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Academic Vocabulary

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					Words Words Words!

Helping ELL Students Develop
         Vocabulary
   Two important elements of
     vocabulary learning

              Quality:

How well do students know each word?
            Quality


              Goal:

To improve how much students know
          about each word
                 Quality
• Spoken Form:

    What does the word sound like?

        How is it pronounced?
               Quality
• Written Form:

     What does the word look like?

          How is it written?
              Quality
• Meaning:

  What meaning does this form of the
             word have?
            For example:
    Drink (noun) vs. drink (verb)
              Quality
• Concepts:

 What things can the concept refer to?
            For Example:
          Drinking fountain
              Quality
• Associations:

  What other words does this word
         make you think of?
           For example:
       drink - water - thirsty
                    Quality
• Grammatical Patterns:

       In what patterns does the word occur?

          transitive vs. intransitive verbs
            Two-word verbs: talk about
             Prepositions: drink of N
                  Quality
• Collocations:

What words or type of words occur with this word?
                    Example:
                   Get a drink
                  Have a drink
                  Take a drink
                    Quality
• Restrictions on Use (Register differences):

 Where, when, and how often would you expect to
                 meet this word?
                  Is the word:
               Informal (casual)
                     Formal
          Quantity


            Goal:

To increase the number of words
       that students know
          Quantity


Educated adult native speakers of
English know approximately 20,000
          word families
           Quantity


High School graduate ELL students
 know approximately 2,000 - 3,000
          word families
                  Quantity
                       If students know the
                       most frequent 1,000
                       words of English, they
Unknown
                       should be able to
          Known        understand 72% of the
                       words on the page of a
                       book, newspaper, or
                       magazine
                    Quantity
                         If students know the
                         most frequent 2,000
                         words of English, they
Unknow n
                         should be able to
           Know n
                         understand 80% of the
                         words on the page of a
                         book, newspaper, or
                         magazine
               Quantity
                    If students know the
                    most frequent 3,000
Unknow n
                    words of English, they
                    should be able to
      Know n
                    understand 84% of the
                    words on the page of a
                    book, newspaper, or
                    magazine
             Quantity
                  If students know the
                  most frequent 4,000
                  words of English, they
Unknown
                  should be able to
                  understand 86% of the
     Known
                  words on the page of a
                  book, newspaper, or
                  magazine
              Quantity
In order to           In order to
understand 95% of     understand 99% of
the words on a page   the words on a page
of a book,            of a book,
newspaper, or         newspaper, or
magazine, students    magazine, students
need to know          need to know
approximately         approximately
12,500 words          44,000 words
Academic Vocabulary
    Academic Vocabulary

  If the goal is to read academic writing
(textbooks, etc) and write academic papers
  (essays, etc), students can save time and
effort by focusing on academic vocabulary
What is Academic Vocabulary?

 Academic Vocabulary is a specialized
  vocabulary of 570 word families that
    commonly appear in all academic
  textbooks, regardless of content area
Academic Vocabulary Learning
In general vocabulary    In academic
learning, to go from     vocabulary learning,
80% understanding to     to go from 80%
86% understanding        understanding to 86%
would require students   understanding would
to learn 2,000 more      require students to
word families            learn 570 more word
                         families
Do you think studying academic
 vocabulary will be helpful for
        ELL students?
Keeping 4 principles in mind will
  help students develop their
vocabulary as much as possible.
       Principle #1


 Help students be active in
developing understanding of
words and ways to learn them
   Active Learning Strategy 1
• Semantic Mapping:

 Making a graphic representation of the
      relationship between words
   Active Learning Strategy 2
• Definition Mapping:

   Working with grammar, meaning,
        and sample sentences
   Active Learning Strategy 3
• Grouping:

 Recognizing the relatedness of a word
           to other words
                 Grouping
       massive                            extensive




                   Words that
huge              Describe Large              enormous
                      Scale




        immense                    vast
        Principle #2



Help students personalize their
        word learning
Personalized Learning Strategy 1
• Choosing words:

  Identify key concepts and the words
  required to understand these concepts
Personalized Learning Strategy 2
• Choosing words:

   Identify important terms students
             need to learn
Personalized Learning Strategy 3
• Choosing words:

  Identify meaningful similarities and
    differences among the concepts /
           words being studied
Personalizing Words (Summary)
• Students identify key concepts or important terms
  they need to learn within a text.
• Students construct a semantic network around
  each of the selected key concepts.
• Students think of examples or potential
  applications of the key concepts and record these
  examples on the definition worksheet.
• Students identify meaningful similarities and
  differences among the different concepts being
  studied.
        Principle #3


Students should be immersed in
             words
       Immersion in Words
• Opportunity 1:

        Put students in a word-
    and language-rich environment
       Immersion in Words
• Opportunity 2:

 Help students become aware of words
 and how they are used in the input they
                 receive
        Immersion in Words
• Opportunity 3:

Help students try to use new / interesting
   words in their speaking and writing
            Principle #4


Students should get multiple sources of
   information to learn words through
           repeated exposures
        Repeated Exposure
• Opportunity 1:

 Watch videos or TV programs that are
         related to the content
        Repeated Exposure
• Opportunity 2:

 Read books, stories, and other material
         related to the content
        Repeated Exposure
• Opportunity 3:

   Discuss content ideas with friends,
         family, and classmates
                Summary
    4 Principles of Vocabulary Learning
• Students should be active in developing
  their understanding of words and ways to
  learn them
• Students should personalize their word
  learning
• Students should be immersed in words
• Students should use multiple sources of
  information to learn words through repeated
  exposures
 Keeping these 4 principles in
mind will help students develop
 their vocabulary as much as
           possible.

				
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posted:10/12/2011
language:English
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