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					                   EVA Systems 101
                Architecture & Ops Con

EVA Systems Project SE&I
February 2007
J. Davis
Outline

 Missions
 Functions
 Architecture
    EVA System Description
    EVA Systems Reference Configuration
 Ops Con
    Launch
             Nominal launch ops
             Emergency Pad Egress
    Orbit
             Survival in an unpressurized cabin
             Unscheduled/Contingency EVA
    Landing
             Nominal
             Off-nominal
 Backup
                                                   Slide 2
EVA System Missions

 Launch / Entry / Abort
    Nominal launch operations (suit-up, transfer to pad, vehicle ingress, launch
     through post-insertion, rndz/dock)
    Launch aborts (on the pad, in-flight)
    Orbit operations (crew suits up as precaution for dynamic phases of flight)
    Survival in an unpressurized cabin (up to ~120 hours)
    Post-landing operations (nominal, off-nominal, water/land)
 Microgravity EVA
    Contingency & Unscheduled EVA in LEO, LLO or in-between
 Surface EVA
    Outpost Build-up
    Exploration
    Science




                                                                                   Slide 3
EVA System Functions

 Sustain the life of the crewmember
    Protection from the environment
    Life support (metabolic & cooling)
    Hydration, nutrition, & medication
    Waste management
 Mobility / Dexterity
    Transition to/from the worksite
    Stabilize at the worksite
    Perform necessary tasks (w/gloved hand or tools)
 Visibility / Communication
    Ability to get ‘eyes on’
    Communication of voice and data




                                                        Slide 4
EVA System Description




                         Slide 5
    Constellation System Hierarchy

                                                                                     C&T
                                                                                   Networks
                                                  Constellation
                                                  Architecture

                                                                                      ISS



                                                           Ground    Resource
                             CEV            CLV
                                                           Systems   Utilization



                                                           Mission   Robotic
                            LSAM           CaLV
                                                           Systems   Systems



                            EVA *
                           Systems
                                                                      Power
                                                                     Systems



                          Flight Crew                                 Surface
                          Equipment                                   Mobility



                                                                      Habitat

*   The EVA System includes more than „Spacewalk‟ hardware.
                                                                                   Architecture
    Constellation is striving for one suit system to be used for                      Level
                                                                       MTV
    Launch/Entry (crew survival) and EVA.                                          System Level

                                                                                      Future
                                                                       DAV
                                                                                     External

                                                                                                  Slide 6
                                                                                                        6
EVA System Hierarchy – Using Suit as an Example
                                                                                                       C&T
                                                                                                     Networks
                                                                    Constellation
  EVA System                                                        Architecture

                                                                                                        ISS



                                                                             Ground    Resource
                                                  CEV        CLV
                                                                             Systems   Utilization

    Vehicle Interfaces         GSE
                                                                             Mission   Robotic
                                                 LSAM        CaLV
                                                                             Systems   Systems



     Suit      Tools & Equipment                 EVA
                                                Systems
                                                                                        Power
                                                                                       Systems



                                               Flight Crew                              Surface
                                               Equipment                                Mobility



                                                                                        Habitat


                                                                                                     Architecture
                                                                                                        Level
                                                                                         MTV
     Suit                                                                                            System Level

                                                                                                        Future
                                                                                         DAV
        Life Support           Crew Survival                                                           External




       Pressure Garment           Power/CAI


                                                                    Element

                 Pressure Garment
                                                                    Subsystem
                         SUT           LTA
                                                                    Assembly


                                                                                                        Slide 7
                                                                                                              7
EVA System External Interfaces




 Flight Crew                    EVA System
 Equipment                                                                                   Mission
                                                                        Data
                                                                                             Systems
                                                                       Note: Interface with MS is logical-only.
                                                                        Data is routed via another Cx System.

  Ground        Gas, cooling,      Vehicle Interfaces     GSE
  Systems       Voice, data,
                  power,
                 structural
                                   Suit        Tools & Equipment       Gas, cooling,           Orion
                                                                       Voice, data,            CEV
                                                                          power
                                                                        structural
   ARES
 CLV, CaLV




          Robotic                   Surface                  Habitat                    LSAM
          Systems                   Mobility




                                                                                                            Slide 8
                                                                                                                  8
Suit Architecture




                    Slide 9
 EVA Systems Reference Architecture

 Methodology / Approach
    Stakeholders sequestered in October 2006 to define reference architecture
    Employ a reconfigurable suit architecture with the following goals
          A minimum set of hardware required to meet all mission phase requirements
          Meeting requirements with common components as often as technically practical
 Results
    A space suit architecture with two configurations which share many
     components
          Configuration 1 – LEA/microgravity EVA (Contingency & Unscheduled)
          Configuration 2 – Lunar Surface EVA
    Most components only developed once with a few notable exceptions:
          Two different soft upper torsos (SUT) because of different mobility requirements
           between mission phases
          Different TMGs and visors for contingency and surface EVA
    Significant possibility that most components will be extensible to long
     duration Outpost operations with minimal/no additional DDT&E


                                                                                          Slide 10
Reference Architecture Details

 Pressure Garment Subsystem
    Most components of the pressure garment will require new development to
     support CEV LEA and Contingency EVA requirements
          Possible exception is use of Phase VI gloves with updated certification
    The pressure garment for Sortie will be a combination of new development
     and carry over from LEA/Contingency EVA Configuration
    During Sortie and Outpost the Space Suit System will be composed of two
     Suit configurations with some shared components
          This architecture does not represent a classic Block delivery structure as had
           been envisioned
          Components developed for Configuration 1 (LEA/Cont EVA) will remain in use
           for the life of the Program
              Some components will be used in Configuration 2 (the Sortie and potentially Outpost
               suit configuration) (Lower Torso Assembly (LTA), lower arms, gloves, helmet)
              Some components will be different in the LEA/Cont EVA Configuration and the Sortie
               Configuration (Upper Torso)




                                                                                                Slide 11
Reference Architecture Details (cont.)

 Life Support Subsystem
    Configuration 1 is umbilical supported
          Short umbilicals for IVA operations (closed loop)
          Long umbilicals with Secondary O2 supply for Cont EVA (open loop)
              Secondary O2 also used for Configuration 2 Sortie EVA
          Umbilical connectors planned to be common between configurations though
           some upgrade may be needed for Outpost
    Configuration 2
          Removable backpack PLSS with modular design and a moderate level of
           technology development in an effort to develop a PLSS that could meet Outpost
           requirements
              Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal – eliminates LiOH upmass/volume
              Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) heat rejection
                   SWME is more robust and reliable than existing sublimator technology
                   On-going Trade – SWME water use is twice that of other options being pursued which have
                    much higher technology risk
              Lightweight Composite O2 Tanks
          New more robust TMG with dust mitigation



                                                                                                          Slide 12
Reference Architecture Details (cont.)

                                                           LEA                          Contingency EVA                              Sortie                              Outpost
Pressure Suit Assembly
       Attachment rings and bearings        Common, scalable, dust resistent                                                                                   Cycle life in dust environment
       Helmet                                 Helmet with visor up/down,
                                             conformal capability, feedport
       Visors (eye protection)                                                    ORU-able Protective Visor / Shade-           Visor / Shade assy
                                                                                                TBR
       Upper Torso (including upper arms)       Soft Upper Torso (SUT) 1,                                                             SUT 2,
                                                       waist entry                                                         rear entry (w/ waist bearing)
       Lower Arm
       Gloves Restraint                     Ph 6 (update cert for 8 psi -TBR)
       Glove thermal / durability                     IV Outerlayer                       Current Ph 6 TMG                          New TMG
       Lower Torso Assemby (LTA)               Waist / Hip /Leg integrated                                                                                     Upgrade with ORU Disconnects
       Ortho-static intolerance garment     New - mechanical counterpressure                     N/A                                   N/A                                  N/A

       Boots                                           Walking boot                                                           Installable over-boot
       Waste Management                                   MAG                                   MAG                                   MAG                           Regenerable Diaper
Life Support System
       Umbilical Connectors                                                                                                                                    Cycle life in dust environment
       Long Umbilical                                        na                            Yes, 2 onboard
       Short Umbilical                      Yes, up to 6 per mission plus spare                                                Update for recharge

       Insulation (TMG)                                     na                     SOA ORU TMG Over-garment, 2          New, more robust SOA ORU TMG
                                                                                            onboard                     plus new layer for dust mitigation

       PLSS Core Tech.                      na - If RCA for Sortie is common w/                   na                     SWME/RCA/GOX w/lightweight
                                                CEV RCA need to start now                                               composite tanks/separate "chicken
                                                                                                                                   soup" pump
       Emergency O2 Systems                     ACES -like EOS for Egress         SOP for EVA (3000psi (refillable)),        umbilical length delta
                                                                                    buddy Umbilical for IVA/EVA
                                                                                              backup
       Emergency Thermal Systems               Buddy / umbilical for cooling                                                       length delta                Cycle life in dust environment
Power / CAI
       Audio (Front End)                            New Comm caps                                                     Integrated comm - built into SUT 2
       Batteries                                   Power thru umbilical                                                            Lithium Ion
       Audio Processing / Data                         all analog                            all analog                    Analog in helmet and C3I
       transmission                                                                                                           processing in PLSS
       Cx Radio                                           none                                  none                       Digital Radio and Antenna
       Biomed Sensors                       none planned, scar for via umbilical none planned, scar for via umbilical   Heart rate and rhythm sensors
                                                                                                                         integrated into vest or LCVG
       Caution/ Warning System                 Analog signal thru comm cap          Analog signal thru comm cap       New CWS with automated advisory
                                                                                                                                    capability
       Display                                      none except gauge                    none except gauge            Non-graphic text display (external).                  HUD
                                                                                                                              Paper cuff checklist
       Video Capable                                      none                           umbilical scar only                           Yes

                                  Legend:        No development required                 Development Activity            No change from Previous config.     Significant risk of new development


                                                                                                                                                                                                Slide 13
                                                               LEA / Microgravity EVA - Configuration 1

                                                                                   Enhanced Helmet hardware
                                                                                   • TMG (Cont. EVA)                                                           LCG & Bio-Med Sensors
                                                                                   • Helmet feed-port (120 hr survival)
                                                                                   • Analog Comm cap
             Constellation Suit System Team - 26 Oct. 2006
Concept Drawings of the Suit System Reference Configuration




                                                                                   • Flip visor
                                                                                   • Neck wedge for cant if needed
                                                                                   • Inserts for head-impact protection



                                                              Umbilicals & SOP
                                                              • Universal Umbilical connectors on
                                                                 Umbilicals & vehicles
                                                              • Long Umbilical (2 for EVA) – Closed Loop                  Pressure Garment / Crew Survival
                                                              • Short Umbilical (per crewmember) – Closed Loop            • 2 Umbilical connections (“make before break”)
                                                              • Secondary Oxygen Supply (SOP/Emergency O2)                     provide, breathable gas,
                                                              • Umbilicals provide, breathable gas, cooling water,             cooling water, power & comm
                                                                power & comm, and safety tether function                  • TMG/MLI similar to EMU
                                                                                                                          • Waist-entry SUT (patterned convolute, BSC
                                                                                                                                w/multiple sizes)
                                                                                                                          • Phase VI gloves (updated cert.)
                                                                                                                          • Common LTA (integrated waist/Hip/Leg - bearing
                                                                                                                                hip w/convolute joint)
                                                                                                                          • Walking boot (w/ disconnect)
                                                                                                                                Devise (PFD)
            Artwork by Jeannie Corte




                                                                                                                          • Waist containment w/Maximum Absorbency
                                                                                                                               Garment (MAG)
                                                                                                                          • Extraction harness w/attached Personal Floatation
                                                                                                                          • Orthostatic intolerance mitigation
            (ESCG)




                                                                                                                                                                                       Slide 14
                                                              Lunar Surface EVA - Configuration 2

                                                                             Enhanced LCG & Bio-Med Sensors

                                                                                                                                                    Power/CAI:
                                                                               Enhanced Helmet hardware:                                 Lithium Ion Batteries -
             Constellation Suit System Team - 26 Oct. 2006
Concept Drawings of the Suit System Reference Configuration




                                                                                          TMG & lighting -                            C3I Processing in PLSS -
                                                                                       Heads-Up-Display -                       Expanded set of suit sensors -
                                                                                    SUT-integrated Audio -                      Advanced Caution & Warning -
                                                                                                                           On-suit Productivity Enhancements -




                                                                  Enhanced Pressure Garment / Softgoods:
                                                                            TMG/MLI for relevant environment -
                                                               Rear Entry Lunar SUT w/Waist & Scye Bearings -
                                                                            Wear/abrasion resistant softgoods -

                                                                               Umbilicals & SOP:                  Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS):
                                                                               Same hardware from LEA Config.                           High Pressure GOX -
                                                                               Upgrade umbilical for Recharge                                   SWME/RCA -
                                                                               and Buddy Breathing/Cooling                      Potable Water in PLSS Tank -
           Artwork by Jeannie Corte




                                                                                                                     * Hardware detailed text represents
                                                                                                                  changes or additions of hardware (colored
                                                                                                                       darker blue or purple) to the LEA
                                                                                                                                configuration.
           (ESCG)




                                                                                                                                                                   Slide 15
Ops Concepts




               Slide 16
Mission Description


 Mission Description
    ISS/CEV – Provide LEA, limited duration pressurized survival, and
     contingency EVA (zero-G) capability for missions to ISS for up to 6
     crewmembers
    Lunar Outpost Buildup (former Sortie) – Provide LEA, extended duration
     pressurized survival (up to 120 hours), microgravity EVA capability, and
     surface (1/6-G) EVA capability for a lunar mission (~ 2 weeks, 1 week on
     surface) for up to 4 crewmembers
    Lunar Outpost – In addition to above, provide surface EVA capability for a
     lunar mission duration of up to 6 months
    Mars – Surface operation EVA capability on Mars for extended duration




                                                                                Slide 17
Operational Scenarios

 Launch
    Nominal launch ops
    Emergency Pad Egress
 Orbit
    Survival in an unpressurized cabin
    Unscheduled/Contingency EVA
 Landing
    Nominal & Off-nominal



   Note: Photos borrowed from all legacy and current programs




                                                                Slide 18
Nominal Launch Ops

 Crew dons their suits in the O&C Building “Suit-up room”
    Some checkout of the suit will be performed using GSE
 Crew transfers (with closeout crew) to the pad in the Astrovan
    Provisions for cooling will be available
 Crew rides elevator to the access level (~ 280‟ level)
 Crew finishes suit-up process and ingresses CEV with assistance




                                                                   Slide 19
Emergency Pad Egress

 System must allow for unassisted emergency egress
    Closeout crew and rescue crews assist if situation warrants
 Emergency escape system under review by Ground Systems
    Rail system being pursued as the leading design concept
 Bunker at base of current slidewire system will provide services
 Use of emergency escape vehicle (M-113) needs to be assessed




                                                                     Slide 20
Survival in an Unpressurized Cabin

 Requirement at the Constellation Architecture level
    Allocated to CEV, LSAM, & EVA Systems
 Reference concept is that CEV feeds leak while crew dons suits
 Cabin eventually bleeds down and crew survives in their suits for
  the trip home
    Suit pressure under evaluation but may limit mobility at least during the
     ‘prebreathe’ timeframe.
    Worst case (for a single vehicle) involves survival for ~120 hours
    Details for hydration, nutrition, and mobility need to be worked




                                                                                 Slide 21
Unscheduled / Contingency EVA

 Unscheduled / Contingency EVA requirement levied on the
  Constellation Architecture (Microgravity)
    Currently allocated to CEV, LSAM, and EVA
    Unscheduled – Mission Success
    Contingency – Crew Safety

 2 EVAs of 4 hours (TBR)
    Independent of other
     vehicles
 EV1 performs task
 EV2 SEVA, ready to assist
 Currently no tasks ID‟d by
  CEV project other than
  LSAM – CEV transfer




                                                            Slide 22
Apollo EVA on Service Module


                                      Life Support: Umbilical
                                      connection to spacecraft ECLSS
                                      for breathing gas supply, CO2
Protection: Spacesuit                 scrubbing, thermal control, and
TMG and helmet visor                  bi-directional data/voice
provide protection from the
space environment




  Stabilization: Handrails give         Translation Path: Handrails
  EVA crewmember the means to           leading from the hatch allow
  stabilize himself at the worksite     EVA crewmember safely reach
                                        worksites

                                                               Slide 23
EVA External Provision Terminology

                                        EVA Translation Path – 43 inch
                                        corridor centered on handrails. Free
                                        of sharp edges and other hazards.




EVA Worksite – Designated area
where EVA task is performed.
Analyzed for compatibility with EVA
work envelope, fov, body positioning,
and loads.




                                                                         Slide 24
LSAM and CEV in LRO




                      Slide 25
    LSAM to CEV External Transfer




EVA Translation Path – 43 inch
corridor centered on handrails. Free
of sharp edges and other hazards.




                                       Slide 26
Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing

 Nominal landing scenario is on land with full assistance by
  ground ops recovery forces
    Crew would likely stay suited through transport (cooling services provided)
 Off-nominal scenarios:
    Land-landing not at the designated site
    Water-landing
    In either case, the crew has the option of staying with or leaving the vehicle
     (appropriate survival gear will be provided by EVA & FCE)




                                                                                 Slide 27
Conclusion

 EVA Systems reference configuration will serve as the basis for
  continued ops concept and requirements generation between
  now and the EVA SRR
    Changes will be considered on a case-by-case basis as further trades and
     analyses are performed in the first DAC cycle between now and EVA SRR
    Reference architecture will be documented in the EVA Systems
     Architecture Description Document (Riddable at EVA SRR)
 EVA Systems Ops Concepts will be refined prior to the EVA SRR
    EVA Ops Concepts will be captured in the EVA System Ops Concept
     Document (Riddable at EVA SRR)
 Changes to the EVA Systems reference architecture and/or the
  Ops Concept require approval by the EVA Systems Project
  Control Board




                                                                           Slide 28

				
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