestudents within the wellness environment
                    Christina Jackson and Kenneth Kambis. College ofWilliam and Mary
                    CharlesJackson. Old Dominion University
      6.      Cognitive appraisal and the generation of affect following treadmill testing
                    Edward McAuley. Stephen Bouteherand Kerry Coumeya
                    University of Illinois and University ofWollongong
      7.      Analysis of data derived fromThe Exercise Salience Scale(TESS)
                    Julian Morrow, John Jay College, City University of New York
                    PhilipHarvey. Mt. Sinai School of Psychiatry
   INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT
     8.   Effectsof coachinstruction on children's achievement goal orientation in a sport setting
                 Laura Nabors. James Whelan. AndrewMeyers.and Lynn Nabors
                 Memphis StateUniversity
      9.      An observational studyof coaching behaviors in youthsoccer:
              Similarities and differences acrossage groups
                     EugeneWong.University of California
      10.     Effects of goal setting on performance enhancement in competition
                      Tom Stitcher. Salisbury State University
                      Peggy Richardson and Robert Weinberg. University of North Texas
      11.     Effectof internal and external imagery on cricket perfonnance
                     Roben Weinberg,A. W. Jackson. University of Nonh Texas
                     Sandy Gordon. University of Western Australia
      12.     The effectof an imagery/physical practice intervention on basketball
              free-throw percentage: An A-B-A-B design
                      Carolyn Savoy. Dalhousie University
                      Patricia Beitel. University of Tennessee - Knoxville
                                                                                           11



13.   The role of self-concept, efficacy,knowledge of the game, and skill level in youth
      soccerperformance
             Chris Koch, Universityof Georgia
14.   Strategies in learningcomplexmotor tasks: An examination of the Five-Step Strategy
              Chris Koch and Julie Kontos,Universityof Georgia
15.   Determinants of attitudestoward aggressiveness in youth spons
            C. Nye, S. Jackson, J. McKinney, R. Neff, D. Secor and K. Young
            Michigan State University
16.   Pre-performance concernsand distractions of junior elite track and field athletes
              Ralph Vemacchia, Western Washington University
17.   A self-paced feedback programfor peak perfonnance
              Rich Fenker, Texas Christian University
18.   The potentialof EEG techniques for developing preperfonnance mental set
             David Collins, St. Mary's College
19.   An investigation of the use of goal settingby an intercollegiate men's ice hockey team
             John Phelan and John Albinson,Queen's University
20.   Effect of an individualized mental training programon a collegiate tennis player's
      performance
              Roben Stainback.University of Alabama- Binningham
21.   Evaluation of a psychological skillstraining workshop for male intercollegiate
      lacrosseplayers
             Britton Brewerand Roben Shillinglaw, University of Delaware
22.   Coping responsesof competitive high school golfers
            Anthony Piparo and Diane Gill, University of NorthCarolina - Greensboro
23.   The relationship between precompetitive affect andcollegiate gymnastic performance
             Jerri Gibson and John Silva, Universityof Nonh Carolina- Chapel Hill
24.   Increasing reaction time for collegiate sprinters and hurdlers using varyingcognitive
      instructional sets
              Tom Bell, Florida StateUniversity
25.   A multidimensional modelof momentum in sports
             Jim Taylor, Nova University
26.   The temporal dimension of competitive stress: Toward a standardized method of treatment
             Chris Koch, Universityof Georgia
27.   A qualitative investigation of mental states of competitive swimmers
              Vikki Krane, BowlingGreen State University
28.   Effects of self-efficacy and an audience on performance of a muscularendurance task
              David Pargman and RihoTonue, FloridaState University
                                                                                                12


   29.     Career development and the collegeathlete: Aspirations and IQIities
                  Lenore Harmon, Kirsten Peterson, Ken Nafziger,Gregory Abrams, Mary
                  Anderson,Diane Berg, Aysen Darcan, John Jones, Lori Lefcoun & Kevin Wickes
                  University of lliinois
   30.     The effectsof a drug education program on drug use and drug attitudes among
           collegeathletes
                  John Damm, West VirginiaUniversity
   31.     Evaluation of a comprehensive psychological skillstraining program for collegiate
           tennisplayers
                  Jessica Daw and Damon Burton, University of Idaho
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Participation Issues     .
   32.    Reasonsfor adult participation in physical activity: A confinnatoryfactor analysis
               VickiEbbeck,OregonState University
   33.     I quit: Attributions to situational, coach, and personal factors for dropping out of
           junior high and high school basketball
                   Mark Thompson, E. G. Stafford. & E. W. Anderson, University of Texas-Arlington
   34.     Sport persistence or withdrawal: What does player statesdo to influence perceived
           ability and level of satisfaction in spon?
                  Linda Petlichkoff and J. Larshus, Boise State University
   35.     The relationship between goal setting, success. causal attribution and commitment
           during physicalfitness development
                 Daniel Weigand.University of North Texas
                 Gerald Guthrie and Robert Brustad, Portland State University
   36.     An exploratory studyof factors that influencefemale adolescents' participation in sport
                Su Orgell, Boston University
   37.     The contribution of peer relationships in the development of global self-worth:
           A conceptual model
                 Bruce Keeler.University of California- Los Angeles
   38.     High school coaches' attitudestowardparental involvementin their child's sport
                 Paul Carpenter. University of California- Los Angeles
   39.     The interdependence between goal perspectives, psychological skills. and cognitive
           interference amongelite skiers
                  Sally White, University of New Hampshire
                  Joan Duda, Purdue University
   40.     Patternsbetween task/ego goal orientations and theircognitive/affective correlates
           in high schoolathletes
                 Zenong Yin, Brown University
                  Mike Boyd and John Callaghan. University of SouthernCalifomia
   41.     An investigation of the relationship amongparticipation motives. participation-related
           variables. and the psychological outcomesin the domainof physical activity
           ChristinaFrederick,University of Rochester
                                                                                             13



Perceptions in High Level Participation
   42.   Perception of a female steroid user: An experimental investigation
               Michael Schwerin and Kevin Corcoran, Southern Illinois University - Carbondale
   43.    Perception of athletes who use steroids or cocaine or whocheat
                Judy Van Raalte, Springfield College
                Britton Brewer, University of Delaware
   44.    Demythologizing sportmarriages: The divorce rate among fc:>rtJler professional athletes
               Mary Anne Kane, Boston University
   45.    The statusof sportretirement theory and research: A review and critique
                KathyParker,University of Tennessee - Knoxville
   46.    Conflicts with baseball umpires: An observational study
                David Rainey and Kevin Cherilla, John Carroll University
   47.    Situation: An integral factorin thejustification of sportaggression by NCAA
          Division I-A basketball players
                 MarkThompson, University of Texas- Arlington
   48.    Building self-efficacy in tennis players: A comparative analysis
                RobertWeinberg, University of North Texas
                JamesGrove, University of Western Australia
                A. W. Jackson, University of North Texas
~easurernent  Issues
   49.    Measurement contaminants in questionnaires assessing Weiner's Attribution Model
               Ava Senkforand Jean Williams, University of Arizona
               W. Neil Widmeyer, University of Waterloo
   50.    The development of validation of a performance appraisal instrument for collegiate
          baseball players
                TerryLibkuman and Kevin Love,Central Michigan University
                Paul Donn,Wayne StateUniversity
   51.    Construct validity of the Attributional Stylefor Physical Activity Scale
                     Eric Cooley, Robert Ayresand James Beaird, Western Oregon State College
Group Related Issues
  52.   A correlative examination of coaches' self-report empathy and athletes perception of
        coaches' empathy
               G. Keith Chapin, Michigan StateUniversity
               Robin Vealey, Miami University
  53.   Task dependence, leaderbehavior, and follower satisfaction
               Earl Schliesman and Patricia Beitel, University of Tennessee - Knoxville
  54.   Cooperation and competition in relation to cohesion, satisfaction, and communication
        in basketball teams
        PatrickGoldsmith, TonyHogan and Jean Williams, University of Arizona
        W. Neil Widmeyer, University of Waterloo
   55.    The effectsof cohesion and identifiability on reducing the likelihood of social loafing
                Patrick Goldsmith and Jean Williams, University of Arizona
                W. Neil Widmeyer, University of Waterloo
                                                                                               14


  6:00 - 7:30 PM   DINNER ON YOUR OWN

 7:30 - 9:30 PM    HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY WORKSHOP
 Ballroom B        Presider: EdwardMcAuley, University of lllinois
                   Experiential Methods for Changing Health Behavior
                   Organizer: Rob Stainb~k, University of Alabama at Binningham
                   Participants; Rob Stainback, Han')'Hitchcock, and DwayneCrist
                                 University of Alabama at Birmingham
 7:30 - 9:00 PM    INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT SYMPOSIUM
 Ballroom A        PresiderandOrganizer: William Moore, EastCarolina University
                   Trust and the Performance of Sport Skills
                   Participants: William Moore and John Stevenson, East Carolina University
                                 Robert Rotella, University of Virginia
                   Discussant: Ken Ravizza, California State University - Fullerton
 7:30 - 9:00 PM INTERVENTIONIPERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
 Ballroom C     Presider and Organizer: Betty Kelley, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
                   Reality Therapy:
                   A Practical Framework for Sport and Exercise Consulting
                   Participants: BettyKelley, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
                                 Susan Jackson, University of North Carolina- Greensboro

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 26
 8:00 - 9:00 AM INTERVENTIONIPERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
 Ballroom C     Presider andOrganizer: J. DanaLerner
                   Conducting Sport. Psychology Workshops
                   Participants: 1. Dana Lerner,Doug Newburg, J. J. Bean, Jr., and Brad Marwitz
                                 University of Virginia
 8:00 - 9:00 AM INTERVENTIONIPERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT LECTURES
 Ballroom B     Presider: Frank Perna
                   Sportpsychology programs at theintercollegiate level: A national survey of
                   intercollegiate athletic directors
                        LouisCsoka, United StatesMilitary Academy
                        Jodi Yambor, University of Miami
                   Anxiety and athletic peJfonnance:
                   A testof the Zoneof Optimal Functioning hypothesis
                       Vikki Krane, Bowling Green State University
                   Athlete' perceptions of a fellow athlete whoconsults a sport psychologist
                       Judy Van Raalte, Springfield College
                       Britton Brewer, University of Delaware
                       Darwyn Linder, Arizona StateUniversity
                                                                                          15


8:00 - 10:00 AM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
Ballroom A      Presider: John Heil, Lewis-Gale Clinic, Salem, VA
                 Psychological Factors and Athletic Injuries:
                 Past and Present Research and Future Directions
                 Organizer: Michael Sachs, Temple University
                 Participants: Penny McCullagh, University ofColorado
                               Joanna Starek, University.of Colorado
                               Paul Prestwich, University of Colorado
                               Michael Sachs, Temple University
                               Jean Williams, University of Arizona
                 Reactors: Charlie Hardy, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
                            Ron Smith, University of Washington


.9:15 - 10:15 AM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT SYMPOSIUM
Ballroom C       Presider and Organizer: Deidre Connelly, The College of William and Mary
                 Issues Facing Female Sport Psychology Consultants
                 Participants: Deidre Connelly, The College of William and Mary
                              James Reardon, Private Practice, Columbus, OH
                              Jodi Yambor, University of Miami


10/10:15.10:30AM COFFEE BREAK


10:30-12 NOON SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY KEYNOTE
Ballroom A    Presider: Penny McCullagh, University of Colorado
              Discussant: Tara Scanlan, UCLA
                 Speaker: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, University of Chicago
                 Title: Talent and enjoyment: Findings from a longitudinal study

12-1:15/1:30 PM LUNCH ON YOUR OWN

1:15 - 2:15 PM   HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY WORKSHOP
Ballroom B       Presider: Lise Gauvin, Concordia University
                 Interactive Forum for Women in. Sport Psychology: Ideas and Issues
                 Organizer: Evelyn Hall, University of Utah
                 Participants: Evelyn Hall, University of Utah
                               Joy Griffin, University of New Mexico

1:30-3:ooPM      INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
Ballroom A       Presider and Organizer: Robert McKelvain, Abilene Christian University
                 Troubled Athlete: Assessment and Referral
                 Participants: Robert McKelvain and Scott Perkins, Abilene Christian University
                               Robert Stainback, University of Alabama at Birmingham
                               Michael Greenspan, Arizona State University
                                                                                           16



1:30- 3:00PM SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
Ballroom C   Presider: Rebecca Lewthwaite, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
             Exanlining Flow Experiences In Sport
             Organizer: Jay Kimiecik,.Miami University
             Participants: Jay Kimiecik, Miami University
                           Gary Stein,University of Oregon
                           SusanJackson, University of NorthCarolina- Greensboro
             Discussant: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, University of Chicago
2:30-3:15PM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY LECTURES
Ballroom B  Presider: T. C. North, North &. Associates, Boulder, CO
            Health Psychology in Competitive Sport
            The effectof progressive relaxation ~ning on stressperception, dispositional
            optimism, and frequency and severity of running relatedinjuries
                 Jane Henderson, John AbbOtt College
                 DavidPargman, Florida StateUniversity
                 Psychological measures of training stressin collegiate swimmers -
                 A seasonal analysis
                     John Silva and AllenCornelius, University of Nonh Carolina - Chapel Hill
313: 15. 3:30PM COFFEE BREAK
3:00- 4:00 PM SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OPEN MEETING
Ballroom C    All persons interested in providing input to nextyear'sprogram are invited
3:30-5:00PM INTERVENTION/PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOP
Ballroom A  Presider andOrganizer: Debra Ballinger, Old Dominion University
                 Building Rapport Through Communication Skills
                 Participants: DebraBallinger and PaulHeine, Old Dominion University

4:00- 5:00PM SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY WORKSHOP
Ballroom C   Presider: NeilWidmeyer, University of Waterloo
                 Emergence of Informal and Team Leadership: A Case Study
                 Organizers and Participants: Dale Peaseand Stephen Kozub, University of Houston
4:00- 5:30PM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY OPEN MEETING
BallroomB

5:30 - 6:30PM FREE TIME

6:30 - 8:00PM AAASP BUSINESS MEETING
Ballroom A

8:00 - 10:00 PM BANQUET
Oglethorpe
                                                                                           17



SUNDAY, OCTOBER 27
 8:00AM           EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING - Winged Foot Room
 8:00 - 9:00 AM INTERVENTIONIPERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT COLLOQUIUM
 Ballroom B     Presiderand Organizer: MarkHurwitz, University of Connecticut
                "Making the Jump": The Evaluation 01 a Graduate Student Project
                Turned Career Options and Opportunities
                Participant: MarkHurwitz, University of Connecticut
 8:30 - 10:00 AM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
 Ballroom C      Presider: Dave Yukelson, Pennsylvania State University
                 When the Good Die Young: Fatal Injury in Sport
                 Organizer: John Heil,Gale-Lewis Clinic. Salem. VA
                 Participants: John Heil, Gale-Lewis Clinic. Salem,VA
                               Peter Karafsky, University of Wisconsin Hospital
                               Keith Henschen. University of Utah
 8:30 - 10:30 AM SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY WORKSHOP
 Ballroom A      Presider: Diane Gill. University of North Carolina - Greensboro
                 Developing Cohesion in Sport Teams:
                 The Cornerstone 01 Team Building
                 Organizer: Charles Hardy. University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
                 Participants: Charlie Hardy. University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
                               Kelly Crace. University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
                               Dave Yukelson, Pennsylvania StateUniversity
                               W. Neil Widmeyer, University of Waterloo
 9:15 - 10:45 AM INTERVENTJON/PERFORMANCEENHANCEMENT SYMPOSIUM
 Ballroom B      Presider and Organizer: Martha Ewing. Michigan State University
                 Discussant: Dan Gould, University of North Carolina - Greensboro
                  Implementing a Psychological Skills Training Program
                  with Youth Gymnasts
                  Participants: Martha Ewing, Tom George. Martha Ludwig, Barbara Meyer & Bob Neff
                                Michigan State University
 10:3Q-12 NOON HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
 Ballroom C    Presider: Rob Stainback. University of Alabama at Birmingham
                  Resolution or Loss in Athletics
                  Organizer: T. C. North. North & Associates. Boulder. CO
                  Participants: AI Petitpas, Springfield College
                                Hap Davis. Calgary. Alberta
                                T. Christian North, North & Associates. Boulder. CO
                             , Kate Hays. The Performing Edge. Concord. NH
 10:45-11:45 AM HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY COLLOQUIUM
 Ballroom A     Presider: Len Zaichkowsky, Boston University
                2001 "New Wave" Well ness • Alpha Training
                Organizer: Joy Griffin. University of New Mexico
                Participants: Joy Griffin, University of New Mexico
                              Evelyn Hall. University of Utah
                    18




   AAASP 1991


PROGRAM ABSTRACTS
                                                                                                     19


1. G. Albinson, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Hassle Scale for Elite Athletes
The effectof stresson elite athletes has beena dominant focus of attention in the field of
applied sportpsychology. Effecthas beenjudged in relation to training, performance
and recently to injuryand rate of rehabilitation. The environment assessed for the
stressors has primarily been the sportenvironment. Although the conceptthat stress is
cumulative and the knowledge that theeffects of stressors in one environment are related
to behaviors in other environments has been welldocumented in the non sportliterature,
little studyhas beendone of the stressors which elite athletes experience outside the
sportenvironment. This study was conducted to develop an instrument to identify the
hassles in the life of elite athletes and to measure the perceived levelof impact these
hassles have on the athlete.
Data werecollected frominterviews with 109elite athletes (athletes competing.at the
seniorNational or International level), interviews with 20 coaches and sport
psychologists working withelite athletes and fromquestionnaires completed by 369
elite athletes wereused to identify the hassles experienced by theseathletes. Items
selected for the instrument were all raised by athletes. The information from the
interviews withcoachesand sportpsychologists was usedto corroborate the athlete data
and/orused to establish guidesfor probing duringthe athlete interviews.
The instrument includes 166hassles identified by the athletes in 13different aspectof their
lives. Of the hassles identified only 27% werein the areaof training and competition.
Seventy-three per cent of the hassles werein aspects of the athlete's live outsideof sport.
The instrument is designed to identify hassles perceived to have beenoccurred and
anticipated to occurin the athletes life as wellas the perceived impact of the hassles on the
athlete. This instrument can be used to assist the athlete in identifying the sources of stress
in her/his life, to establish a personal base line stresslevel, to assess current levelsof stress,
and in conjunction with sportpsychology consultation. The instrument is currently being
assessed as a predictorof athletic injury. The instrument, its design, and its uses will be
discussed.
                                                                                                 20

Mark Anderson,Arizona State University and Libby Howell, Private Practice, Phoenix, AZ
A Systemic Approach to Eating Disorders in an Intercollegiate
Environment
This presentation will focus on a systemic approach to the management and care of
eating disorder athletesin a university setting; Issues include the identification of
predisposingfactors and symptomsof the athlete with an eating disorder, intervention
strategies,the involvementof other university agencies (e.g, student health, counseling
center), making effectiveand appropriate referralsand educatingcoaches, athletesand
other universitypersonnel to the eating problemsof this special population. This
presentation will also includevarious treatment modalities as well as case studies.
The learningobjectivesof the workshop are to:
1. Identifypsychological and medical/physical symptoms that may indicate the
   presence of an eating disorder.
2. Understandand appreciatehow the special pressuresand demandson a student
   athleteaffect eating behaviors.
3 Develop strategiesfor approaching athletes when an eating disorder is suspected.
4. Develop strategiesfor intervention.
5. Make effectiveand appropriate referrals.
6. Establisha psycho-educational approach for coaches and athletic staff.
7. Gain understanding of varioustreatmentmodalities in working with eating disorder athletes'.
8. Facilitate the development of a university team approach to managing eating
   disorders among athletesand the studentpopulation.
The workshopwill be conducted using lecture, group discussion, role playing and
video case presentation.
TECHNIQUES PRESENTED
1. Assessmentand evaluation of potential eatingdisorderclients.
2. Counselingskills for approaching athletes with a suspectedeating disorder.
3. Models of treatmentfor eating disorder (i.e. behaviormodification, psycho-
   education,psycho-dynamic and cognitiveapproaches).
4. Methodsfor effectiveand appropriate referrals.
5. Materials on education and assessment of eating disordersfor coaches and team presentations.
6. Strategiesfor networking with other university agenciesand departments.
7. Examplesof individual and grouptreatment.
WRI1TENMA1ERlALS
An outline of the presentation will be handedout with space for note taking.
                                                                                            21


PatrickBaillie, Virginia Commonwealth University
Career Transition in Elite and ProCessional Athletes: Three Case Studies of
Preparation Cor and Adjustment to Retirement from Competitive Sports
Involvement in professional or eliteathletics has implications which may reachinto the
social, personal and occupational livesof theparticipants, For this reason, retirement
from sportscan presenta serious lifechangefor manyathletes. Threedetailed case
studiesare presented to illustrate specific examples of the transition process. The three
participants included: a female, Olympic silvermedalist and member of the national team
In two diversesports; a malehockey playerwithover ten yearsexperience in the
National HockeyLeague; and, a malejockey,winnerof theTripleCrown prior to a
career-terminating injury. In a qualitative approach to the investigation of athlete's
personal histories. interviews and other sources of biographical information were used
to obtaindata regarding each athlete's sports career, preparation for retirement from
competitive sports and adjustment to retirement Results suggest thatfew athletes make
preparations for theirretirement, but mayexperience strongfeelings of loss upon
retirement. and face ongoingdifficulties related to theirsports careers. Having a new
focus afterretirement, retiring by choice ratherthan as a resultof injury, and being able
to continue a sportsaffiliation werepresented as factors related to morepositive
retirement experiences.
                                                                                           22

Debra Ballinger and Paul Heine, Old Dominion University
Building Rapport Through Communication Skills
Consultants in SportPsychology are oftenrequested to conductpre-season retreats and
workshops for athletic organizations. Typically, theserequests include a desirefor
activities which are geared toward the enhancement of team cohesion. Since
performance enhancement is the ultimate goalof coach,athlete, and consultant,
strategies normally associated withimproved performance and taughtin sport
psychology courses have-traditionally focused on individualized interventions. The
purposeof this workshop is to focuson communication and rapport building skills
whichthe consultant can use or teach the coachto useduringpre-season or early season
team building retreats. Attendees willparticipate in activities which havebeen
successful to promote the following: 1) rapportbuilding; 2) statements of empathy;
3) activelistening; 4) handling of strong feelings; and S) linking through communication
of feelings. The format will be brief lecture combined withinteractive smallgroups.
This is a participation workshop, affording consultants, coachesand students
opportunities to practice and receive feedback in the skills of group communication,
conflictresolution, and rapport building to enhance teamcohesion.
                                                                                             23


NancyBarnett, University of Washington
Effects or Coaching Behaviors on Youth Sport Attrition
The behaviors of youth sportcoachesare known to affecthowchildren perceive and
evaluatetheircoaches, the sportthey are playing, theirteammates, and themselves.
There has been no research, however, concerning how adult leaderbehaviors affect
attrition. Specifically, no experimental investigations have beenconducted to determine
the effects of coach training on dropoutin youth sports. In Phase 1 of this study,eight
LittleLeague Baseball coaches participated in a preseason Coach Effectiveness Training
(CET) workshop. Ten coachesservedas a no-treatment control group. To assess the
effectsof CET,preseason and postseason data werecollected from children who played
on the 18 teams. CET coacheswerefound to have a favorable impacton the children's
sport-related attItudes, self-esteem, andcompetitive anxiety. At the beginning of the next
baseball season (Phase 2), withdrawal rates were derived for youngsters who played for
the two groupsof coaches.
The Phase2 subjects were 188children, whowerecontacted by telephone to determine
whether they wereplayingbaseball. Children in theoriginal subject pool werecontacted
regardless of whetherthey had provided outcome data in Phase 1. If a child was not
currently playingbaseball, a brief homeinterview was scheduled. During this session,
the children completed a questionnaire designed to assess theirreasons for discontinuing
participation.
The results revealed a 26% dropout rate among thecontrol group children, a figure that
is comparable to thoseobtained in previous youth sport attrition studies. In contrast, an
attrition rate of only 5% was found for the children who had playedfor the CET
coaches. There was no difference in won-lost percentages between dropouts and
returning players: thus the attrition was not a consequence of a lack of team success.
Moreover, evidence suggested that the withdrawal was a function of the players' sport
experience rather than something that occurred during the 9-month interim. Finally, the
questionnaire responses revealed thatdropouts in the control groupmoreoftenreported
reasons for withdrawing that were associated withhaving a negative affective reaction to
their sportexperience the previous year.
                                                                                           24

Tom Bell,FloridaStateUniversity
Increasing Reaction Time in Sprinters and Hurdlers with Varying
Cognitive Instructional Sets
Researchby Henry and Rogers (1960) and Sternberg, Monsell, Knoll, and Wright
(1978) has indicated that simple reaction time (SRT) is negatively effected as movement
complexity and cognitive verbal labelling increases. Although these phenomena have
beenrepeatedly demonstrated in the laboratory, its application in the sportworld has yet
to be examined.
Two studies examined the effectsof varying levelsof cognitive instructional setson
SRT witheleven (M =7, F =4) collegiate track sprinters and hurdlers. While in the
"set position", subjects repeated out loud,immediately prior to a starting signal,
instructional sets varyingin movement complexity (Experiment One), involving one
"BLAST," two "BLAST, STAYLOW," and three "BLAST, STAYLOW,DRIVE
OUT"different impending actions. Length of verbalrepresentation of a single
movement (Experiment Two) was examined withone "BLAST," two "BLAST OUT
QUICKLY," and three 'BLASTOUT OF 1HE BLOCKS QUICKLY" cognitive sets.
Preferred (subject's normal self-talk) and control (counting backwards by threes)
conditions were also integrated into the study. Subjects wereaware that SRT out of the
sprinters block was the only dependent measure.
A 5 (conditions) by 5 (trials) one-way ANOVA withrepeated measures on the last factor
was conducted for each experiment. There was a significant main effect for both
experiments, p < .01, F (4, 270) =6.39 and p < .01, F (4,270) = 5.56, respectively.
Individual 2 (conditions) by 5 (trials) one-way ANOVA withrepeated measures on the
last factor wereconducted to determine thelocation of the bias. Inspection of the date
indicatedthat SRT significantly increased, p < .05, F (1, 108) =5.44, in a positive and
linearmanneras cognitive movement complexity increased. The resultsfrom
Experiment Two indicate that everycondition was significantly quickerthan the control
condition. However, no significant difference between conditions involving varying
levelsof verbal representation was observed.
The resultsof the study suggest that sprinters and hurdlers can optimize reaction time
out of the starting blocks by focusing attention to only one movement or cognition. In
addition, the length of the verbal representation given the single movement does not
appear to havea significant impact of SRT. Coaches, sport psychologists, and
significant othersare recommended to provide athletes with as few instructions as
possible, when SRT is critical to performance.
                                                                                             25

L.R. Brawley, University of Waterloo
The Measurement of Barriers to Exercise: Problems and a Possible Solution
Perceivedbaniers to exerciseadherence is a concept that has received a substantive
amountof researchattention. Wankel(1988) recently notedthat baniers either prompted
activity withdrawal, decreasedactivity, or reducedbehavioral control of participation.
Both the physicalreality of a banier and its perception as one to overcomeare
important. A scientific database searchof baniers to participation studies revealed that
they were mainlydescriptive. The typical methodology used was either a frequency
count of self-reported retrospective reasons for withdrawal or attributions for lowered
involvement. LISts of barrierswere generated but importance and impactof baniers
were only assumed. The major limitations of this methodis that it ignores impact,
severity,and frequency of participation barrieroccurrence. Therefore, the influenceof
baniers in some studies might be overestimated. To illustrate, resultsof attempts to
conceptually and quantitatively deal with barriermeasurement in adherence studiesare
presented.
In a prospective study of 250 adults in community-based fitnessclasses, adherersdid
not differ significantly from dropouts with respect to percentof time they felt hindrances
would interfere with weeklyparticipation (i.e. less than 40% of the time) at 3 equal
intervalpoints in the program. In a secondintervention study involving similar
participants(n = 117),a 7-item scale was used to assess limitations to exercise.
Regardlessof whether subjects were intervention or control,adhere or dropout,
limitation of exercise by barrierswas very modest (m = 2.5 on a 1 no limitation to 7
complete limitationscale). No significant differences were evident In both studies,
subjectgenerated baniers were used to which percenthindrance timeor limitation extent
scales were applied. In both studies, baniers did not predict exercise intentor behavior.
Were unimportant barriersmeasured or were barriers unimportant to adherence? To
partly answer this question,a third study using a new method is being conducted in
whichfrequency of banier occurrence and barrierseverity jointly function to weight
barrier impacton involvement (Meichenbaum & Turk, 1988). Resultsof weighted
agFgate measures are considered for predicting adherence and limiting the impactof
ummportant barriers. Implications will be drawnfor the conceptual/methodological
benefits to be gained for future adherence studies.
                                                                                               26

Britton Brewerand Robert Shillinglaw, University of Delaware
Evaluation of a Psychological Skills Training Workshop for Male
Intercollegiate Lacrosse Players
Systematic research is needed to assess the effectiveness of psychological skillstraining
(pSn for sport (Smith, 1989; Vealey, 1988).- For ethicaland logistical reasons, there
have beenfew controlled studies of sportpsychology interventions as theyare actually
canied out in applied settings. This study employed an interrupted time series design
with switching replications (Braver & Walton Braver, 1990; Cook & Campbell, 1979)
to evaluate theeffectiveness of a PST workshop withmaleintercollegiate lacrosse
players at an NCAADivision I institution. In a "switching replications" design, the
treatment (e.g., PSn is introduced at different timesfor different groups, which enables
an initially untreated groupto serveas a control groupfor a treated group. In this study,
lacrosse players (n =49) wererandomly assigned to one of two groups. Subjects
completed the 12-item questionnaire employed by Gould, Petlichkoff, Hodge, and
Simons (1990) three times (TI, 1'2, and n) at two-week intervals to examine the
subjects' knowledge, perceived importance, and use of the four psychological skills
(goal setting, relaxation, imagery, andcognitive restructuring) covered in the workshop.
The workshop consisted of four 30-40minute sessions of didactic and experiential
material presented over a two-week period. GroupI received the treatment (i,e., the
PST workshop) between 11 and TI, but not between 1'2 and n. Group II received the
treatment between 1'2 and n, but not between TI and 1'2. Because subjects responded
to the questionnaire in a consistent manner across the 12items (alpha =.89), the items
were summed to createa single dependent measure. In the firstreplication of the
treatment effect, Group I had significantly higher 1'2 scores (statistically controlling for
Tl scores) than Group Il, F = 64.13, P < .0005. In the second replication of the
treatment effect,GroupIl had significantly highern scores than 1'2 scores,
F = 121.51, P < .0005. The results clearlyshow that the PST workshop produced
largeincrements in self-reponed knowledge, perceived importance, and use of the skills
taught in the workshop. The study demonstrates thatcontrolled research can viably and
ethically be conducted in applied sport settings. Limitations of this studyand
considerations for future outcome research are discussed.
                                                                                               27

PJ. Carpenter. University of California - Los Angeles
High School Coaches' Attitudes Toward Parental Involvement in Their
Child's Sport
It is generally agreedthat the coachis critical to the social psychological outcomes youth
spon participants experience (Hom. 1987). Despite this geneal consensus, littleresearch
has focussed on the coach.especially 111m opinions about youth sport. One area where
infonnation is particularly lackingis coaches' attitudes toward parental involvement.
The pwpose of this study was to assessthe attitudes of high school soccercoaches
toward parental involvement in high school spon. Specifically, coaches were asked to
rate the importance of 27 itemsreflecting things parentsshould or should not do to
create a positive spanexperience for theirchild. Theseitemswere generated from a
reviewof the youth span literature. particularly research on the role of significant others
(e.g.•Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1986; Scanlan. Stein, & Ravizza, 1989). The items were
presentedin the fonn of five point Liken scaleswith I ='not at all important', to
5 = 'extremely important' witheach item preceded by the statement. "Is it important for
parents to: (item)?". Surveys were mailed to 200 high school soccercoaches. Eighty-
nine coachesresponded for a returnrate of 44.5%. Meansand standard deviations were
calculated for eachitem and usedto rank order the itemsfromextremely important to not
at all important. Thisranking indicated thatthecoaches clearly defined whatthey felt
were important thingsfor parents to do or not to do. Further, this ranking also
suggested that coachesclassified parent behaviors into distinct categories. Ratedas
extremely important werebehaviors reflecting a strong orientation toward thechild's
psychological well being(e.g.,avoidlabelling theirchild a loser), and supporting their -
involvement (e.g.•comingto watch theirchildplay). Ratedas important were behaviors
reflecting the valueof athletic skills. and being prepared to do things to enable theirchild
to participate. Rated as least important werebehaviors more in keeping with the coach's
role. suchas helpingtheirchild learn the skillsof the sport, and giving advice to their
child during games. Multivariate analysis of variance results revealed significant
differences between trained and untrained coaches. Coaches who had attended coach
education seminars. as compared to coaches who had not, viewed as less imponant
parents stressing the valueof winning, and felt it was more important for parents to
listen to what theirchild has to say,and avoid pressuring theirchildinto playing.
                                                                                               2R


Christopher Carr, United StatesOlympic Committee and BallStateUniversity
Alcohol Education Workshop for Resident Athletes: The United States
Olympic Committee Model
A comprehensive alcohol education model offered to residential athletes in training at the
UnitedStatesOlympic Training Centerwill be presented. Basedon a multimodal
prevention and education model, thisalcohol education program waspresented to 45
residentathletes in varioussportsat the Olympic Training Centerin Colorado Springs.
Colorado. This three-part program will be discussed in detail,describing eachof the
threeindividual components: Education, Decision-Making and Coping Skills. and
Personal Development Skills. An overview of each separate component win be
presented, and written materials will be available. In addition, statistical data describing
the efficacy of this program will be presented. Evaluative data givenby the athletes in
attendance will also be presented.
                                                                                           29

G. KeithChapin, Michigan StateUniversity and Robin Vealey, Miami University
A Correlative Examination of Coaches' Self.Report Empathy and
Athletes' Perceptions of Coaches' Empathy
The studyof empathy in sport has consisted Ofassessing coaches' abilityto accurately
predictcompetitive anxiety in theirathletes (Martens & Simon, 1976; Martens, Rivkin &
Burton, 1980;Hanson, 1987; Bump, 1986; Vealey & Chapin, 1989). The results of
theseinvestigations have indicated thatcoaches are very poor predictors of pre.
competitive athletes' anxiety. The presentinvestigation sought to examine theempathic
interaction between coaches and athletes. Empathic interaction wasoperationally defined
for this studyas the relationship between empathy reported by the coachand empathy
perceived by his/herathletes. Seventy four maleand female varsity basketball players
and coaches from 12 high schools located in a mid-western stateparticipated in the
study.A requirement for participation in the.studywas that the coach and his/her
playersbe the same sex.The 12coaches (N = 5 females; N = 7 males) wereasked to
complete the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) by Davis (1980). The IRI is a
multidimensional self-report measure of traitempathy, i.e., Perspective-Taking,
Fantasy, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress. The 62 athletes (N = 27 females;
N = 35 males) completed the Empathic Understanding (EU) subscaleof the
Relationship Inventory (RI) by Barren-Lennard (1962). This 16-item subscale measured
how each athlete perceived his/her coachempathized with him/her. T-tests for gender
differences proved to be nonsignificant (p > .05) for the IRI scoresof the coachesgroup
as well as for the RI scoresof the athletes. The coaches who participated in the study
reported moderate to moderately high levels of traitempathy [Empathic Concern
(M = 27.92)and Perspective-Taking (M= 23.67)]. A teammean was used to calculate
the correlations between the athletes' scoreon the Rl and the coaches' self-report
measures on the four subscales of the IRI.The resultant correlations revealed non-
significant (p > .05) negative relationships between Rl and Empathic Concern
(r = -.31), RI and Perspective-Taking (r = -.23), and RI and Fantasy (r = -.25).
Analyses disclosed a non-significant (p > .05)positive correlation between RI and
PersonalDistress(r = .16). The signsfor the slopesof the correlation coefficients were
opposite of the hypothesized direction in all cases. The results suggest that the coach-
athlete relationship in the sportcontext is inconsistent with theclient-therapist
relationship. The need for a sportempathy measure is just one implication suggested by
this research.
                                                                                            30

David Collins, Pennsylvania StateUniversity/St. Mary's College, Twickenham, G.B.
The Potential of EEG Biofeedback for Enhancing The Development of an
Appropriate PrePerformance Mental Set
The roleof the pre-eompetitive mental set in detennining the level of perfonnance is a
basictenetofspons psychology. As a consequence, virtually all intervention programs
with athletes focuson the development of thisfactorby meansof a wide variety of
approaches basedon cognitive, psychophysiological or behavioral concepts. The use of
psychophysiological concomitants of the appropriate pre-performance statemay provide
the bestavenue sinceit offersthe chance to mostobjectively identify this state. Earlier
studieshavemade use of peripheral measures, notably heartrate, and provided a means
by which the level of preparedness may be assessed. There are, however, both
theoretical and practical problems withthe application of such measures. Based on a
seriesof recent studies in U.K. and several discrete investigations in America, there
now appears to be considerable potential for the use of a morecentral physiological
measure, the electroencephalogram, to identify anddevelop the optimum pre-
performance condition. The present paperwillpresent a briefreview of the evidence to
date and by meansof pilot study results explore the possibilities for a biofeedback based
intervention technique.
                                                                                           31

DeidreConnelly, University of Iowa,The College of William and Mary
Issues Facing Female Sport Psychology Consultants
Dr. Connelly willdiscussconsultant effectiveness with regardto female consultants
working with malecoaches and athletes. Strategies for confronting stereotypes,
removing beliefbarriers and facilitating positive working relationships will be
presented. Guidelines for professional effectiveness will be discussed, including
planning and careerpreparation. employment opportunities, balancing professional and
personal lives and consulting effectiveness. Emphasis will be placed on using personal
strengths andeffective consulting skillsin all consulting situations to createsatisfying
professional experiences.
                                                                                           32

Deidre Connelly,University of Iowa, Collegeof William & Mary, James Reardon.
Private Practice, Columbus,OH, and Jodi Yambor, Universityof Miami
Issues Facing Female Sport Psychology Consultants
This symposium will focus attentionon the importance of a varietyof issues related to
the professional practice of spon psychology by female consultants. Specifically, issues
which female sport psychology consultants face in working with male coaches and
athletes as well as administrators. trainers and support staffs wiU be addressed. While
the presentersacknowledge that much of the successful practiceof applied sport
psychologyconsulting rests solely on the consultant'sknowledge. preparation,personal
effectiveness and competence, there are nevertheless some situations in whichgender
may influencethe consultingsituation. The role of sport knowledge and experience. as
well as communication and leadership styles will be discussed In addition. the
presenterswill address common stereotypes female sport psychologists encounterin the
athletic world, and specifically in work with male coaches and athletes. The presenters
will provideexamplesfrom their experiences with high school, collegiate and elite
athletes. In addition,several aspects of counselingrelationships will be discussed.
including the transference whichdevelopswithinthe course of the sportpsychology
consultingrelationship. Problemsassociated with transference relationship dynamics
and how they might be handled will be presented. Finally,preparation and strategies for
effective consulting by women will be discussed. A question/answer/discussion session
will concludethe symposium.
                                                                                              33

Eric Cooley, Robert Ayres, and James Beaird,Western Oregon State College
Construct Validity of the Attributional Style for Physical Activity Scale
Attributions have been primarily examinedas situational variables in the sports
psychology research literature. The role of attributional styles,consistenttendencies for
an individual to make the same type of attributions acrosssituations, may be an
important mediating factor in explaining individual differences in healthand exercise
behaviors. Seligman and Peterson'srecent work examiningthe role of pessimistic
attributional style on health status and health behaviors is an exampleof this orientation.
This study reports on the refinement of an attributional style measurespecificto the
physical self domain and on data regardingthe scale'sconvergent and discriminant
validity.The Attributional Style for PhysicalActivity Scale (ASPAS) (Cooley & Ayres,
1990) presentsrespondentswith 22 situations involving success or failure in a physical
activity. Respondents use a 5-pointrating scale to report the relativeimportance of each
of three possible explanations for this outcome. Following Marsh's work on
attributional styles in classroomsituations, the three possible explanations were chosen
to representability,effort, and external factors. A modification of the scale reportedat
AAASP (1990)produced three lo-item scalesfor successoutcomes and three 12-item
scales for failure items (ability,effort, and external). Reliability, assessed using
coefficientalphas was satisfactoryfor all the scales,ranging from .65 to .82, with a
mean of .72 (N =158).
Convergent and discriminant validity of the ASPAS was examined by comparing results
with the Physical Self-Perception Profile (Fox & Corbin, 1989) and the Health Locus of
Control scale.Correlations with the subdomain scoreson the physical self-concept
measurewere moderate and negative for the failure scalesof the ASPAS with 9 of the
12 correlationssignificant(N=58), and a mean correlation of -.37. For the success
scales on the ASPAS,only the abilityscale showed significant correlations with the
subdomainscores (mean L=.4l). No scalescorrelatedwith the Health Locus of Control
Scale (N=43).

A comparison made between regularexercisers and infrequent exercisers found that the
regularexercisers were less likely to explaintheirphysical failures withexternal
attributions [t (73) = 2.07, p < .05]. Regularexerciserswere more likely to explain
successes with ability [t (73) = 2.38, p < .02] and effort [t (73) = 2.21, p < .03]
attributions.
Gendercomparisons revealed that women were more likely to explain their failures in
physical activity as due to a lack of ability [t (155) = 3.69. p < .001)], a lack of effort
[t (I55) = 3.02. p < .003] and to external factors [t (155) = 3.92. P < .001]. Men were
more likely to use ability attributions for their physical successes lt (155)=3.07. < .003)
and were less likely to credit successes to external factors [t (155) = 3.32, p <.001].
These results supporta conclusion that men have a greatersense of competence in
physical activities and feel more in controlof these outcomes. .
Attributional style for physical activities may be an important mediator of physical
behaviorthat is distinctfrom self-concept Individuals with maladaptive attributional
styles may be handicapped in the pursuitof physical activities.
                                                                                           34

Louis Csoka,UnitedStates Military Academy and Jodi Yambor, University of Miami
Sport Psychology Programs at the Intercollegiate Level: A National
Survey of Intercollegiate Athletic Directors
The field of sport psychology has grown enormously in the world of sports in the past
decade. This is especially true at professional.and Olympic level competition, Its
infusion into the preparation of intercollegiate athletes has been somewhat slower. A
numberof reasonscan accountfor the slowerpace: available resources, lack of
sufficient numbersof qualifiedand interestedsport psychologists, institutional barriers.
and general lack of understanding by collegeofficials. A very importantelementof
college officialswould. of course, be the athleticdirectors. Their suppon would seem
to be essential if a systematic program were to be instituted at a university.
The authors had the opportunity to makea presentation to a majority of intercollegiate
athleticdirectorson spon psychology in general and performance enhancement
specifically during the SilverAnniversary Convention (June, 1990) of the National
Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA). As a resultof that
presentation, a survey was conducted to assess the current state of sport psychology at
collegesand universities as seen through the eyes of the athleticdirectors. Surveys
were sent to 1207intercollegiate athletic directors whoare NACDA members asking
them to respond to a series of questions on performance enhancement programsat their
institutions. A 42% responsereturn rate was obtained. That rate increases to 75% when
only conventionattendees' responsesare used. Significant findingsare reponed as to
the generalknowledgeand awareness aboutsports psychology by athleticdirectors.the
current level of participation in such programs by universities acrossthe country. the
type of servicesbeing delivered by spon psychologists. and the general qualifications of
participating sport psychologists. This reportrepresents the most comprehensive
assessment of the current state of sport psychology and performance enhancement
programs in intercollegiate athletics.
                                                                                            35

John Damm,West Virginia University
The Effects of a Drug Education Program on the Drug Attitudes and Drug
Behavior of College Athletes
Drug use by collegeathletes is but a pan of an intricate and self-perpetuating web in a
societythat acceptsdrug use. A reviewof the literature indicated the prevalence of drug
use among collegeathletes, and the lackof comprehensive prevention programs to
reduce drug use. Researchers of the 1980's found that drug education, when
supplemented by "lifeskill"training, is effective in reducing drug behavior and
changingattitudes towarddrug usc. The purpose of this studywas to examinethe
effectiveness of such a program in changing drug use and drug attitudes among college-
studentathletes.
Male and female college student athletes (n = 22) attending a mid-Atlantic university,
panicipated in this study. A controlgroupconsisting of collegestudents (n = 8) and
non-athletes (n = 30) werealso included in this study. Athletes in the experimental
groupreceived one hour of traditional drug education plus one hourof life-skill training.
for each of thineen weeks. The experimental group received instruction to improve their
self-esteem, social skills,and copingskills. These skills were taughtthrough modeling,
rehearsal, and feedback by the experimenter and two trained assistant researchers. The
athlete/non-athlete control groupdid not receive any intervention. The Tricker-Cook
DrugAttitude Scaleand the Cavendish Student Health Evaluation were administered to
measuredrug attitude and drug use on the 1st, 8th, and 13th weekof the study.
Pre-treatment differences between the experimental and control groups existed only for
the drugattitudedependent measure. The experimental groupexpressed a more liberal
attitudetowarddrug use. Thus a 2 (group) X 3 (Testing Session) analysis of variance
was conducted for five dependent variables, whilea 2 X 3 analysis of covariance was
computed for one dependent variable. The resulting analyses indicated that significant
F-ratios wereobtained for two dependent measures: problematic drug-related behavior
and ergogenic drug use. 'Post-hoc analyses suggested thatergogenic drug use decreased
significantly between testing sessions one and three, while problem drug-related
behavior increased significantly between training sessions one and three.
This program had no effecton athletes' drug attitudes, alcohol use, problematic alcohol-
relatedbehavior or recreational drug use. Factors related to thesefindings included:
attrition between weeks 1 and 13;the effectiveness of the drug behavior and drug
attitude questionnaires in measuring thesevariables; and the possibility that student-
athletespossessa levelof life skillsthat werealready beyond the scopeof this study.
The future research should investigate the effectiveness of a more intensive version of
this programand shouldinclude a more heterogeneous subject sample.
                                                                                            36


StevenDanish, Virginia Commonwealth University
Success 101: Teaching Life Skills to College Athletes to Prevent Substance Abuse
A one credit, tOO-week freshman course entitled "Success 101" wascreated to teach
student-athletes how to cope betterwith the transition to college and establish skillsfor
successful college careers andoptimal personal development. Primary objectives
included increased familiarity withuniversity resources, formulation and application of
goal setting skills,and enhanced life skills suchas timemanagement, stress
management, positive self talk, and imagery. Rather thansimply providing information
aboutdrugs,the course was designed to teach student-athletes to copeeffectively with
the academic and athletic problems thatcan leadto drug use,especially transition.
concerns. Life skills suchas decision-making, risk assessment, stressmanagement,
assertiveness, and peerpressure resistance are taught and practiced in and out of the
classroom. Course curriculum will be described and evaluative findings will be
discussed.
                                                                                          37

Hap Davis, Calgary, Alberta
The Resolution of Loss in an SO-Plus Game Professional Season
Professionalice-hockey athletesplay seasonsof extended length, which after preseason
play can extend to 100 games within a span Qfroughly 240 days. This compares to
collegiate ice-hockey seasons of 25 games in some conferences.In play-offs, seven-
game series are played within 13 days. Clearly, within such schedulingthere is little
time to process sorrow, anger, shame, humiliation, and other feelings/thoughts relevant
to the sense of personal or team loss before beginningpractice for the next gam!.

This presentationexplores the psychological consequences for the professional hockey
player of time constraintsand other game parameterswhich limit the resolution of the
experienceof game loss. Tentative hypotheses and areas in need of research will be
advanced and discussed. For example, it could be hypothesized that inadequate loss
resolution can impair the athlete's ability to respond to subsequent challenge.
Experiential evidence will be presentedrelevantto resolvinggame loss according to
grief resolution theory. Finally, applied interventions to assist individuals and teams
resolve loss will be discussed.
                                                                                          38

JessicaDaw and DamonBurton, University of Idaho
Evaluation of a Comprehensive Psychological Skills Training Program
for Collegiate Tennis Players.
This investigation focused on evaluating the impactof a season-long psychological
skillstraining (PST) program on the competitive cognitions and perfannanceof
collegiate tennisplayers. A specially-designed PSTprogram was systematically
presented to a men'sand women's collegiate tennis team (n = 12) duringits Spring
season. The programexposed playersto threeprimary psychological skills (i.e., goal
setting, imagery, and arousal regulation) and gave themthe opportunity to develop their
own personal PST program basedon perceived individual needs. PST players' use of
psychological skillswasmonitored via training logscompleted at teampractice
sessions. Competitive cognitions weremonitored pre and post matchthroughout the
season, and Compu-Tennisperformance data was gathered duringearly and late season.
Program effectiveness was evaluated in three ways: (a) case studyanalyses, (b)
intrateam analyses examining all players postseason responses as wellas comparing
high- and low-commitment PST players on 15psychological and performance
measures, and (c) interteam analyses consisting of comparisons of PST and non-PST
players on the same 15dependent measures. Because of the eclectic nature of personal
PST programs, the most valid measure of PST program effectiveness was case study
analysis. Results indicated that the PST program was successful, panicularly with
players who worked systematically to perfect psychological skills. Additionally,
intrateam results revealed that all PSTplayers felt the PSTprogram helped improve their
tennisgames, and high commitment (HC) players rated all aspects of theirPST
programs as more helpful than did theirlesscommitted (LC) teammates. High- and low-
commitment players also differed significantly on twoof IS variables, although data
trendsfavored HC players on most remaining variables. Specifically, HC players had
lowerdouble faultpercentage than did LC teammates, but the opposite pattern was
evident for commitment to give 100%. Finally, interteam results revealed that PST
playersdisplayed significantly higherpostseason prematch state self confidence scores
and committed significantly fewerdouble faults than did theirnon-PST counterparts.
Results are discussed in terms of program evaluation and practical implications for
conducting PST research in applied settings.
                                                                                            39

M.T. DePalma, IthacaCollegeand S.F. Madey, CornellUniversity
Effect of Perceived Responsibility on Patient Perception
It has been proposed that an "individual responsibility ideology" may have implications
for health care policyand thequality of health care thatis delivered to thoseperceived
responsible for their disease onset (Kulys & Meyer, 1985). Friedman (1987) states that
"when resources are scarce and otherpatients are the innocent victims of theirailments,
it can be difficult to have much sympathy for patients who brought their troubles on
through their own ilTesponsibility" (p. 10). The presentstudy investigated: To what
degreedoes perception of responsibility affectassessments of patients' personal
characteristics and theirpotential contribution to recovery? Specifically, it was
hypothesized that a personperceived responsible for disease/injury onset, whether the
resultof a deviant lifestyle or negligent behavior, would be perceived more negatively
and perceived less likely to ascribe to behaviors that would improve thechance of
recovery. 120undergraduates wererandomly assigned to eithera Responsible condition
whereevery "patient" in each of six scenarios wasclearly responsible for disease, a Not
Responsible condition where every "patient" clearly was not responsible for disease
onset, or a Control condition where there was no mention of responsibility. Subjects
rated eachpatient" on seven trait scales, four measures predicting behavior in a medical
setting, and one measure asking subjects to predictpatientgender. Finally, subjects
rated the quality of medical care that should be provided to each "patient". MANOVA
was performed using Responsibility as the independent measure, and 12 dependent
measures. Pairwise comparisons showed that on the four medical behavior scales,those
perceived as responsible for disease onset wereperceived as: less likelyto follow their -
doctor's guidelines for recovery, more likely to experience a reoccurrence, more of a
burdenon hospital staff (Scheffe Fs > 3.28, p's < .04), and marginally likely to have a
longer hospital stay. In addition, thoseperceived as responsible were rated less
considerate, modest, self-assured, good-natured, sociable, important, and intelligent
(ScheffeFs > 6.03, p's < .(03). No significant differences were found on the quality
of care measure, but the means werein the predicted direction, suggesting that those
perceived responsible should receive lowerquality care. Research is in progress to
studywhetherthese negative perceptions alsoexist within health care practitioners. The
resultsclearly show that patients perceived as responsible for disease onset will be
perceived more negatively, but the results cannotaddress whether theseperceptions are
resulting in actual treatment differences.
                                                                                                 40

V. Ebbeck, OregonStateUniversity
Adult Reasons for Participation in Physical Activity: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis
One approach to understanding motivated behavior is to ask individuals why they
participate in physical activity. Studies haveexplored adultreasons for participation
(Brodkin & Weiss, 1990; Ebbeck,Gibbons, & Loken-Dahle, 1989; Heitmann. 1985;
Mathes & Battista. 1985; Raugh & Wall, 1987) butdifferent measures employed across
different samples have madeit difficult to generalize across results. Consequently.
replication studies are required to verify theparticipation reasons identified by physically
activeadults. The purpose of the presentreplication studywas to attempt to confirm the
four-factor solution reported by Ebbecket aI. (1989) suggesting that adults participate in
physical activity for interdependence (competition, winning, teamwork. social
interaction). personal satisfaction (learning. curiosity, enjoyment. aesthetics), self-image
(personal appearance, fitness), and instrumental (academic credit, convenience.
significant others)reasons. Subjects included 434 adults who wereenrolled in a
university service physical education program. The program consisted of approximately
20 hoursof instructional classesover 11 weeks. Questionnaire responses assessed the
imponance of 19 reasons for participating in physical activity. A confirmatory factor
analysis was conducted usingthe LISREL VIcomputer program. Results revealed a
satisfactory fit of the data to the initial four-factor model. reflected by the coefficient of
determination (.994), goodness-of-fit index (.810), and adjusted goodness-of-fit index
(.742). The present studyconfmned the interdependence, personal satisfaction. self-
image, and instrumental reasons for engaging in physical activity. In addition, theta
deltaand squared multiple correlation values described the quality of individual
questionnaire items. Therefore. the combined findings of this studycontribute to our
understanding of whyadultsparticipate in physical activity. and how measurement of
participation reasons mightbe refined in the future.
                                                                                             41


Manha Ewing,ThomasGeorge, MarthaLudwig, BarbaraMeyer, Robert Neff,
Michigan StateUniversity
Implementing a Psychological Skills Training Program with Youth Gymnasts
Recently, span psychologists (Weiss, 1989) were challenged to broaden the scope of
applied sportpsychology to include populations other thanadultelite performers. The
issueof youthsports has received considerable attention from researchers in social
psychology of spon. For example, the workof Gould and his colleagues has
systematically examined the effects of anxiety and performance, Scanlan and her
colleagues have assessed stressand enjoyment, Smith and Smollhavefocused on
coaching behaviors and self-perceptions, and Weiss has investigated perceived
competence and intrinsic motivation. However, littleattention has beengiven to the
enhancement of sport skills through psychological skills training programs. The
purposeof this symposium is to presenttheresultsof a two-year comprehensive
psychological skillsprogram implemented witha gymnastics club. We wereasked to
work witha local highly competitive gymnastics club in the areasof positive coaching
techniques and performance enhancement of theircompetitive teams. Specifically, this
symposium will focuson the developmental issuesassociated with a group of youth
gymnasts ranging in age from 8 to 18 years. Included in the presentations will be the
unique problems that were faced when working withvarious ability levels, adaptation of
psychological skills to varying age and ability groups, and a subjective evaluation of the
programseffectiveness. In addition, the sportpsychologists involvement with parents
and coaches will be addressed at each level. Martha Ewingwilloverview the
psychological skillsprogram, including work withparentsand coaches. Roben Neff
and BarbaraMeyerwilldescribe theirexperiences with LevelS and 6 youth gymnasts.
Tom George will share his program with Level? and 8 youth gymnasts. Finally,
MarthaLudwig will presenther program with the Level 9 and 10 youth gymnasts and
the two Junior National competitors. A discussion of this program will focus on
developmental issuesrelated to psychological skills training.
                                                                                             42


RichardFenker Jr., Texas Christian University
A Self-Paced Feedback Program for Peak Performance
Statementof Problem: In the presentresearch, peak perfonnancestatesare viewed as
optimal performance statesgiventhe conditions of the competition and the athlete, rather
than the traditional, somewhat mystical, definition of "peak".Using thisrevised
definition of peak state it is reasonable to expectan eliteathleteto maintain "~" a high
percentage (over70%) of the time. Peak statesare also highlyuniqueto the individual
athlete sincethe conditions or interventions whichfacilitate peak are not likely to be the
same for any two athleteson a team. Sportpsychology interventions attemptto move
athletes from theirpresentperformance state toward a more optimal state;yet, often
these interventions, when used in team settings, lack the uniquecharacternecessary to
benefitmanyof the athletes on the team. For example, imageryis a wonderful tool for
performance enhancement but, a significant numberof athletes on any team will not
benefit from imagerytraining.
Methodology: The 22 starters (playon a regularbasis) on a college baseball team
completed a questionnaire before the season on the characteristics of theiroptimal
performance stateand the factors that helped to maintain or interfere with that state. The
list of important factors was reducedto 18different problems or feelings that affected
performance. Each player'soptimal or peak level for each of the 18 areas was defined.
Then, aftereach game of the season, the activeplayersin that game completed a brief
questionnaire, rating themselves on the 18 problem/feeling areas and on the impact that
area had on theirperformance. Playershaving largediscrepancies between their optimal
and actualratingson problemareas were given feedback according to a priority ranking
system. For example, "arousal management" or "concentration" problems had a high
ranking while "teammate problems" rated lower. The feedback consisted of 1-2 pagesof
information from the performance enhancement literature on the particular problem. A
maximum of one type of feedback was givenevery two weeks. During the 12 week
season, many players got 6 differenttypesof feedback.
Results: A chart was kept for each athlete monitoring his discrepancy between the stated
ideal state (many playersadjusted theirdefinition of "ideal" during the season) and the
actualperformance stateduringeach game. Distance from ideal was defined as the sum
of squaresof the differences between actualand ideal across the 18 areas. An analysis
of the data at the season'send show two strong patterns. Nine of the 22 players showed
strong,systematic improvement during the season, greatlyreducingthe discrepancy
between actualand ideal on someof the 18areas. Sevenof the playersshowed limited
improvement while six showed littleor no improvement. Overall improvement ratings
basedon each player'sevaluation of his own performance state were significantly
correlated with coachesperformance ratingsfor the last 4 games of the season (R =.52;
P < .05).
Conclusions: Providing athletes systematic feedback on their performance statesand
then giving performance enhancement information for the most seriousproblems did
help 9 of 22 members of a college baseball teammake significant improvements in the
direction of more optimalor "peak" performance. This self-paced, individual approach
to peak performance has also been used successfully with swimmers and golfers. It
offers a powerful, yet sensitive, approach to interventions in team settings where
individuals differ in their need for or willingness to use psychological interventions.
                                                                                             43


Frances Flint. York University
Modeling Influences on Self-perceptions and Adherence in Athletic
Injury Rehabilitation
This presentation will emphasize the potential for psychological modeling in athlete's
rehabilitation from injury by describing an experimental study specifically designed to
assess changes in self-perceptions, attitudes, and adherence patterns in female basketball
players who had undergone surgeryfor a torn anteriorcruciate ligament Additionally,
the videotapemethodology used for developing the informational content. selection of
model types,and the dissemination of verbal and nonverbal behaviorsthrough this
medium is also discussedin detail, and a viewingof the videotapewill be includedas
part of the presentation. The samplefor this studyincluded 20 female high school and
university athletes from Canada (Age =19.2yrs, Range =14 - 24 yrs). Before
undergoing anteriorcruciate surgery, all subjects were randomly assigned to either
modeling intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 10) groups. After surgery, intervention
subjectsviewed a 58 minute videotapewhichportrayedmultiple,diversified, coping
models consistingof interviewswith female basketball players at various stages of
recover from anteriorcruciate surgery. Control group subjects were not exposed to the
modeling treatment Psychological measures were administered at each of three time
periods: immediatelyafter surgery (M = 12 days), 2 months post surgery, and 4 months
post surgery. These measuresincludedself-efficacy, perceivedathleticcompetence,
perceivedphysical appearance, global self-worth, locusof control,and general health
beliefs.Analysesincludeda series of2 x 3 (roup by time) repeatedmeasures
MANOVA's on self-perceptions, locus of control,and general health beliefs.Qualitative
analyses were also included, consistingof open-ended questions for both groups to
determine what factors affected theirrehabilitation from injury.Only time main effects
were found, suggesting that psychological characteristics changed for both groups over
time. Exploratory follow-up analyses at each time point indicated that modeling
treatmentsubjects reponed higherknee rehabilitation self-efficacy at time 1, and higher
perceivedphysical appearance at time 2 thandid control subjects. Qualitative analyses,
however,revealed larger differences betweenthe two groups. Subjects in the modeling
conditiondemonstrated a more positive attitude toward theirrecovery and more
knowledge about their needsduring rehabilitation than control group subjects. Issues
related to intervention strategies such as modeling alone,modelingplus education, and
modelingplus other psychological methods (e.g., goal setting)in athleticinjury
rehabilitation will be discussed.
                                                                                             44

Christina Frederick, University of Rochester
An Investigation of the Relationship Among Participation Motives, Participation
Related Variables and Psychological Outcomes in the Domain of Physical Activity
The studyto be presented is an investigation of the relationship among participation
motives for physical activities, participation-related variables and psychological
outcomes, such as self-esteem, depression, anxiety, self-actualization and vitality,
derivedas a resultof physical activities. This research is similarto the research of
Biddleand Bailey(1985)or Summers, Machin and Sargent (1983), in that it assesses
adultparticipation motives for physical activities. The present study goes beyond those
studies, however, by examining the correlational and linearrelationships among
participation motives, activity-related variables andpsychological outcomes, as wellas
motivational differences between groups of individuals. The importance of the present
study is twofold. First,it attempts to linkparticipation motivation with psychological
outcomes based upon the Motivation TheoryofDeci and Ryan (1985). Secondly, a new
measure - a participation motives scalewascreated and validated in the study. A self-
reportmethodology was used. 376 adult subjects answered a seriesof questionnaires
measuring motivation for physical activities, psychological outcomes and demographic
information abouttheir primary physical activity. Results of the study showed that the
participation motives scalecreated for usein the study factored into three subscales,
intrinsic, competence and body-related subscales. Significant correlational relationships
werefoundbetween participation motive subscales, participation-related variables and
psychological outcomes. Participation motivation wasfound to differ by sex of
participant with womenhaving a higher meanscorethan menon body-related
motivation and men showing a higher mean on competence motivation. Participation
motivation also varied by activity group, of which there weretwo - an individual sport
group, and a health and fitness group. In addition, participation motivation and
participation-related variables werefound to predict psychological outcomes using a
regression framework. The results of this study are of theoretical importance because
they showthat motivation for physical activities, separately from participation can affect
generalpsychological functioning. This study has applied valuefor health and fitness
educators and trainers. A clearerunderstanding of the significance of motivation as it
relates to psychological functioning, when prescribing fitness programs, can increase
positive outcomes of exercise.
                                                                                              45


FrankGardner,GardnerConsulting Associates, Robin Vealey, Miami University, Dan
Gould, University of North Carolina- Greensboro, and Jim Taylor, Nova University
Four Approaches to Athlete Intervention
The objective of this workshop is to providethe audience with a comparative viewof
four approaches to treating athletes with sport-specific presenting problems. In
sequence, two actual cases will be introduced by twoof the workshop participants,
initially only providing demographic and historical information to the other participants
and to the audience. Then, the other participants willdiscuss how they would intervene
with the client. In this process, the participants will focus on four fundamental
components of the intervention process. First, they will indicatetheirbasicconsultative
philosophy and approach, e.g., educational or therapeutic, directive or client-centered.
Second, they will describethe specific meansby which they wouldassess the client's
presenting problemincluding interviewing strategies, outsideinformation-gathering,
and assessment instruments. Third, the participants will indicatehow they would define
the presenting problem. Fourth, they willcharacterize how they would treatthe client,
discussing in detail theoverallframework of the treatment, the techniques they would
use, and the settings in which the interventions would take place. Finally, the
workshop participants who introduced the cases wouldexplain how they actually treated
the client,withinthe abovedescribed four-stage framework, and the outcome of the
intervention. It is hopedthat this workshop will clarify to the audience the diverse ways
in which clientscan be conceptualized and sport-specific problems can be treated. The
workshop participants will utilize audio-visual equipment to facilitate the expression of -
their views. In addition, handouts that outlineeach participant's position on the four
intervention components will be available to the audience at theconclusion of the
workshop.
                                                                                                46

L. Gauvin, J. Ricci, A. O'Halloran, J.C. Spence, and C. Cote, Concordia University,
McGillUniversity, and Universite de Montreal
Exploration of the Role of Exercise in the Hierarchy of Corporate
Employees' Everyday Pursuits.
Surveyand exploratory research suggest tharpeople who adopt and persistin an active
lifestyle cite fitness, health and appearance as participation motives moreoften than
sedentary individuals (Campbell's Surveyon Well-Being, 1990;Gauvin, 1989;Olson &
Zanna, 1982). While thesedata are informative, their link with the motive systems (e.g.
competence, achievement, affIliation, socialapproval) described in the psychology
literatureremains unclear. The purposes of this study,which is couched in Emmons
(1986)PersonalStrivingapproach to personality and subjective well-being, are to
examinehowpeople with activeand sedentary lifestyles construetheireveryday goals, to
determine whereexerciseand physical activity fit in to this network of goalsand to
describe the motive systems underlying exercise and physical activity behavior. Emmons
(1986) suggests that people have a series of personal strivings or goals which they try to
accomplish through their everyday behavior. Fulfillment of these strivings resultsin
enhancedwell-being. Non-attainment of personal strivings can havedeleterious effectson
well-being. Personal Strivings can be assessed through the Personal Strivings Lists and
the PersonalStrivingCoding Manual. The Personal Strivings List requires the subject to
identifythose goals that s/hepursues through everyday behavior. "Tryingto be physically
attractive to others", "Trying to help othersin need of help",and "Trying to seek new and
excitingexperiences" are examples of Personal Strivings. Subjects are then required to list
those behaviors which allowthem to achieve their strivings. "Exercising everyday",
"Goingto the hair stylistevery week"and "Buying a lot of new clothes" would be
examplesof behaviors designed to fulfill the "Trying to be physically attractive to others"
striving, Each ideographic personal striving can then be codedfor contentrelating to the
following ten categories: positivevs negative, intrapersonal vs. interpersonal,
achievement, affiliation, intimacy, power, personal growth and health, self presentation.
autonomy, self-defeating and degree of abstractness vs concreteness. In this study, which
is pan of a largerproject, a sample of 79 employees rangingin age between 24 and 65
years (M=40.69) wererecruited from a largecorporation in a big city. 41.8% of the
subjects werefemale. Subjects completed three separate tasks. First, subjects filled out a
batteryof paper and pencilquestionnaires including the Personal Strivings List as well as
other physical and psychological well-being measures. Second, they participated in a 28-
day experience sampling procedure whichconsisted of answering a brief mood and well-
being questionnaire four times a day in response to the soundof a pager.Third, subjects
completed a fitness evaluation wherein theirmaximal oxygen consumption was estimated
through a submaximal Astrand-Rhyming protocol. Only the resultsof the coding of
PersonalStrivings are reponed here. Findingsindicated that 85% of subjectslisted
exerciseand physical activity either as a personal striving or a behaviordesigned to fulfill
another personal striving even though only around a third of the sample was comprised of
fit-active subjects. Analysis of the contentof fitness-related personal strivings revealed
differences related to activity and fitness status. In comparison to the exercise-related
personal strivings of unfit-inactive subjects, a greaternumber of the exercise related
personal strivings of fit-active subjects included contentrelated to self-presentation. These
results suggest that the motiveof making a favorable impression on othersand appearing
desirable may be moreimportant to fit-active than unfit-inactive subjects. The implications
of these and other results for futureresearch are discussed.
Funded by the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research InstituteGrant #0052-0019-2030.
                                                                                          47

Thomas George. Michigan State University
Implementing a Psychological Skills Training Program with Level 7 and
Level 8 Youth Gymnasts
For the past two years. a psychological skills training program has been implemented
with Level 7 and Level 8 gymnasts. The age and practice/competitive demands
associated with the two levels varied to some degree. The Level 7 gymnasts ranged
from 11 to 13 years of age. and trained 19 hours per week. Generally. they practiced
compulsory skills and some beginningoptional skills. Travel was usually restrictedto
instate meets. Level 8 gymnasts ranged from 15 to 17 years of age. They also trained 19
hours per week, but worked on a variety of difficult optional skills. They competed in
both in-state and out-of-state meets.The PST program consistedof weekly group
meetings in which various psychological skills were introducedand practiced.
Gymnasts acquired some psychological skills more readily than others. Progressive
relaxation and imagery skills were easily understood and practiced by most of the
gymnasts. The use of an "imagination station"during practice seemed very effective.
Cognitiverelaxation proved more difficult for the Level 7's. Both groups understood
the conceptof attentional focus. but had difficulty maintaining their focus during
practice and competitivemeets. Goal setting was the most ineffective skill. Level 7
gymnasts had difficulty distinguishing betweenperformance and outcome goals. Few of
the gymnastsdemonstrateda strong commitmentto the goals they had set, and most
could not recall their goals shortlyafter writingthem down. The implementation of the
PST program proved problematic in several areas. Coaches were very receptive to the
implementation of various psychological skills. but too often relied on the sport
psychologistto encourage and reinforce the use of these skills. Many of the gymnasts
"forgot" to use the psychological skills withoutconstantly being reminded to do so.
Also. weekly PST sessions did not allow enough time for the individual instruction
necessary to properly implementthe skills.Overall. the PST program appeared to be
effective.as evidenced by the use of relaxation and imageryskills during practice and
competitivemeets. In addition. gymnasts and coaches at both levels believed the
program was facilitatingperformance. Systematically incorporating the skills into
practice and competitive routines.and increasing coach involvement in the
implementation of psychological skills are challengesfor sport psychologists working
with youth in the future.
                                                                                                48

JerriLeigh Gibson and John Silva, Universityof North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
The Relationship between Precompetitive Affect and Collegiate
Gymnastic Performance
Previous studies investigating the relationship between psychological factorsand athletic
performance have consistently concluded that-positive precompetitive affectis positively
correlated with enhanced performance (Morgan, 1978;Silva & Hardy, 1984;Silva &
Hardy, 1986;Williams, 1986). Research examiningthe relationship betweenaffect and
performance generallymeasuresaffectonce within24 hours precompetition
(precompetitive period)..In order to determine if time to competition influences affect the
present studyexaminedthe relationship between precompetitive affect and collegiate
gymnastic perfonnance at three intervals withinthe precompetitive period. The Profileof
Mood States (POMS) was employedto assessprecompetitive affectof female collegiate
gymnasts (N=9) at 25. 5. and 1.5 hours prior to competition at three regular season. home
meets. Gymnastic performancewas assessed by obtainingofficialjudges scores (JS) as
well as coaches scores. Positiveprecompetitive affect (lowTotal Mood Disturbance) was
hypothesized to be positively related to gymnastic performance and affect was hypothesized
to be more positiveat test times well beforethe onset of competition (e.g. 25 hours prior to
performance), It was also predictedthat affect and performance would be more positive at
the end of the season and would improvefrom the beginning to the end of the season.
Resultsfrom the POMS indicated that overall, affect (fMD) and performance were found
to be significantly negatively related (r:= -.42, r2 = .18, P = .03) indicating that positive
precompetitive affect (lowTotal MoodDisturbance) was related to higherperformance.
Specifically, intercorrelations revealedthat within each of the three gymnastics meets there
was an overall trend toward a strongerrelationship betweenTMD and JS (affectand
performance) as competition approached. However, according to precompetitive test time,
TMD was highest 1.5 hours prior to performance. Precompetitive affect was found to be
most positiveat mid season and performance scores werefound to be significantly
positively correlated with seasontime indicating betterperformance scores at the end of the
season. Descriptiveresults suggest that affect was less positive at test times closer to
competition, however, a one-wayANOVA revealedno significant differences in TMD
across time factors. In general,TMD remained low and consistentacross time factors and
although there were individual variations, the group exhibited an Iceberg mood state
profile. The results of this study supportfindings of previousresearch (Morgan, 1978;
Silva & Hardy, 1984;Silva & Hardy, 1986; Williams, 1986)suggesting that positive
precompetitive affectis relatedto betterathletic performance. In addition, precompetitive
affect may change as competition approaches and as the season progresses. This
information can assist in the development of data based training and intervention programs
and further emphasizes the transitional natureaffect in competitive sport environments.
                                                                                             49

KathyGill, WilliamPaterson College and Jane Henderson, John AbbottCollege
The Type A Competitive Runner: At Risk for Injury and Psychological Stress?
The Type A behavior patternhas beencharacterized as a specific way of coping with
stressfulaspectsof one's environment. Type A personsoften show hard-driving,
competitive, aggressive, and impatient behavior in response to challenging situations.
Since theType A behavior pattern has beenidentified as a risk factorfor coronary heart
disease,interestin techniques which may modify this stressful style of living has grown
dramatically. The purpose of this studywas to determine whether participation in
aerobic exercise significantly modified Type A behavior for a groupof competitive
runners. Subjects were 24 male and 13 female runnersbetween the ages of 20 and 54
years (M= 36.1 years) who were members of an organized runningclub in north
Florida. Subjectswere questioned on averagedistance run per week, average numberof
runs per week, numberof races run over the past year, best competitive time for 5-
kilometers, numberof injuriesover the past year, and numberof days missedfrom
runningdue to injuryover the past year. Type A behavior was measured using the Type
A Self-Rating Inventory (Blumenthal et al., 1985) and psychological stress was
measured using the Hassles Scale (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, & Lazarus, 1981). A
multivariate testof significance (MANOYA) revealed nodifferences between theType A
and Type B runnerson the four training variables. A MANOYA showed that both
groups of runnersreported a similaraverage numberof injuries over the past year.
However, the Type B runnersreported missing moredays of running due to injury than
the Type A runners. A MANOVA showed no differences between the two groups on
the stressmeasures of numberof hassles reportedand intensity of reported hassles.
Results therefore lend support to the hypothesis that aerobic exercise may be an effective
technique to modify Type A behavior. Instead of perceiving running as yet another
sourceof competition and stress, it appears that the Type A runners were able to
respond to thischallenging situation with behavior more typical of a Type B person.
                                                                                               50

Patrick Goldsmith,Tony Hogan, Jean Williams, Universityof Arizona; W. Neil
Widmeyer, Universityof Waterloo
Cooperation and Competition in Relation to Cohesion, Satisfaction, and
Communication in Basketball Teams
Deutsch (1949a, 1949b)found that intragroup cooperation led to increasedcommunication
among group membersand increased group solidarity (cohesion) while intragroup
competitionled to group disruption. His results were supported by other researchers (Dunn
&. Goldman, 1965; Gottheil, 1965;Gross, 1954; Pack &. Rickard, 1974).Forsyth and
Kolenda (1966) found that the presenceof a group goal in a balletcompanykept intragroup
competitionfrom disruptingthe group. Similarly, Sherif,Halvey, White, Hood and Sherif
(1961)found that inteneam competition amonggroupsof boys at summercamp increased
intragroup cohesion. Team sports,inherently involveinterteamcompetition, but among
teammates, either intrateam cooperation or intrateam competition can be stressed in coaching
and instruction. Accordingto Deutsch, stressing intrateam competition leads to a disruption
of team cohesion. However, sport teams have group goals, like the previously mentioned
balletcompany, and these goals maykeep intrateam competition from disrupting team
cohesion. Also, interteamcompetition, regardless of whethera team cooperates or competes
internally, may possiblyincreaseteamcohesion and communication over time,just as it did
in the Sherif et al. study.Unfortunately, little data is available within sport settings
regarding the relativebenefits and disadvantages of intragroup cooperation and competition.
This studyexamined the effectsof intrateam competition and cooperation on team cohesion,
team communication, and individual satisfaction before and duringinterteam competition.
The subjectswere 92 university students enrolledin intermediate baseball classes. Forty
three subjects on 13 teamsreceivedan intratearn cooperative treatment and 49 subjects on 14
teamsreceived an intrateam competitive treatment. Subjects reported theirperceived levelsof
cohesion,communication, and satisfaction once after four practicesessions but beforeany
inteneam competition and once afterthreedays of interteam three-on-three competition.
Team cohesion levels were assessed using the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron,
Brawley,and Widmeyer, 1985). Communication (threequestions) and satisfaction (nine
questions) were assessed using 1 to 9 point Likert scales. The respective questions were
added for a total score.Communication items were specific to playingbasketball and
satisfaction items dealt with a varietyof issues. Results of a mixeddesign MANOYA
indicated that intrateamcooperation led to significantly more communication (F = 11.7,
P < .(01), but no differences were found on cohesion or satisfaction (P> .05). Also, the
entire sample increasedin cohesion (F = 3.9, p < .01) and communication (F = 22.7,
P < .(01), but not on satisfaction, after interteam competition began.The results indicate
that intrateam competition versusintrateam cooperation does not disrupt teamcohesion or
satisfaction in a team sport setting whichinvolves interteam competition. The findings are
discussed in terms of future research needs and implications for teachers, coaches,and sport
psychologist practitioners.
                                                                                            51


Lance Green,Tulane University
A Theoretical and Applied Model for the Use of Imagery by Athletes
The proposed model addresses the influence of self-talk and imagery on the formation
of motor programs used in sport performance. It begins by discussing specific
obstacles to the use of imagery such as ontogenetic development and the lack of
awareness on the part of coaches and athletes concerning how to implement imagery
into training and competition. Its underlying premise is that an athlete whodevelops the
art of self-talkand the use of imagery is said to progressfrom thinking in words to
thinking in imagesjust prior to the execution of specific skills.
Greene's multi-hierarchical and Pribram'stwo-process modelslay the foundation for
imagerytraining suitable for all classifications of motor skills. They also establish the
potential for athlete'sdeveloping 'adjustment programs', i.e. motor programs which
address unexpected adjustments to open sportskills necessitated by environmental input
(a bad hop in baseball). Furthermore, the notion of output chunking'is used to discuss
the interplay between self-talk, imagery, and motor program formation.
An application of Walter's(1953) workconcerning habitual verbalizing and visualizing
suggeststhat trigger wordscan be used as "imagery pegs" (Hill, 1918) or "conceptual
pegs" (Paivio, 1963) in the development of imagery experientials. A transcript of a
mastery tape is offeredas an example of how the interplay between self-talk and
imagery can be used to rehearse a specific taskduring the pre-eompetition phase. In
addition, the application of self-talk duringcompetition servesas a meansfor focusing
the athlete's attention on the task at hand in the form of an instantpre-play. It is also
suggested that implementing mental rehearsal into daily practice sessions can be
accomplished through the use of circuit training.
                                                                                          52

Michael Greenspan. Arizona StateUniversity
Methodological Factors and Considerations In Treatment Outcome Research
As a graduate student. theimportance of empirical evaluation of the interventions J
provided became clear. Afterconcluding thatthere were identifiable deficiencies in the
area of intervention research in sportpsychology (Greenspan & Feltz, 1989), I decided
to conduct an intervention outcome experiment for mydissertation research project. In
this presentation, I will share somevaluable lessons I learned in that process. In
particular. the following subtle and not so subtle issues will be discussed:
appropriateness of elite athletes as research subjects. the selection of meaningful and
validperformance and non-performance dependent variables, utilizing valid intervention
checks, and the practical meaning and/or statistical significance of results.
                                                                                              53

Joy Griffin, University of New Mexico and Evelyn Hall, Universityof Utah
2001 "New Wave" Wellness--Alpha Training
Self-regulation, over autonomicfunctions, is a critical process that modulates both
physical and psychologicalhealth (Peper, 1983). In Health Psychologyincreasing
behavioral technology and instrumentation are used to study feelings, consciouscontrol
and attention(Kamiya,1983). Alpha trainingteaches people to control their own mental,
emotional and physical processes (Green,Green & Walters, 1970;Pelletier, 1987;
Sterman, 1975).Self-regulation can be used to create feelingsof health and well being
(pelletier, 1987).Green (1983)predicted that 80% of disabilitiescould be cured through
self-regulation training.Peper (1983) suggested belief in one's own power of self-
regulation sets the limits for what is possible. "Limitsof personal belief limits health.
Personal responsibilityis an important aspect of the learning process. The knowledge'I
have control' is the experiential counterpartof the undefined healing quality." (Peper,
Pelletier,Tandy; 1983)
Today, with the resurgenceof interestin self exploration and realization, it may be
possible to develop a synthesis between traditional medicine and self-regulation
techniques. Humans can be trained to regulateoccipital Alpha rhythms (Kamiya, 1983).
This leads practitioners in Health Psychology to ask severalquestions:
       1. What is the nature of Alpha activity?
       2. Why are Alpha waves so desirable?
       3. What factors influence Alphaactivity?
       4. What are the methodological issuesand considerations important in Alpha training?
       5. What future health applications may be possible by 2001?
These questions will be addressedwithin this presentation. Training protocols used at 2
Alpha trainingcenters (private clinic and university lab) will also be explained. Alpha
training may indeed be the "new wave" technology of the future.
                                                                                             54

BruceHale,The Pennsylvania StateUniversity
A Life Skills   »   Experiential Learning Model for Drug Education of College Athletes
To date, most of the few university drug education programs have been information-
basedand have assumed that knowledge willresultin behavior change. This unique
experiential learning approach is basedon research (Tobler, 1986) concluding that
learning occursmost effectively when the student is actively and personally involved.
In addition, the program also placesemphasis on specific life skills (i.e.,decision-
making, copingskills, and specific activities) so that students can effectively assisteach
other in behavior changeand referrals. This comprehensive drug prevention program
focuses on education, prevention, and intervention and is implemented in the Freshman
year and continued and reinforced through the remaining four years. Preliminary
frequency data has indicated that alcohol is the drugof potential abusefor most
freshman and usageof otherperfonnance-enhancing and recreational drugs is quite low.
Comparative analyses of additional freshman data willbe presented that examines
knowledge, attitudes, and personological variables beforeand after program
implementation and in reference to otherathlete and nonathlete controls.
Recommendations for future programming and further research questions will also be
discussed.
                                                                                            55

Bruce Hale, The Pennsylvania State University, Alben Petitpas, Springfield College,
Steven Danish, Virginia Commonwealth University, Christopher Carr, United States
Olympic Committee and Ball State University.and Rob Stainback,University of
Alabamaat Birmingham
Drug and Alcohol Education Programs for Athletes: Three Developmental
Life-Skill Models for College and Elite Athletes
Recently universities and nationalgoverning bodies have realized the imponance of
substance prevention, education, and rehabilitation support programs for college and
elite athletes. Many of the programs have been information-based and have had as an
underlying premise that knowledge results in behavior change (Durlak, 1983). Recent
evaluative research (Cinelli and Rose-Colley, 1988; Gres, 1987; Ray and Ksir, 1990)
and Tobler's (1986) meta analysis suggest that multimodal programs that emphasize
enabling life skills, peer modeling, and experientiallearning are more effective in
changing drug- and alcohol-related behaviors. This symposium will examine the
problems inherent in earlier drug educationprogrammingand then will describe the
components of a comprehensive,life skills prevention model that has been adopted by
two universities and one USOC program. Each program's objectives and procedures
will be fully delineated by a presenter. Frequency and comparison data concerning drug
and alcohol usage, risk factors, personological variables, and attitudes will be reviewed
for each program and overall effectiveness of each interventionwill be evaluated.
Possible weaknesses and future recommendations within each framework will be
discussed in practical terms. A discussant will summarizeand react to the three models.
                                                                                            56


Evelyn Hall. Universityof Utah and Joy Griffin. University of New Mexico
Interactive Forum for Women in Sport Psychology:                Ideas and Issues
What does it tell us about the field of sport psychology. when so few womenare
represented in leadership positions? For example. the UnitedStatesOlympicCommittee
Registryfor sport psychology portrays a bleak picture for qualified women who should
be able to serve as consultants. The numbercurrentlylistedcan be counted on one
hand. Another strikingexampleof imbalance occurs when one goes down the list of
individuals who have held the Association for the Advancement of Applied Span
Psychology (AAASP) Presidential office. That list from 1985to date has been
comprisedof all males. There are numerous additional examples. The experience of
professional women in sport psychology seems to parallelthat of women in athletic
leadership.coaching. sportscasting, and other sport-related roles. It is time for all who
care about finding meaningful expression and sharingof powerin this field to stand up
and be counted.
Therefore.the purpose of the present workshop will be to providean interactive forum
to exploreideas and focus attention on the following concerns of women in spon
psychology:
1) Defining the role,
2) Gainingaccess to the lockerroom: equityversus equality;
3) Academicversus consulting issues.
4) Sharingpower: Who are the gate keepers?
5) Strategic planning and political activism;
6) Establishing a meaningful network,
7) Other issues.
As Joe Dimaggioonce stated. "Allof us need victories in life...even if they'reonly
victoriesover ourselves". Will the decadeof the 1990'sbe a continuation of myths.
stereotypes. "isms".and "schisms" that continueto divide and conquer humanity in
sport. Or can we all work harderto break down these barriersin sport? Insuring access
to all types of people in our society to such victories through the mediumof span is one
of the most timely. worthy goals for sport psychology in the future. This will require
awareness. concern. and effort by us all.
                                                                                           57

Wayne Halliwell,Universityof Montrealand Jodi Yarnbor, University of Miami
Developing and Using Videos to Enhance Athletic Performance
In recent years sport psychologyconsultants working with elite athletes have found the
use of peak performancemusic videos to be an effectivemental trainingtool (Halliwell,
1990; Loehr, 1990).Athletesreport that music videos combined with visualization and
self-talktechniques help them attain an idealperformance state. The purpose of this
workshopwill be to demonstratehow music videos and other forms of video can serve
as an importantmediumfor teachingmentalskills and enhancingperformance. Specific
examples from a number'of individual and team sports will be presentedand the
technologyrequired to produce these videos will be described.Also, recent
technological advances such as the use of computers and multiple VCRs to produce
peak performancevideos will be discussed.
In addition to describingthe technical side of producing music videos and offering
workshopparticipants the opportunityto view a numberof finished products, the
workshop will present concreteexamplesof how videos can be used to enhance
adherence to mental trainingprograms through testimonial statements from highly
successful athletes.
An interactive teachingmethod will be used with a discussion centering on modeling
techniquesas a means of teaching mental skills. Specifically, participants will be asked
to discuss how individualand team modeling can be used to demonstrate and teach
mental skills such as emotionalcontrol, concentration, and mental toughness. In a
related manner, the combined use of videos and modeling techniques will be discussed
as a means of enhancing technical and tacticalskill acquisition.
The workshop organizers will share their experienceand the lessons that they have
learnedin using videos as a mental trainingadjunctin their work with elite professional
and amateur athletes. In this regard, we will describe the type of video equipment
required, budgetaryimplicationsand the type of knowledge and human resources
needed to integratevideo productions into a mental trainingprogram.

Workshopparticipants will receive written materials describing both the theoretical and
practicalconsiderations of usingvideos to enhanceathleticperformance.
                                                                                           58

Doug Hankes and Robert Weinberg,University of North Texas
Postmarathon Affect in First Time and Experienced Marathon Participants
The psychological benefit of regular exercisehas been documented in such areas as
decreased depression (Hanaford,Harrell, & Cox. 1988).reduction of anxiety (Jones &
Weinhouse. 1979). increased self-esteem(Tucker. 1983). and improved cognitive
~esses (Tomporowski & Ellis. 1986). Previous research with marathon runners has
indicatedsimilarpositivebenefitsimmediately after completion of a marathon
(Summers. Machin. & Sargent, 1983). However. anecdotal reports suggest that first
time marathon runners may suffer negativechangesin affect after completion of the
26.2 mile event, and that these changesin affect are more likely to occur several months
after the marathonrather than immediately after the event. This phenomenon has been
referred to as postmarathon depression. Thus.the purpose of the present investigation
was to compare first time and experienced marathoner's affect over a 6 month period
followingcompletionof a marathon. One hundredand forty-five runners (70 first time
marathoners and 75 experienced marathoners) completed the Beck Depression Inventory
(BDI). the Tellegen Positiveand NegativeAffect Schedule (PANAS). and a modified
version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) approximately one week before and two
weeks after completion of the Dallas WhiteRock marathon. The data from the
dependentmeasures (BDl. PANAS, and POMS) were analyzed by a 2 X 2 MANOVA
(Group x Time). A main effect was found for time. Specifically. marathoners
regardless of experience were less depressed. less tense, and less anxious. while
showingan increase in enthusiasm. activity.and alertness (PA) after completionof the
marathonas compared to before the marathon (p < .001).These" findingsare consistent
with previous researchindicating positivechangesin affectimmediately after a
marathon.The group main effect and Group x Time interaction. however. were not
significant. To investigateif negative changes in affect will surfaceover a longer time
frame. these same dependent measures will also be taken at 2 month. 4 month. and 6
month intervals. Results will be discussed in terms of individuals' .reasons for
running a marathon. level of commitment to running, and pre- and post-marathon
physical training.
                                                                                              59

Tom Hanson, Skidmore College
The Mental Aspects of Hitting
Despite most hitters' belief that the mental aspectsof hittingare more important than the
physical aspects of hitting (Dorfman, Kuehl, )989; Hanson, 1989) little research has
been done to enhance our understanding of the mental processesinvolved in one of
sports most difficult challenges. To address this disparity, a naturalistic inquiry of five
of baseball's best hitters was conducted. Specifically, Tony Oliva, Stan Musial. Carl
Yastrzemski, Rod Carew, and Henry Aaron (names used with their permission) were
each individually interviewed. The naturalistic approach allowed these hitters to freely
discuss what they felt were the importantpsychological elementsof hitting based on
their years of successful experience in the major leagues. All of the interviewees felt
that the mentalpart of the game was criticaland attributed much of their successto their
mental approachand skills. Aaron, for example,felt that his ability to mentally prepare
and focus for each game, done primarily through visualization, was instrumental in his
becomingone of baseball s most consistently successful hitters. Other topics commonly
discussed by the respondentsinclude confidence,preparation, practice methods.
concentration, at-the-platethinking, and imagery. The case studiesresulting from the
interviewsas well as the cross-caseanalysis highlighting individual differencesand
similarities will be presented. Implications for enhancingthe performance of current
hitters will also be discussed.
                                                                                          60

Charles Hardy, R. Kelly Crace, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill; David
Yukelson, Pennsylvania State University; W. Neil Widmeyer, University of Waterloo
Developing Cohesion in Sport Teams: The Cornerstone of Team Building
zander (1974)maintained that team unity is one of the cornerstones upon which
effective team performance is built, Moreover, Orlick(1980)maintained that one of the
most gratifying experiences athletes and/orcoachescan have is to be a memberof a team
that gets along well with one anotherand works togetherefficiently in a cohesive, task-
orientedmanner.Unfortunately, developing, nurturing, and maintaining team unity can
be a rather difficulttask. Indeed,results from a national surveyindicatedthat building
and sustaining cohesiveness in sport teams is a major topicof interestfor coaches
(Silva, 1982).The purpose of this workshopis to: 0) provide an understanding of the
role of cohesionin the team buildingprocess,and (2) provide hands on experience with
three different approaches to team building. To facilitate the process,a three phase
approachwill be incorporated. Phase I will focus on examining definitional and
conceptional approaches to building cohesion. Phase II will focus on intervention
strategiesdesigned to enhancethe cohesiveness of the team. In this phase, the
workshop participants will be dividedinto three sport teams. Each spon team will
experience3, 30 min team building approaches, witheach of the approaches being lead
by a different facilitator. The approaches to be demonstrated include: (1) Developing
respect and appreciation for individual differences and assessing teamdynamics;
(2) Developing team goalsand enhancing role clarityand role acceptance; and
(3) Developing interpersonal communication and facilitating role transition. Phase III
will focus on a critiqueof these techniques and a discussion of the team building
process.A team buildingmanual,highlighting these three approaches, will be presented
to workshopparticipants.
                                                                                              6\


Elizabeth Han, University of NorthCarolina - Greensboro, CharlesHardy,
Christopher Lantz. and Laura Remington, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill,
and EdwardMcAuley, University of Illinois
Social Physique Anxiety and Exercise Behavior
The physiological and psychological benefits derivedfromconsistent physical activity .,
have been widelydocumented (Paffenbarger et al., 1978; Morgan, 1981). However,
despite the many advantages to be gained from exercise, manyindividuals do not
participate on a regular basis(Dishman, 1988). Various individual difference factors
such as physical estimation and attraction (Sonstroem, 1978), self-motivation (Dishman
& Ickes, 1981) and personal incentives (Duda, 1987) have been identified that may
influence exercise participation. In addition. it has beenrecently hypothesized that social
physique anxiety (SPA)may also affectexercise involvement (Han, Leary & Rejeski,
1989). The purposeof this symposium is to explore the role socialphysique anxiety
may play in exercise behavior. Following a general introduction of the SPAconstruct
and the unique contributions SPAoffers toward the understanding of exercise behavior,
data will be presented thatexamines gender, age and depression as significant moderator
variables which may influence the SPA-exercise behavior relationship. To follow,
selected behavioral correlates of SPA,including actual physical activity, preference for
groupversus individual exercise participation and weight discrepancy (actual - perceived
ideal)factors will be addressed. Finally, the degreeto which SPA is related to actual
exercise behavior in social environments for bothexperienced and inexperienced
exercisers will be presented. To conclude, the paneVdiscussant willoffer implications
for future SPA research, as wellas address the various clinical applications of SPA.
                                                                                              62


LenoreHannon, Kirsten Peterson, Ken Nafziger, GregoryAbrams,Mary Anderson,
Dianne Berg,Aysen Darcan, John Jones, Lori Lefcourt, and KevinWickes, University
oflllinois
Career Development and the College Athlete: Aspirations and Realities
College-bound elite athletes oftenoperate underhighly inflated, unrealistic expectations
of a professional career in sport (Blann, 1985; Coakley, 1982) as well as with
significantly lower scoreson careerand educational planning measures (Blann, 1985;
Sowa & Gressard, 1983). This suggests that someathletes may not view collegeas an
opportunity to furtheror broaden theircareeroptions and furthermore, lack the skills to
fully exploresuch options.
Someresearchers havefocused on interventions thatcoincide withan individual's
retirement from athletics(i.e.,Danish,D'Augelli, & Ginsberg.1984; Kleiber, US
OlympicCommittee, 1988). Careertheorists Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, & Henna
(1951)and Super (1953). in contrast. haveproposed developmental frameworks
beginning in childhood that emphasize the importance of careerfantasy, exploration,
and compromise through which the child and young adultmoves. For thoseathletes
who expectto "go pro". however, this exploration process may have been truncated or
foreclosed (Pedtpas, 1978). Chartrand and Lent (1987) pointout thatcommitment to
athletics mayincrease the probability thattheathlete will notfully evaluate his,lher career
decision. The greater the commitment, the morelikely the athlete is to dismiss threats to
theirdecision. thus creating a predisposition for poor careerdecision-making strategies,
and ultimately, a lack of othercareerpossibilities.
In this study. each subject completed three measures: the Student Development Task and
Lifestyle Inventory measuring educational and careerdevelopment, a demographic
questionnaire. and a retrospective occupation consideration checklist. The subject pool
consisted of intercollegiate athletes from both professional and nonprofessional outlet
sportsas wellas a comparison group of non-athletes. It was hypothesized that athletes
wouldbe lesscareermature andmorerestricted than nonathletes in the quality and
numberof occupational considerations from earlyadolescence and that this phenomenon
will be moreprevalent among athletes whose sport has a professional outletas well as
moreprevalent among male than among female athletes. Comparisons between athletes
and non-athletes. males and females. pro-outlet and non pro-outlet sports will be
reponed as well as comparisons between specific teams.
                                                                                                 63

Elizabeth Hart, University of NorthCarolina - Greensboro
The Influence of Exercise Experience on Social Physique Anxiety and
Exercise Behavior
With the currentemphasis on fitness, manypeopleare embarking on exercise programs
with expectations of "losing weight" and "getting in shape". Unfortunately, this
dissatisfaction withcurrentphysical status often becomes the primary motivator of
exercisebehavior. In fact, Duda (1987) and Silberstein (1988) havedesigned
questionnaires thatassessincentive/reasons for exercise and both have included the
factors of "weightmanagement/control, "health" and "appearance" as primary
incentives/reasons. Interestingly, thesevery sameincentives often become the primary
deterrents of exercise participation, particularly if the exerciser perceives his/her physical
appearance/abilities as the subject of social evaluation. In a study exploring participant
perceptions of exerciseprograms for overweight women, Bain, Wilson and Chaikind
(1989)reponed, "although factors such as safety, comfort, and qualityof instruction
affected the women's exercise behaviors, the mostpowerful influences seemed to be the
socialcircumstances of the exercise setting, especially concerns about visibility,
embarrassment andjudgment by others" (p. 139). As might be expected, these women
werereluctant to be observed by otherswhile exercising and this limited their
willingness to exercise in publicor attendexercise studios. This feeling of anxiety that
occurswhen people perceive theirphysical features and abilities to be the subject of
social scrutiny has been identified as social physique anxiety (SPA). High SPA women
report heightened stressduringphysique evaluations, more negative thoughts about
theirbody's appearance and feeling less comfortable having their bodyevaluated than
their low SPAcounterparts (Hart,Leary & Rejeski, 1989). The purpose of the present
investigation was to determine if inexperienced exercisers (just beginning to attend
public exercise classes) demonstrate heightened SPAcompared to experienced
exercisers (participating regularly for one yearor more). In addition, it was
hypothesized that inexperienced exercisers willexhibit moreexercise behaviors
designed to minimize the potential for realor perceived social evaluation ("protective"
behaviors) than will experienced exercisers. For example, physique anxious exercisers
may strategically position themselves in the backof an exercise class or wearloose
exercise clothing as an attempt to reduce the pervasive feelings of social evaluation. A
2G-item questionnaire assessing reactions to a variety of potential anxiety-provoking
aspects of the social exercise environment wasdistributed to a sample of experienced
and inexperienced exercisers. Also,each exerciser was asked to complete the SPA
scale.Preliminary analyses suggest that inexperienced exercisers do experience
heightened social physique anxiety and exhibit more "protective" exercise behaviors
than do experienced exercisers. Awareness of "protective" behaviors may motivate
fitness professionals to create less threatening exercise environments, encouraging
continued exercise participation by inexperienced exercisers.
                                                                                                64


Kate Hayes, The Performing Edge, Concord, NH
Resolving the Emotional Loss or Physical Injury: The Use or an
Adolescent Grief Group
Adolescence is a time ofenonnous growth and change. Physical and psychological
changes are conjoined in the sportsarena. For adolescent athletes, developmental
concerns aboutbodyimageand socialrelations become highlighted. Definition of self
(Who am I and whatdo I do) and role relationships (with whom am I connected)- are
established. The adolescent athlete maycreate precarious emotional balance and stability
by tieing his/her definition of self too strongly to athletics. Because adolescents live in a
timeless space--everything is now--these critical questions aboutself seemresolved
whileparticipating in athletics but can be shattered and lost whenserious injury
prohibits athletic participation. Bodyimageis changed; social relationships are
disrupted; now is forever wheninjuryoccurs. Injuryrecovery for adolescent athletes
involves not only physical healing, but the healing of psychic also. In order to heal
psychologically, adolescents need to grievea variety of lossesand come to a fuller
understanding of themselves.
This presentation discusses the use of an adolescent griefgroupin a sports medicine
clinic. The physical therapists, concerned aboutproblems of compliance among their
patients collaborated with a sports psychologist to develop a short-term grief group. The
group was intended to allow the injured teens an opportunity to express their senseof
loss, anger, despair, and isolation; to develop a senseof community; and to rebuild self-
esteem basedon a broadersenseof self.This groupprocess will be addressed in terms
of the theoretical modelsof processing loss.
In addition to descriptions of the utility of this methodology for the individual patients,
this presentation highlights the myriad of issuesinvolved indeveloping a
psychologically-based system in a medical setting, inter-department relations, the mind-
bodyrelationship, and practical aspects (financial arrangements, scheduling, case
collaboration and consultation).
                                                                                             65

John Heil, Lewis-GaleClinic, Salem, VA
When the Good Die Young: Fatal Injury in Sport
From an individual perspective fatal injuryis a relatively rare occurrence in sport
However, the absolute numberof such injuriesoccurringon a yearly basis is quite
large. Krause and Conroy (1984)estimatethat over 6000 deaths occur yearly in the
United Statesfrom athletic and recreational activities combined. Whether sudden or
unexpected in the young or old the impactof death is great It creates an emotional
shock wave rippling outward through the individual's social sphere leaving a legacy of
sadness among loved ones. Where fatal injuryoccurs unexpectedly and in the young the
impact is even more profound. Such is the case in sport where the athlete is struck down
in the very demonstration of vigor and vitality.
The purposesof this symposium are to better understand the meaningof death in sport
and its impacton friends and teammates as well as to identifya constructive role for the
psychologistor other health professional in the wake of fatal injury. This symposium
includesthree papers: "Death in Sport: Epidemiological, Historical and Psychological
Perspectives"; "Fatal Injuryof a High SchoolHockey Player During Competition: A
Case Report"; and, "Exercise Related Sudden Death: A Retrospective Studyof the Long
Term Effects on Teammates". The papers are to be followed by an open discussion. The
first of the papers places fatal injuryinto perspective by examining its occurrence from a
varietyof viewpoints. Epidemiological research presentsinformation on the type and
frequency of fatal injury and its link to specific sportactivities. An overviewof the
historyof sport highlights the enduring natureof the problemof fatal injury. Current
psychological perspectives offer insightinto the role that the spectre of death plays in
contemporary sport In the secondpaper a case studyformat is utilized to describe the
immediate impactof the death of a high school athlete duringcompetition on teammates,
family and friends. In addition,recommendations are provided to help guide the health
care professional in the management of the events that unfold following fatal injury. The
third paper provides insight into the protracted long term effects of the suddendeath of a
university football player on his teammates. A qualitative research design was utilized
retrospectively to assess its enduringeffects. The papers are to be followed by a
discussion period. Its purpose is twofold- to provide the presenters the opportunity to
field questions from the audience; and, to give presenters and audience the opportunity
to establish a dialogue to gain a betterunderstanding of the psychological impactof fatal
injury.To facilitate these goals a brief questionnaire assessing the experience of
members of the audience with sportrelatedfatal injurywill be completed at the start of
the discussion.
                                                                                              66

John Heil, Lewis-Gale Clinic, Salem, VA and Keith Henschen, University of Utah
Death in Sport: Epidemiological, Historical and Psychological Perspectives
The purposes of this paper are to increase the awareness of the frequency and
circumstances of fatal injury and to explore therole that the spectre of death playsin
shaping attitudes and behavior in contemporary span. While a relatively infrequent
event,fatal injurydoes occurwithpredictable regularity according to the growing body
of sportepidemiology research. The National Centerfor Catastrophic Sports Injury
Research (Mueller & Blyth, 1987), one of a growing numberof injury monitoring
systems identifies two categories of fatal injury. These are described as: direct,resulting
fromparticipation in span; and indirect, including thosefatalities caused by general
systemic failure from physical exertion or due to a secondary complication of an
otherwise nonfatal injury. To thesea thirdcategory of fatal injuryin sportshould be
addedwhich includes deathdue to sportmotivated risk behaviors such as drug use and
extremeweightloss measures. Greaterunderstanding of the frequency, type and
circumstances of catastrophic injuryin general has led to effective preventive actions.
Deathis pan of the lore and language of sport, The gladitorial contests of ancient Rome
and theEuropean practice of the duelof honorstandout as athletic events where fatal
injurywas a constantpossibility. Cenain contemporary sportspractices carry
inordinately highrisk. Among dedicated mountaineers death risk is estimated to be 1 in
167while on a single Himalayan climb it grows to a chanceof approximately 1 in 20
(Reif, 1984).
The run of Pheidippides from Marathon represents a standard of self-sacrifice and risk
takingthat has prevailed through centuries to shape contemporary spons attitudes. The
practice of highrisk outdoorsports suchas hang gliding and skydiving has raised the
question as to whether participating athletes are motivated by a death wish. More
systematic investigation suggests that these activities are a strongly lifereaffirming
experience among theirgenerally well adjusted and highly motivated devotees. In
contrastthe willingness of manyathletes to persist in ergogenic drug use in spiteof
varied and significant health risks is sobering.
Risk taking appears to be inherent in sportand with thisa related compulsion to compete
against and sometimes temptthe odds. Froman objective viewpoint injury is an
inevitable consequence of the dangers inherent in spon and fatal injury a concomitant of
this. However awareness of catastrophic injury and supportive actionsfollowing the
fact are not enough. Awareness should also serveas a catalystto preventive actions.
                                                                                              67

 Jane Henderson, John Abbott College and David Pargman, Florida State University
 The Effect of Progressive Relaxation Training on Stress Perception, Dispositional
 Optimism, and Frequency and Severity of Running Related Injuries
 Traditionally, stress has been measured in termsof majorlife eventsrequiring a
 significant alteration of majorlife patterns. Recently this approach has beencriticized
 because it tends to be too nonnativein that it suggests that all personsperceive and react
 to all stressorsuniformly. The daily hasslesapproach, on the other hand, focuses upon
 the perception of relatively minorlife eventswhich occurdaily and are measured using
 the Hassles Scale (Kanner, Coyne,Schaefer & Lazarus, 1981). Indication of a hassle is
 then acknowledgment of the event as personally stressful and an endorsement of the
 magnitudeof the stressorin one's life.
 This study is amongthe first to utilize the hassles approach with athletes. Not only does
 the hasslesapproach appearto be a viablemeasurement technique with athletes, sinceit
 evaluates everydayminor stressors, which are majorconcerns for athletes, but it also
 provides implications for intervention procedures.
. In additionto addressing the issue of the measurement of psychological stress, the
  primarypurposeof this study was to determine the effect of a programof progressive
  relaxation training on stressperception, dispositional optimism, and the frequency and
  severity of runningrelatedinjury. Subjects were volunteer competitive road runners (32
  male and 17 female) randomly selected from two largerunning clubs (mean age =
  36.4). Subjectswere randomly assigned to a progressive relaxation training group or a .
  waiting list control group. Relaxation training consistedof two 2-hourclassroom
  sessions. Additionally, a tape providing relaxation cues was provided for each subject.
  Subjects were told to practicedaily duringthe 8 weeksof the duration of this study.
  Subjects were asked to fill out frequency chartsof theirrelaxation practice.
 The primary analysis used was a one-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for each
 dependentvariable (optimism/pessimism, general well-being, hassle frequency and
 hassle intensity, and injury frequency and severity).
 Results demonstrated significant treatment effectsfor hassle frequency, hassle intensity,
 and optimism. General well-being and injuryfrequency and severity did not
 demonstrate any statistically significant treatment effects, although there were
 differences between the two groups. Perhaps, the most significant implication of this
 studyis the finding that optimism is manipulable through relaxation training. The fact
 thatoptimismis manipulable at all is contrary to assumptions held by other researchers
 (Scheier & Carver, 1985). This finding provides another research perspective and
 could furnish simplestrategies that athletes could use themselves in order to deal more
 effectively with the effectsof stress. It is possible that the brevity of this study (8
 weeks) obscuredsome injuryeffects. Furtherresearch of a longitudinal nature may
 uncovermore about the relationship of runningrelated injury and stressperception.
                                                                                              68


KeithHenschen, University of Utah and John Heil, Lewis-Gale Clinic, Salem, VA
Exercise-Related Sudden Death: A Retrospective Study of the Long Term
Effects on Teammates
A freshman university football playersuccumbed to sudden death syndrome while
weight liftingimmediately priorto the startof a game. Many of the deceased's friends
werein closeproximity to him as he died. From a medical and physiological standpoint
muchis known concerning exercise-related sudden death. However little information is
available regarding thepsychological effects of such eventson athletic colleagues. The
studyinvestigates thepsychological effecton theremaining teammembers from the
athlete's recruiting class at the end of theircollegiate careers. The football players (N =
10)wereinterviewed and answered a seriesof open-ended questions asking them to
describe theirfeelings, emotions and attitudes sincethe death of theirteammate.
Following the questions general probes were usedto elicitany otherthoughts they
mighthavehad in relation to eachof thequestions. Specific clarification andelaboration
probesfollowed. The data weredrawnfromverbatim transcripts of the interviews and
wereinductively contentanalyzed. The common themes emerging from theresponses
are as follows: (a) an initial reaction of shock and disbelief, (b) continued spontaneous
memories of the eventat unexpected times. (c) specific circumstances continuing to elicit
vivid memories associated withthe events, and (d) a common perception concerning the
frailty oflile.
To a person every subject in the studyused the termshockor disbeliefas theydescribed
theirinitial reactions. Even as the interviews were conducted years latermany of the
subjects stillemphasized theirattitudes of disbelief. IT there wasa strange finding to the
studyit was the consistency with which the subjects related that they have hadcontinued
memories concerning the deceased teammate andat the "strangest times." Many of the
deceased player's teammates frequently thinkabout himeven today on a regularbasis.
The interview itselfinitiated the following comments: "stirs deepemotions"; "this
brings back memories anddepresses me";and, "makes me remember a time when
thingswerea lot different". Thedeceased teammate wasfrom Hawaii and this word
"Hawaii" invariably caused memories of the deceased whenever it was seenor heard.
Almost to a person the subjects indicated thatevenfour years laterthe week priorto
playing Hawaii was horrible. Memories of the deceased wereconstantly in their minds
and theyfound it impossible to mentally prepare themselves to playintensely. The
following quotes illustrate theexistential impact of theevent: "I now appreciate whatI
have"; "It makes me realize that I don't haveas much control over things as I wish".
                                                                                            69


T. S. Horn. Miami University
Sources of Information Underlying Personal Competence Judgments in
High School Athletes
Previous research in the sportdomain has shown that there is considerable variation
between children in the criteriatheyuse to evaluate theirperformance in sportcontexts.
Someof this variation has beenattributed to developmental changes in children's         .
preference for particular sources of competence information. Between the agesof 8 and
14 years,for example,children showan increase in the use of peer comparison to
evaluateown performance and a decrease in the use of adultfeedback. At this point,
however, very littleinformation is available concerning possible developmental changes
in competence judgmentsduringthe adolescent years. Thus, this study was designed to
test for age and/orsex differences in the information highschoolathletes use tojudge
their sportcompetence. Basedon relatedresearch and theory. it was hypothesized that
there wouldbe a decline from ninthto twelfth gradein the use of peer comparison and a
comparable increase in the useof internal or self-determined performance criteria.
Furthermore. although no sex differences have been foundin younger children, it was
hypothesized that adolescent females in this study would showgreaterorientation
toward internal performance criteria while theirmale peerswould showgreater
dependence on peer comparison and competitive outcomes. To test the above
hypotheses. 435 high school athletes (264malesand 171 females) from a variety of
sports were administered the SportCompetence Information Scale. This scale provides
a quantitative measure of the sources of information which underlie athletes' judgments
of theirown sport competence. The scaleis structured to require athletes to rate how
important each of the sources of information is in determining personal competence.
Athletes' responses from this 38-item scalewere submitted to a principal components
factoranalysis which resulted in the identification of tenconceptually unique sources of
competence information. These sources included internal information (e.g.,confidence,
motivation. anxiety), competitive outcomes (e.g., winning or losing games,
performance statistics). parental feedback, speedor ease of learningnew skills, peer
comparison, amountof skillimprovement, spectator feedback, peer feedback, coach
feedback, and sportenjoyment. Basedon the obtained factor pattern matrix, ten factor
scoreswerecomputed for each athlete. Thesefactorscoreswere then used as dependent
variables in a 2 X 2 (SexX SportLevel) MANOVA. Significant maineffects were
found for both sex and sportlevel, but the interaction effect was non-significant.
Follow-up discriminant analyses revealed thatolder athletes (juniors and seniors)
showed greaterorientation toward the useof skillimprovement, personal goal
achievement, and sportenjoyment as sources of competence information while younger
athletes (freshmen and sophomores) indicated greaterdependence on the evaluation of
peers. In regardto sex differences. the discriminant analysis showed that females rated
internal information as a moreimportant source of competence information while males
indicated greateruse of learning speedas a means to evaluate theirsportcompetence.
The resultsof this studyverify that high school athletes do vary in the sources of
information they use tojudge theirsportcompetence and thatsex and age can account
for a significant amount of that variation. The behavioral implications of such inter-
individual variation in competence criteriawill be discussed. In addition, directions for
future research in thisarea will be identified.
                                                                                              70

Chris Horsley, Australian Institute of Sport
The Multiple Roles of an Applied Sport Psychologist at the 1991 World
Swimming Championships
The Australian Institute of Sportprovides applied sportpsychologists with the unique
opportunity to work almost exclusively withone national teamin preparation (or major
international competitions. Thispresentation outlines four primary rolesperformed by
a spon psychologist involved in thepreparation of theAustralian Waterpolo teamfor the
1991 World Swimming Championships.
The program implemented withtheAustralian Waterpolo teamaddressed four
dimensions: mental skills; personal effectiveness; psychological well-being and
organizational effectiveness.
Mental skillstraining focused on the primary mental skills (arousal control, mental
imagery, concentration, goal-setting) and involved groupeducational sessions and
individual consultations.Where possible, mental skill training was incorporated into
physical training drills,implemented in all games and during post-game evaluation. The
primary role of the Sport Psychologist waseducational.
Issuesand skillsof personal effectiveness were addressed in educational group
sessions. Topicsincluded: assertiveness training; dealing with confrontation and
frustration, and self-confidence. A long-term progressive program was implemented for
thoseindividuals in need of specific development. The roles ofthe sportpsychologist
wereprimarily that of educatorand counselor. A separate 'professional development'
program wasimplemented for the headcoachand assistant coach. addressing specific
skills to enhance theireffectiveness as coaches.
Psychological well-being issueswere addressed on an individual needs basis.
Intervention was initiated by the psychologist or athlete. dealing with problems of
dysfunctional thinking and behavior such as depression, specific fears and
developmental issues. The role of the spon psychologist became one of
counsellor/clinical psychologist.
The systemic approach required the implementation of principles and methods of
organizational psychology. A 'teammanagement' approach was adopted with an
emphasis on organizational control and communication. Specific topics addressed
included: long-term planning and evaluation; gamepreparation; running effective pre-
gamemeetings, and post gameevaluations. The role of the sportpsychologist became
one of manager.
Such a comprehensive program raisesa number of issuesincluding: the conflicting
roles of the sportpsychologist; confidentiality, and the use of authoritative power.
The thesisof this paper is based upon the assumption that a 'sporting program' and
'sporting team' operates on a number of interrelated levels: the national organization; the
national team; the coaching staffand management team, and the players. All impact, in
some way, upon the mental performance of the athlete in competition. The aim of the
four dimensional approach implemented with the Australian Waterpolo teamwas to
integrate and professionalize eachof these levels. It was hypothesized that such a
processwould increase the probability of consistent, high level performances,
                                                                                           71


MarkHurwitz, University of Connecticut
"Making the Jump": The Evaluation of a Graduate Student Project
Turned Career Options and Opportunities
This presentation will be divided into two sections. The first willdiscuss"Making the
Jump",a workshop designed to assisthigh school athletes make the transition into
collegeathletics. Developed and implemented by a graduate student"Making the Jump"
is in its fourth year of existence. The purpose of "Making the Jump" is to educate high
school athletes, theirparentsand coaches, whilethe uniqueness of "Making the Jump"
lies in its proactive approach to working withhigh school athletes, primarily
sophomores, juniors, and seniors. The majorfunction of the workshop is to create an
awareness in the athletes and theirparents of the expectations of both the academic and
athletic collegecommunities. "Making the Jump" benefits through the useof a panel of
speakers to addressthe variousissuesinvolved in the transition process. Included on
the panelare a sportpsychologist, academic/athletic advisor, sports medicine
professional, collegecoach,and collegestudent-athletes.
This portion of the colloquium willinclude a videopresentation to highlight the
workshop, including feedback and evaluation from the athletes, parents, and panelists
involved.
The second section of the colloquium willaddress a common concern for graduate
students in sportpsychology, Howcan I gainpractical experience in my field? This
topicis rarelycoveredat professional meetings though a large percentage of the
membership is the graduate student population. The ability of a graduate student to gain
personal experience is a crucial component in thedevelopment of a sportpsychology
professional. This component can createa sense of confidence that is often lacking in a
graduate student's practical application of sportpsychology. The concepts of
brainstorming, networking, and implementation will be discussed. Examples of
involvement in a university setting, sportsmedicine facility, conducting workshops and
lectures, and working withcable television networks will all be presented from the
perspective of a graduate student attempting to gainexperience in the field of sport
psychology. The underlying theme of thiscolloquium is how a single project initiated
by a graduate student mayenable thatstudent to obtain notonly the practical experience
so desiredin the field, but careeroptions and opportunities as well.
                                                                                             72

Charles Jackson, Old DominionUniversity,Kenneth Kambis and Christina Jackson,
Collegeof Williamand Mary
Cross-validation Analysis of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale
The purposeof this study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the
recently developedSocial PhysiqueAnxietyScale (SPAS). The scale has been
proposed as a device for understanding the concept of "socialphysique anxiety" -- the
anxiety that people experience in response to other's evaluation of their body or
physique. The authors declare that the SPAS is conceptually distinct and
unidimensional, althoughit is related to body image and body affect The SPAS is
founded upon the importanceof physiqueanxiety to fitness related perceptions and
specificexercise behavior,as well as for understanding and treating bodily anxieties.
The subjectsof this study were 267 consentingcolle¥e studentsenrolled in a
foundations wellness course. The SPAS was administered during the second week of
the course before these studentswere engagedin a mandatory exercise program. The
results were analyzed with descriptive. reliability and factor analytical statistics.
ANOVA indicated significant sex differences with the means distributing themselves
with higher female scores which was a finding in line with the test authors. Cronbach
alpha reliability indexes were .918 (female)and .923 (male)indicatingslightlyhigher
inter-itemreliability than the originalwork. It has been shown in the literature that
females and males differ in perception of and dissatisfaction with their bodies. With this
thoughtin mind. the researchers conducteda principalcomponentsfactor analysis
(PCA) with the females. males and total subject pool. The factor structureclaimed for
the SPAS is unidimensional physique anxiety. It appears from the three analyses
conductedthat there are actually two distinctfactors emerging. The two clustersof items
seem to be measuringRelaxation and Tension aspects of physique anxiety. Discussion
will center on the cross validation techniques as well as the practical implications for
such a scale including gender norms.
                                                                                          73


ChristinaJackson and Kenneth Kambis, College of William and Mary,and Charles
Jackson, Old Dominion University.
Psychobiological Characteristics of College Students Within the
Wellness Environment
The purpose of this study was to determine appropriate psychobiological profiles of 295
collegestudents enrolled within an ongoing campuswellnessproject begun in 1986.
Items selected for inclusion in the profile had eitherbeen usedfor several years with
successor were quite new items of interest. During the first two weeksof the course,
data wereobtainedfrom theconsenting subjects on the psychological parameters of the
Self Motivation Inventory (SMI) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS).
Biological data were age, height, weight, bodycomposition (BMI), activity level and
V~ MAX (NE'I). The activity leveland the V02 MAXNET) werederived using the
University of Houstonnon-exercise test protocol. Preliminary data analyses indicated
significant sex differences so separate psychobiological profiles wereestablished. The
data for most parameters were within normal limitsexceptfor the somewhat elevated
results of the SMI. T-score normsare suggested for the SMI, SPAS and the V02 MAX
(NET) to ensureease in interpretation of individual profiles. Multiple regression
analyses predicting activity levelfrom the psychobiological profiles rangedfrom
  =                     =
R .33 for females to R .52 for males. When predicting V~ MAX from the
psychological parameters, R = .46 for males, but only R = .06 for females. Discussion
willfocuson how data collected in wellness settings should be collated and interpreted
to the student or client so that meaningful decisions or interventions can be
accomplished.
                                                                                             74

Susan Jackson, University of North Carolina - Greensboro
Examining Flow Experiences in Sport Contexts: Implications for Peak Performance
Flow and peak performance are closely related, but independent constructs. Flow is
hypothesized (Jackson & Roberts, 1991) to be the psychological process underlying a
peak performance, whereas a peak performance is an observable outcome involving an
athleteperfonningat his/heroptimal level. By viewing flow as a psychological process,
or more specifically, as a stateof consciousness, the potential for intervention designed
to increaseathletes' flow-experiences is greater. Furthermore, by understanding the
factors leading to flow that are potentially controllable by the athlete, the applied spon
psychologists can then help athletes prepare for competition in a waythat theyare more
likelyto experience flow, and in turn, perform at theiroptimal, or peak level. This part
of the symposium presents research conducted withcollegiate andelite level athletes that
examined how theyexperience and perceive flow. In-depth interviews wereconducted
with 10 Division I collegeathletes from a broad spectrum of sports and with 16 national
champion figureskaters. In the beginning of the interview, questions wereasked about
an optimal performance to ground the athlete in a specific situation. Descriptions of such
performances included a feeling of total confidence in one's ability to successfully
perform the task,which led to complete absorption in the performance. Additionally,
athletes described feeling in total control of whatthey weredoing,a senseof "could do
no wrong. " The experience of performing at these times, which was very positive and
emotionally uplifting, was as highly valued as the objectively successful outcome.
Inductive analyses of descriptions, and of athletes' responses to questions aboutflow
(defined and illustrated by the investigator), led to the development of a set of common
characteristics thatdefineflowfrom the athlete's perspective. There wasclose
agreement between thesecharacteristics and those described by Csikszennnihalyi and
other researchers who have studied flow in different contexts (Csikszentmihalyi &
Csikszentmihalyi, 1988). The main findings from the analysis of the athletes' interviews
will be discussed, including thosefactors associated with a flow statethat the
respondents perceived werepotentially controllable. By having a betterunderstanding of
thesecontrollable factors, thereis great potential for interventions thatmayenhance the
quality of an athlete's experience and performance.
                                                                                             75

Jeny Johnsonand Claire Camburn, University of Hawaii- Hilo
Cultural Differences in the Psychological Characteristics of Ultraendurance
Triathletes
The sportpsychology literature contains littleinformation aboutcultural variations in the
psychological characteristics of athletes. The absence of attention to cultural variables
suggests the implicitassumption of homogeniety of athletes fromdiffering cultural (and
ethnic)backgrounds. The general literature in cross-cultural psychology would not
supportsuch an assumption, and it reflectsa seriousomission in sport psychology
research. Thereis alsovery littleknown to date aboutthe psychological characteristics
of athletes competing in the new sportof triathlon. The present studyexamined selected
psychological characteristics of 37 of 49 participants in the 1990Ultraman triathlon.
This eventis 320 mile,3 day, stagerace encircling the Big Islandof Hawaii and
includes swimming, running, and cyclingsegments. The international nature of the
field madeit possible to gatherinformation fromathletes from Japan (N = 10) as well
as NorthAmerica (N = 17). The numbers of athletes from othercountries were too
smallfor reliable statistical analysis. The athletes wereadministered a setof pre-race
questionnaires that included the Competitive StateAnxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI·2), the
Profileof Mood States (POMS), and the Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports
(PSIS). All measures were translated into Japanese for the Japanese athletes. Data
analyses wereconducted with MANOVA's and follow-up univariate F·tests. Results
showedno differences between the athletes as a function of age group. sex or finishing
status. However, there were significant differences between the Japanese and North
American triathletes on all threemeasures. Scores on the CSAI-2 showed higherlevels -
of self-confidence and somatic anxiety and lowerlevels of self-confidence for the
Japanese than the NorthAmericans. The overall profile on the POMS reflected the
"iceberg profile" for the NorthAmerican athletes but not the Japanese. There were
significant differences on eachof thePOMS scales, with theJapanese higheron all five
negative mood and loweron vigor. There werealso differences between the two
cultural groupson three PSIS scales, with the NorthAmericans scoring higheron
anxiety control,concentration, and confidence than the Japanese. The results document
the importance of cultural variables in understanding the psychological characteristics of
athletes.
                                                                                               76

Mary Ann Kane, BostonUniversity
Demythologizing Sport Marriages: The Divorce Rate among Former
Professional Athletes.
The marriages ofprofessional team athletes, who in the United Statesare virtually all
males, are often centered around the husband's playingcareer. When the career
becomes an inherent part of the couple's relationship, the dyadic natureof the maniage
is lost.The transition from sport involves not only all thosechangesrecognized in the
literature as commonto this transition, it also involves, for marriedprofessional
athletes, reestablishing the primarydyadic relationship duringa time of upheaval. The
divorcerate during the early yearsof the transition has been placedas high as 80%, but
the literature has been limited to casualobservations rather than systematic study. The
expectation that theirmarriage will likelyend adds to the stresses of the transition, and
in somecases may make a divorcemore probable.
Cherlin's (1979)significant positivefindings for a greaterprobability of marital
dissolution following instability in the employment and incomeof husbands,
independent of the husband's income level, is of significance for this population. This
study was an attempt to find if the stresses of the transition, reflected in crises in the
marriage, did in fact lead to a higherthan usual divorcerate in thesecouples.
The study used a random sample of 250 formerprofessional athletes whoended their
playingcareersbetween 1979and 1987. Information on their marital status at the end of
their playingcareers,and their marital statusin 1989, wasobtained from the teams in
major league baseball. the National Basketball Association. the National Football
League.and the National Hockey Leaguefor whichthey played. The data was analyzed
using descriptive statistics.
This research finds a divorcerate among formerprofessional athletes which is
significantly lower than among the general population. Despitethis overa1llower rate of
divorce.the findings also indicate a divorcerate in 1 of the sportsstudied which is
significantly higher than in the other 3 sports,
Although the transition of professional athletes out of sport is a time of great stress, the
majority of formerprofessional athletes and their wives will not divorceduring the first
10 years out of spon.
                                                                                               77

Peter Karofsky, University of Wisconsin Hospital/Middleton Clinic
Fatal Injury of a High School Hockey Player During Competition: A Case
Report
This report recounts the tragedy of a 15-year-old hockeyplayer who was struck in the
chest by a puck and died duringa high school game. Probable mechanism of death is
ventricular fibrillation due to the impactof the puck against the chest.This disrupted
normal electrical activity causing an arrhythmia. Despite timely medical intervention the
athletewas unableto be resuscitated.
Immediately following the incident the playersand the students, as well as adults who
attendedthe game, were demonstrating significant distress. Playersdiscussed theirown
senseof vulnerability as well as guilt at feeling relieved that their parents would not have
to suffer the loss of a child. Manycried openly. Someplayersexpressed fear that a
similareventcould happen to them. Othersfelt guiltythatthe event had not "hit" them
yet emotionally. Parents were stunned. Most said they imagined their own sons on the
ice where the victim had lain. Almostall the parents tried to sense what the event was
like for the dead player'sfamily.
Suggested roles for the sportpsychologist, teamphysician or other health professional
following an athlete'sdeath are presented below.
- Speak with the parentsof the victimand the parentsof the players. as well as the
  athletes and coaches.
- Call the athletic directorand principal to inform them of the incident.

- Arrange an immediate meeting withthe team, cheerleaders, coaches and parents.
- Arrange to speak with the media and assist the schoolin discouraging reporters from
  interviewing the team members.
- Assist the school counselors in helping the students deal with the event.
- Assist the athletic directorand coaches in arranging low-key practice sessions.
- Assistthe athletic directorand the team in deciding when to play the nextgame.
- Attendthe funeral (if appropriate) withthe team.
- Be available to counselparents, coachesand students during the remainderof the season.
                                                                                             78

B. Keeler, University of California, Los Angeles
The Contribution of Peer Relationships in the Development of Global
Self-Worth: A Conceptual Model
Sportresearchers investigating participation motives in youth sporthaveidentified peer
relationships as an important factorin children's decision to participate (Gould &
Petlichkoff, 1988). Additionally, manyyouthathletes report that beingwith friends is a
major source of theirsportenjoyment (Wankel & Kreisel, 1985). Although spon
psychology research hasrecognized peerrelationships as an important factorin
children's spon involvement, there has beenno in-depth or systematic investigation of
peer relationships in the sportdomain. The purposeof this presentation is to presenta
conceptual framework for investigating peer relationships withregard to the
development of globalself-worth. This framework integrates past research on peer
relationships fromthe educational and developmental psychology literatures. Moreover,
the framework generates manytestable hypotheses for future investigation in the sport
domain. Key to the framework is the distinction between two aspects of peer
relationships: friendship and popularity. A friendship relationship is the experience of
having a close mutual, dyadic relation. Friendship is a specific, dyadic, bidirectional
construct thatrefersto a particular typeof experience that takes place between two
individuals. Popularity is defined as the experience of being likedor accepted by the
members of one's peer group. It is a general, group-oriented, unidirectional construct
that represents the view of the grouptoward an individual. Bukowski, Hoza, &
Newcomb (1987) have shown that thequalityof thesetwoaspects of peer relationships
havedifferential effects on global self-worth. In the conceptual framework presented,
social support received fromeach type of relationship reflects the quality of the
relationship. It is the underlying nature of this social support that affects global self-
worth. Social support resulting from friendship relationships directly impacts one's
level of global self-worth (Harter, 1986), whereas social support received from popular
relations indirectly affect global self-worth through theinfluence of perceived
competence. Furthermore, although both typesof relationships maycontribute to the
development of global self-worth, theydifferin terms of stability and controllability.
Friendship relationships are stable and controllable, whereas popularrelations are
unstable and less controllable.
                                                                                           79


Betty Kelley, Southern lllinoisUniversity at Carbondale
Examination of a Model of Burnout in Multiple-Role Collegiate Coaches:
A Research Overview
Stressand burnout are criticalissuesfor athletic coaches working at all levels.
However, in spiteof the concerngenerated over theseissues, theory -driven research
examining the relationship between stressand burnout has been slow to emerge. This
presentation will focuson a line of research which builtand is continuing to buildand
test a theoretical modelof stressand burnout in collegiate coaches. The model of stress
and burnout to be presented incorporates the criticallink that burnout is a function of
perceived stress and follows Smith's (1986) general cognitive-affective model of stress
and burnout in the athletic environment, whichemphasizes the central importance of
cognitive appraisal in stress. A systematic series of investigations with multiple role
collegiate coaches has examined the influence of environmental/situationaVpersonal
(ESP)variables such as specific coaching issues(role/time conflicts, athlete concerns,
win/loss concerns,and programsuccessfactors), social support, gender, and coping on
the appraisal of stress and in turn,the influence of perceived stress on the development
of burnout Resultssupport the general structure and components of the model in that
ESP variables significantly contributed to the prediction of perceived stress, which, in
tum, contributed to the prediction of burnout However, ESP variables werealso
shown to havea slightdirectinfluence on burnout beyond the indirect influence through
perceived stress. In addition, the importance of various coaching issues, the level of
perceived stress, and the degreeof burnout fluctuated acrossthe courseof the season
and fromone season to the next Generally, perceived stressand burnout were lower
toward the beginning of the season and increased as the season progressed. These
results provide initial support for a modified conceptualization of burnout in coaching
such that burnout may be cyclical in nature ratherthan, or in addition to being an end
state. Genderconsiderations and implications relative to various copingstrategies will
also be presented. The modeland the resultswill be discussed withan emphasis on
moving from research into practice. Working from such a model suchas the one
discussed in this presentation can provide a basisfor developing systematic intervention
approaches and effective stressmanagement programs to helpcoaches bettercope with
the stress,and hopefully, prevent the burnout.
                                                                                               80


Betty Kelley,Southern Dlinois University at Carbondale and Susan Jackson.
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Reality Therapy: A Practical Framework fof Sport and Exercise
Consulting
Reality therapy (RT) is a cognitive-behavioral approach to counseling which has been
successfully appliedin a varietyof settings suchas education and business. RT is
grounded in the cognitive-behavioral perspective favored by manyin-thefield of sport
psychology, and the RT framework is a useful one for sportand/orexercise consultants
to consider, in thatit offersa clear procedure to follow whenconsulting. Athletes and
exercisers are often unaware of the choicesthey are or could be making regarding their
sportor exercise experience. RT is an action-oriented, problem-solving approach
which. when successfully incorporated into the sportand/orexercise consultation
process, can help the athlete or exerciser accept greaterresponsibility for his or her
behavior, recognize choicesand options related to his or her identified wants and goals.
and gain an increased senseof control relative to his or her sportor exercise
involvement. RT follows an eight stepprocess which includes: (1) building rappon
between consultant and athlete or exerciser; (2) identification of wants (goals);
(3) recognition of present behavior directed toward attainment of the identified goals;
(4) assessment of the resultsof present behavior; (5)development of an action plan to
focus behavior moreeffectively toward the attainment of the identified goals;
(6) commitment on the partof the athlete or exerciser to carryout the action plan;
(7) identification of possible or common excuses or hindrances which mightinterfere
with following through with the plan; and, (8) evaluation of the resultsof following the
action plan and modification of the plan if necessary. The objectives of this workshop
are to: (a) provide a briefoverview of Control Theory, the underlying theoretical basis
to RT; (b) explain and illustrate the stepsof RT and discuss waysin which the RT
approach can be used within sportand exercise consulting. Lecture and discussion will
be the primary modesof presentation of material. andparticipants will be given the
opportunity to practice the stepsof RT and receive feedback through smallgroup
exercises. In addition, participants will receive written materials explaining the stepsof
RT, helpful hintsfor making the overall consultation process moreeffective, and
examples of worksheets thatcan be used in sportand exercise consultations. It is
important to note that RT. as presented in this workshop, is not a clinical procedure but
rathera guiding framework for educational practice. Specialized training leading to
certification in RT is available andthe procedures for attaining thiscertification will be .
discussed by the workshop presenters. who havecompleted advanced training in RT.
The skills and techniques to be presented aredesigned to be incorporated by spon and
exercise consultants into theircurrent and future workwith athletes and exercisers.
                                                                                             81


Betty Kelley,SouthernDlinois University at Carbondale and RobinVealey, Miami
University
Burnout in Coaching: Theory, Research, and Practice
Burnoutrefers to a state of emotional exhaustion caused by excessive psychological and
emotionaldemandsmade on peopleworking with other people.It occurs when the
demandsof the activityexceed individuals' abilities to cope, thus they become
overwhelmed by the stressof the activity. A notable feature of burnoutis that it causes
psychological, emotional, and at times physical withdrawal from a formerly pursued
and enjoyable activity. Because human relationships are centralto me coaching
profession, coachesface excessive psychological and emotional demands that may lead
to burnout. Researchhas supported the occurrence of burnoutin coaches, but further
theoretical, empirical, and methodological refinement is warranted in this area to more
fully understand the phenomenon and to begin to implement intervention procedures and
strategies to combat burnoutin coaches. The purposeof this symposium is to examine
burnoutin coaches with regard to theory, research, measurement, and intervention.
First, burnout is introduced, defined, and discussed in relation to how it is developed in
individuals. Second,various theoretical perspectives on burnoutare overviewed with
specialconsideration given to the studyof coaching burnout within each framework.
Third, two programsof researchinvolved in investigating burnoutin coaches are
presented whichhave testedvarious theoretical perspectives. Finally, possible future
research directions are outlinedand implications for intervention are discussed. A main
focus of the symposium is the theory/practice link. in the studyof burnout as attempts
are made to bridgethe gap between different theoretical perspectives, isolated research
efforts, and experiential observation to morecritically and specifically understand
burnoutas it occurs in coaches withinthe uniqueenvironment of spon.
                                                                                             82

Jay Kimiecik, Miami University
Examining Flow Experiences in Sport Contexts: Conceptual Issues
In order to achievea better understanding of the flow experience in sport, systematic
research,embeddedwithina conceptual framework, needs to be conducted. The
pwpose of this part of the symposium is to fIrSt presenta framework that may serve as a
guide for conducting suchresearch, and then to utilizethe model for identifying and
discussingthe conceptual issuesrelevantto the flow concept. The model takes an
interactionist approach to the studyof flow and assumes that both person and situation
variableswill influencean athlete'sflow or nonflow experiences. Within this
interactionist model, a numberof conceptual issues will be discussed. First, at this time
how flow states occur is not as well understood in sport as in other settings.
Infonnation withrespect to person variables will be presented that outlines how
Nicholl's (1989) conceptions of ability (task and ego involvement) may be useful for
beginning to explore the psychological antecedents of athletes' flow experiences
(Jackson & Roberts, 1991; Kimiecik, Stein, & Jackson, 1991). The working
hypothesis is that task involvement, a self-referenced conception of ability, is more
likely to inducea flow state thanego involvement, which invokes normative
comparisons. A discussion will focus on why this hypothesis mayor may not be
supportedwhen studyingflow in complexcontextssuch as sport. A second, related
issue to be discussed addresses the conceptof an "autotelic self' (Csikszentrnihalyi,
1990; Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989). the ability to sustain involvement in an
activity,and how it may be linked to flow experiences in sport. The natureof the
relationship between task-involvement, development of an autotelic self, and potential
flow experiences in sport also will be examined. Third, recommendations will be made
for studying the situational aspectsof spon that may be likely to influence athletes' flow
experiences: choice,clarity,commitment, and challenge. Elements of this "autotelic"
climate,both in practiceand game situations, will be discussed basedon flow research
in work (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989) and family (Rathunde, 1988) settings.
This part of the symposium will conclude by making recommendations for research
which examines the interaction between the above-mentioned situation and person
factorsproviding a richer and even more in-depth understanding of athletes' flow
experiences.
                                                                                            83


Jay Kimiecik, Miami University, Gary Stein,University of Oregon,and Susan
Jackson,University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Examining Flow Experiences in Sport Contexts: Conceptual Issues,
Measurement Concerns, and Implications for Peak Performance
Flow is defined as a psychological statethat occurs whenthereis a balance between the
perceived challenges of a situation and an individual's skillsor capabilities for action
(Csikszentmihalyi, 1975. 1982). Although the flowconcepthas been used to effectively
studypeople'ssubjective experience in both workand leisure settings (see
Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1988). littleflow research has beenconducted in
sportcontexts. What presently existsis a multitude of anecdotal evidence from sport
psychologists and athletes suggesting that flow is an important conceptfor
understanding peak performances and positive affective experiences in a variety of sport
contexts(Garfield & Bennett.1984; Loehr. 1984). Systematic. conceptual research is
needed. however. to gain a betterunderstanding of the role that flow may have in sport
with respect to motivation, affect, and performance. Hence, the purposeof this
symposium is to presentand discuss the mostimportant issuespertaining to studying
the flow experience in sport. This symposium willprovide bothconceptual and
methodological recommendations for sportpsychology researchers interested in
studying the flowconceptand for applied sportpsychologists whoare interested in the
performance aspects of flow. Information contained in the symposium is based on the
authors' ongoingresearch examining flow experiences in sport settings. The first
session willfocus on conceptual issuespertaining to the studyof flow. Specifically. the
discussion will centeron possible psychological antecedents of flow statesand how
theories of motivation. such as conceptions of ability (Nicholls, 1989). may be linked to
athletes' flow experiences. The second session will address the key measurement
challenges for conducting flow research in sport. Topicssuch as how to operationalize
the flow conceptin sport settings. when to assessflow. and whatother pertinent
variables to measure will be presented. The final session willexamine the flow
experience of athletes and its relation to peak performance. This pan of the symposium
will presentempirical evidence of whatthe flow experience is likefrom the athletes'
perspective and willdiscuss how the flowconceptmay be usedto helpathletes enhance
performance.
Discussant: Mihaly Csikszentrnihalyi, University of Chicago
                                                                                            84

Chris Koch,University of Georgia
The Role of Self-Concept, Efficacy, Knowledge of the Game, and Skill
Level in Youth Soccer Performance
Previous research suggests that knowledge of the gamesignificantly contributes to
skilledsportperformance in children (Frenc~ & Thomas, 1987). The present study
was designed to examine this relationship in a younger population (56 years). Game
perfonnance was measured by averaging data from threesoccergames. Each game was
rated according to a task (or game) analysis checklist Aftereachgame,coaches verified
ratings. Four constructs playinga potential role in span performance werealso
measured. Theseincluded: knowledge of the game, skill level, self-concept, and soccer
efficacy. A test concerning fundamental gamerules (e.g.,hand ball),playerposition,
and position responsibilities was used to determine knowledge of the game. Two basic
soccerskillswere examined: kicking and throwing the ballin fromout-of-bounds.
These skillswere scored according to a task analysis checklist. Skillswere tested on
three separate occasions throughout the season with the average of theseproducing the
final skilllevel score. Self-concept was measured with the Self-Concept Scale for
Children (Lipsitt, 1958). Soccerefficacy refersto how "good" a child thinks he or she
is. How "good" a child thinks he or she is may not be related to the actualskill level of
that child. Therefore, it is conceivable thata childof lesserskillcouldout-perform a
more skilled individual because he (or she) thinks he is better. Soccerefficacywas
determined by usingan experimental questionnaire. This questionnaire wasconstructed
by turning taskanalysis statements into questions. Thus,all taskanalysis items used in
assessing bothgameperformance and skilllevel weremadeinto specific questions
aimedat quantifying soccerefficacy. Results suggest thatonly skilllevelis significantly
related to gameperformance (r=.66, p < .01). This finding is discussed in termsof
motives for participation and conceptualization of effort(Nicholls, 1978). Implications
for futureresearch are also discussed.
                                                                                            R5


Chris Koch, University of Georgia
The Temporal Dimension of Competitive Stress: Toward a Standardized
Method of Treatment
Currentmethodsof therapy used in the treatment of anxietyprovidetraining in the
development of coping behaviors to the potentialstressor. These behaviors vary
according to the methodof treatment, Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe, 1973) relies
predominantly on the behavioral principle of reciprocal inhibition. Systematic Rational
Restructuring (Goldfried er al, 1974), on the other hand, is a purely cognitive approach
focusing on irrationalthoughts. Other therapies, Anxiety Management Training (Suinn,
1976) and Stress Inoculation Training(Meichenbaum, 1985), for example,employ both
behavioraland cognitive principles. Regardless of coping strategy, however, these
coping techniques can be viewed as generalcoping behaviors. That is, they are
behaviors to be put into effect during the early stagesof a stress episode. In addition,
these methodsdo not operate according to a certaintime table. This is an important
feature when applyingstress reduction techniques becausethe stressoris not only
combatedat time of onset but can also be "treated" beforeit occurs. In this paper, a
cognitive-behavioral model is presented which includes a temporal dimension to the
treatmentof stress. The basic steps of the model involverelaxation (two phases),coping
statements, performance evaluation, and correction. In the first relaxation phase, the
athlete uses relaxation trainingto sense tension. If over-arousal persists prior to
competition, relaxation is used. Duringcompetition, however, it would be
disadvantageous and often physically impossible to relax in this manner when stress or
tension was detected. Therefore, coping statementswould be employed. Two types of .
coping statements would be used. The first type deal with the physical aspect of the task
(particular hand movements, etc.). The second type of statements center on the
psychological aspectof the event (focusing attention, confidence level, social
comparison, etc.), After competition, relaxation is used in conjunction with the coping
statements to assess performance. Essentially, the coping statements serve as a task
analysis. Relaxation is needed in order to reduce heightened arousal which may interfere
with objectively examining performance (cf. Suinn, 1972). Once performance has been
evaluated, corrections can be made. Imagery, in this model,could play an important role
immediately beforecompetition or in the correction phase.
                                                                                           86

Chris Koch and Julie Kontos, University of Georgia
Strategies in Learning Complex Motor Tasks: An Examination of the
Five-Step Strategy
The effectiveness of Singer's (1986)Five-StepLearning Strategyhas been
demonstrated using simplemotor tasksrequiring low to moderate levels of infonnation
processing (Singerand Suwanthada, 1986)and using a relatively complexmotor task
(Singer,Flora, & Abourezk, 1989). Althoughresults from these studies suggest that
the Five-StepStrategycan facilitate learning of self-paced motor skills,the Five-Step
Strategy is not examined in regard to an alternative strategy. Withoutsuch a
comparison,1ittle evidence is providedsuggesting the actual utilityof such a strategy or
that the five steps chosen are the most appropriate. Therefore. this studycompared the
usefulness of the Five-StepStrategyin learning one-handed juggling to an experimental
strategy. The experimental strategy was derivedfrom a modelfor competitive stress
coping (Koch, 1990)and also included the five steps. These steps consistedof: task
analysis,rehearsal, execution, relaxation, and evaluation. Subjectsin both strategy
groups received training in the strategy, instructions on how to juggle, and viewed a
short video on one-handed juggling techniques. These two strategies were also
comparedto a controland previewgroup. The control groupreceived no strategy
trainingor instructions concerning how to juggle while the previewgroup received only
instructions on how to juggle. It was hypothesized thatjuggling performance would be
greatestfor the strategygroupsfollowed by the preview group and control. Results
were mixed. There were no performance differences found between groups. Further, a
post-experimental questionnaire revealed no difference between groupsin regard to the
use of the Five-StepStrategy. That is, all groups appeared to use the strategyequally
well regardlessof training. However,regression analysis suggeststhat the subjects'
abilityto use a strategy did havea significant effecton how well the subjects juggled
(F(l,23)=2.22, p < .05). Findings are discussed in terms of observational learning,
task complexity, imagery,and attentional capacity. Implications for future research are
also discussed.
                                                                                           87


S. A. Kozub and D. G. Pease, Universityof Houston
Emergence of Informal Team Leadership: A Case Study
The phenomenon of leadership has received substantial attention within the contextof
sport. Previousresearch has focussed primarilyon the fonnalleadership that exists
within a team (i.e., the coach).The studyof group dynamicswithin an organizational
setting suggeststhat when group needs are not met by the fonnalleaders, informal
leaders will emerge to meet these needs. Previousresearch by Pease and Kozub (1990)
suggested that informalleadersdo in fact emergein sportand that these leadersmay be
important to team success. The purposeof this case study was to examine the
emergenceof infonnalleadership within one team over the courseof an entire season.
Twelve membersof a women's junior college basketball teamrespondedto a
questionnaire containing itemsdesignedto tap theirperceptions of theirown leadership
and the leadership demonstrated by theirteammates. Also included were scales
measuringlocus of control, self monitoring, and team cohesion. The instrumentswere
administered prior to the beginning of the regular season,at mid season,and the end of
the season. Similarly, the coach responded to items designed to tap his perceptions of
the leadership roles within the team.The resultsof this investigation revealed a
substantial discrepancy between between the player's and the coach's perceptions of
team leadership. The coach held a more traditional view of leadership as something to be
expectedfrom a few players (i.e., those in specificpositions and with the highest
ability). The players suggested that the leadership within the team was more widely
distributed with many playersemergingto fill informalleadership roles. While
leadership roles appearedto becomebetterdefinedover the season,the discrepancy
between the players' and coach's perceptionsof who the leaders were increased. The
relationship of the leadership items to the locus of control and self monitoring scales
providedinsightsregardingthe emergence of certainplayersas informal leaders.
Specifically, those players scoringhigheron the locus of control scale (i.e., more
internal) tendedto perceive themselves as a leadermoreoften and these players received
higher leadership ratings from their peers. Interestingly, scoreson the self monitoring
presentation subscalewere positively related to players' leadership ratings and
negatively related to the coach's leadership ratings. Self presentation strategies have
been shown to be either protective(i.e., getting along) or acquisitive (i.e., getting
ahead).The fact that presentation scores were negatively relatedwith players' desire to
be the leader on this team suggests that they may be adopting a gettingalong strategy.
To the other players this may in fact be viewed as a form of leadership, however, this
gettingalong presentation strategy may not meet the coach'sexpectations for a leader.
This team did score relatively highon the team cohesion scales, although the cohesion
did decreaseover the course of the seasondespite a betterthan expected winning record.
While this study was limitedto the investigation of only one team, the results have
importantimplications for future research of leadership in sport.
VikkiKrane,Bowling Green StateUniversity
Anxiety and Athletic Performance: A Test of the Zone of Optimal
Functioning Hypothesis
Hanin (1980) proposed the zoneof optimal functioning (ZOF) hypothesis as a practical
tool which couldprovide specific reference points for evaluating optimal stateanxiety in
athletes. Specifically, the ZOF hypothesis statesthat athletes have a zoneor bandwidth
of anxiety in which theirbest performances will be observed. Although Gould and
Krane (in press)suggested that theZOF hypothesis may be very attractive to applied
sportpsychologists, they contend it is limited in that supporting research was based on a
unidimensional conception of anxiety. The presentstudywas designed to expand
investigation of the ZOF hypothesis into a multidimensional framework. It was
hypothesized that separate zones of optimal functioning would existfor cognitive and
somatic anxiety. The participants in this studyweremembers of a collegiate women's
soccerteam (N = 17). The athletes' statecognitive and somatic anxietywas assessed
with the Competitive StateAnxiety Inventory - 2 (CSAI-2; Martens et at, 1990). The
CSAI-2 wascompleted approximately 20 minutes priorto twelve soccer matches during
the competitive season. Performance wasmeasured as a composite of soccer behaviors
recorded by trained observers. All performance scores werestandardized so that optimal
anxiety wasderived relative to eachindividual athlete's typical performance and not
basedon group norms. Cognitive and somatic ZOFs wereoperationalized as three
points (approximately one half standard deviation) above or below the level of cognitive
or somatic anxiety associated witheachathlete's bestperformance. Cognitive and
somatic anxiety were thendivided into threelevels: below zone,-in zone, and above
zone.One way ANOVA's (performance by zonelevel)revealed significant effects for
cognitive anxiety,F (2, 142) = 3.25, p < .05, and somatic anxiety, F (2, 142) = 3.89,
P < .05. Post hoc tests revealed that worstperformances were noted when athletes'
cognitive and somatic anxiety wereabovetheirzones; high cognitive and somatic
anxiety were associated with poor soccer performance. Performances when athletes'
cognitive and somatic anxiety werewithin or below theirzones did not significantly
differ. One of the basicpremises of the ZOFhypothesis is that athletes can learn to
identify zones of optimal anxiety and then control anxiety to remain within that zone.
The presentresults suggest that applied sportpsychologists may need to assistathletes
in identifying theiroptimal levels of anxiety and then teach appropriate anxiety
management strategies so athletes maymaintain theiranxiety within theiroptimal zones
of functioning.
                                                                                              89

VikkiKraneand Andrea Stanford, Bowling GreenStateUniversity
A Qualitative Investigation of Mental States of Competitive Swimmers
The presentinvestigation wasdesigned to assess athletes' cognitions and feelings
immediately prior to and during competition. Cognitions wereassessed retrospectively
through structured interviews which wereconducted approximately 48 hoursafter a
midseason intercollegiate duel swimmeet. The participants werefive female swimmers
at a Division I university. To stimulate recall of thoughts and feelings during theirraces,
a videotape of each swimmer's first race wasobserved during the interview process. If
a swimmer competed in more thanone event,the interview focused on the first event,
but also allowed for the swimmer to discuss relevant information from her other
event(s). Interview itemsfocused on five main themes: (1) goalsfor the meet, (2)
expectations of others,(3) mental preparation for competition, (4) thoughts and feelings
immediately prior to competition, and (5) thoughts and feelings during competition.
Swimmers were also askedif therewas a critical moment (i.e.,a specific turning point
which led one to achieve or not achieve her goal) during theirrace. Interviews
approximately 45-60 minutes in length were audiotaperecorded and then transcribed
verbatim. The data indicated several common trends across the swimmers. Theme 1
results revealed all five athletes hada specific goal timethey wanted to achieve (usually
to bener theirprevious best). This would be expected in a sportlike swimming with an
overtobjective outcome measure. Someperformance, or technique, oriented goals were
also acknowledged. Theme 2 results, concerning expectations of others,indicated
expectations of the coachand teammates werethe mostoftencited sources of stress
which affected these swimmers. In terms of theirmental preparation for theirraces
(Theme 3), two of the five athletes had specific precompetition routines which they
followed. Neitherroutine, however, was as structured as thosereported by Olympic
athletes (Gould, Eklund, & Jackson, 1990; Orlick and Partington, 1988). Themes4 and
5 focused on cognitions immediately prior to, and during competition. Duringboth of
thesetimeperiods, these swimmers focused primarily on technique or task relevant cues
(e.g., visualizing good turns, "strongoff the walls," keeping track of opponents). Four
of the swimmers cited feelings associated with physical fatigue or muscular tightness
which wasconsistent with the literature on staleness (Morgan et al., 1987). At this point
during their season, the team was conditioning very strenuously and this wasevidenced
by physical and mental manifestations of fatigue. Coping with the pain associated with
an "allout swimming effort"was anothercommon factoracknowledged by the athletes.
One distance swimmer specifically revealed dissociative strategies while all of the
swimmers divulged some typeof coping strategy. Finally, responses by swimmers who
experienced critical moments in theirraces suggested that a taskoriented focus of
anention allowed themto avoid distraction or negative thoughts induced by an
approaching swimmer.
                                                                                          90


E. E. LaMott, University of Minnesotaand L. M. Petlichkoff, Boise State University
Implementing A Two Year Psychological Intervention Program: An
Evaluation
Duringthe last decadeathleteshave been utilizing psychological skillsprograms to
mentallypreparefor competition (Crocker, Alderman, & Smith, 1988; Gould,
Petlichkoff,Hodge, & Simons, 1990; Nideffer & Decker, 1970). These two
investigations provide an overviewof psychological skillsand an assessment program
designedfor a Northwestern Intercollegiate Women'sGymnastics Team. Specifically,
during the 1987-88 season,an education emphasiswas placedon the development of
basic psychological skills such as relaxation and imagery. The purposeof this study
was to examinethe extent of usageand effectiveness of a psychological skills program
implemented over the course of two seasons. A secondary component of this study was
to develop an effective evaluation process to assessthe immediate and long tenn
compliance and effectiveness of the intervention program. In Study 1, 13 gymnasts
rangingin age from 18 to 21 participated in the season-long psychological skills
program. Gymnastsattendedpre-practice education sessions emphasizing basic
psychological skills (i.e., relaxation, imagery, goal setting) and completed skill
assessments periodically throughout the seasonas well as a YearEnd Evaluation
(Orlick,1986). Study 2 was conducted the following season and was identical to study
1 except 12 gymnasts ages 18-21 participated. Based upon the YearEnd Evaluation
from Study 1, it was evident that Study2 warranted an in depth individualization of the
gymnast's psychological skills programin addition to the psychological skillseducation
sessions. Thus, programswereindividualizedthrough two interactive sessionsbetween
the sportpsychology consultantand the individual gymnasts. The focus of these
sessionswas on individualizing the psychological skills (i.e., thought stoppage,
centering, positive self-talk, goal setting). Qualitative resultsfrom the Year End
Evaluation in Study 1 indicated that the gymnasts experience an increase awareness in:
positiveattitude(94%);awareness of concentration training to improve perfonnance
(94%); performance consistency (88%); personal control (83%); the abilityto bounce
back more (ed. note: Abstractstopped at this point).
                                                                                              91


Christopher Lantz, Charles Hardy, and BarbaraAinsworth, University of Nonh
Carolina at Chapel Hill
The Effects of Social Physique Anxiety, Gender, Age and Depression on
Exercise Behavior
Dissatisfaction with one's bodycan be a primary motivator to engage in exercise, and
yet thatsamedissatisfaction can prevent panicipation in physical exercise. The research
that has beenperformed on perceptions of physiques has not examined others'
evaluations of one's physique. This concernfor how others may be evaluating one's
own bodyhas been termed social physique anxiety (SPA). It is hypothesized that
individuals with higherlevelsof SPA are less likely to engagein exercise. Hart, Leary,
and Rejeski (1989)suggestthat SPAcan serveas a predictor of exercise behavior.
Therefore, the SPA-exercise behavior relationship is wonhy of investigation. Smith,
Smoll and Ptacek(1990) argue thata single variable is insufficient in attempting to
predicthuman behavior. Smithand his colleagues suggest that the effectsof moderator
variables be entertained. Moderator variables affect the direction and/orstrength of a
relationship. This can be done in a singular fashion (disjunctive) or in somecombination
(conjunctive). Therefore, it is essential that variables which may moderate the SPA-
exercise behavior relationship be examined. Two variables which have been suggested
as possible moderators are genderand depression. Previous research indicates that
females, moreso than males, are dissatisfied with the appearance of their bodies. It has
also beensuggested that females sufferfromdepression twiceas much as males. Some
of the symptomologies of depression include extreme lethargy and the inability to initiate
things. Given this knowledge, it is hypothesized that women who suffer from               -
depression and who are highly anxious about theirbody willexercise less than any
othercombination of thesefactors. In order to test this, 300 male and female subjects
ranging in age from 18 to 60 completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale(SPAS),
BeckDepression Inventory (BDI), and the Minnesota HeartHealth Program Leisure
Tune Physical Activity Questionnnaire (MHHP). Hierarchial product term multiple
regression analysis and within groupcorrelational analysis wereused to test for
disjunctive andconjunctive effects. The results revealed a significant negative
relationship betweenexercise behavior and SPA [F (1,298) = 19.02, P < .0001,
R2=6%]. Funher stepsin the regression analysis indicated that gender, age, and
depression moderate this relationship in a singular or disjunctive manner[F (3,296) =
12.87, p<.OOOI, R2=14.86%, R2inc F (3,295) = 10.54, P < .05]. Interpretation of the
disjunctive model indicates thatphysical activity decreases in olderfemales with higher
levels of SPA and depression.
                                                                                         92


J. Dana Lerner. JJ. Bean. Jr.•Doug Newburg. Brad Marwitz, University of Virginia
Condu~ting    Sport Psychology Workshops
The benefits of having a sportpsychologist workwithan athletic department are many.
In orderto reap thesebenefits. an athletic department must fITSt learnabout sport
psychology and its value. An effective method for communicating thisinformation in a
nonthreatening manneris for sportpsychologists and sportpsychology graduate
students to provide workshops educating coaches. athletes. and athletic administrators
of the potential functions and advantages of sportpsychology. Emphasis in this
proposed workshop will be placedon providing information regarding how to conducta
sportpsychology workshop for an athletic department as wellas providing participants
with "hands-on" experience in workshop discussions and activities. Specific
presentation topicsinclude 1) identifying philosophies. 2) reflecting on dreams.
3) developing a mental environment consistent withyour philosophy and dreams.
4) explaining the role of a sportpsychologist in termsof skilltraining and crisis
intervention. and 5) recognizing how sport psychology can manifest itself in your
environment. Corresponding materials such as discussion outlines, questions. and
audio/video tapeswill be shared. Withthe growth of applied sportpsychology comes
muchcuriosity and confusion of athletic departments as to whatit is all aboutand how
athletes and teams can benefit fromit. Sportpsychology workshops provide an ideal
vehicle for communicating this information to those whoare interested.
                                                                                               93


Terry Libkuman and Kevin Love,Central Michigan University, and Paul Donn, Wayne State
University
The Development and Validation of a Performance Appraisal Instrument
for Collegiate Baseball Players
How can one best develop a system thatincludes reliable and validpredictors of athletic
performance? A system that takes intoconsideration manyof the variables thatare
knownto influence performance? A system that also can be used to selectathletes as
well as to appraise theirperformance? The approach that we used to answerthese
questions is basedon prihciples derived from industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology.
Personnel psychology, a subfield of I/O psychology, is concerned with humanresource
utilizations. The goal of personnel psychology is to improve workersatisfaction and
increase organizational effectiveness. One of the waysof increasing organizational
effectiveness is to develop reliable and valid instruments thatcan be used to selectand
appraise personnel. Therefore, the purpose of the presentstudy was to design, develop,
and validate an instrument thatcan be used for performance appraisal and selection of
collegiate baseball players. The technique of job analysis was used to develop
instruments for the positions of pitcher,catcher, first base, infielder, and outfielder. Job
analysis requires thateach playing position be defined by the various tasksthat are a part
of each playing position. These tasksare thenanalyzed in termsof the knowledge,
skills, abilities, and personal characteristics that are required to accomplish each task.
Job analysis was applied by first determining which characteristics wereassumed to be
important foreach position. Data were collected by interviewing collegiate baseball
coaches. This information was usedto develop a checklist of characteristics for each
position. The checklist was thencompleted by the varsity baseball teamat Central
Michigan University. These baseball players rated the itemson the checklist as to their
importance in achieving success for theirposition. The itemsthat weredeemed
important werecontentanalyzed into dimensions or performance arease.g., hitting
fundamentals, defensive skills,and pitching mechanics. Thesedimensions were used to
develop an evaluation instrument for each position. Instruments for each position were
then sent to baseball coachesof 1100NCAA Division I, II, II, NAlA, andjunior
colleges. Thesecoaches were instructed to rate a projected starting playerfor each
position. The criterion data (singles, homeruns,ERAs,etc.) were collected after the
collegiate baseball season was completed (May, 1990). Multiple linearregression
analyses wereconducted on the returns (N=1357). The analyses revealed numerous
significant relationships between the predictor variables and the criterion measures for
each position. In general, ratings of attributes such as strength, motivation,
aggressiveness as well as physical measures (e.g., height, weight) predicted on-the-
field baseball performance indicating that the instruments were valid. Overall, the study
demonstrated the utility of usingpersonnel principles in the field of sport.
                                                                                             94

C. L. Lox, Miami University
Perceived Uncertainty and Importance as Cognitive Determinants of State
Responses in Female Intercollegiate Volleyball Players
This studywas designed to test selected portions of the competitive anxiety model
recently proposed by Martens, Vealey & BUI10n (1990). Specifically, the links between
perceived threatas a cognitive construct and a variety of stateresponses weretested.
Basedon recommendations by Martens et al., the perceived threatconstruct was
operationalized in this studyas: (a)perceived uncertainty concerning performance
outcome and quality, and (b) perceived importance concerning match outcome and
performance success. Stateresponses wereoperationalized as cognitive anxiety, somatic
anxiety, state self-confidence and self-efficacy. Consistent withthe Martens et al model,
it was hypothesized that athletes' perceptions of situational threatwould influence or
predicttheirpre-competitive stateanxiety, self-confidence, and self-efficacy levels. To
test the studyhypothesis, a battery of paper-and-pencil questionnaires were
administered to 52 female intercollegiate volleyball athletes representing five Midwestern
Division I teams. Thesequestionnaires werecompleted within 60 minutes prior to a
regularseason volleyball match and were selected to measure the athletes' pre-match
stateanxiety (CSAI-2) and self-efficacy and theirperceptions concerning the uncertainty
and the importance of thecompetitive event. A multivariate multiple regression analysis
wasconducted to test the strength of therelationship between athletes' perceptions of
threatand their stateanxiety and self-efficacy responses. The results of this analysis
revealed that therewas a significant relationship between the twodata sets.Wilks
Lambda =.31, F (16.135) =4.0. P < .001. However, univariate F-tests showed that
athletes' perceptions of event uncertainty and importance were significantly related only
to athletes' state self-confidence, F (4,47) = 6.1. P < .001. and self-efficacy,
F (4,47) =12.8,P < .001, but not to their cognitive or somaticanxiety levels.
Furthermore, examination of the regression coefficients and the canonical loadings
showed that athletes' uncertainty regarding theirpersonal ability to perform well was
most highly related to theirstateself-confidence and self-efficacy levels. However, all
other aspects of the perceived threat construct werealso significantly predictive of these
two stateresponses. Subsequent analyses showed that the various measures of pre-
competitive stateanxiety (cognitive; somatic, and self-confidence) wereminimally
relatedto each other. The results of this studywill be interpreted relative to current
modelsof competitive anxiety and self-efficacy. In particular, the multidimensional
nature of competitive stateanxiety willbe emphasized particularly as it relates to the
underlying causesand/orcorrelates of the precompetitive anxiety response.
Furthermore, implications of thisresearch for female collegiate athletes will be
discussed.
                                                                                               95


MarthaLudwig, MichiganState University
Implementing a Ppsychological Skills Training Program with Youth
Gymnasts • Levels 9 and 10
Level 9 and 10 gymnasts are the cream of the crop. Those who truly excel perform at
the elite level and vie for nationalhonors. Their achievement motivation is high, they are
task/goal-oriented, and are very serious about psychological skills. The time and
pressure demands at this level are intense. Each gymnast,regardlessof age, is expected
to practice 5 to 6 days per week, 4 hours per day. Their competitions span the United
States against the best teams in the country and include winningexpectations. This
program has been designed to accommodate 10 to 18 year old gymnasts. Due to the
commitmentrequiredand assumedby Level 9 and 10 participants adjustments for age
differenceshave been negligible. Developmental, maturational issues have more of an
effect on individual coping mechanisms than on comprehension ability.The athletes are
expected to meet common behavioral and executional requirements basedon group level
rather than on developmental stage.Cognitive development appears to influence the
initial application of psychological skills to physicalperformance, but dissipates with
time and practice. Individual consultation has been requested frequently on this level by
coaches, parents, and/or the athletes. It is important to attend to the oscillating needs of
each individualas she strives for peak performance. The psychological skills program is
presentedin two stages: a systematic 10 session introduction plus a more extensive
need-based20 session program. Positivesubjectiveevaluationsare derived from the
club administrators' profound commitment to the value and impactof the program, and
the athletes'eagerness to learn and participate in the process. Psychological skills
training appears to be one of many factors which is producingconsistent, successful
performances. .
                                                                                           96

Hilary Mathesonand Mimi Murray, Springfield College
Cohesion of Coacting and Interacting Female Intercollegiate Athletes.
The purpose of this study was to examine differencesin team sport cohesion across the
season, after a winning situation, and after a losing situation between four different
Division ill female intercollegiate athleticteams. Ss for this study were 57 female
athletes from the lacrosse and basketball teams (interacting), and tennis and swimming
teams (coacting). Ss were administered the Group EnvironmentQuestionnaire
(Widmeyer et al., 1985) five times during the season: pre-season, mid-season, post-
season, after a winning situation, and after a losing situation. The Group Environment
Questionnairemeasures four subscalesof cohesion:Attraction to the Group-Task
(AGT), Attraction to the Group-Social (AGS), Group Integration-Task(GIT), Group
Integration-Social (GIS). Two 2 x 2 ANCOVA's were used to analyze the results of
teams (coacting, interacting)by time (mid-season, post-season)and teams (coacting,
interacting) by outcome (win, loss). Preseason measures were utilized as a covariate in
both analyses. One of the coacting teams (tennis) recorded a 1.00 winning season,
therefore, swimmingwas utilizedas the coacting team in the outcome analysis. The
results indicated a significantdifference (p < .05) between interactingteams (lacrosse,
basketball)and coacting teams (tennis, swimming) for the subscale AGT, with coacting
teams recordinga higher level of perceived cohesion than interactingteams. A
significant difference (p < .05) was also found for the GIT subscale in the Spon x Time
interaction. The results of the coacting teams scores showed greater changes in
cohesion scores than those of the interactingteams. Post hoc Scheffe tests indicated the
midseason scores were significant [F 0,44) = 4.94], but postseason scores were not
significant. Coacting teams AGT subscale score was significantly different (p < .OS)
from the interactingteam score in the outcomeanalysis. Significantdifferences
(p < .05) were shown in the AGS (interacting) and GIS (coacting) subscales for Sport x
Outcome interaction. Post hoc Scheffetests indicated no significant differences between
win and loss scores for either the AGS subscale or the GIS subscale. Interpretation of
the fmdings were discussed with relation to type of activity and closeness of
competition. Type of activityand divisional classification may influence level and type
of cohesion recorded. Differencesin cohesion scores could be a reflection of varied
perceptions by nonscholarshipvs. scholarship athletes. Individual sport participants
may also view outcome very differently than team sport playersdue to the nature of the
activity. Also, closenessofthe competitionmay result in differencesin recorded
cohesion.
                                                                                             97


Edward McAuley, Stephen Boutcher, and Kerry Courneya, University of Illinoisand
University ofWollongong, Wollongong, Australia
Cognitive Appraisal and the Generation of Affect Following Treadmill
Testing
Recentresearch by Vallerand (1987) and others has suggested that a numberof
cognitive appraisal mechanisms are implicated in the generation of affectfollowing sport
and exercise-related outcomes. The presentinvestigation wasdesigned to examine the
relative contributions of intuitive and reflective appraisal mechanisms in the production
of affectfollowing performance on a gradedexercise treadmill test. Twenty-eight
untrained (n = 14) and trained (n = 14)malesparticipated in 30 minutes of incremental
treadmillexercise. Following a Io-minuterecovery period,subjects indicated how well
they perceived themselves to haveperformed on the test (intuitive appraisal) and gavean
open-ended causal attribution for the performance whichthey then coded alongcausal
dimensions (reflective appraisal). Finally, subjects indicated the extent to which they
experienced each of II achievement-related affects as a function of theirexercise
performance. Item analyses of the affective reactions supported the existence of two
internally consistent affective dimensions, subsequently labeled positive and negative
affect Initial bivariate correlational analyses revealed negative affectto be unrelated to
the causaldimensions and positive affectto be most strongly related to locusof causality
and personal controldimensions. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then
conducted to examinethe independent influences of intuitive and reflective appraisal in
the generation of positiveaffect. Results revealed both appraisal mechanisms to account .
for significant uniquevariance in positive affect (R2 = .152 and ~092, reflective and
intuitive appraisal, respectively) with bothmechanisms sharing substantial variance
(R2 = .208).Perceptions of havingdone well (intuitive appraisal) and internal and
personally controllable attributions (reflective appraisal) for that performance appearto
facilitate positiveaffect. The resultsare discussed in termsof a) the possible role played
by affect in exercisebehavior, b) the simultaneous and distinctinfluences different types
of appraisal may haveon affective perceptions, and c) the need for improved
measurement technologies in the assessment of affectand intuitive appraisals.
                                                                                              9H


PennyMcCullagh and John Noble, University of Colorado
A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Psychological Effects of
Modeling
In orderto best understand thepotential of modeling as a psychological method for
influencing personal and physical skills, a conceptual framework will be presented that
characterizes a consolidation of modeling theories and research in the sportpsychology
and motorbehavior literatures. The framework emphasizes the interaetive effectsof
characteristics of the observer andcharacteristics of the model (demonstration) on
behavioral responses. Morespecifically, characteristics of the observer include gender,
cognitive skills, physical maturity, knowledge base and span experience, physical
abilities, and psychological characteristics suchas self-perceptions, motivational
orientation, and trait anxiety. Characteristics of the demonstrator include such factors as
model-observer similarity (e.g.,age, gender, ability level),visualand/orverbal mode of
presentation, and task demands in relation to observer capabilities. Behavioral responses
discussed will includeboth performance (e.g.,process and outcome, learning and
performance) and psychological (e.g., self-efficacy) aspects. Finally, the influence of
knowledge of results on each of these processes will be highlighted an an integral pan
of the entiremodeling framework.
                                                                                          99

Penny McCullagh, Joanna Starekand Paul Prestwich, University of Colorado
Future Considerations in the Investigation of the Stress-Injury Relationship
An early modelproposed by Lazarus (1966) provided a framework for examining the
relationship between life events, personality characteristics, copingresources, and
illness. Recently, this framework has beenextended to the athletic injurydomain by
Andersen and Williams (1988). While numerous studies have beenconducted
examining the relationship between various psychological factors and injuries, not a
greatdeal of research has yet employed theAndersen and Williams model as a
framework for examining the issue. In this section of the symposium, considerations
for futureresearch will be discussed. While someresearch has begun to use a
theoretical model for examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and
injury, there is a continued need to pursue such an approach. A greatdeal of work still
needsto occurin the refinement of instruments for assessing psychosocial factors and
injuries as well as agreement on the best means for assessing injuries. Finally, the
importance of extending current findings to a widersubject population and assessing
psychological variables over time will be addressed.
                                                                                            100


EJ. McGuire, Chicago Blackhawks and W. Neil Widmeyer, University of Waterloo
Frequency or competition and aggressive behavior in professional ice hockey
Intergroup conflicttheory proposes that aggression between groups or individuals
increases as the frequency of competition between themincreases. The present study
was designed to test this premisein professional ice hockey. It was hypothesized that
more aggression occursin intradivisional games, which involveteams thatcompete
againsteach other sevenor eight times, thanin interdivisional games, which involve
teams that meeteach otheronly three times each season. Data wereobtained from the
officialreportsof the 840 gamesplayedduring the 1987-88 National Hockey League
season. The measures of aggression were: (a) total aggressive penaltyincidents
(Widmeyer & Birch, 1978), (b) fighting penalties, (c) instigatorpenalties, and (d)
misconduct penalties. Multivariate analysis F (4,835) = 14.98,P < .001 and follow up
ANOVAs supported the hypothesis. Thereweremore aggressive penalty incidents
(13.10 vs 9.69), fighting penalties (2.63 vs 1.82), instigatorpenalties (.32 vs .25), and
misconduct penalties (1.03vs .60) per gamein intradivisional games than in
interdivisional games. It was proposed that differences weredue notonly to the rivalry
developed through the morefrequent interaction but alsoto the greater perceived
importance of the outcomes of intradivisional games. The implications of these results
for those administering sports' leagues werediscussed.
                                                                                             101


Robert McKelvainand Scott Perkins,Abilene ChristianUniversity, Robert Stainback,
Universityof Alabama, Birmingham, MichaelGreenspan, Arizona State University
Troubled Athletes: Assessment and Referral Strategies
The purpose of this workshopis to provide a theoretical framework and specific tools
for making assessmentand referral decisionsabout troubled athletes. Sport
psychologists who provide performance enhancement services are often called upon to
assist with athletes who are troubledby "off the field" life experiences. The shift from a
performance enhancement to a more clinicalrole is sometimes awkwardfor both
psychologist and athlete. The intentionof this workshop is to provide a framework for
assessmentand referral of such athletesfrom within the sport context.
A "socialrole fulfillment" model will be presentedas the basis for assessing the extent
of athleteadjustment difficulties. A form of the "Social Adjustment Self-Report
Questionnaire" (Weissman, 1976, 1978, 1986)adaptedespecially for athletes will be
presentedfor use by workshop participants as a structured interview. Three specific
types of athlete problems will be emphasized -- depression and suicidalthoughts,
alcohol abuse, and eating disorders. For each problem specific assessment and referral
strategies will be described. Techniques for interviewing, increasing adherence to
referralrecommendation, identifying referral resources, and follow-up strategies will be
surveyed.
Interview strategies for dealing with troubledathletes' will be demonstrated through
extendedrole-playinterviewsby the presenters. Handoutsdescribingthe interview
techniquesand time for questions and "curb-side consultation" will be provided.
                                                                                                 102


Patrick McKnightand Jean Williams, University of Arizona,Neil Widmeyer,
Universityof Waterloo
The Effects of Cohesion and Identifiability on Reducing the Likelihood
of Social Loafing
Research in the field of group dynamicsshows that individuals exen less effort in
groups than when perfonning alone, a phenomenon referred to as social loafing.
Williams, Nida, Baca & Latane (1989),however, were able to eliminate social loafing
by increasingidentifiability for one's contribution to group performance. They
conjecturedthat increasedcohesionwould have a similareffect on social loafing, but did
not test the assumption. The present study compared the effects of both high and low
task and social cohesionand identifiability on individual and relay swimming
performances. The subjects were sixty-fourswimmerswho were either triathletes,
water polo team members, or membersof swim for fitness classes. The swimmers were
divided into groups of four. Each group completed two individual(1) 100 yd. swims
and two 4 X 100 yd. relays (R) in a swim meet Order of the events was
counterbalanced. Per the Williams et al. study, the startingprocedure for the individual
events was identicalto the relay stan. Each group was randomly assigned into high
identifiable (HllD) and low identifiable (WID) groups. Task (TC) and social (SC)
cohesion were measuredwith a four question tool modifiedfrom the Group
Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985). Because the
swimminggroups were not actual teams, many items on the GEQ were inappropriate. A
pilot studyon intramural basketball teamsindicated the modified questionnaire was
essentially equivalentto the GEQ. Identifiability was manipulated by infonning the
(HllD) swimmers, and their teammates and spectators, of their individual and relay split
swim times. 1.OID swimmers were informed only of their individual swim time and
total elapsedrelay swim time. Social loafingscores were calculated by subtracting the
elapsedindividualswim time from the elapsed time of the subject'srelay split time,
therefore, the higher the score, the greaterthe social loafing. An identifiability by
cohesion MANCOVA was performedwith order of swimming events as the covariate
and socialloafmg scores as the dependent variable. Consistent with Williams et al.
results, swimmingin a HIID condition eliminated social loafing (p < .01 ). SC did not
affect social loafing, but a significant (p < .05) identifiability x TC interaction did occur.
Identifiability had a major effect on the socialloafing of the low TC groups, but no
effect on the groups high in TC. For the low TC groups, no social loafing occurred
when swimmingin a HllD condition (-1.32), but there was loafing when swimming in
a LOID condition (2.12).High TC groups did not sociallyloaf regardlessof
identifiability condition. The level of a group's task cohesiveness appears to strongly
affect the response to identifiability and, therefore, both identifiability and cohesion need
be examinedin order to eliminate social loafing effectively.
                                                                                             103

B. Meyerand R. Neff, Michigan StateUniversity
Implementing a Psychological Skills Training Program with Level 5 and
6 Youth Gymnasts
This presentation will highlight the psychological skillstraining (PST) program utilized
withlevel 5 and 6 youthgymnasts. Level 5 and 6 gymnasts involved in this program
were in their first or secondyearsof competition and rangedfrom 8 to 14 yearsof age.
Theydevotedapproximately 20 to 25 hours per week to gymnastics and wereinvolved
in compulsory routinesand/orskills. These gymnasts varied in termsof motivation and
dedication, with the more skilled gymnasts, regardless of age, devoting more timeand
energy to their sport, Issuesaddressed in the PST sessions included relaxation
techniques, imagery, negative self-talk, fear, self-confidence, concentration and goal
setting. The gymnasts appeared to respond mostpositively to the relaxation and imagery
sessions. Worksheets, journal entries, and homework assignments, were used to
reinforcethe importance of these skills. 'On-floor" sessions were also utilized to show
the gymnasts how the skillsshould be usedduring practice and competition. The unique
issuesfacing psychological sportconsultants at these levels primarily involved
communicating effectively with young athletes whohave a very limited vocabulary,
teaching athletes how to integrate psychological skillsinto practice and competition,
maintaining athlete concentration on psychological skills during practice, and convincing
the gymnasts of the importance of goal setting. While a 4 step between trialritual
improved the consistency with which the gymnasts integrated psychological skills into
practice, the implementation of an effective goal setting program wasdifficult for several
reasons. First, many gymnasts appeared to lack the cognitive maturity necessary to
understand the importance of setting performance goals. Secondly, the coachesoften
forgot to remind' the gymnasts to workon their goals. Last, tokenreinforcers (stickers),
used to reward the girls'achievements, wereineffective, possibly because most
gymnasts were too old to value sucha trivial symbol of success. The effectiveness of
the program was determined through feedback attained from coaches, parents, and
gymnasts. The coaches wereeager to learnand implement new skills,parents expressed
theirsatisfaction with thechanges theyobserved in theirdaughters as well as skills they
learned duringtheir "parent sessions, and the gymnasts themselves expressed their
interest by askingquestions and making positive comments ranging from the
effectiveness of certain psychological principles to morepersonal issues. Overall, the
psychological skillstraining program implemented with the Level 5 and 6 gymnasts
appeared to be very wellreceived.
                                                                                             104


M.e. Meyers, A.E. Bourgeois, S. Stewart and A. Letlnes, Fort Bend Onhopaedic &
Spotts MedicineAssociates, Sugar Land. TX and Texas A & M University
Pain Response in Athletes: Development and Assessment of the Sports
Inventory for Pain
It is generallyrecognized by coaches, trainers.and physiciansthat athletesdiffer in their
capacity to address pain prior to and following physicalsport trauma. This may
subsequently be reflectedin theirlevelof athletic performance or adherence to medical
care. The purpose of this study was to report the early development and analysesof a
sport-specific instrument,the Sports Inventoryfor Pain (SIP), that identifies pain
strategiesof athletes. Followinginformedconsent, initial sensory/affective pain
dimensions and strategies wereobtainedfrom 20 injuredcollegiateathletes undergoing
postoperative knee rehabilitation. Resultswere formulated into a 44-iteminstrument
with a 5-pointLikert format and administered to 449 college students(210 males. 239
females; mean age 19.6+2.3) under classroomconditionsin additionto the injured
group. Injury/sport activity data were also obtained. Socialdesirability influence (SD)
on SIP scores was assessed by the Marlowe-Crowne scale. SAS factor analysis reduced
the inventory size to a 25-iteminstrument identifying 6 pain scales: coping (COP),
cognitive (COG), avoidance (AVD), catastrophizing (CAT), bodyawareness(SOD)
and a compositescore (HURT; HURT=COP+COG-AVD-CAT). Cronbach's
coefficient alpha levels of .88 (COP)•.78 (COG)•. 76 (CAT)•.61 (AVD) and .62
(BOD) confirmed internalreliability. Test-retestreliability coefficients were .88 (COP),
.73 (COG), .69 (CAT)•.71 (AVD)•.73 (BOD) and .86 (HURT). ANOYA revealed
highly significant F ratios for the SIP scales COP (F= 20.88. p < .0001), COG
(F=6.25. p < .(02). and AVD (F=2.64, p <.05) and composite score HURT
(F=15.39, P < .0001). Post hoc analyses indicated significantincreases (p < .05) in
COP. COG. and HURT, and a significant decrease (p <.05) in AVD as number of
injuries, number of sport events played.and number of years of sport activity increased.
Pearson correlations betweenSD with SIP scales were nonsignificant (p < .05), ranging
from -.06 to .22. The Spons Inventoryfor Pain (SIP) has the potential for use in
identifying an athlete'scapacityto cope with pain which may subsequently effect the
ability to perform. Resultsmay also aid in differentiating those athletes that effectively
addresspain from those competitors' that may require additional anention to insure
optimalmedical care.
                                                                                             105


James Millhouse, PrivatePractice, Atlanta, Georgia.
A Descriptive Clinical Report on Mental Skills Use: Individualized
Response to a Mental Skills Training Program.
In recent years, as the advantages of knowledge and use of mental skillsfor sport has
becomemore apparent, the demand for consultation and training in these skillshas
grown. However, a greatdeal stillremains to be learnedregarding the relationship
between mental training skills,goalsand individual athlete variables. The current
clinical fieldresearch attempted to further knowledge with regard to relevance of specific
mentaltraining skillsto the attainment of specific goals.
In the currentstudy, two advanced level gymnastic teams wereprovided bi-weekly
comprehensive mentalskillstraining for the periodof nineconsecutive months. At the
conclusionof training, both groupswere assessed regarding the use of nine focusing
skills, nine goal directedimagery procedures, and several other mental skillsas means
to the attainment of sportand general life goals.
It was found that the athletes used the focusing and imagery skills to pursue a wide
rangeof goals related to training and competition in gymnastics, and spontaneously in
other areas not related to sports.
Relative use of mentalskillsfor specific goal categories is identified and discussed.
Frequency and efficacyof skill usagewithregard to specific goals are presented.
Grouptrendsand individual differences in choiceof goal, strategy, and contextare
discussed.
Athletes and coachesreported the training to be of valueon several dimensions,
including consistency in practiceand competition, coping with stress,and speed of skill
acquisition. Conclusions drawn from the data are discussed and recommendations are
made for future training programs.
                                                                                              106


WilliamMoore,East Carolina University
Trust and the Performance of Sports Skills Section 1 • Understanding
Trust in the Performance of Automated Complex Sports Skills
The purposeof this section of the symposium is to defineand characterize trust and its
role in the performance of automated complex sportsskills. Trust can be defined as the
letting go of conscious controlling tendencies and allowing automatic processes (which
have been developed through training) to executethe sportsskill. In short, it is the
athlete'sability to trust duringperformance what has been trainedin practice.
The theoretical basis for trust in performance of automated sports skillscan be found in
the conceptof automaticity as well as in the theories of motorskillleaming. As the
athletemoves through the stagesof sports skilldevelopment, the motorprogram
becomesmore refined untilthe advanced stageis achieved, resulting in a unique
efficientautomation of the motorprogram. However, once the skill becomes well-
learned, the athlete must learn to let go of conscious control over movement sequences.
At the advanced (elite) level of athletic performance, an automatic modeis necessary due
to the accuracy, complexity, and speed of the movement This automatic modecan be
viewedas a 'trust state,'a statein which the athletefrees him/herselfof expectations,
fears, or other conscious activity and maintains a clear presentfocus. For the athlete,
trust becomes an ongoingperformance goal fromone experience to another and should
be viewedas a psychological skill thatis nevercompletely mastered.

The primarycharacteristics of trust - specificity, magnitude, and stability - will be
presentedand outlinedusingpractical examples from sports skill performance. Also,
the two typesof breakdowns in trust (processing and sequencing) will be delineated and
highlighted with similarpractical examples. Finally, the rationale for considering trust as
a psychological performance skill will be presented as a prelude to the nextsymposium
section which is devoted to training for trust
                                                                                            107

WilliamMoore,East Carolina University
Trust and the Performance of Sport Skills
The conceptof trust in the performance of complex automated sportsskillsis related to
the lettinggo of conscious controlling tendencies often learned during skill acquisition.
Theories of motorcontrolprovidea theoretical framework for the necessity of automatic
selection and execution of motorprograms during skilled performance, Trust is viewed
as a psychological skill in which the athlete releases conscious controlover movements.
thus allowing the automatic execution of the programs or schema that have been
developed through training. The purposes of this symposium are to introduce and
define trust as a cognitiveskill, discuss methods of training for trust, and present a
methodology from biomechanics for the measurement of trust and its effectson skilled
sports performance,
The first section of this symposium willprovide the theoretical basisfor trust as a
cognitive skill. Trust resultsin lettinggo of learnedtendencies to consciously control
complex sportsmovements. Motorcontroltheory provides the rationale for letting go
of conscious control, thus allowing the automatization of motorprogram selection and
execution to occur.Therefore, the task for the athlete is not only to develop the
monitoring processes necessary for skilldevelopment, but also the ability to let go and
trust duringperformance what has been trained in practice. Thus, trustcan be viewed
as a distinct performance skill which can be trained.
The next sectionof this symposium will present specific methods and plans for training
the athleteto trust. Phasesof this training program would include extensive education
regarding not only the nature of trust but also thosepsycho-social barriers which
prevent the athletefrom trusting him/herself duringperformance,
The final section of this symposium will address the measurement/assessment aspects of
trust using methodologies from the field of sport biomechanics. The presence or
absence of trustcan be assessed using the conceptof biomechanical invariance,
especially for thoseelite performers whoexhibitmore mechanically consistent
movement patterns. In brief,invariance in performance reflects a sophisticated,
underlying motorprogramwhereby factors of motion are precisely timed. The presence
or absence of invariance in biomechanical parameters, kinematic and kinetic variables
alike,provides insightinto the adaptability of the neuromuscular systemand the
operational interrelationships among biomechanical and psychological variables.
                                                                                            108

Julian Morrow, John Jay College,City University of New York and Philip Harvey, Mt.
Sinai Schoolof Psychiatry
Analysis of Data Derived from The Exercise Salience Scale (TESS)
Recentpopularand scientific articles havefocused on the explanations for and
consequences of excessiveexercise. This poster session presentsthe resultsof a two
part study basedon The ExerciseSalience Scale(TESS) which was developed by the
authorsto examine pathological attitudes towards and inappropriate use of exercise.
The ExerciseSalience Scale (TESS) is a forty item inventory generated by six
behavioral, cognitive, affective and perceptual criteria. Also included are a seriesof
demographic predictorvariables. Issuessuchas inappropriate prioritization,
compulsivity and mood statesare scored in termsof theirdescriptiveness (O=not at all,
3=cxtremely). Therefore, scoresrange from0 to 120 with highernumbers reflecting
greaterdependence on exercise. The coefficient alpha wasfound to be .93 indicating a
high degreeof internalconsistancey. Study 1:With the cooperation of the New York
Roadrunners Clubfifty female and fifty malecompleted scales wererandomly selected
and analyzed from a pool of over 300 subjects who wereregistering fo the 1990New
YorkMarathon. Infonnation wascollected regarding a number of exercise related
variables (e.g. years of training, level of proficiency, goals,mileage, cross training,
family status). Distribution of scores were contrasted in a numberof ways (e.g, x = 57
males,x = 62 females). In addition an EatingRestraint Scale was administered to
examine the degreeof relationship to eatingattitudes and behaviors (r =31 females,
r = 30 males).
An interesting finding suggested by the data is the tendency for consistent (ritualized)
levelsof daily exercise to be a stronger predictor of maladaptive attitudes and behaviors
than quantity or qualityof exercise. Study2: Study 2 wasdesigned to solicita sample
with more variable patternsof exercise than the subjects in Study 1. Subjects completed
and returned the TESS which was published in the November issueof American Health
magazine Out of 720 cases.data was analyzed with respectto distributions of scores
(e.g. 13% > 80, indicating dependence) basedon the demographic predictorvariables.
Three strong predictors of scoresover eightywere: (1) exclusivity training (limiting
training to one form of activity 80%of the time),where scores were twiceas likely to be
high as cross trainers (no more than 50% of time devoted to one activity), (2) exercising
two or more hours per day and, (3) exercising at least six days a week. Comparisons
between the samples of the two studies (marathon runners vs. American Health readers)
were conducted to ascertain if any distinct differences in the populations exist.
One issuedeserving further attention is the causal direction of the association between
cross trainingand lower TESS scores. If you are obsessed, it appears that you'll lack
the flexibility whichis often necessary for cross training. Howeverindividuals with
rigid cross training regimens are more likely to receive scores which are similarto
exclusivity training.
The ability to identify and adjustcertain behavior could have clinical applications for
people withexercise related pathology.
                                                                                                109

ShaneMurphy, UnitedStatesOlympic Committee
Performance Enhancement Interventions: Real Life Issues
This presentation willpresentan analysis of someof the challenges encountered in
providing perfonnance enhancement intervention services to an athletic groupor team.
Drawingon numerous examples fromactualconsultations, four key issues will be
identified that must be facedby thisconsultant Theseare:
1. The problems (including reliability and validity) associated with current sport
   psychology assessment devices, and the challenges these posefor the consultant.
2. The urgent needfor intervention outcome data to validate the interventions being
   conducted. The difficulties associated withgathering this data will be described.
3. The need to adhere to a standardized intervention protocol during outcome research,
   and the difficulties this presents for the consultant.
4. The challenge of presenting intervention techniques to a group when individual
   athletes demand individualized approaches to intervention.
Several potential solutions to these challenges will be presented. The utility of teachi ng a
flexible mental routine ratherthan focus in on specific performance enhancement
techniques will be described. Various approaches to usingstandardized assessment
procedures will be described. Use of single case study designs for gathering outcome
data will be presented. Suggestions willalso be provided concerning the training of
intervention providers in procedural protocol. The inadvisability of carrying out research
with teams for whom the performance stakes are high will be discussed, and alternatives
will be presented. Feedback from symposium attendees on theseissues will be solicited.
                                                                                                110


Shane Murphy, Chris Carr. and Robert Swoap, UnitedStatesOlympic Committee
A Model Program for Consultation and Intervention with Elite Athletes
This workshop will focus on sharingthe lessons which have been learnedfrom four years
of consultation experience with the training program of a national sportsorganization. A 7-
step modelof consultation will be presented which emphasizes constant feedback and
evaluation by the athletes and coaches who are the clients of the consultation. Both didactic
and discussion methodswill be used to presentthis model. A unique featureof this
workshop will be the presenceof two athletes who have participated in this process. They
will presenttheirown evaluation of the consultation program, and willdiscuss their
experiences with workshop attendees.
The 7-stepmodelis presented belowin Table 1. The workshop will familiarize participants
with each of these steps. drawing on many actualconsultation examples from the specific
sport consultation beingpresented. Examples will be given not only of successful
interventions, but also of mistakes that we have had made. Discussion of these mistakes
will provide practical learning examples for the participants. Particularly challenging
consultation scenarios will be presented for small groupdiscussions.
Table 1
1.   SportFamiliarization
2.   Evaluation and Assessment
3.   Goal Identification
4.   Group Intervention
5.   Individual Intervention
6.   Outcome Evaluation
7.   Reassessment of Goals
The focus will be on the consultation process. not on the intervention techniques used
(thoughthese will be described). Two important points will be emphasized. First, the
necessity of closecollaboration with the coaching director in order to havea maximally
effective program. Second. the utility of providing both group and individual consultation
opportunities. The group sessions enable us to focus mainlyon performance issues, while
the individual sessions allow us to focus on personal counseling issues. Examplesof
counseling issues that havearisen will be presented. The involvement of two athletes who
have been part of the programwill offer workshop participants a unique opportunity to
explorethe consultation issues presented from an experiential perspective. The handouts
that are used in our group sessions will be shared with attendees.
                                                                                            111

Shane Murphy and Othon Kesend,United States Olympic Committee
The Influence of Significant Others on the Sports Participation of Elite
Athletes
Who are the people who exert the most influenceon the lives of developingathletes,
encouragingthem to be dedicatedsports participants? A numberof studies have
examined the sport socialization processand have identified the primary agents of
socialization into the sport identity. In general these studies have found that parents,
coaches, peers, siblings and teachers are the main agents of socialization in span.
Two main weaknessesin the existing literaturewere identified. First, the existing
research gives the practitionerlittle feel or understanding for how young people are
socializedby these significantothers. Second, little research has been carried out on
how others discourage athletes from spans participation. The "dropout" literature
provideslittle information on the discouragement faced by and overcomeby elite
athleteswho remainedactive participants.
In this study, subjects were 20 athletespreparingfor the 1988 Olympics at the Olympic
Training Center, two athletesfrom each of ten different sports. The sample comprised
15 men and 5 women. The average age of the athlete was 22, the age range being 14 to
32. A qualitativeresearch methodology was employed. Subjects were interviewed via
a standardized interviewprotocol whichcontainedflexible probes. Transcripts were
made of the entire interview. An inductivecontent analysis was used to organize the
raw data (quotes) into meaningful categories.
Table I shows those people who were identifiedby the athletes as being sources of
encouragement. Column 1 indicates the total numberof references made to each
individual, and Column 2 shows the percentage of athleteswho indicatedeach particuJar
individual as a source of encouragement. This data essentially replicates previous
research. The ways in which these people providedencouragement was analyzed and
the findings are presented in Chan 1. The lowest-order categories are presented on the
left of the chart, and the highest order themes on the right side of the chan.
Similar analyses were carried out in order to identify sourcesof discouragement. Table
VII shows those individualsidentifiedby the athletes as being sources of
discouragementto their sports participation, and Chan 3 shows the ways in which this
discouragementoccurred.
The content analyses identifiedseveral new themes which have not previously been
identified in the literature. The findings will be discussedin termsof previous research,
in terms of the implications for practitioners, and future research directions will be
discussed.
                                                                                            112

Laura Nabors, James Whelan, Andrew Meyers, and Lynn Nabors, Memphis State
University
Effects of Coach Instruction on Children's Achievement Goal Orientation
in a Sport Setting
Research has suggested that achievement goal orientationinfluenceschildren's sport
performance.Achievementgoals, in tum, have been associatedwith locus of evaluation
and self-eompetence as proposed mediatorsof performance outcome. Specifically, a
task-involved goal orientationis hypothesized to be related to increasedintrinsic
motivation, greater persistence,and higher perceptions of self-competence for children
in achievementcontexts. A task-involved goal is defined as a primaryconcern with
learning; an ego-involved goal emphasizessuccessful performance. The present study
examined the effects of coach instruction on children's achievementgoal orientation,
ratings of self-competence, reports of locus of evaluationfor performanceattainments,
mood, and perceptionof task difficulty. Participantswere 76 youth attending weekly
tennis clinics, ages 6 to 14. Tennis players were randomly assigned to one of three
coach instructiongroups: effort statements, task performancefeedback, and no feedback
(control)conditions. Coach feedback was given after the children hit six tennis balls.
The task was ambiguous in that the childrendid not know which shot they would hit;
thus, attentionalfocus was directed toward coach feedbackinstead of task performance.
Effort statementsstressed that working hard leads to success in sport; hence, effort
feedback encouraged the formation of ego-involved goals. Performance feedback,
relative to the child's tennis performance, was given to encourage the development of a
task-involvedgoal structure. Results indicatedpositivecorrelations between ratings on
a self-esteemscale (Rosenberg, 1979) with ratings of the importanceof having a task-
involved achievementgoal, happy mood state, positive appraisalof task performance,
preferring increased task difficulty, and reporting that best shots were due to one's
effort. Additionally, ANOVA's demonstrated that current mood state and feelings about
task performance were significantly related to coach instructions. A trend was shown
for a relationship between children's perceptions of the effort involved in producing
their best shots and coach instruction. Future research should focus on investigating the
effects of performance attainmentson ratings of self-esteem, mood state, task
persistence, and achievementgoals.'
                                                                                            113


T. Christian North, Nonh & Associates, Boulder, CO
Mental Rebuilding after a World Championship Loss with an Amateur Team
The purposeof this presentation is to discussthe loss and grievingprocessof an
amateurteam who won the national championship in 1990and wenton to compete in
the world's championship. This team was able to win the national championship with
ease, howeverthey were not mentally prepared for the competition level at world's and
experienced a team mentalcollapse. This presentation discusses the team'semotional
collapse, why and how it happened, and the subsequent rebuilding processes that
occurred. Someof the destructive reactions to their lossesinclude: denial, anger that led
to flared tempersand withdrawal, lack of self-responsibility, resentments toward other
team members, lost respect for team members, anxiety, and depression. Team
rebuilding includedinformal gatherings, and a seriesof meetings with a sports
psychology consultant. Feelingswere givena constructive forum to be expressed which
allow individuals to process through the denial and angerphasesof loss and to move
through to acceptance. Conflicts were resolved between individuals which healed
damagedrelationships. Specific processes and strategies will be shared from the sport
psychology consultantwho worked with this small team. Included will be a discussion
on overcoming the resistance of a key athlete to takepart in the teamrebuilding process.
                                                                                             114


T. Christian North, North & Associates, Boulder, CO
Resolution of Loss in Athletics
All athletesand athletic teams experience loss; loss is inherentis sport.Loss in athletics
can include loss in individualand/or team competitions, loss of dreams, loss of health,
loss of self identity, loss of self esteem, and loss of career among others. Resolving
loss with full emotionalrecoveryis an important psychological aspectof athletics. This
symposium will assist sports psychologyconsultantsto understand reactions to
different aspects of loss and helpfulinterventions for resolvingloss in a variety of
situations and for athletes at differentlevelsof competitive ability.
The following is a brief description of the four presentations providedin this
symposium: A theoretical overviewof of loss and transition in athleticswill be
presented.Models will include the grief resolution model of Kubler-Ross and
Schlossberg'smodel of coping with transitions. Comparisonsbetween models and and
a review of recent studies with athletic populations will be discussed. The second
presentation will explore the psychological consequences of loss for the professional
Ice-hockey player and team. Experiential evidenceof loss resolution processes will be
presented by a professionalhockey team's sport psychologist. Applied interventions to
assist both individualsand teams will be evaluated. In the third presentation, the sport
psychology consultantwho led a series of team buildingand mental training sessionsto
assist the emotional rebuilding of a national championship amateurteam that suffered a
devastating loss at the world's championship will be discussed. This team's members
left the world'scompetition beaten,angry and resentful,the team becamedysfunctional
and was in danger of dissolving. The final presentation discusses the use of a grief
group fo adolescent athletes who have lost their ability to participate in sportdue to a
serious injury. The spon psychologist who facilitated this group will discuss the
emotional/physical healingprocess,and relate this processto the theoretical models
from the first presentation. Additionally, she will discuss the logistical aspectsof a
spons psychologyprogram in a medical based setting.
                                                                                              115


c. Nye, S. Jackson, J. P. McKinney, R. S. Neff, D. Secor, and K. Young, Michigan
StateUniversity
Determinants of Attitudes Toward Aggressiveness in Youth Sports
Sex and genderdifferences in high school students' attitudes towards athlete
aggressiveness were examined, namely, whether aggressiveness by female athletes is
perceived and tolerated in the samemanner as aggressiveness by males. If legitimate
aggressiveness, inherentto success in a particular sport,is perceived to be inappropriate
for women but not men, women wouldhavea greater hurdle to overcome in mastering
that sport. In this study, the term "aggression" referred to assertiveness and not
hostility, gender", determined by scores on the BernSex Role Inventory. referred to the
psychological variable from masculine to feminine, and the term "sex" referred to the
biological distinction between malesand females. Two-hundred and eight 11 th-grade
students, 114 boys and 94 girls, each read one of four scenarios describing a basketball
game wherein eithera maleor female waslegitimately aggressing against another male
or againsta female. Subjects thenresponded to several questions about the aggressor
and hislherstyleof play.There were significant sex differences: Females were less
likely to rate the aggressor as a good player (M = 2.84) than males (M = 2.46),
F 0, 187) = 6.488, p < .025, to like his/her style of play (Ms = 3.55 vs. 2.66),
F 0, 187) = 24.847, P < .001, or to rate him/heras fair (Ms= 3.64 vs. 2.61),
F (I, 187)= 33.487,P < .001. (A high scoreindicates a more negative response). The
"style of play variable also differed by sexof victim. The style was more undesirable
whenthe victim was female (M =3.26)ratherthan male (M = 2.87),                            .
F 0, 188) = 8.348,P < .005. Moreover, the style of a male aggressing against a female
(M = 3.36)was less acceptable than thatof a female aggressing against a male
(M =2.74), F (1.. 188) = 8.712, p < .005. Gender-conforming subjects described the
aggressor's style as more desirable (M = 2.80) than did less gender-conforming
subjects (M = 3.35), F (I, 187)= 7.970. p < .005. These results demonstrate the
importance of sex and gender-conformity in determining attitudes toward
aggressiveness in sports and reinforce earlierfindings (Anthrop & Allison, 1983; Sae &
Loudermild, 1979; Snyder & Spreitzer, 1976) that women participating in "masculine"
sportsmay perceive greaterrole conflict than those in more "acceptable" spons. High
school sportsprograms designed to equalize participation by sex and thereby increase
participation overall, should consider suchfindings.
                                                                                           116


Su Orgell, Boston University
An Exploratory Study of Factors that Influence Female Adolescents'
Participation in Sport
Thus far, the prevailingframework for studyingsocialization into sport has been the
social learningmodel. This model posits three sourcesof socialization. They are
personal attributes,significantothers, and socializing situations. While this model has
proven to be relativelyrobust for describingthe socialization into sport process for
males, overall it has not been as good a predictorof general sport behaviorfor females.
Although the lack of support may be due to methodological problems.Greendorfer
(1987) has argued that the sport socialization process for femalesis different than that
for males stemmingfrom early sex-typed sociallearningexperiences. Behaviorally. a
later manifestation of this gender-based processmay be the phenomena that females tend
to drop out of sport/physical activityaround age twelve. when sex-roleexpectations and
behaviorsbecomemore salient Particularly in highercompetitive levels. participation in
sport past the childhood years is increasingly inconsistent with stereotypical gender
appropriate behavior (Brown. Frankel. & Fennell, 1989).Thus. the process of
socialization into sport and its behavioral outcomefor females is perhapsdifferent than
that conceptualized for males. This topic. however. has only been minimally researched.
This study set out in an exploratory fashion to examine the factors that influencefemale
high school studentsinvolvementor non-involvement in sport, Using the social learning
model as a guide. a group of high school athletes and non-athletes were surveyed.
Subjects (N=20) were asked to rate and describeparental. coach". and peer influences,
as well as perceivedopportunity set. athleticability and genderconflict/dilemma in sport
participation. Qualitativeand quantitative responses were compared for the two groups.
Resultsindicatedthat peer influence was the most important factor in determining
athleticinvolvement for these individuals. Parentsand coaches also seemed to playa
significant role in influencing participation. Perceived opportunity set results were
mixed.As expected, athletesrated themselves as more athletic. Gender conflict/dilemma
~as minimal for both groups.

In conclusion, by using a more open ended format than previous studies. the results
from this study seem to support the social learning model. It is clear. however.that in
order to better understandfemales' sport involvement. further research in the
socialization into sport process and its behavioral manifestations is needed.
                                                                                               117


David Pargman and RihoTonne,Florida StateUniversity
The Effect of Audience-No Audience Conditions on Muscular Endurance
In High and Low Self-Efficacy Subjects
One hundred and eighteen male subjects weredividedinto high and low self-efficacy
groups basedon pre-task estimates of performance on a leg endurance task. Subjects
were then asked to performtwo trialsof the task. The first was conducted in a no
audiencecondition. In the second, subjects wererandomly assigned to a no-audience
or audience condition. A controlgroup which was not determined to be either high or
low in self-efficacy also Performed two trialsof the leg endurance task in a non-
audience condition. The resultsof ANCOVA revealed that subjects in both high self-
efficacywith an audience, and highself-efficacy without an audience demonstrated
significantly greaterleg endurance times than subjects in the control group. A 2 X 2
ANCOVA whichexamined the interaction between level of selfefficacy and presence of
an audience indicated that high self-efficacy subjects significantly maintained their leg in
a horizontal position longer than low self-efficacy subjects in both audience and no
audience conditions. However,the presence of an audience did not significantly
influence leg endurance times for either high or low self efficacy subjects. Results did
not supportZajonc's (1965) or Cottrell's(1968) theoryof socialfacilitation, nor did
they support the findings of Bond (1982)or Shrauger(1972) in which high self-
efficacysubjectsperformed poorerin an audience condition. However, findings were
compatible with thoseof Wankel (1975) whofailed to find audience effectson a
balancingtask. Subjectsin this study, as in Wankel'sstudy, might have been
influenced by the presence of the experimenter who may haveappeared as the most
salientsourceof evaluation.
                                                                                               118


Kathy Parker,University of Tennessee
The Status of Sport Retirement Theory and Research: A Review and
Critique
The pwpose of this review is to presentan overview and critique of the theoretical
explanations and research related to sport retirement in order to determine the
constancies, conflicts, and omissions. A comprehensive review of the literature on
sport careerretirement is undertaken in this presentation. Theoretical and conceptual
foundations are discussed, including thosegrounded in mainstream sociological
literatureand those presented morerecently by sport sociology theorists. Specifically,
three major theories, gerontological theory, thanatological theory, and rebirth theory; are
reviewed in termsof contentand compatibility with empirical results. The paucity of
empirical studies is discussed, and thosestudies available are analyzed, with particular
emphasis on the equivocal natureof the results. The many methodological
inconsistencies and deficiencies of previous studiesare summarized from those
identified by leadingresearchers and include: (a) operational definitions of terminology,
(b) sampling biases,and (c) rigidityof testinginstruments. Reference is made to the
difficulties in obtaining randomsamples because of inability to trackformerathletes
once they leave the formalsport environment. Also discussed is the low percentage of
returns on most surveyrelateddata. The conclusion of this review and the consensus of
many otherresearchers is that noneof the three major guiding theories of sportcareer
retirement are applicable across the breadth of empirical results. It is argued in this
presentation, and supported in otherrecentstudies, that sportcareer retirementis not a
uni-dimensional or uni-theoretical concept. Futureresearch directions are suggested
including the utilization of a moreinteractional approach consisting of psychological and
social-psychological factors, as well as increased allowance for inputfrom athletes
themselves, in an anempt to broaden the knowledge base. Most empirical studies have
approached sportcareerretirement from a sociological perspective, relyingon
demographic data. Thoserecentstudies utilizing a more psychological and social-
psychological approach providea fruitful basisfor furtherexploration. Additionally,
previouscalls by researchers for a process-oriented perspective, as opposed to looking
at retirement as an event, are supponed by this review. In summary, existing theories
do not stand alone in explaining the processof sportcareerretirement, previous
empirical studies are embedded withmethodological problems and equivocal results, the
subject maner provides a fertile area for further studies, there is a definite need for more
individualized research methods, and thereis a need for theory building rather than only
theory testing.
                                                                                            119


Dale Pease and Stephen Kozub, University of Houston
Leadership: Emerging and Informal Roles on Sport Teams
In appliedsportpsychology, mostof the currentinterest is primarily focused on
individual perfonnance variables and performance enhancement interventions.
However, in many sport situations, success is determined by how effectively
individuals perform collectively to achieve a common goal. The leadership structure of a
groupor team has been shown to be majorvariable in determining its success. Within
the typical sportteamorganization thereis a formal leadership structure directed by the
coach.However, in manycases, infonnalleadershiproles emergethat may have major
importance on the success or failure of the team. Whilethe fonnalleadership structure
hasreceivedsomeattention through the studyof coaching behaviors, littleattention has
been givento the importance of infonnalleadership roles and how theydevelop within
the formal structure. The formal leadership structure is defined as the coaching staff,
appointed or electedcaptains, or players assigned to certain teampositions that require
leadership (i.e. quarterback, point guard, ete.).The infonnalleadership roles result
from the interaction of team members where eventually a playeremerges to fill a specific
need that may not be met by members of the formal leadership structure. Specificity,
thiscolloquium will address the issueof informal and emerging leadership within sport
teams. First, an overview of formal and informal leadership structures and how these
relate to team cohesion, competitive stress, expectancy, etc. will be presented. Second,
the theoretical processby which emerging leadership. rolesevolve will be addressed
including the socio-psychological variables involved (e.g, achievement motivation,
affiliation, self-monitoring, etc).Third,the findings of ongoing research on emerging
leadership roles including the methodological problems encountered will be presented.
To conclude the colloquium, therewill be an opendiscussion to allow for an exchange
of ideasconcerning the importance of emerging leadership, research methodology and
potential interventions to facilitate thedevelopment of positive infonnalleadership roles
in the teamstructure.
                                                                                              120


AI Petitpas, Springfield College
Drug Eduction: Implications for Amateur Sport
The purposeof this presentation is to outlineproblems inherentin earlier drug
educationprogramsfor athletes. Specifically. risk factors for substance abuse among
athletesreportedin the literature will bediscussed in termsof identity development and
the sport environment. Structural and implementation problems with previous drug
education and counseling programs will be outlined. Finally,elements of a proposed
comprehensive substance abuseprogram basedon a life-span developmental
framework will be presented. The maincomponents of the program include: 1)
Education and policy- that provide up to date, situation and athletic specific information;
2) Enhancement that assistathletes in developing a widerrangeof coping/life skills; 3)
Social supports - that assist in developing socialsupports thatfacilitate copingrather
than avoidance behaviors; 4) Counseling - that assistathletes who are presently coping
with substance abuse problems; and 5) Evaluation and follow-up - that provideon-
going comprehensive systems of programevaluation and follow-up.
                                                                                            121


AI Petitpas, Springfield College
Theoretical Overview of Loss and Transition in Athletics
During the last few decades numerous authors haveprovided anecdotal evidence that
athletes oftenexperience a consistent grieving process from loss and during
disengagement from sport. The worksof Elizabeth Kubler-Ross are often cited. She
describesthe grief processas having five stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression
and acceptance. Somerecentempirical studies havenot found evidence of this five stage
model, however.
In this presentation, Schlossberg's model of coping with transitions will be presented in
addition to the Kubler-Ross grief model. Comparisons between these models and recent
studies with athletic populations experiencing loss and/ortransition will be outlined.
Extrapolating from thesecomparisons, intrapsychic, interpersonal, and situational
variables that would place athletes at risk for severe emotional reactions to loss and
threatsof disengagement from sport will be discussed.
                                                                                             122

L. M. Petlichkoffand I. L. Larshus, Boise State University

Sport Persistence or Withdrawal: What Does Player Status do to
Influence Perceived Ability and Level of Satisfaction in Sport?
Recentresearch (Frazer, 1989; Petlichkoff, 1990) suggests that an athlete's self-rating of
ability and reasons for involvement are influenced greatly by the role the individual
assumes on the team. Specifically, resultsrevealed thatathletes who wereon the team
but did not play in games(survivors) had a lowerself-rating of ability than those who
played on a regular basis (starters, primary substitutes). Unfortunately, few
comparisons, if any, have beenmadebetween individuals who received littleplaying
time (secondary substitutes) and individuals whodropped out of sport(voluntarily or
were cut from the team). That is, do individuals whodrop out of sport (voluntarily or
who werecut from the team)differon measures of perceived ability and level of
satisfaction initially when trying out or is it a resultof not being selected for or
withdrawing from the team?Someresearchers (Roberts, Kleiber, Duda, 1981) suggest
that sportattracts children with higherperceptions of ability. Hence, the purpose of this
investigation was to examine whether differences would emergeon self-rating of ability
and levelof satisfaction as a resultof playerstatus. One hundred eighty-four
Questionnaire on two separate occasions (pre- and postseason) during the 1989-90
school year. Player statuswasdetermined by the athlete's coach whoidentified each
athlete as (a) secondary substitute (sat the bench mostof the time), (b)dropout
(withdrew voluntarily), and (c)cuttee(was "cut" from the team) based on operational
definitions provided by the investigators. Although no significant playerstatus by time
of assessment interaction emerged for self-rating of ability, results revealed that player
statusdid influence the individual's perceived costs-benefits of involvement measure
(i.e., level of satisfaction), F (2, 166) =3.3, p < .024. Follow-up analyses indicated the
three groups did not differon the costs-benefits of involvement measure at the
preseason. However, at the postseason assessment, the secondary substitute (survivor)
had a higher ratingon the costs-benefits of involvement measure than the two groups of
dropouts. The results suggest that making the teammay havemoreof an impactthan the
actual playing time the athlete receives. The results will be discussed further in termsof
player statusand future involvement in sport, specifically, whether athletes whoare
survivors one year become dropouts the next.
                                                                                           123


John Phelan and John Albinson, Queen'sUniversity, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
An Investigation of the Use of Goal Setting by an Intercollegiate Men's
Ice Hockey Team
This studyinvestigated the effects of goal setting as a method of improving the
individual perfonnance of members of a maleintereollegiare ice hockey team. The study
was conducted over one and one half intercollegiate seasons. Three study conditions
were used,each for approximately ten weeks. The performance of the behaviors of
fmished checks and tum-overs wereassessed under the conditions of no goals,
proximal goals,and proximal plusdistal goals. Qualitative data wereobtained through
individual playerinterviews following eachof the goal setting conditions. The use of
proximal goal settingresulted in a significant decrease in the number of tum overs.
There was an improvement in the number of finished checks, but the increase did not
reach significance. Settingdistalgoalsin conjunction withproximal goalsdid not bring
about a significant improvement in performance of the two behaviors. Neither
experience or position weresignificantly related to performance improvement.
Qualitative data supported the motivational impactof goal setting and suggested that its
influence couldhave greaterimpact if the behaviors targeted were important to their
ascribed 'roles' on the team.
                                                                                             124

AnthonyPiparo and Diane Gill, University of Nonh Carolina - Greensboro
Coping Responses of Competitive High School Golfers
Competitive and performance demands associated with many youth sport programs
create stressful experiences for many athletes (Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1984). Although
we are beginning to understand factors that elicit children's stressful responsesin sport,
little researchhas focused on how childrencope with the pressures of competition. It
has been suggested that performance or mastery orientations yieldadaptivecoping
efforts whileoutcomeor competitive orientations giverise to maladaptive coping,
characterized as learnedhelplessness (Burton, 1989;Carron & Prappevessis, 1988).
However, youth sport affords childrenopportunities to pursue social/experiential goals
in addition to physicalachievement goals (Lewthwaite, 1990; Lewthwaite & Piparo,
1991 ). The purposesof this investigation were to (a) explorewaysin which adolescent
athletescope with the pressures of competition and (b) considerthe relationships
between coping stylesand goal orientations. Questionnaires were administered to 104
male high schoolvarsitygolfers, ages 14 to 18.Athletes completed the Goal Imponance
Scale (Lewthwaite & Piparo, 1991). They also described a situation that represented a
high degree of stress,related how much stress this situation presented as well as how
much control they perceived to have in the situation. The golfers thenresponded to a 14-
item CopingScale Inventory modelled afterLazarusand Folkman's (1984) Ways of
Coping. Multiple Regression Analyses examined coping Factors (Increased
Effort/Concentration, Social Support, Relaxation, and Positive Self-Talk) in relation to
athletes' orientations towardmastery, competitive achievement, positive social
experiences, and leadership. Regardless of orientation, athletes reponed coping with
stress by increasing effort and concentration. Only athletes with stronger positive social
experience orientations reported usingpositive self-talk in addition to increased effort
and concentration. Coping behaviors accounted for 19.2, 6.2, 11.7 and 4.1% of the
variancein golfer'sorientations towardpositive socialexperiences, leaderships,
mastery, and competitive achievement, respectively. Findings suggest high school
golfersmay have a limited repertoire of copingskills. Discussion concerns implications
for coaches and sport psychologists.
                                                                                          125

Lois Quay, Temple University
The Chemically Dependent Athlete, the Coach as Co-Dependent, and the
Sport Psychologist's Role in their Relationship
The complexities of therelationship between the chemically dependent athlete, the co-
dependentcoach and the sport psychologist will be presented in a two hour workshop.
The first hour will be information oriented, focusing on deftning co-dependency,
describing its symptoms and the progression of behaviors, and problematic patterns of
interaction betweenathlete and coach. Additional subject emphasis will be on denial,
control, and enablingissues. Intervention strategies will be discussed, as will coping
and recovery strategies, based uponAlcoholics Anonymous' Twelve Step Program. A
question and answer sessionwill complete the first hour.
The participants will breakinto smallgroupsfor the secondhour of the workshop.
Situational role-playing will be utilized to generate discussion of addiction and
codependency issues. The groups will also analyze a scriptfor co-dependent statements
and behaviors. Throughthis format, the participant will come away with a more
thorough understanding of the· addict/co-dependent relationship, the progression of co-
dependentdysfunctions, and useable intervention techniques.
                                                                                            126

David Rainey and KevinCherilla, John Carroll University
Conflicts with Baseball Umpires: An Observational Study
There is increasing interest in the psychology of sportofficiating (Weinberg &
Richardson 1990), especially aboutthe type of stressors that officials encounter (Taylor,
Daniel,Leith, & Burke, 1990). One typeof stressor inofficiatingis conflictwith
participants, but littledata existsthatdescribes the nature and extentof suchconflict.
This studyexamined conflict between baseball umpires and players/coaches.
Investigators observed 70 amateur games, 35 in an adult sandlot league (AL)and 35 in a
high schoolworld series(HST). Observers positioned between homeplate and first
base countedthe numberof conflicts for ball/strike, first base,tag, balk,foul line, and
"other" calls. They recorded the inning, score, outs, and men on baseat the timeof
each conflict. Disputeswererated as single comments (SC),milddisputes (MD), and
heatedarguments (HA). There was a mean of 2.3 disputes/game in the AL, but 83%
were SCs, and there were only 3 HA's in 2791 at bats. There was a mean of 3.3
disputes/game in the HST, but 85% were SCs, and there were only 2 HA's in 2240 at
bats. Mostdisputes involved ball/strike calls (AL=56%, HST=48%); tag call disputes
were next most common (AL=24%, HST=18%). Homeplate umpires wereinvolved in
75% of the disputes in both settings. Conflicts moreoften involved the offense
(AL=74%, HST=70%) and teamsthat were tied or behind(AL=64%, HST=74%).
There weresomemarked differences in the two settings. In theAL only 7% of conflicts
occurred in the last two innings, compared to 27% in the HST. In the AL coaches
rarelyargued (6%),whilebatters argued most often (51 %); in the HST coaches were
involved in most disputes (52%) and batters muchless frequently (23%). In each
settingthere weredifferences among teams in theiroverall rate of conflict, ranging from
.94 to 1.5/game in the AL and from .5 to 2.3/game in the HST.One of the AL teams
also had a disproportionate rate of intense arguments, with all 3 of the HA's and 4/14 of
the MD'sobserved in that league. Data werealso analyzed across umpires. There is
some suggestion thatcertain umpires had an unusual number of intense conflicts. An
umpirewho officiated 5 gamesin the HST had bothof the HA's and 3/15of the MD's
recorded. An AL umpire whoofficiated 8 gameswas involved in all 3 of the HA's
observed in that league. Results suggest thatmoderate to intense conflict is rare in
amateur baseball and that the nature of officiating conflict can vary across settings.
Also,conflict may be associated with certain teams and individual umpires. Results are
discussed in terms of theirimplications for stressamongofficials.
                                                                                         127

James Reardon,Private Practice, Columbus, OH
Issues Facing Female Sport Psychology Consultants
As a practicing psychologist and sportpsychologist for various levelathletic groupsand
individuals, Dr. Reardonwill lend a male perspective to the issues presented. In
addition he will address the imponanceof the counseling relationship within the sport
psychology relationship. The issuesdiscussed will includethe transference relationship
which may develop withinthe courseof sportpsychology consulting, particularly with
regard to female consultants. He will presentthe dynamics regarding the problems in
transference and how they might be handled. Emphasis will be placedon creating
effective consultant-athlete relationships.
                                                                                            128


Laura Remington, Charles Hardy and Barbara Ainsworth,Universityof North Carolina
at Chapel Hill
Exploring the Physical Activity of Socially Physique Anxious Subjects
Hart,Leary, and Rejeski (1989) defined socialphysique anxiety (SPA) as "anxietythat
people experience in response to others' evaluations of their physiques" (p.94). Lantz,
Hardy, and Ainsworth (1990) have reponed a negative correlation between SPA and
physical activity as measured by the Minnesota Heart Health Program LeisureTime
Physical Activity Questionnaire (MMHP). The purpose of this research is to further
explore this relationship..Jtis hypothesized that SPA would be negatively correlated
with physical activity. Moreover,subjectshigher in SPA are predicted to participate in
more activities by themselvesas opposed to group or social activities. FinaUy, it is
predicted that the discrepancy between one's perceivedideal weight and actual weight
would be higher for subjects with higher levels of SPA. Phase One of this study
involves 150 male and female undergraduate students. Subjectswill complete both the
Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS)and the LeisureTime Exercise Behavior
Assessment. Correlational and regressionanalyses will be conducted across and within
genders. Phase Two involves a more in-depth look at the nature of the physical activity
for the students who score high on the SPAS and for those who score low on the
SPAS. Forty subjects will be chosen to be interviewed about their physical activity with
the aid of the MinnesotaLeisureTime and PhysicalActivityQuestionnaire (Minnesota
LTPA). The twenty subjects who score highest on the SPAS, half female and half male,
and the twenty subjects who score lowest on the SPAS, half female and half male, will
be chosen for this process. The MinnesotaLTPA questionnaire/interview will attempt to
look at the past month of activity and then to determine the subjects' physical activity
levels in terms of caloric expenditure. Preferenceof being alone or with others will be
determinedfor each activity and a weightdiscrepancy factor (actual- perceived ideal)
will be calculatedfor each subject. Discriminant function analysis wiU be conducted to
determine if frequency, intensity and durationof physicalactivity; participating alone or
with others; and the weightdiscrepancy factor significantly discriminate the SPA
groups. The findings of this study will provide information relative to important
behavioralcorrelates of SPA.
                                                                                             129


Wendy Rodgers and Larry Brawley, University of Waterloo
Using Outcome Expectancy Methods in the Assessment of Participation
Motives: Beyond Description
Methodologies assessing participation motivation have tendedto be descriptive and have
used theory in post-hocexplanation but not a priori prediction, renderingresults difficult
to interpretand developinto application. This presentation incorporates data from
severalinvestigations examining the theoretical basisof and the predictive capabilities
of methodologies, and resultantexplanatory power. Previousresearch has
demonstrated the inabilityof the typical procedure, rating reasons-for-joining on a three
point importance scale, to discriminate between outcomes compared to a more
comprehensive, theorybased,measure of outcomeexpectancy (OE): the productof
outcome likelihood (OL) and outcome value (OV) (Rodgers & Brawley, 1990). This
method was developed from Madduxet al's (1982, 1983, 1986) extensionof
Bandura's(1977) self-efficacy (SE) theory. OE derived as a function of both the
subjects' perceptions of OL and OV was found to be more psychometrically sound
(Guilford, 1954), more conceptually comprehensive and superiorin predicting
behavioral intention than the singleratingof importance.
New data has been collected examining a furtherrefinement of the assessment: the use
of an aggregate measure approach for different categories of outcomes for participation
in physical activity (e.g., appearance, psychological consequences and health
categories). Contrasted to the frequency analysis of singleitem ratings, this approach
allowsfor multipleitem assessment of each outcomecategory. In terms of face validity, -
this technique is more powerful psychometrically as, first, multipleitems are more
representative of.concepts. Second, internal consistencies can be calculated for each
aggregate. Third, information integration theory (Anderson, 1981)can be applied as
subjects' overallratingof the motivational weightof an outcome category is a function
of averagingnumerous OE's about that one concept One studyof initiate weight
trainers, attending a two day introductory clinic,examined the role of OE in predicting
intentions to continueweighttraining. Nine aggregate measures of both proximal and
distal outcomes were considered. Resultant Cronbach'sAlphas ranged from .78 to .86,
suggesting high internalconsistencies. Prior to exposure to their initial weight training
session, stepwise regressions revealed that OE predicted behavioral intentions in
combination with SE (N = 51, Radj = .41, P < .001). For females (N = 31) OE
continuedto significantly predict behavioral intentions in combination with SE
following the completion of the two day clinic (Radj=.55, p < .001). Additional data
from funded studiesof both fitness classes and nutrition/exercise intervention will
be presented.
                                                                                              130

Robert Rotella, University of Virginia
Trust and the Performance of Sport Skills Section II • Training for Trust
The purposeof this sectionof the symposium is to present specific methods and plans
for trainingthe athlete to trust. Successin sportrequires two forms of self-discipline in
order to advancethrough the levelsof skilledperformance. First, an athletemust have
the self-discipline to work physically on the technical fundamentals of the game. The
mind set necessary for accomplishing thispart of the game is called a trainingmind set.
The training mind set is extremely comfortable for most athletes who spend their lives
trying hard to get better; it is a conscious mind set involving attempts to take control
over your development and performance. Second,the athletemust have a trusting mind
set, i.e., the disciplinenecessary to release consciouscontrolling tendencies and allow
automatic processesto executethe sports skill. It involves focusing attention and
freeing up the body to simply react to the input from the mind and the eyes.
Most players get stuckon the training mind set through strict orientation to trying their
hardest,thus leading to perfectionism and self-critical thoughts whichdestroyconfidence
and trust. It is important for athletes to understand how to blend these two different mind
sets and to learn to use the appropriate mind set at the proper moment and place, but this
ability must be learned. Description of the elementsof each of these mind sets, as well as
steps to train for trust, will be discussed through the use of case study examples.
                                                                                                   131


 Michael Sachs, Temple University
 Psychological Factors and Athletic Injuries: Past and Present Research
 and Future Directions
  The relationshipof psychological factors to athleticinjuries has been of considerable
  interest to researchers. On first examination, it appears reasonably clear from the literature
  that life stress has a significant impact on injuries in athletes. Kerr and Minden (1988),
  for example,examined elite female gymnastsand found that stressful life events were
  significandyrelated to both frequency and severityof injuries. Hardy and Riehl (1988)
  found that total life change and negativelife change significandypredicted frequency of
  athletic injury (although not severity)among non-contactsport participants. Similar
  results with football players were found by Blackwell and McCullagh (1990). They found
. that injured players had higher scores on life stress factors and competitive anxiety, and
  lower scores on coping resources, than uninjured players.
 Recent work, however, suggests that the relationship of life stress to injuries may be
 more complicated than first thought. Smith, Smoll, and Ptacek (1990) found that, in
 considering the variables of life stress, social support, and coping skills, these factors
 must be considered together rather than separately. The authors found that, for
 adolescent sport injuries, social support and psychological coping skills acted in a
 conjunctive manner - a significantrelationship between stress and injury was found only
 for athletes low in both coping skills and social support.
 In attempting to clarify the life stress, coping skills, and social support interaction, a
 model of stress and athletic injury may be helpful. Andersen and Williams (1988)
 developed a theoretical model of stress and athleticinjury that includescognitive,
 attentional, behavioral, physiological,intrapersonal,social, and stress history variables.
 A comprehensiveview of the stress-injury relationship requires this type of multivariate
 approach.
 This symposium provides an opportunityfor three researchers who have conducted
 work related to the Andersen and Williamsmodel to review their findings and
 recommend future directions for work in this area, and for two other researchers who
 have also worked extensivelyin this area to critique this research and also provide some
 thoughts on future directions concerningpsychological factors and athletic injuries.
 These five presentations will be accordedone and one-half hours. The final half-hour
 will be devoted to a 'brainstorming' session involving the panel and the audience on an
 agenda for future work in this critical area of theory, research and application.   .
                                                                                            132


Michael Sachs.Michael Sitlerand GerrySchwille, TempleUniversity
Injuries, Physical Factors, and Psychological Characteristics in
Intercollegiate Athletes: A Counseling/Prediction Model
Injuriesin sport have an impacton theperfonnance of an athlete and thequalityof the
athletic experience obtained by an individual.'Although injuries are a 'fact of life' in
sport. it is extremely desirable to minimize the frequency and severity of injuries. The
impactof physical and psychological factors on the frequency and severity of injuries in
intercollegiate athletes was examined in this project. Information on a number of
physicaland demographic variables. including age gender. height. weight. percent
body fat. years and level of participation in sport,and previous historyof injuries, were
obtained from238 intercollegiate athletes at Temple University duringthe 1990-91
academic year. Scoreswere also obtained on a battery of ninepsychological
inventories dealingwitha numberof different psychological statesand traits, including
life stress. mood, anxiety. and coping skills.
Data werecollected throughout the yearon frequency and severity of injury for each
athlete. An injury was defined as 0) being sportsrelated.(2) resulting in a player's
inability to participate one day afterinjury, and (3) requiring medical attention (Temple
University athletic trainingstaff.physician. Emergency Room). including concussions,
nerve injuries regardless of their timeloss, eye injuries, and dentalcare. Injury
frequency was determined by the total numberof occurrences encountered during the
course of the study and expressed at a rate per every 1.000athlete-exposures. Athlete-
exposures are defined as the frequency withwhich an athlete is exposed to the potential
of injury. Everyplayer at a practice or match is counted as one athlete-exposure. Injury
severity was defined by the significance of the injurysustained. Specifically, injury
severity was basedon the criteriaestablished by the National Athletic Trainers
Association for time-loss from activity.
Results are beingused to validate a model designed to predictoccurrence of athletic
injuriesduringthe courseof the year. Additionally. if resultsindicate a clinically
significant levelof psychological distress for particular athletes, the athletes were
counseled to seek assistance, eitherat the TempleUniversity Counseling Centeror with
one of the sport psychologists working withathletes at TempleUniversity.
                                                                                              133

Carolyn Savoy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Effects or an Individual Mental Training Program using a Case Study
Approach: A Coach's Nightmare to a Coach's Dream!
This case study in sport psychology includes: assessment, prescription, a collaborative
intervention program and periodic evaluations of the individual athlete. The athleteis a
femaleDivisionI basketball playeron a top rankedteam who was referred to the
investigator by her coach for help with the mentalaspectof her game. The assessment
of the player includedNideffer's Test for Attentional and Interpersonal Style (1981) and
an interviewwith the athlete using Kroll's Competitive Athletic Stress Scale (1979).
Based on this assessment a mental training programwas developed for the athlete. The
athletewas monitored for threemonthsof the season through observation and
interviews. The mentaltraining programwhich was employed extensively was
centering,focusing, imageryand energizing. The athletehad complained of poor
practicehabitsand a major thrustwas on attempting to assistthe player to practice
intensely. Once it was apparent the athlete was satisfying the coach'sdefinition of a
good practiceplayer, pre-gameanxiety was assessed. Four months into the season the
CSAI-2 (Martens et al., 1983)was given to the athlete one hour prior to the last nine
gamesof regular season play. After a baseline of three gameswas established for the
athlete'sstate anxiety the intervention was imposedon January 31, 1991. The
intervention consistedof a one hour meeting each weekwith the athleteto interpret the
graphson the pre-gameanxietyand the player's game performance variables. The
athlete was given a positiveself-talk audiotape (Kellner, 1987) to help her low self-
confidence, and a goal attainment scale (Thompson & Rudolph, 1988)to list five goals
which she wanted to achieve through counseling. In addition, she kept a daily log
concerning the specificfocus of her performance for the day. The results of this
particular intervention indicated the athlete had the ability to effectively lower pre-game
arousalwhich was accompanied by an improvement in game performance. The five
goals she listed as requiring improvement werecommunication with the coach, being
physically tougheron the court, beingmentally tougherin adverse situations, improving
her self-confidence, and improving her offensiverebounding. All five goals showed an
improvement as evaluated by the playerfrom the timeof the intervention to the end of
the season. She also indicated in her logbook that the program helped her in relaxing,
focusing, and self-confidence. The presentation will includegraphs for each game of .
the regular seasonfor pre-competition arousal, traditional game statistics, and a coach's
evaluation of the athlete's offensive and defensive game performance beforeand during
intervention. The results indicate a decrease in pre-game anxiety, and an improvement
in game performance statistics, practice performance, and the coach's game evaluation
of the athletefollowing initiation of the collaborative intervention program.
                                                                                             134


Carolyn Savoy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NovaScotiaand PatriciaBeitel,
University of Tennessee
The Effect of an Imagery/Physical Practice Intervention on Basketball
Free Throw Percentage: An A·B·A·B Design
The purpose of this studywas to determine the effectof an imagery intervention
program to improvethe shooting percentages of a Division I women's basketbalJ team.
A time-series analysis withplanned contrasts was used to evaluate theAI-BI-A2-B2
design. The studyencompassed a 27 gameperiodduringthe regular basketball season
and was dividedinto 9 blocksof 3 gameseach. The baseline period (AI) included free
throw percentages for six sequential games at the beginning of the season. Within this
first period, traditional emphasis on free throws wasencouraged by the coaching staff
during teampractice. Because the free throw percentage for the teamduring these first
two blocks of gameswas approximately 50%, the coachrequested the sport psychology
consultant to provide intervention untilvacation. A mental imagery program was
introduced which lastedfor the next threeblocks of games (Bl) and included each athlete
mentally imaging the successful shooting of 20 free throws per day. Duringthis time
there wasa significant improvement (p = .02)in team free throw percentage between Al
and B1. Duringthe vacation period consisting of one blockof three games, the sport
psychology consultant was not at practices nor at gamesand the athletes stopped their
mental imagery intervention. During this timeperiod(A2) without intervention, the
team free throwpercentage dropped significantly (p = .05), backto approximately 50%.
Following the vacation, the coach again requested an intervention program for free
throw shooting. This time (B2)for 3 blocks of gameswhich was through the remainder
of the regularseason, there weresignificant improvements (p < .04) from 50% for A2
to 60-70% for B2. This intervention (B2)included a combination of mental imagery
directly paired with physical practice. Threetimesper weekduring regular team
practice, the athletes werepairedwitha partner. One partnershot eightfree throws, two
at a time,rotating baskets, whilethe otherpartner sat on the sideline and mentally
imagedsuccessfully shooting as manyfoul shotsas possible whileher partner
physically practiced. This pattern wasrepeated such that,on each day,each partner
physically practiced 16foul shotsand mentally practiced as many successful shotsas
possibleduring her partner's two physical practice periods. Each day, the partners
alternated who had physical practice first. and theyrecorded the number of successful
foul shotsmadefor both physical and mental practice. The majorcontributions of the
studyincluded the significant results of an ABAB design, and the real effectof a 10-
20% improvement by using mental imagery intervention for highly skilled women
basketball players. Both teamand individual 'athlete profiles and statistics are included.
                                                                                               135

Earl Schliesmanand Patricia Beitel.University of Tennessee
Task Dependence, Leader Behavior, and Follower Satisfaction
The purpose of this study was to test Chelladurai's (1979) contingencymodel for
leadershipin sports which suggested that situational characteristics influencethe
relationship betweenleader behaviorand subordinate satisfaction and to evaluate the
interaction of path goal theory. (House. 1971). Central to the investigation was the
relationshipbetween satisfaction with leadership and actualperceived leader behavior.
Subjectsfor this study were 73 female athletesand 141 male athletesfrom one National
CollegiateAthletic Association (NCAA) DivisionI institution. Women's and men's sports
represented in this study were: (a) tennis. (b) basketball. (c) volleyball, (d) swimming and
(e) track and field
General and specific satisfaction with leadership were measuredby using forms of one
and five questionsrespectively. Preferredand actual perceivedleader behaviors, were
measured using the Preferred and PerceivedFonns of the Leadership Scale for Sports
(Chelladurai & Saleh. 1980)in the following dimensions: (a) training and instruction. (b)
social support. (c) positive feedback. (d) democraticbehavior.and (e) autocratic behavior.
Pairwise correlation (Safer, 1985) and stepwise regression (Joyner. ]985) procedures
were employed. The results of the data suggested: (a) the contingency model
(Chelladurai, 1979) was supported as situational characteristics were found to influence
the leader/follower relationship. and (b) path goal theory (House. 1971) was generally
supportedas ambiguity was found to influence the leader/follower relationship.
                                                                                             136


Michael Schwerin and Kevin Corcoran, Southern illinoisUniversity at Carbondale
Perceptions of a Female Steroid User: An Experimental Investigation
Ongoingstudies (Schwerin and Corcoran, 1990) haveexamined the perceptions that
peoplehaveof male anabolic steroid usersindicating that male steroid usersare seen
relatively negative. Although most steroid usersare male,perceptions of female steroid
users need to be empirically explored. The currentstudy seeksto examine people's
perceptions of a female steroid user. Differences in perceptions and the implications of
this study will be discussed.
Subjects wererecruited from introductory psychology classesfrom a midwestern
university who participated for class credit. The total number of subjects was 131,67
male and 64 female.
The SPQis an 18 item inventory in which subjects respond on a 1 to 4 scale (definitely
false to definitely true). Included in the SPQ are six factor by which someof the
psychosocial aspects of steroiduse can be measured. The factors are: Global Positive,
Sexual Enhancement, Intellectual Enhancement, Arousal and Aggression, Social
Assertiveness, and Tension Reduction.
Subjects received one of two written descriptions. In one story the protagonist was an
athletically activewoman whodid not use steroids and in the other she was a
bodybuilder who used anabolic steroids. Person descriptions weresimilaron all other
dimensions. Aftercompleting a general demographic information survey, participants
rated the storyprotagonist on the SPQ.
A MANOYA and subsequent ANOYA's wereperformed showing significant results
(p <. 05) between groupswhile no significant sex differences werefound in story
ratings. In an overall ANOYA the steroid-using female was seensignificantly different
than the athletically activeindividual. Specifically, the steroid-using woman was seen as
significantly more negative on all factor scoresexceptfor the arousal and aggression
factor (seeTable 1).
Previous finding showthat male steroid usersare seen significantly more negatively
than other non-using individuals (Schwerin & Corcoran, 1990). similarly, female
steroid usersare seen negatively on fourof the six factors (global positive, intelligence,
social assertiveness, and tension reduction). Also,female steroid usersare seenas less
sexually enhanced while no differences werefound on the factorof arousal and
aggression.
                                                                                              137


Ava Senkforand Jean Williams, University of Arizona; W. Neil Widmeyer, University
of Waterloo
Measurement Contaminants in Questionnaires Assessing Attribution
Researchers would agree,the way a question/questionnaire is structured yields a
profound effect on subjects'responses. Sport-attribution studies have predominantly
employedclosed questions to test Weiner'sattribution model (ability, effort, luck, task
difficulty). A review of attribution studies that used a closedquestion methodology
indicatestwo outcome fgrmats have been used: 0) separate questionnaires worded
specifically for winners and losers (e.g, attribution of lack of effort/lack of ability/bad
luck/difficult opponentwhen assessing losers and attributions of either high effort, high
ability, good luck, easy opponentor effort, ability,luck, opponent when assessing
winners) and (2) generic questionnaires in whichthe same attribution wording was used
for winners and losers (e.g. effortlability/luck/opponent). In some studies,vaguely
worded methodssections made it impossible to determine whichfonnat was used.
Prior attribution researchers did not address differences in the wording of attribution
questions, suggesting that the two formats are assumed to be equivalent assessments of
attributions. Instead, we suggestthe differences were a methodological contaminant that
contributed to the equivocal attribution results. The presentstudy examined whether
self and team attributions for winning and losingathletes were differentially affected by
responding to specifically or generically worded questions. The subjectswere eighty-
five students enrolledin intermediate university basketball classes. Attribution was
measuredafterone of the last two gamesin a three-on-three round robin tournament.
Thirty-seven subjects completed the specific questionnaire (SQ) and 43 subjects the
generic questionnaire (GQ) . The two attribution data sets were analyzed separately
with MANOYAs using win/loss outcome as the independent variable. Both
questionnaires produced significant MANOYAs, but follow-up ANOYAs yielded
significant differences. The GQ ANOYAS were significant for individual and team luck
and team task difficulty whileSQ ANOYAs were significant for individual and team
ability and effort, and individual taskdifficulty. That is, the GQ and SQ produced
completely oppositeresults. Winners responses on the GQ rated luck significantly
Tower than losers. Luck responses on the SQ were in the opposite direction, the
differences were not significant. On the GQ, winners task difficulty and SQ individual
task difficultyattribution ratings werelower than losers. Overall, winners and losers
mean ratings for task difficulty were loweron the SQ compared to the GQ. On the SQ.
winners rated individual and team ability and effort attribution ratingshigher than did
losers. On both questionnaires, the abilityand effort means of winners were essentially
the same, but losers mean ratings were much loweron the SQ. Lastly,compared to the
GQ, the SQ MANDYA effect size increased. 49 and the significance leveldropped
from .03 to .000. In essence, subjects respond differently to specifically and
generically worded attribution questionnaires. Losersresponses on the GQ appear to be
more sensitive to self and teamenhancing biases. Moreover, the SQ attribution
differences between winners and losers, particularly on abilityand effort, may be an
artifactof the measurement tool rather than real differences in attribution (e.g. winners
scoringeffon high may be equal to losers scoring lack of effort low). The results are
discussed in termsof the difficulties in interpreting the twoquestionnaires and the need
to reexamine past attribution results assessment.
                                                                                              138


John Silva and Allen Cornelius, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Psychological Measures of Training Stress in Collegiate Swimmers - A
Seasonal Analysis
The psychological measures of subjects (mean age = 19.86) involved in a national
calibercollegiate varsity swimming program wereexamined over the courseof a
competitive season. Each subject completed a baneryof measures at two weekintervals
resulting in a totalof eightdifferent testing sessions over an 18 weekperiod. The
inventories completed were the 8 StateQuestionnaire (8 SQ), the CopingResources
Inventory, and Rotter's Locusof Control Inventory. The subjects also completed the
StroopColorand WordTest and a scaleon which the subjects indicated theirperceived
level of training, (e.g., "peaking", "well-trained", "trained", "stale", "overtrained", and
"burned-out"). Due to the exploratory nature of this longitudinal studysignificance was
evaluated at p < .10.The descriptive datarevealed that the athletes werein the normal
range forcopingresources and locus of controlmeasures, and there was little
fluctuation in thesemeasures throughout the courseof the season. The 8 SQ results at
the beginning of the season reflected a profile that tended toward an inverted iceberg
profile with all measures several stens from theoptimal "iceberg" profile for elite
athletes described by Morgan (1977). This profile changed slightly as the season
progressed with the only changebeinga reduction in the fatigue factor (p < .10). The
subjects' perceived levelof training at the startof the season was slightly below
"trained", and increased significantly (p < .05)to slightly above "well-trained" at
season's end. The mean Stroop scoreat the beginning of the season was average (T
score=SI). and showed an increase (p < .10) as the season progressed, indicating an
increase in their ability to adaptto stress. Theseresults suggest that coping resources
and locusof controlmeasures do not appearto be affected by seasonal training effects.
However. the perceived levelof training reponed by the subjects improved as the
season progressed. The psychological profile from the 8 SQ initially did not reflect an
iceberg profileand only slightimprovement in affect was notedas the season
progressed. The average profilefor the season described a fatigued, stressed. and
anxious athlete(stens=7), yet subjects reponed theiroverall training level to be trained
or well trained. This apparent disparity between the athletes' selfreportof perceived
training levelsas trained or above and the psychological measures indicating fatigue,
stress, and anxiety is an interesting finding. Either the conditioning of a strong
socialized biastoward reponinga high level of training late in the season outweighs the
awareness of undesirable affect or the subjects develop a benerability to adapt to the
imposed stressas evidenced by the improved Stroopscore. It is also possible that when
considering training level, subjects focus primarily on physiological and performance
information, anddo not acknowledge negative affect as pan of theirconceptualization of
training level.
                                                                                            139

RonaldE. Smith, University of Washington
Leadership Behaviors in Youth Sports: Bridges Between Theory,
Research, and Application
There is an increasing needfor intervention programs designed to assistyouth sport
coachesin relatingmoreeffectively to young athletes. However, regardless of lis
nature, an intervention program is mostlikely to be successful if it has an empirical
foundation. CoachEffectiveness Training (CE1) was derived from a systematic
programof basic and applied research carried out duringthe mid-to-late 1970s. To
introduce the presentproject,which replicates and extends previous research,
consideration will be given to a theoretical model of coaching behaviors and earlier
research relative to the model.
A preliminary three-element model of coach-athlete interactions will be described (Coach
Behaviors -->AthletePerception and Recall --> Athletes' Evaluative Reactions), along
with a reviewof research exploring the parameters of the model. Correlational designs
have shown thatcoaching behaviors are meaningfully related to children's attitudes
toward their coach, their teammates, the sport,and themselves (Smith, Smoll, & Curtis,
1978). Thesefindings have beenusedas a basisfor developing an educational
workshop (CET) that teaches coaches to create a positive and socially supportive athletic
environment The results of an experimental field studyindicated that eET intervention
can effectively modify coaching behaviors, and thatdesirable leaderbehaviors
significantly affect youngsters' sport-related attitudes and self-esteem (Smith, Smoll, &
Curtis, 1979). An expanded cognitive-behavioral model of leadership behaviors in
youthsportsspecifies individual difference variables, situational factors, and cognitive
processes assumed to mediate oven coaching behaviors and athletes' reactions to them
(Smoll & Smith, 1989).
Following coverage of the theoretical and empirical foundation of CET,practical issues
will be addressed regarding CETimplementation. A cognitive-behavioral approach will be
described as a meansfor communicating a set of behavioral guidelines (coaching "do's
and don'ts") and problemsolvingskillsin a mannerwhich is easilycomprehended and
whichmaximizes the likelihood of theiradoption by coaches. In this regard,
recommendations will be givenfor useof didactic instruction. modeling. and role playing
techniques. Additionally, behavioral feedback and self-monitoring will be discussed as
procedures for enhancing coaches' self-awareness and compliance with the guidelines.
                                                                                             140


Frank Smoll,Universityof Washington
A New Empirical Evaluation of Coach Effectiveness Training
Initialevaluation of CoachEffectiveness Training (CET) in a field studyindicated that
youth sportcoaches can be taught to relatemoreeffectively to youngathletes and that
psychological intervention can havefavorable effects on children's sportexperiences
and on their psychosocial development (Smith, Smell, & Curtis, 1979). The present
investigation replicates the assessment of CET.
The subjects were 18 male coachesand 152children (10- to 12-year olds),participating
in threeLittleLeagueBaseball programs. One league(8 teams) was designated the
experimental group. The no-treatment control group included 10teamsfrom twoother
leagues. Prior to the season, the experimental groupcoaches participated in CET.
During the 2 1/2 hour session, behavioral guidelines werepresented and modeled by the
workshop leader. Instruction in self-monitoring techniques was also included.
To assessthe effectsof CET,preseason and postseason data werecollected for 62 and
90 children in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The data wereobtained
in interview and questionnaire sessions conducted in the players' homes. The measures
included (a) players'perceptions of the coaches' behaviors, (b) their attitudes toward the
coachesand otheraspectsof participation, and (c) their levelsof self-esteem and
competitive anxiety.
The experimental and control coaches had virtually identical mean won-lost records.
However, as perceived by theirathletes, the behaviors of CET coachesdiffered from
those of controlsin a mannerconsistent with the coaching guidelines. Specifically,
youngsters who playedfor trainedcoaches perceived them as more frequently engaging
in desirable behaviors (reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction) and as
less often being unresponsive or punitive. These behavioral differences were, in turn,
reflected in the players'evaluative reactions. The CET coaches were betterlikedand
were rated as betterteachers. Moreover, theirplayerslikedone anothermore and had
more fun playingbaseball. Perhapsmost importantly, low self-esteem children who
playedfor the trained coaches exhibited a significant increase in general self-esteem
acrossthe season, whereas low-esteem children who playedfor the untrained control
coachesdid not change. Finally, the children who played for the CETcoaches reported
lowerlevelsof competitive anxiety thandid the control children.
                                                                                             141


Frank SID011, NancyBarnettand Ronald Smith, University of Washington

The Youth Sport Enrichment Project: Coaching Behaviors and Their
Effects on Psychosocial Development
Adultleaderbehaviors havesignificant effects on the personal and social development
of youth sportparticipants. In fact, the extentto which desirable psychosocial outcomes
accrueis strongly influenced by the nature of coach-athlete relationships. Unfortunately,
however, mostvolunteer coaches rarelyreceive any formal training in creating a socially
supportive athleticenvironment
To improveon this unsatisfactory situation. a program of basicand applied research
focused on analysis and modification of coaching behaviors in youth sports, Field
research was initially done to establish relations between coaching behaviors and
athletes' attitudes toward theircoach,their teammates, the sport, and themselves (Smith,
Smoll, & Curtis, 1978). The resultsprovided an empirical foundation for Coach
Effectiveness Training (CET). We thenattempted to modify coaching behaviors and
evaluated the success of the CETintervention. The results indicated thatcoaches can be
taughtto relatemoreeffectively to young athletes and thatpsychological intervention can
have salutory effectson youngsters' sportexperiences and psychosocial development
(Smith, Smoll, & Curtis, 1979). This symposium presentsa two-phase replication and
extension of previous research on the efficacy of CET.
The firsr presentation willinclude a theoretical model of coach-athlete interactions and a
reviewof research relative to the model. Consideration will alsobe given to the
cognitive-behavioral techniques used in CETfor modifying coaching behaviors.
The next presentation will focuson the Phase 1 study, which involved conducting a
preseason CET workshop for youthbaseball coaches and assessing its effects. Outcome
measures were compared for children whoplayedfor trained coaches and for children
whoplayedfor coaches in a control condition. We found thatCETcoaches had a
favorable impacton the children's sport-related attitudes, self-esteem, and competitive
anxiety.
Phase 2 (the topicof the final presentation) wasconducted one yearlater and assessed
attrition rates. Only 5% of the children whose coaches participated in CETdropped out
of the program, whereas 26% of the children who had playedfor the control group
coachesfailed to return. Additionally, interview data indicated thatdropouts in the
controlgroup were morelikelyto repon reasons for discontinuing that involved having
an aversive experience the previous year.
                                                                                            142


RobertStainback. University of Alabama at Birmingham
Effects of an Individualized Mental Training Program on a Collegiate
Tennis Player's Performance
This presentation will reportthe resultsof a study designed to evaluate the effects of an
individualized mental training program on tenniscompetition performance. The study's
significance is derived primarily from (1) use of psychological testing to determine
targets for mental training and to implypotential interventions and (2) use of the
combination of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and a PreshotRoutine(PR) as
interventions. A single-subject design was used with CBT and PR sequentially
introduced following a baseline period. Prior to the interventions. an assessment of
the player's(20 yearold female) tennisgamewas completed, including sport-related
psychological testing(e.g., State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Psychological Skills
Inventory for Sports,PersonalIncentives for Exercise. etc.), an interview-based
assessment with the player and coach,and behavioral observation of the playerduring
practiceand competition matches. The assessment was designed to identify areas in
need of improvement in the player's game, particularly mental factors amenable to
psychological intervention (e.g.,motivation, cognitive skillsduring competition).
Competition performance data were recorded by the playerusing a computerized watch.
by the experimenter. and by a research assistant. Data recorded over matches included
unforcederrors in backhands, forehands, services, service returns, approaches.
volleys. overheads, and lobs. Limited data werecollected on percentage of first serves
in. Positive effects of the interventions on mean numberof unforced errorsper game
was supported. Unstable or insufficient baseline data on otherperformance measures
(e.g., servicereturn, first servicepercentage) make these results inconclusive.
Psychological testing was supported as a useful component of the project. Other effects
noted were an increase in the player's motivation to play tennis. more effective
communication between playerand coach.and the player's enhanced awareness of her
needs and motivations met by sportparticipation.
                                                                                            143

Roben Stainback, Harry Hitchcock and Dwayne Crist, Birmingham Department of
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Universityof Alabama at Birmingham
Experiential Methods for Changing Health Behaviors
This workshop will demonstrate the use of experiential methods in changing health
behaviors. Specific learning objectives include: a) participants will become familiar
with the theory and methodologyof experiential counseling; b) participants will become
acquainted with specific applicationsof experientialcounseling methods in substance
abuse treatment; c) participants will gain "handson" experience with the actual model
used with substance abuse patients; and d) participants will learn how to apply these
experiential methods in other education, prevention, and treatment settings. The
workshop will begin with a brief overview of the history, theory, and methodology of
experiential counseling. This overview will be followed by a discussion of how these
methods have been applied in an outpatient substance abuse treatment clinic using
patients as both the agent and object of change. Participants will then be given an
opportunity to become "the patients" in several exercises which will demonstrate the lise
of physical metaphors and experiential counseling methods. A group critique of each
activity will focus on the facilitation sequence of briefing, leading, and processing as
well as safety issues. The workshop will conclude with a discussion of how these
models and methods can be extrapolated into other settings. Panicipants will be given
reference materials that will enable them to pursue further training, and/or begin to
utilize experiential methods in their own workplace. The workshop is designed in two
pans. All of the activities described above will be covered in Pan One. For those
participants desiring more experience, Pan Two will provide an opportunity fOT
additional "hands on" activity.
                                                                                          144


Gary Stein,University of Oregon
Examining Flow Experiences in Sport: Measurement Concerns
One of the majorchallenges to sportpsychology researchers interested in studying
athletes' flow experiences in sportsettings is how to measure this seemingly nebulous
concept. Thus, the purposeof this session is to provideinformation about ways to
measure flow in sportcontexts and analyze the resultant flow data. The discussion will
primarily focuson: a) theExperience Sampling Method (ESM) (Csikszentmihalyi &
Larson, 1987) as a valid and reliable instrument for measuring flow, b) ways to adapt
the ESM to sport contexts and the difficulties in doing so, c) the advantages and
disadvantages associated with usingthe ESM in sport situations, d) currentresearch
methodology utilized to differentiate potential antecedent variables thatshould predict
flow from flowitself,e) criticalfeatures of analyzing flow data,for example how to
standardize individual responses around individual meanscores, and f) measurement
recommendations for futureflow research in sport. Thesemethodological and
measurement considerations mirror the theoretical foundation of flow (Csikszentmihalyi
&Csikszentmihalyi, 1988).
                                                                                            145


John Stevenson. East CarolinaUniversity
Trust and the Performance of Sports Skills Section III· Biomechanical
Fingerprints: Measurements of Invariance in Automated Complex Sport Skills
The purposeof this sectionof the symposium is to address the measurement and
assessment aspectsconcerning trustin the performance of automated complex spons
skills. With the theoretical rationale for trust (as presented in the first section) as a
background. the problems of objective, accurate measurement of the effectsof trust will
be addressed through the introduction and development of the conceptof biomechanical
invariance. Brieflysummarized. this conceptof invariance in performance reflectsa
sophisticated. underlying motor programwhereby factors of motion (i.e.• force,
momentum, range of motion, and speed)are precisely timed. For the highly skilled
athlete. especially at the elite levels,thesemotorprograms exhibitmoremechanically
consistentmovement patterns, patternswhichare highly consistent, trial-to-trial.
The degreeof mechanical consistency in thesecomplex sports skillmovements can be
quantified usingboth kinematic and kinetic analyses. Biomechanical analysis of these
consistentmotor programs revealsa biomechanical 'fingerprint' of motor skill
performance. With this fingerprint pattern mechanically defined, the presence or
absence of invariance in biomechanical parameters regarding a sportskillperformance
providesevidence concerning the presence or absence of trustduringthe selection and
execution of the motorprogram. In addition, the efficacy of intervention techniques
used to enhance trustcan be objectively quantified usingthis biomechanical approach.
An example of this biomechanical approach will be presented through the useof data
concerning the presence/absence of trustduringgolf shots by male and female
professional golfers. This section will conclude with suggestions for further
development of this approach and its applications to betterunderstanding the role of
trust in the performance of complex sportsskills.
                                                                                           146

T. P. Stitcher, SalisburyState University, P. A. Richardson and R. S. Weinberg,
University of NorthTexas
The Effects of Goal Setting on Performance Enhancement In a Competitive
Athletic Setting
Although muchresearch in goal setting has beenconducted in industry, very linle
empirical research has beenconducted in athletics to determine the benefits of goal
setting or its effectson sportperformance especially acrossa competitive season.
Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if goal setting has an effect
on physical performance in a realistic, natural, and competitive athletic environment
over the courseof a competitive season. Subjects were24 members of a NCAA
Division mmen'slacrosse team who werematched on ability and positions and then
randomly assigned to eithera goal-setting groupor a "doyour best"group. Subject
performance was measured on the skillsof offensive assists, offensive ground balls
(offensive players), as wellas defensive ground ballsand defensive clears (defensive
players) over a 16-game season. Subject committnent to the tasks was assessed through
questionnaires at pre-season, mid-season, and post-season intervals. In addition,
subjects in the goal-setting group met with theexperimenter periodically to re-evaluate
their goals depending on theircurrent level of performance. The experimenter also met
with do yourbest subjects butjust talked in general termsabouthow they weredoing.
Afterreviewing a videotape of the first two games of the season, the headcoachand
assistant coaches provided inputto determine the appropriate difficulty level of
individual goals for the athletes. However, coacheshad no knowledge of which
athletes wereassigned to the treatment conditions. Results wereanalyzed by one-way
analyses of variancecomparing goal-setting vs 'do your best" groups. A separate
analysis was conducted for offensive (N=6) and defensive (N=6) playerssince
different dependent variables wereemployed to assess performance. Results revealed
no significant differences between the goal-setting group and the "doyour best" group
for eitheroffensive or defensive performance. Due to the low number of subjects in
each cell (N=6) a powertest wasconducted. Results indicated thatan N of 14 would
have beensufficient to produce significant differences between the goal-sening and "do
your best" groups. From an applied perspective the mean differences between the two
goal groups on the dependent measures wereindeed interesting. Specifically, the goal-
settinggroupconsistently exhibited much higherscores than the control groupon all
dependent variables including offensive assists (M=17.5 vs M=5.2), offensive
ground balls (M=58.7 vs M=38.0), defensive ground balls (M=42.0 vs M=23.8),
and defensive clears (M=24.5 vs M=12.5). Furthermore, post-experimental
interviews with the coaching staff indicated that the coaches considered these
differences extremely meaningful and werethoroughly impressed with the performance
of the goal-setting group. This is especially noteworthy sinceit was the coaches who
matched players basedon ability to the goal-setting and "do yourbest" groups. Further
research studies are needed usingathletes in a longitudinal fashion to determine how and
why goalseffectathletic performance with morequalitative methodologies encouraged.
                                                                                              147

Jim Taylor. Nova University
A Multidimensional Model of Momentum in Sports
The goalof this presentation is to provide a new theoretical fonnulation of momentum in
sportS that articulates the processes involved in the development of momentum. It is
arguedthat the models to datedo not fully articulate all of the factors involved in the
development and maintenance of momentum.' Momentum is presently defined as: a
positiveor negative changein cognition. affect. physiology, and behavior caused by a
precipitating eventor seriesof events that willresultin a shiftin performance and may
cause a change in competitive outcome. The presentmodel. which incorporates aspects
of previous works. proposes eightcritical elements to the development of momentum:
(1) Precipitating eventor events; (2)change in cognition; (3) change in affect; (4) change
in physiological state; (5) change in behavior; (6)a resulting increase or decrease in
performance consistent with the above changes; (7) a contiguous and opposing change
in the five previous factors on the partof theopponent (for sportsinvolving head-to-
headcompetition); and (8)a coincidental change in the competitive outcome. It is
suggested that the strength of themodel lies in its multidimensional nature and its ability
to operationalize eachcomponent in the model. In addition, preliminary data will be
presented which attempts to provide initialsupport for the model. Specifically, the
relationship between the presence of precipitating events and changes in competitive
outcome in collegiate basketball games and professional tennis matches was examined.
Results indicated that sucha relationship does existwithin the predicted limitsof the
model. The model and the findings will be discussed relative to developing a program
of research examining each successive element of the model.
                                                                                          148


Ed Thiebe, National Collegiate Athletic Association
Youth Sport Programs in the NCAA: Opportunities for Sport Psychologists
Sporthas historically servedas an important vehicle for enhancing the personal growth
and development of youth. The NCAA has madea commitment to implement youth
sportprograms in collaboration with its member institutions and in conjunction with
NCAA-sponsored national championships. Two specific programs have been
developed. The first is the National YouthSportsProgram (NYSP). The objectives of
NYSP are to encourage disadvantaged youth to acquire specific sportskills, improve
their physical fitness and health, and to acquaint themwithcareerand educational
opportunities. The program enables member institutions to participate in community life
and the solution of community problems. Over 100institutions now participate in these
programs. The secondprogramis the YouthEducation through Sports(YES). YES
programs involve intercollegiate student-athletes and localyouth aged 12 to 18 in the
geographic area wherechampionships are beingheld. College students whoparticipate
in the sportin whichthe championship is beingplayedprovide coaching and mentoring
to the youthduringa daylongclinic. National coaches and local professionals
knowledgeable about such topicsas drug abuse, strength training, nutrition, and sport
psychology assist The presentation willdescribe in moredetail these programs and
delineate how sportpsychologists can become involved.
                                                                                               149

M.A.Thompson, University of Texas- Arlington
Situation: An Integral Factor In the Justifcation of Sport Aggression by
NCAA Division I-A Varsity Basketball Players
The studyof sportaggression has takenmanyfonns including the investigation of
moralreasoning (Bredemeier, 1985), perceived legitimacy (Silva, 1983), and
frustration-inducing factors (Harrell, 1980). These have beenvery productive, but many
questionsremain to understand the dynamics of sport aggression. This study was
designed to assess the roles of gender, sportsituations, and injuryseverity on the level
of justification of sport aggression usingthe Thompson SportAggression Questionnaire
(TSAQ) (Thompson, 1988). For the purpose of this presentation, only the role of
situation will be addressed in detail. Situations depicted on the TSAQreflect selected
primary motivators for sportaggression: a) retaliation for injuryto self, b) retaliation for
injury to teammate, c) frustration, d) instrumental (to win), and e) unprovoked
aggression. The participants (N=181; 95 female, 86 male)ranged in age from 18 to 24
and were varsity basketball players for NCAA Division I-Aprograms. Questionnaires
and consentforms weredistributed to 18members of the National Sportpsych Group
(NSG) representing 18 universities. Completed questionnaire packets werereceived
from 12of the NSG members for a 67% response rate. Regions represented include the
Northeast, East, Southeast, Midwest, and West. A 2 X 6 X 3 (genderX situation X
injury severity) (p < .05) was discovered, as well as two-way interactions of situation X
genderand situation X injury. Withevidence of an interaction effect, a maineffect was
then tested and determined to also be significant (p < .05). Due to the presence of a main
effectfor situation, a post hocTukeyTest wasconducted to determine significant
differences between summed situation responses. Summed situation scoresin order
from most to leastjustifiedwere: 1) Retaliation for self = 8.85, 2) Retaliation for
teammate =7.59,3) Frustration = 5.94, 4) Instrumental aggression =5.61,5)
Unprovoked aggression = 4.66 [Possible scorerange = 1 to 15 with mean of 9]. The
Tukey Testdetermined significant differences (p < .05)existed between all situations
exceptfrustration and instrumental aggression. The findings indicate the powerful role
situation played in the participants' determination of justification of aggression and may
assist in the development of intervention models.
                                                                                             150


M.A. Thompson, E.G. Stafford, and E.W. Anderson, University of Texas - Arlington
I Quit: Attributions To Situational, Coach, and Personal Factors for
Dropping Out of Jr. High and High School Basketball
Research on continued participation and dropout factors has includud the examination
of players'attributions (Robinson & Carron, 1982), perception of dropoutmotivesby
participants, parents,and coaches (Burton & Martens, 1986), and performance and
interpersonal conflict (V olp & Kiel, 1987). This studywas a 6-yearlongitudinal effort,
designed to examine the motives of basketball dropouts fromjunior and seniorhigh
school programs (N = 96 F=48, M=48). The subjects wereinitially identified by their
statusas members of theirrespective 7th grade basketball teams. Duringthe spring
semester of their senioryearin highschool, theoriginal subjects who werestill in the
school district were asked to complete a Basketball Participation Inventory.'Those
subjects who had "dropped out" of basketball, thenresponded to 19possible motives
influencing theirdecision to drop out. Responses weremadeon a 3-point Likert Scale
of perceived importance (1=not important, 2=important, 3=veryimportant). The 19
itemsrepresented four general categories of motives: A) Coach related, B) Selfrelated,
C) Situation related, and D) Nebulous. Data analysis included factoranalysis, inter-item
correlation, and computation of means. The factoranalysis supported the makeup of the
Self related and Coachrelated withmoderate support for the Situation related and
Nebulous categories. For the entiresample, the most influential category of motives was
Self related (X=1.47) followed by Coach related (X=1.33), Situation related (X=1.2l),
and Nebulous (X=1.1l), respectively. The girls'data resulted in the same rankingof
categories with Self relateditems beingthe mostimportant by far (X=1.58). The boys'
data reversed the orderof the Self related (X=1.35) and Coach related (X=1.39)
categories. though by a much smaller margin. The most important individual motives
for the girls were: a) found other things to do, b) wasn'tfun anymore, and c) took too
much time (all>1.5). For the boys, the following weremost important: a) found other
thingsto do, b) didn't get to participate enough, and c) not allowed to showability (all >
1.5). With this type of information it may be possible to createintervention models and
structure environments to engender continued participation in youth sportprograms.
                                                                                              151


EileenUdry and RobinVealey, Miami University
Arousal, Anxiety, and Performance in Archers: A Case Study Examination
of Multidimensional and Catastrophe Theory
Research examining therelationship between arousal and performance has beenplagued
by equivocal results. Sportpsychologists havecalledfor theoretical and methodological
refinements to enhanceour understanding of the effects of arousal and anxiety on
performance. From a theoretical perspective, multidimensional and catastrophe theory
have beenadvanced as viable frameworks to clarify the arousallperfonnance
relationship. Multidimensional theory improves on previous unidimensional approaches
(i.e., drive theory,inverted-u model) by predicting that anxiety is manifested both
cognitively and somatically, eachof which is uniquely related to performance.
Catastrophe theoryattempts to explain theinteractive effects of cognitive and somatic
anxiety, and predicts thatperformance is differentially influenced by changing patterns
of cognitive and somatic anxiety. Methodological advances advocated include
intraindividual measures of arousal/anxiety and performance, psychological and
physiological measures of arousal/anxiety, and the use of varying levelsof situational
stress. The purpose of this studywas to examine the arousal/performance relationship
acrossdifferent levelsof situational stress to testpredictions from both multidimensional
and catastrophe theory usingan intraindividual case-study approach. Four elite archers
competing in the 1990U.S. National Archery Championship participated in the study.
Psychological and physiological measures wererecorded for each subject one day prior
to competition (practice condition), twodaysduring competition (competition
condition), and one day aftercompetition (postcompetition condition). Psychological
measures used werethe SportAnxiety Scale(SAS) to measure competitive traitanxiety,
and the Competitive StateAnxiety Inventory (CSAI-2) and Mental Readiness Form
(MRF) to measure competitive stateanxiety. Physiological arousal was measured using
portable heartrate monitors. For eachcondition (practice, competition,
postcompetition), the CSAI-2 was administered 30 minutes prior to the startof
performance and the MRF and heartrate readings weremonitored continuously
throughout the perfonnancesequence of thatcondition. In the competition condition
(during the tournament), performance and corresponding anxiety and arousal measures
wererecorded 48 timesfor each subject. Datawereanalyzed in a multiple case design
utilizing visual inspection criteriaset fonh by Kazdin (1982) as wellas time-series
analysis. Catastrophe theory predictions wereexamined using threedimensional
graphing techniques. The resultsprovided partial support for multidimensional and
catastrophe theoryin termsof effects on performance and temporal sequencing of
multidimensional anxiety. The results arediscussed in relation to the specific situational
stressors and individual differences in competitive traitanxiety. Also, the intraindividual
case studyapproach to arousal research is discussed as a moreprecise alternative to
between-groups designs.
                                                                                             152


Judy Van Raalte, Springfield Collegeand Britton Brewer,University of Delaware
Perceptions of Athletes Who Use Steroids or Cocaine or Who Cheat
The use of anabolicsteroids has been shown to enhanceperfonnance, particularly in
sports where muscle mass and strength are essential. The use of anabolic steroids has
also beenassociated with a variety of negative psychological effectsincluding
aggressiveness, anxiety attacks, euphoria, irritability, mania, paranoia,and severe
depression(Gregg & Rejeski, 1990). In light of these negativepsychological effects,it
is DOt surprising that Schwerinand Corcoran (1990)found that college studentsviewed
a steroid-using bodybuilderless positively than a nonusing bodybuilder, and an
athletically activeindividual. It is possible that the collegestudents viewed a steroid-
using bodybuilderless positively becausehe was seen as a drug user, a person who
self-medicates in an attemptto correctfor physical or psychological deficits. It is also
possible that the steroid user was viewedas a cheater who brokethe rules in an attempt
to win. In this study 254 undergraduates were randomlyassignedto one of five
conditions. Subjectswere given a description of a hypothetical athlete who was: I. a
weightlifter who uses the anabolic steroidsDianabol; 2. a weightIifter who usescocaine
recreationally; 3. a weightlifter whocheats in competition; 4. a weightJifter who is
particularly awareof his diet; or 5. a healthconscious person who pays particular
attention to his diet. Subjects rated the hypothetical athlete in an I8-item questionnaire
with itemspenaining to globalpositiveeffects, sexual enhancement, social
assertiveness, arousal and aggression, relaxation and tension reduction,and
intelligence. The 18 itemson the scalewerecombined into a single dependent measure
becausesubjectsrespondedin a consistentmanneracross items (alpha = .80). Using
Scheffepost hoc analyses, results indicated that the steroid user was viewed
significantly more positively than the cheater, no differently than the cocaine user, and
significantly less positivelythan the other non steroid users. Resultsare discussed in
terms of current understandings and perceptions of the effects of steroids. Suggestions
for furtherpublic education on the psychological effectsof steroidsare presented.
                                                                                           153


Judy Van Raalte, Springfield College, BrittonBrewer,University of Delaware and
Darwyn Linder, Arizona State University

Athletes' Perceptions of a Fellow Athlete Who Consults a Sport Psychologist
Althoughit seemspossiblethatcompetitive athletes who attempt to enhancetheir
perfonnance via psychological skillstraining are seen as particularly motivated and hard
working,research with college students and older adult sports fans indicatesthat people
tend to derogatean athlete who consultsa sportpsychologist relativeto athleteswho
consult their coaches for the same problem. In explorations of the public's perceptions
ofathletes who consult varioussportand mentalhealthpractitioners, athletes who
consult sport psychologists have been perceived to be similarto athleteswho consult
psychotherapists. In addition,multidimensional scalinganalyseshave shown that
college studentsperceivesportpsychologists to be similarto other mentalhealth
professionals. Past researchhas focused on how the public perceivesathletes who
consult sport psychologist. Until now, research has not addressed how athletes (the
potentialrecipients of such interventions) perceive individuals who consultsport
psychologists. In this study, athletesfrom two NCAA DivisionII football teams, one
that receives sport psychology services(n = 66) and one with no such services(n =43),
were randomlyassignedto conditions and given a fictitious scouting report that was
designedto give an appearance of a good, but not outstanding quarterback. The
scoutingreportswere identical acrossconditions except for one summarysentence
statingthe fictitious quarterback was working with either his coaches, sport
psychologist, or psychotherapist to improvehis consistency. The primary dependent
variableasked the athletes to rate how strongly they wouldrecommend drafting this
player. End pointson a 7-pointscale were labeled "Wouldnot recommend draftingthis
player,"and "Would highlyrecommend draftingthis player." Analysisof variance
(ANOVA) indicated that regardless of collegeattended (withor without sport
psychology services), athletesdid not derogate an individual whoconsulted a sport
psychologist relative to an individual who consulted his coachesfor the same problem.
Individuals who consulteda psychotherapist were derogated relativeto athleteswho
consultedsport psychologists or their coaches. Implications of these findings for the
delivery of sport psychology serviceswill be discussed.
                                                                                            154


Robin Vealey, Miami University
Theoretical and Research Perspectives in Coaching Burnout
Besidesthe interpersonal demands of working continuously withother human beings,
coaching also involves intense publicscrutiny, constant social evaluation, and external
as well as internal pressure to produce winning teams. Theseexcessive psychological,
emotional, and behavioral demands on coaches seemlikely to lead to burnout Research
has supported the occurrence of burnout in coaches, yet the manyequivocal findings
indicate thereis a needto studythisphenomenon within a comprehensive theoretical
framework. Three modelsof burnout found in the literature are examined as alternatives
within which to studyburnout in coaches. Theseapproaches to the studyof burnout
include a cognitive-affective model, an interactional process model, and a phasemodel.
Research conducted with high school and collegecoaches (N =848)is presented to
demonstrate suppon for the cognitive-affective and phasemodels of burnout The
criterion burnout variables wereemotional exhaustion, depersonalization. and personal
accomplishment as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Specifically. the
resultsindicated that traitanxiety. perceived rewards associated with coaching,
perceived valueof coaching role,excitement associated withcoaching. attainment of
meaningful accomplishments, perceived control. perceived success. perceived support,
and perceived overload all contributed to themultivariate relationship with the three
burnout measures. Traitanxietyemerged as the mostsignificant predictor of burnout
which is understandable as the cognitive appraisal of stressis a central component in the
cognitive-affective model of burnout. Experience, actual timespentin coaching, and
actual time spenton leisure wereunrelated to coaching burnout Overall, the results
indicate thatit is not the actual time spent, butthe perceptions of the activity and
situation that creates the stressthat leadsto burnout, Futureresearch directions for the
area of coaching burnout are examined with respect to ideological. theoretical. and
measurement issues. Inquiry into the development of certain coaching ideologies may
help sportresearchers understand the sociocultural contributions to coaching burnout.
Theoretical issues include theneedfor coach-specific models and the examination of
burnout as a cyclical construct that mayvaryover timeand situations. Alternative
measurement instruments and techniques are discussed with an emphasis on greater
relevance to sportand/orcoaching situations.
                                                                                             155

Ralph Vemacchia, WesternWashington University.
The Influence of Attributional Retraining upon the Pre-performance
Preparation of Junior Elite Track and Field Athletes for International
Competition
It was the problemof this study to observe and evaluate the influence of an
attributional retraining program upon the performances of junior elite track and field
athletes(ages 1&-19) who electedto utilize the services of a perfonnance consultant in
sport psychology. The population studiedwas the 1990 USA junior national track and
field team which was preparing to compete at thejunior world trackand field
championship meet in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The investigator served as a performance
consultant in sport psychology for the teamduring the training camp as well as at the
world championships. Pre-performance preparation of theseelite athletes included
opportunities to meet with a performance consultant in sportpsychology sincefor many
of theseathletes it was theirfirstcompetitive experience in international competition.
The attributional retraining program implemented in this studyconsisted of five steps: (1)
the identification of performance goalsand cues (selective attention); (2) the
development of feelings of competency which emphasized beliefin the athlete's skills
and abilities (locus of control); (3) encouraging the athlete to be "effort" conscious as
opposed to "technique" conscious duringperformance; (4) emphasizing the
improvement the athletehas madeto reach theirpresent levelof performance; and (5)
emphasizing an involvement and enjoyment in the "process" of achieving successful
athletic performances, This studywill present threecase studies which describethe
utilization of an attributional retraining program to enhance performance. Case studyA
involved an athlete who was apprehensive about the "pain" she wouldexperience during
her event. Case studyB involved an athlete who was nervous about her ability to
performin a qualifying round of her event. Case studyC involved an athlete who was
"tooexcited" and performed poorlyin qualifying for the final which he now viewed
apprehensively. As a result of performance observations and the post-performance
feedback from each athlete, it wasconcluded that the attributional retraining program
implemented in this study favorably influenced the performances of the selected
athletes who chose to utilizeit.
                                                                                            156


Ralph Vernacchia, Western Washington University.
Pre-performance Concerns and Distractions of Junior Elite Track and Field Athletes
The problem of this studywas to investigate the pre-performance concerns and
distractions of junior elite trackand fieldathletes (ages 16-19) who wereaboutto
compete at a worldchampionship meet. Thepopulation studied was the 1990USA
junior national track and fieldteamwhich waspreparing to compete at thejunior world
track and fieldchampionship meet in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The investigator also served as
a performance consultant in sportpsychology for the teamduring the pre-meet training
camp as wellas at the world championship meet. The findings of thisinvestigation
will be presented in a case studyformat in order to provide a descriptive overview of the
performance distractors theseathletes experienced prior to competing at the world
championships. Additional emphasis will be placed upon thecognitive behavioral
strategies athletes employed to enable them to cope with performance distractors. The
case studyformat will include the following sections: description of the
situation/circumstances; cognitive interventions; cognitive/behavioral interventions; and
performance outcomes. This studywill present eightcase studies which illustrate and
describe several of the common pre-performance concerns and distractions which the
athletes experienced. CaseA willdescribe a young athlete who wasextremely
homesick; CasesB and C will describe athletes who were experiencing pre-competitive
stressas a resultof conflicts related to theexpectations of theirparents; Cases0 and E
will describe athletes who wereexperiencing coach-athlete conflicts; CaseF will
describe an anxious athlete; CaseG willdescribe an over-excited athlete; CaseH will
describe an athlete who wasexperiencing pre-competitive stressas a resultof illness.
The findings of this study wereuseful in identifying common sources of pre-
competitive stressas theyrelated to preparation for international athletic competition.
The case studies presented here will alsoprovide an overview and description of
interventions which wereutilized undera variety of pre-performance conditions and
situation.
                                                                                             157

DanielWeigand, University of North Texas, and Gerald Guthrie and RobertBrustad,
PortlandState University,
The Relationship Between Goal-Setting Success, Causal Attributions,
and Commitment During Physical Fitness Development
The purposeof the presentstudywas to assess the effectsof goal setting in an applied
setting: fitness training performance prior to a high school ski season. The relationships
between goal achievement and causal attributions and goal achievement and commitment
were also investigated. Subjects 11 females and 25 males, ranging in age from 15 to 18
participated in a 6 weekgoal-setting and mental skills training program instituted by the
coaching staff.A multiple-baseline across-behaviors and across-subjects design was
utilized to recordfitness performance. The Causal Dimension Scale (Russell, 1942) was
utilized to assessattributions concerning fitness improvement. In addition, athletes
responded to a measure of commitment, anticipated effortexpenditure, and level of
importance for reaching maximal outputwithregard to theirgoal. Intrasubject and
intersubject comparison graphs indicate individual differences in performance relative to
specific goals. Sixty-eight percent of the subjects (with complete data), attained their
goal.Although a Discriminant Analysis failed to achieve significance p < .10, goal
achievers, relative to non goalachievers, provide higherinternal and controllable
attributions than non-goal achievers. No differences werereported with respect to
commitment, effortexpenditure, nor levelof importance for reaching maximal output.
Theseresults are addressed within three substantive areas: I)The practicality of the
design for applied settings, 2) Development of Goal setting and attribution theory in
sport, and 3) Goal achievement, perceived personal control, and intrinsic motivation
(ie., redefining success in termsof goal attainment).
                                                                                              158


Roben Weinberg, Damon Burton", David Yukelson**, and Daniel Weigand,
University of North Texas, University of Idaho", Pennsylvania State Universiry't"
Goal Setting in Competitive Sport: An Athletes' Perspective
In the past five years sport psychologistshave started to focus on studying the
relationshipbetween goals and athleticperformance. Virtually all the research has been
experimental in nature being conductedin field and laboratorysettings. Although this
has helped start to unravel how goals affect sport performance, it has told us little about
how athletes perceive and utilize goals in shaping their athletic performance. Thus, the
purpose of the present investigationwas to explore athletes' perceptionsconcerning the
frequency, effectivenessand importanceof different types of goals to enhance their
performance. In addition, how athletes might differ in their perceptionsof goal setting
was also investigated by comparing males versus females, starters versus substitutes,
individual versus team sports, and high versus lesser ability. Subjects (N=678) were
collegiateathletes at three NCAA Division 1 schoolsfrom differentregions of the
United States. Each athletecompleted an extensivequestionnaire detailingtheir
perceptions, use and effectiveness of a numberof different goal setting strategies.
Descriptive results revealed that virtually all athletespracticed some type of goal setting
to help enhance performanceand they found their goal settingto be moderately to highly
effective. Athletes also reponed that improvingoverall performance (36%), winning
(24%), and affiliation (19%) were their three most important goals. In addition, setting
moderately difficult goals that are somewhatabove the level at which you think you can
perform" was selected by 60% of athletes as their preferred goal difficulty level. A
series of one-way ANOYA's (using a .01 alpha level to reduce the possibility of Type 1
error) revealed a number of significant differences between the independent variables in
the use of goals. For example, females set short-term, team, and psychological goals
more frequently than males, whereas males set outcome goals more frequently than
females. In addition, starters set goals significantly more often than substitutes,
especially long-term goals, and found these goals to be more effectivethan did the
substitutes.
Furthermore, team sport athletes set more outcome goals whereas individual sport
athletes set more performancegoals. Finally, high ability athletes felt goals were more
effective in improvingperformancethan their lower abilitycounterparts. Athletes'
perceived use and effectiveness of different goal setting strategies is discussed in terms
of the limited empirical sport psychology goal settingliterature. Future directions for
research include studying coaches' views of goal-setting,as well as using this
information to set up more effective goal settingintervention programs in sport.
                                                                                            159

R. S. Weinberg, S. Gordon", and A. W. Jackson, University of North Texas,
*University of Western Australia
Effect of Internal and External Imagery Training on Cricket Performance
Recent research has beenequivocal concerning the effectiveness of internal versus
external imagery (Epstein, 1980; Mahoney & Avener, 1977; Mumford & Hall, 1985).
One of the limitations in the previous research is thatlittleor no training of imagery
perspective was included in the design. Thus,the purpose of the present investigation
was to determine the effectiveness of an internal versus external imagery training
programon performance of cricketbowlers (pitchers). Subjects (N=64) were high
schoolstudents involved in a cricket studies curriculum. Based on baseline
assessments of bowling (pitching) performance, subjects were randomly assigned to
one of threeconditions, (a) internal imagery-training, (b) external imagery-training, (c)
control. Bothinternal and external imagery training groups received 10 minutes of
training specific to theircondition priorto eachof six physical practice sessions over a
three weekperiod. Videotapeand audioscripts were used to provide visual and
auditory instructions concerning the use andpractice of internal and external imagery.
After practicing theiruseof internal andexternal imagery during physical practice, each
subject wasinstructed to utilize theirspecific imagery training and orientation prior to
the performance of 12 pitches at the end of eachof the six practice sessions. Pitching
performance was measured bothobjectively in terms of accuracy as wellas subjectively,
by twocricketexperts (interrater reliability was established). Control subjects simply
viewed instructional videosfor 10 minutes before eachpractice session withno mention
of imagery training. One wayanalysis of variance revealed no significant between-
group differences on baseline measures of bowling performance or imaging ability and
thusperformance resultswereanalyzed by a 3 (imagery condition) x 6 (days) x 3
(blocks of trials). Results from both subjective andobjective performance ratings
indicated significant effects for days with all groups improving over the experimental
period. However, more importantly, there wereno significant performance differences
amongthe imagery groups. Results from thepostexperimental questionnaire revealed
that although subjects did practice and utilize theirspecific imagery orientation,
approximately 50%found themselves switching between internal and external imagery.
This mightin pan explain the lackof performance differences between the internal and
external imagery training groups and is consistent with previous research (Epstein,
1980) indicating the imagery orientation maybe moreunstable than stable. Future
directions for research are offered including variables such as the length of imagery
training, taskcomplexity, and skilllevel.
                                                                                            160

R. S. Weinberg, J. R. Grove*, and A. W. Jackson, University of North Texas,
*University of Western Australia, Perth,Western Australia
Building Self-Efficacy in Tennis Players: A Comparative Analysis of
Australian and American Coaches
Much of the data published in sportpsychology emanates from North America, but it is
unclearwhetherresultsare generalizable to other populations sincefew comparative
studies have appeared in the literature. For example, recent research (Gould, Hodge,
Peterson & Giannini, 1989;Weinberg & Jackson, 1990)has investigated the frequency
and effectiveness of self-efficacy strategies employed by both wrestling and tennis
coaches.To extend the generalizability of thesefindings, the purposeof the present
investigation was to comparethe findings of UnitedStatestenniscoaches(Weinberg &
Jackson, 1990) with a comparable sampleof tennis coachesfrom Australia concerning
the frequency and effectiveness of 13 self-efficacy building strategies. Subjects were
60 Australian tenniscoachescoaching at the club or statelevel. The characteristics of
the Australian coachesin termsof experience, level of coaching, and genderwere
matched to thoseof the American sample to providea moreaccurate comparative
assessment rather than differences resulting due to sampling inconsistencies. A
questionnaire was completed that askedcoachesto respond (using a 5 point Likert
scale)to the frequency and effectiveness of 13 self-efficacy strategies that were
identified through a content analysis of the self-efficacy and sport psychology
literatures. First, descriptive resultsindicated that Australian coachesused all 13
strategies designed to enhance self-efficacy to a moderate degree and found them
moderately effective. The mostoften used strategies to enhance self-efficacy, as well as
those found most effective, included encouraging self-talk, actingconfident yourself,
verbalpersuasion, liberally using rewarding statements, and instruction-drilling. All
these techniques are underthe control of the tenniscoachesso they are evidently taking
a proactive role in building the self-efficacy of theirplayers. Multivariate analysis of
variance and discriminant analysis was employed to compare responses of Australian
and American tenniscoaches. Although the overall pattern of results revealed genera]
agreement between the American and Australian coaches, results indicated that
American coachesdid use moreof the.following self-efficacy strategies: conditioning
drills, modeling of other successful players and emphasizing that failure wasdue to lack
of effort and not innate ability. Results are discussed in termsof Bandura's (1986) self-
efficacy theoryas well as the importance of usingcoaches' knowledge to enhance our
knowledge in sport psychology. Futuredirections for further comparative analysis of
sport psychology findingsare offered.
                                                                                          161


MaureenWeiss, University of Oregon
Psychological Effects of Modeling: Empirical Findings from the Psychology
and Sport Psychology Literatures
A key question to be asked withinthe conceptual framework of modeling is "what
effects can observational learning have on the psychological characteristics of the
observer"?Althoughthis question wouldseem to be an important one for individuals in
applied sport psychology, littleresearch has been generated to examinethis question.
Instead, modelinghas been primarily viewedas an instructional strategyfor teaching
sport skills and, consequently, research has sought answers to questionsconcerning
characteristics of effectivevisual demonstrations. However, modeling has also been
shown to be a powerfulmeans of influencing psychological development, especially
self-efficacy, motivation, and anxietyreduction. Most of this research has been
conductedin the educational, pediatric, and clinicalpsychology literatures, with little
researchconductedin sport psychology to assess the effectsof modeling on these
psychological characteristics. The purposeof this presentation, therefore, is to review
the empirical research to date that has examined the potential of modeling as a
psychological method to influence psychological skillssuch as self-efficacy and anxiety
reduction. To do this, both mainstream psychology and sport psychology literatures will
be reviewedto demonstrate how the use of specific modeling techniques can effect
psychological change. The specific modeling techniques that have been frequently
researchedinclude: participant models, similarmodels (e.g., age, gender), diversified
models, multiplemodels, and coping (vs. mastery) models.
                                                                                          162

Maureen Weiss. University of Oregon. Penny McCullagh. University of Colorado,
Frances Flint, York University
Observational Learning: The Forgotten Method in Psychological Skills
Training
Modeling or observational learning has long beenadvocated as a powerful meansof
transmitting behaviors. skills. attitudes. and values (Bandura, 1986; McCullagh. Weiss,
& Ross, 1989). To date, the majority of modeling research in the physical domain has
focused on the acquisition and performance of sport skills.and this research has
demonstrated the stronginfluence that visualdemonstrations play in theseprocesses
(McCullagh et al., 1989). Consideration for the psychological effectsof modeling in the
sport setting, however. has been neglected. This is surprising given the importance
appliedsportpsychologists have placedon the role of self-efficacy. motivation. and
coping with anxiety in sport performance. Recently, Vealey (1988) discussed future
directions in psychological skillstraining and delineated between psychological skills
(e.g.• self-confidence, optimal arousal)and psychological methods (e.g.• goal setting,
imagery). Modeling was not considered as a psychological method to impactupon
variouspsychological skills.The purpose of this symposium, therefore, is to advocate
the recognition and implementation of modeling techniques in the psychological skill
development of athletes for diversepurposes such as performance enhancement.
personal development, and injuryrehabilitation skills. To do this, a conceptual
framework for understanding the effects of modeling on psychological responses will
be presented basedon the model introduced in McCullagh et al. (1989). Second. a
review of the empirical research in both mainstream psychology and sportpsychology
pertaining to the psychological effectsof modeling will be provided. This research has
been focused on techniques such as participant models, and similar, diversified, and/or
copingmodelson anxiety reduction. self-efficacy and motivation enhancement, and
prosocial behavior development. Finally, an experimental studyof the psychological
effects of modeling in athletic injury rehabilitation will be presented to represent an
example of the potential for modeling to impact upon such processes as self-efficacy,
perceptions of competence. locusof control, and health beliefs. The videotape that was
used in the studydepicting the multiple, diversified, copingmodels will also be shown.
                                                                                        163


JamesWhelan, Memphis StateUniversity
Stealing Secrets: Psychotherapy Research Technology Applied to
Performance Enhancement Research
Establishing a career as a psychotherapy outcome researcher is a humbling experience.
Reviewers are alwaysfinding creative waysto holdthe authorresponsible for the lack
of foresight in avoiding unpredictable behavior of peopleand data.Fortunately, the
psychotherapy literature provides a number of hintsfor addressing key problematic
issues.This presentation will focus on someof the "secrets" revealed in the
psychotherapy outcomeresearch and the application of these "secrets" to performance
enhancement efforts.
The following topics will be discussed:
1. The potential utility of pilot studies and analogue designs.
2. Subject recruitment and selection to minimize attrition and to enhance compliance
   with intervention protocols.
3. Consideration of the unit of analysis.
4. The verification of intervention delivery and intervention reception.
S. The question of maintenance of intervention effectiveness.
The goal of the presentation will be to discuss the problems that plagueintervention
researchers by applying the technology of psychotherapy research to the challenges
inherent in performance enhancement research.
                                                                                           164

James Whelan, MemphisStateUniversity, MichaelGreenspan,ArizonaState
University,Shane Murphy,United StatesOlympic Committee, AndrewMeyers,
Memphis State University
Intervention Research: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly
As an association and a profession, we have been asked to scientifically accountfor the
utilityof our perfonnanceenhancement efforts, While the preliminary evidenceprovides
encouraging support for our work with athletes.the challengeof documenting,
questioning, and exploring the efficacyof psychological intervention effortscontinues.
Unfortunately, quality intervention studiesare not easily accomplished; and forays into
such research should be carefullyconsidered by academics facing tenure,or students
seekingearly graduation. The array of potentialproblems- such as subjectrecruitment.
attrition, selectionof sensitive and pertinentdependent measures, adherence to an
intervention protocol, and measurement of treatment delivery - occur with too greata
frequency. Consequently, attempts to juggle the threats to internaland external validity
can make the prettiest studyquite ugly.
The purpose of this symposiumis to discuss the challenges,problems,and potential
solutionsinvolvedin intervention evaluation research. Each of us wilJ present some of
the issues that have created the greatest numberof headaches and sleepless nights in our
researchcareers.The first presentation will primarily ponder the methodological issues
that threaten the internal validity of the intervention research. The secondpresentation
will consider some the dilemmas facingresearchin a service delivery setting. The third
will discuss some the problems and solutionsthat can be derivedfrom psychotherapy
outcomeliterature.
                                                                                           165


Sally White, Universityof New Hampshireand Joan Duda, Purdue University
The Interdependence Between Goal Perspectives, Psychological Skills,
and Cognitive Interference Among Elite Skiers.
It has been argued that performance variability in competitive achievement situations
relates to individual differences in goal perspective or ways of definingsubjective
success/failure(Elliott & Sweck, 1988; Nicholls, 1989). Specifically, task orientation
(or the tendency to emphasize personal mastery/improvement) has beenfound to
correspond to positive and sustained performance in sport and other achievement
activities, Ego orientation (or the tendency to placeimportance on demonstrating
superior ability),on the other hand, has been linked to decrements in performance
particularly when perceivedcompetence is questionable. In regard to the latter,little is
known about the psychological mechanisms whichcause such performance impairment.
The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this investigation determined the degree
to which task and ego-orientation differentially relatedto the engagement in task
irrelevant and and negative self-preoccupying thoughts in elite sport. Secondly, the
interdependence betweengoalperspectives and the effective employment of sport-
related psychological skills was examined. Subjectswere one hundred and forty-three
male and female intercollegiate-level skiers. Specificto skiing, the subjectscompleted
the 13-itemTask and Ego Orientation in SportQuestionnaire (TEOSQ, Duda &
Nicholls,in press), the 28-itemThoughtsOccurrence Questionnaire (TOQ, Sarasonet
al,. 1986) and the 45-item Psychological Skills inventory in Sport (PSIS, R-S,
Mahoney, 1988). The TEOSQrequestsathletes to think of when they felt most
successful in a specific sportand indicate their agreement with task and ego-oriented
criteria.The TOQ containsthree subscales and measures the general tendency for
experiencingintrusive thoughts (i.e., thoughts concerning Social Relations/Bmotions
unrelatedto the task, Thoughtsof Escape, and Task Relevant Worries) while engaging
in a performance-related activity. The PSIS, R-S assessesthe use of psychological
skills which are relevant to sportsperformance along six subscales(Anxiety,
Concentration, confidence, Mental Preparation, Motivations and Team Emphasis). Task
orientation was significantly and negatively correlated with the tendency to have task
relevant worriesand think about escapingor withdrawing while skiing.Canonical
correlationanalysisindicatedthat skiers who were highly ego-oriented and low on task
orientation were more likelyto have thoughts aboutremoving themselves for the skiing
situationduring competition. In general, there was little correspondence between
individualdifferences in goal perspective and strength in the usageof psychological
skills among skiers. Simpleand multivariate correlational analyses revealeda positive
relationship between task orientation and the emphasis placedon beingpan of one's ski
team. The practical and theoretical implications of the presentresultsare discussed.
                                                                                               166


Jean Williams. University of Arizona
Critique of the Andersen and Williams Model for Stress and Athletic
Injury: Implications for the Researcher and Practitioner
Research on psycholopcal variables thatmayput athletes at greaterrisk of injuries is
critiqued. and suggestions provided for future.research and implications for the
practitioner. Research is reviewed on methodology and whether resultssuppon or refute
the Model for Stressand Athletic Injury (Andersen & Williams. 1988). According to the
model. whenathletes are put in a stressful situation suchas a demanding practice or a
crucialgame situation. d.te athlete's history of stressors, personality characteristics. and
copingresources all interact to createa stressresponse. It is the severity of the resulting
stressresponse which puts an athlete at increased risk of being injured. The model
assumes that two of the basicmechanisms behind the stress-injury relationship are
increases in general muscletension and deficits in attention duringstress. The model's
centralhypothesis is that individuals with a lot of stressin theirlives. personality
characteristics that tend to exacerbate the stressresponse. and few coping resources
will, whenplaced in a stressful situation. be morelikelyto appraise the situation as
stressful (i.e.•repon higherstate anxiety) and exhibit greater muscle tension and
attentional disruptions. As a result. theseindividuals are at greaterrisk of injury
compared to individuals withthe opposite profile. The model also suggests specific
interventions for reducing the risk of athletic injury. Futureresearchers mustdetermine
if sportdifferences. gender, and competitive level differentially affect therelationship
between psychosocial factors and injury outcome. Although 18of 20 studies reviewed
found someassociation between high life stress and injury outcome. there was
considerable variance acrossstudies in the strength of therelationship. Individual
differences in personality and copingresources also may havecontributed to the
differences. Existing data suggest copingresources. particularly socialsupportand
psychological copingskills. have a greater influence on injuryoutcome thandifferences
in personality. Researchers needto study multiple predictor and moderator variables
and then determine the varying patterns (direct, additive, interaction) by which the
variables affectinjuryvulnerability and resiliency. Statistical toolsfor analyzing
moderator variables and the validity of the comprehensive model are reviewed.
Comparisons across studies are complicated by the greatvariation in operational
defmitions for life event stressand injury. The most meaningful criteriafor injury
outcome and the mostpredictive and valid measures of life eventstressand other
predictor and moderator variables must be determined. Existing studies suggest spon
specific questionnaires are moreeffective thangeneral questionnaires. Moreresearch is
neededto assess the heartof the problem, the stressresponse. The implementation and
assessment of prospective injuryprevention programs is explored, with suggestions for
how practitioners mightreduceinjuries in high risk athletes.
                                                                                             167


Eugene Wong, University of California, Riverside
An Observational Study of Coaching Behaviors In Youth Soccer:
Similarities and Differences Across Age Groups
Recently,there has beenincreasing attention directed towards identifying and
understanding the influenceof particular coaching behaviors on youngchildren
participating in organized sports. The primary aim of this study has been to assess the
reliability of an observational scaledeveloped to assessninedifferent coaching
behaviors. A secondaryaim was to assessdifferences in coaching behaviors across
three different age groups(8 - 9,10 - 11, and 12 13 year olds). The nine behavioral
dimensions included general technical instruction, general encouragement, general
negativereactions, singleplayer technical instruction, singleplayerencouragement,
mistake-contingent technical instruction, mistake-contingent encouragement, positive
reinforcement and non-reinforcement. Each coach (N = 20) was unobtrusively
observed(by two research assistants) during two gamesover the course of an AYSO
season. Frequency of occurrence for each behavioral dimension for the first five
minutes, a randomfive minutes beforehalf-time, the first five minutes following half-
time, a randomfive minutes duringthe second half and the last five minutes of the
games wererecorded. Interrater reliabiJities (assessed with correlations between the
recordedfrequencies of observerpairs)ranged from .77 to 1.00; the median correlation
was .896. The averagenumberof coaching behaviors recordedduring a game was
118. However, it was found that with increasing age, the numberof coaching
behaviors decreased. Whencoaching behaviors wereclassified as either team-oriented
(i.e., behaviors directedtowards the team)or individual-oriented (i.e., behaviors
directedtowards an individual player),interesting age differences were found. In
particular, nearly 2/3 of the coaching behaviors observed in the 8 - 9 and 12- I3 year old
groups were individually-oriented. On the other hand, amongthe 10 - 11 year olds,
coaching behaviors weremoreevenlydistributed in the team-oriented and individually-
orientedcategories --45 of the coaching behaviors wereteam-oriented and 47 were
individually-oriented. Implications of thesefindings are discussed.
                                                                                             168

Jodi Yambor, University of Miami
Issues Facing Female Sport Psychology Consultants
Dr. Yambor will presentan overview of the statusof women in the field of applied sport
psychology including the number of female professionals and the opportunities available
to them,as well as the trendstoward certain typesof employment within the field.
Stereotypes and preconceived viewsaboutfemales' roles frequently encountered by
female consultants will be identified, including thoserelated to personal characteristics.
knowledge of sport and sportpsychology the appropriateness of females working in
this field, and leadership issues. Examples of consulting situations in which the gender
of the sportpsychologist may have an influence will be discussed. Dr. Yambor will
provideexamples and insights from her workwithcollegiate and elitelevelathletes.
                                                                                             169


Zenong Yin. BrownUniversity. and Mike Boyd and John Callaghan. University of
Southern California
Patterns between Task/Ego Goal Orientations and Their
Cognitive/Affective Correlates in High School Athletes
Previous research has demonstrated that sportparticipants evaluate theirexperiences
differently depending on the extentof theirfocuson two of the primary achievement
goals. i.e, task- or ego-involvement (Duda, 1987). It has beenpostulated that
preoccupation withdifferent goalorientations influences individuals' perception of
ability. subjective feelings. task choice. and behavioral performance in achievement-
related environment (Duda, 1987; Nicholls. 1984). This study wasdesigned to explore
the patterns between the motivational (task/ego goalinvolvement) orientations and
relatedcognitive/affective variables in a sportsetting as suggested by Duda (1987). Six
psychological measures. Duda's (1989) Task and Ego Orientation in Sport
Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Harter's (1985) Perceived Athletic Competence and
Importance of Athletic Competence scales. Marten's SportCompetition Anxiety Test
(SCA1'), Attributions for sport success, and Emotional state of spon participation. were
administered to two hundred and seventy-two highschool football players. age ranging
from 14 to 17 years.

A canonical correlation wasperfonned between a set of goalorientation (task/ego)
variables measured by TEOSQalong withplayers' age and varsity status(freshman.
sophomore. and varsity) and a set of cognitive/affective variables assessed by the rest of
the measures. The results of analyses indicated that the first two pairsof canonical
variates (the first canonical correlation. r= .42. 17 % of variance; and the second
canonical correlation, r= .30.9 % of variance) wereaccountable for the significant
relationships between the two setsof variables. The first pair of canonical variates
revealsthat players with strong ego-involvement orientation. older age. and higher
varsity status also tendto havehigherperceived athletic competence. higherspon trait
anxiety, more often getting upsetwhenplaying sports, and less likely to attribute spon
successto own effort. The second pair of canonical variates suggests that thoseplayers
with strongtask- as well as strong ego-involvement goalsand younger age corresponds
with higherperceived athletic competence. higher perceived importance of athletic
competence, and morelikelyto attribute success to own ability and effort. The results
werediscussed in terms of further conceptualization of the taskand ego achievement
orientations in sportdomain, and theirimplications in the intervention of youth spon
drop-outs.
                                     Participant Index

Abrams, Gregory        12,62                        Gardner, Frank        7,45
Ainsworth, Barbara     91, 128                      Gauvin, Lise          6,15,46
Albinson, John G.      19, 123                      George, Thomas        17,41,47
Anderson, E. W.        12, 150                      Gibson, Jerri Leigh   11,48
Anderson, Mark         7, 20                        Gill, Diane           11, 17, 124
Anderson, Mary         12,62                        Gill, Kathy           10,49
Ayres, Robert          13,33                        Goldsmith, Patrick    13,50
Baillie, Patrick       9,21                         Gordon, S.            10, 159
Ballinger, Debra       16,22                        Gould, Dan            4,7, 17,45
Barnett, Nancy'        8, 23, 141                   Green, Lance          6,51
Beaird, James          13, 33                       Greenspan, Michael    9, 15, 52, 101, 164
Bean, Jr., J.J.        14,92                        Griffin, Joy          15, 17,53,56
Beitel, Patricia       10, 13 134, 135              Grove, James          13, 160
Bell, Tom              11,24                        Guthrie, Gerald       12, 157
Berg, Dianne           12, 62                       Hale, Bruce           5,9,54,55
Berger, Bonnie         7, 8                         Hall, Evelyn          8, 15, 17,53,56
Bourgeois, A.E.        8,104                        Halliwell, Wayne      8, 57
Boutcher, Stephen      10,97                        Hankes, Doug          10,58
Boyd, Mike             12,69                        Hanson, Tom           4, 59
Brawley, Larry         5,6,25, 129                  Hardy, Charles        8,15,17,60,61,91,128
Brewer, Britton        7, 11, 13, 14,26, 152, 153   Harmon, Lenore        12,62
Brustad, Robert        112, 57                      Hart, Elizabeth       8, 61, 63
Burton, Damon          6, 8, 12, 38, 158            Harvey, Philip        10, 108
Callaghan, John        12,69                        Hays, Kate            7,17,64
Camburn, Claire        6, 75                        Heil, John            15, 17, 65, 66, 68
Carpenter, Paul        12,27                        Heine, Paul           16,22
Carr, Christopher      5, 28, 55, 110               Henderson, Jane       10, 16, 49, 67
Chapin, G. Keith       13,29                        Henschen, Keith       17,66,68
Cherilla, Kevin        13, 126                      Hitchcock, Harry      14, 143
Collins, David         11, 30                       Hogan, Tony           13,50
Connelly, Deidre       15, 31, 32                   Hom, T. S.            6,69
Cooley, Eric           12, 33                       Horsley, Chris        10,70
Corcoran, Kevin        13,136                       Howell, Libby         7,20
Cornelius, Allen       16, 138                      Hurwirtz, Mark        17,71
Cote, C.               6,46                         Jackson, A. W.        10, 13, 159, 160
Courneya, Kerry        10,97                        Jackson, Charles      6, 10, 72, 73
Crace, R. Kelly        17,60                        Jackson, Christina    6, 10, 72, 73
Crist, Dwayne          14, 143                      Jackson, S.           11,115
Csikszentmihalyi, M.   15, 16, 83                   Jackson, Susan        14, 16, 74, 80, 83
Csoka, Louis           14, 34                       Johnson, Jerry        6, 75
Damm,John              12, 35                       Jones, John           12, 62
Danish, Steven         5, 9, 6, 55                  Kambis, Kenneth       6, 10, 72, 73
Darcan, Aysen          12,62                        Kane, Mary Anne       13, 76
Davis, Hap             17,37                        Kantos, Julie         11
Daw, Jessica           12, 38                       Karafsky, Peter       17, 17
DePalma, M.T.          10, 39                       Keeler, Bruce         12,78
Donn, Paul             13,93                        Kelley,Betty          5, 14, 79, 80, 81
Duda, Joan             12, 165                      Kesend, Othon         111
Ebbeck, Vicki          12,40                        Kimiecik, Jay         16, 82, 83
Epstein, Leonard' J    8                            Koch, Chris           11, 84, 85, 86
Ewing, Martha          17,41                        Kontos, Julie         86
Fenker Jr., Richard    11,42                        Kozub, Stephen        16, 87, 119
Flint, Frances         7,43, 162                    Krane, Vikki          11, 14, 88, 89
Frederick, Christina   12,44                        LaMott, Eric          8,90
                                    Participant Index

Lantz, Christopher    8, 61, 91                  Ricci, J.             6,46
Larshus, J. L.        12, 122                    Richardson, Peggy     10, 146
Lefcourt, Lori        12,62                      Roby, Peter           9
Lerner, J. Dana       14,92                      Rodgers, Wendy        5, 129
LeUnes, A.            8, 104                     Rotella, Robert       14, 130
Lewthwaite, Rebecca   16                         Sachs, Michael        7,9, 15, 131, 132
Libkuman, Terry       13,93                      Savoy, Carolyn        9, 10, 133, 134
Linder, Darwyn        14, 153                    Scanlan, Tara         7, 15
Love, Kevin           13,93                      Schliesman, Earl      13,135
Lox, C. L.            5,94                       Schwerin, Michael     13, 136
Ludwig, Martha        17,41,95                   Schwille, Gerry       132
Madey, S. F.          10,39                      Secor, D.             11,115
Marwitz, Brad         14,92                      Senkfor, Ava          13, 137
Matheson, Hilary      6,96                       Shillinglaw, Robert   11,26
MCauley, Edward       7, 8, 10, 14, 61, 97       Silva, John           11, 16,48, 138
McCullagh, Penny      7,15,98,99,162             Sitler, Michael       132
McGuire, E.J.         6,100                      Smith, Ronald E.      8, 15, 139, 141
McKelvain, Robert     15, 101                    Smoll, Frank          8, 140, 141
McKinney, J. P.       11,115                     Spence, J. C.         6,46
McKnight Patrick      102                        Stafford, E.G.        12, 150
Meyer, Barbara        17,41, 103                 Stainback, Robert     5,11, 14,15,17.55.101, 142. 143
Meyers, Andrew        8, 9, 10, 112, 164         Stanford, Andrea      89
Meyers, M.e.          8,104                      Starek, Joanna        15,99
Millhouse, James      8,105                      Stein, Gary           16,83, 144
Moore, William        14, 105, 106               Stevenson, John       14, 145
Morrow, Julian        10, 107                    Stewart, S.           8,104
Murphy, Shane         5, 9, 109, 110, 111, 164   Stitcher, T. P.       10, 146
Murray, Mimi          6,96                       Swoap, Robert         5, 110
Nabors, Laura         10,112                     Taylor, Jim           7,11,147
Nabors, Lynn          10, 112                    Thiebe, Ed            6, 148
Nafziger, Ken         12,62                      Thompson, Mark        12, 13, 149, 150
Neff, Robert          11, 17,41                  Tonue, Riho           11,117
Newburg, Doug         14,92                      Udry, Eileen          5, 151
Noble, John           7, 98                      Van Raalte, Judy      13, 14, 152, 153
North, T. Christian   7, 16, 17, 113, 114        Vealey, Robin         5,7,13,29,45,81,151, 154
Nye, C.               11,115                     Vernacchia, Ralph     8, 11, 155, 155
Q'Halloran, A.        6,46                       Weigand, Daniel       12, 157, 158
Orgell,Su             12, 116                    Weinberg, Robert      6,10,13,58,58,146,159,160
Pargman, David        6, 7, 11, 16, 67, 117      Weise-Bjornstal, D.   7
Parker, Kathy         13, 118                    Weiss, Maureen        7, 161, 162
Pease, Dale           16, 87, 119                Whelan, James         9, 10, 112, 63, 164
Perkins, Scott        15, 101                    White, Sally          12, 165
Perna, Frank          14                         Wickes, Kevin         12,62
Peterson, Kirsten     8, 12, 62                  Widmeyer, W. Neil     6.13,16,17,50,60,100,102,137
Petitpas, Al          5, 17, 55, 120, 121        Williams, Jean        13, 15, 50, 102, 137, 166
Petlichkoff, Linda    8, 12, 90, 122             Wong, Eugene          10, 167
Phelan, John          11, 123                    Yambor, Jodi          8, 14, 15, 32, 34, 57, 168
Piparo, Anthony       11, 124                    Yin, Zenong           12, 169
Prestwich, Paul       15,99                      Young, K.             11, 115
Quay, Lois            9,125                      Yukelson, David       6, 7, 17, 60, 158
Rainey, David         126                        Zaichkowsky, Len      17
Rainey, Kenneth       4, 14
Reardon, James        15, 32, 127
Remington, Laura      8, 61, 128

				
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