PROFIL DAYA TAHAN OTOT LOKAL_ KEKUATAN OTOT_ DAYA by chenmeixiu

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     PROFILE OF MUSCLE STRENGTH, ENDURANCE,
 EXPLOSIVE POWER AND FLEXIBILITY OF BANDUNG CITY
 RHYTMIC GYMNASTICS ATHLETE ACCORDING TO KONI
 (NATIONAL SPORT COMITTE OF INDONESIA) STANDARD
                        Reni Farenia, Dwi Putri Larasati
     Departement of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran




Address for correspondence :
Reni Farenia ,dr.,M.Kes.,AIF
Bagian Ilmu Faal Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran
Jl Raya Jatinangor Sumedang Km 21 . Jatinangor
email : renirudi@yahoo.co.id
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  MUSCLE STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, EXPLOSIVE POWER
 AND FLEXIBILITY PROFILE OF BANDUNG CITY RHYTMIC
      GYMNASTICS ATHLETE ACCORDING TO KONI
(NATIONAL SPORTS COMITTEE OF INDONESIA) STANDARD
                         Reni Farenia, Dwi Putri Larasati
      Departement of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

                                        ABSTRACT
         Physical fitness is the ability of an athlete to fulfill the physical activities that
is needed for the sport without becoming weary. This is a very important thing that
determines athlete’s performance. The predominant component of physical fitness for
rhythmic gymnastic are muscular endurance, muscle strength, power and flexibility.
         The study aimed to gather information regarding the physical fitness profile
of Bandung City rythmic gymnastic athlete before competing in Pekan Olah Raga
Daerah Jawa Barat (PORDA Jabar) XI event in 2010.
         The descriptive study was conducted using survey method. Subjects consist of
9 female Bandung City rythmic gymnastic athletes. Muscle endurance, muscle
strength, power, and flexibility were measured using appropiate tests and tools, and
then grouped according to Standard KONI Pusat.
         The results of this study showed that most of the rythmic gymnastic athletes
were in this categories: perfect for arms and shoulders muscle endurance, average
for stomach muscle endurance, below standard for muscle strength of the hands,
average for muscle strength of arms and shoulders, good and very good for muscle
strength of the back, average for muscle strength of the legs, below average and
average for arms and shoulders power, very good for legs power, and perfect for
flexibility.
         As conclusion, the performance of Bandung City rythmic gymnastic athlete
can be improved by increasing the training that are spesific for each of the physical
fitness component.


Keywods: physical fitness, muscle endurance, muscle strength, power, flexibility,
rythmic gymnastic
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INTRODUCTION

       Rhytmic gymnastics of Indonesian athlete prestige is not so good, especially
in the regional or international rhytmic gymnastics competition. To increase the
prestige in the competition , atlete need to have a good physical fitness ,so they must
have a good of component predominant for that sports.
       Rhytmic gymnastics is a gymnastics that developed from the konvensional
gymnastic.1 This sports using some properties just like, ribbons,ball, thread, a tool.
That properties combined with many movement of rhytmic gymnastics to make a
harmony in gymnastics.
       Physical fittness for gymnastic athlete is ability to do physical activity that
need for the movement during gymnastic without fatique . The final common
determinant of success for an athlete in a gymnastic events is what strenght they can
give when it is needed, what power they can achieve in the performance of work, and
how long they can continue their activity. The component of fittness for a rhytmic
gymnastics is cardiovascular endurance, muscle strenght, muscle endurance, muscle
explosive power and flexibility. All of the component must at the best condition to
be the best athlete and have a good prestige.
       All the predominant component of fittness for rhytmic gymnastics need a
training programme to increase the athlete performance. Rhytmic gymnastics athlete
from Bandung City have to do a training programme to face the Pekan Olah Raga
Daerah (PORDA) in the year 2010, a Regional Sport Competition. Physical
examination to know the predominant component for rhytmic gymnastics and than
according to KONI KONI Standard.
    This study imply further investigation about the Bandung city Rhytmic
Gymnastics athlete condition . The aims of the study is to give information for the
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athlete, official and the organization to make evaluation and to prepare training
programme.


METHODS
Subject
          Nine female Rhytmic Gymnastics from Bandung city, aged between 10- 18
years old. The study before the beginning of their competitive season (PORDA) .
After the potential risks were explained, the subjects gave a voluntary written and
informed consent to partisipate to the protocol approve by the institution’s ethics
committee of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, the subject were
explained about the beneficial of the study, the location of study, what kind of
componen measured. The component of fittness for a rhytmic gymnastics is
cardiovascular     endurance, muscle strenght, muscle endurance, muscle explosive
power and flexibility.
Inclusion criteria :
          -already join training minimal 6 month.
          -exercise 3 times/week
          -healthy athlete
Descriptive survey study in Sports Physiology to know the profile of muscle strenght,
muscle endurance, explosive power and flexibility        of Bandung city Rhytmic
Gymnastics athlete according to KONI Pusat
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     Research variable :
1. Response Variable
     - Muscle strength is the force or tension a muscle or more correctly a muscle
       group can exert against a resistance in one maximal effort. Measure by hand
       dinamometer, grip dinamometer, leg dinamometer. .
     - Muscle endurance is the ability or capasity of a muscle group to perform
        repeated contraction (isotonic, isokinetic or eccentric) against a load or to
        sustain a contraction (isometric) for an extended period of time. Push-up is
        to measured muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder .Sit up is to measure
        abdominal muscle endurance.
     - Muscle explosive power is the ability for maximal contraction in a very short
        time. Measured by pushing medicine ball.
     - Flexibility is the range of movement about a joint. Measurement by sut and
        reach test.


2.     Control Variable
     a. Physical characteristic
        - Age(year)
        - Body weight(kg)
        - Height (cm)
        - Body Mass Index (kg/m2)


     b. Physiological characteristic
        - Pulse rate (frekwensi/menit)
        - Blood Pressure : Systolic and Diastolic (mmHg)
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       From the study we collect the data about muscle strenght from the arm,
shoulder and leg muscles, muscle endurance from the arm and shoulder, and the
flexibility of the vertebrae. After that the data were collcted and make a category
according the KONI pusat Standard.


RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Physical Characteristic of the athlete include :
age (year),
body weight (kg), height(cm),
Body Mass Index(BMI) ( kg/m2),
pulse rate (pulse/mnt) ,
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg),
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg),


All the Data are summarized in Table 1
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                                           Tabel 1
                               Physical Characteristic
        Age                                                      BP (Rest)(mmHg)
No                BW(kg) Height(cm) BMI(kg/m2) Pulse(/mnt)
        (year)                                                   Sistolic   Diastolic
 1       10         29,2       139,4              15     108      100          60
 2       12         40,2       154,8              17      78      110          70
 3       13         43,7       153,5              19      92      120          80
 4       13         38,9        149               18      96      100          70
 5       14         32,1       153,5              18      96      110          70
 6       14         41,6        153               18      96      100          70
 7       15         45,5       153,6              19      72      110          70
 8       17         50,9       155,2              21      88      110          70
 9       18         50,4        154               21      96      120          70
X        14         42,5      151,78             18,35   91,33   108,89        70
SD      2,45        6,51       4,97              2,00    10,77    7,82        5,00




Note:            - BW : Body weight
                 - Height: Body height
                 - BMI : BodyMass Index
                 - X : mean
                 - SD : Standard Deviasi




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Athlete Profile of upper arm , shoulder and abdomen muscles endurance
according to KONI Standard
All Data according to KONI standard and the percentage is summarized in figure 1
and figure 2
                                            Figure 1
   Profile Persentage of fore arm , shoulder and abdomen muscles endurance
                           athlete according to KONI Standard
  Persent N Atlet
     120%
                                                                                             100%
     100%

       80%

       60%

       40%

       20%
                    0%            0%           0%             0%                0%
        0%
                Under standard   Poor         Fair            Good           Very goodi   excellent
                    KONI

                                        Category according to KONIStandard




As summarized in figure 1 . All athlete were in excellent condition in muscle
endurance of arm and shoulder according to KONI Standard
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                                          Figure 2
Profile Persentage of abdomen muscles endurance Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete
                             according to KONI Standard


 Persentage N
 Atlet80%
     70%                                   66.67%

     60%
     50%
     40%
     30%                                                  22.22%
     20%
                            11.11%
     10%
                0%                                                           0%          0%
      0%
              Under         Poor           Fair            iGood          Very good   Excellent
            Standard KONI
                                     Category according to KONIStandard




        As summarized in figure 2, we found that most of the rhytmic gymnastics
athlete have abdominal muscle endurance is fair category 66,67%, poor category
11,11% and category good 22,22%
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                                              Figure 3
                  Profile Persentage of hand grip muscles strength
          of Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete according to KONI Standard


  Percentage N athlete
       120%
                   100%
       100% 88.89%

        80%
                                                                                   right grip
        60%
                                                                                   left grip
        40%

        20%               11.11%
                               0%    0% 0%         0% 0%      0% 0%     0% 0%
         0%
              Under        Poor        fair         Good   Very good   Excellent
              standard
               r
              KONI

                            Category according KONIStandard




As summarized in figure 3, we found that most of the rhytmic gymnastics athlete
have right hand grip muscle strength is under standard category 88,89% and 11,11%
poor category. Left handgrip muscle strength 100% under category KONI standard.
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                                              Figure 4
              Profile Persentage of arm and shoulder muscles strength
  of Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete according to KONI Standard



  Percentage N Atlet
     60%                                  55.56%

     50%                    44.44%           44.44%

     40%
                                                                                           Pull
     30%
                               22.22%                     22.22%                           Push
     20%
                11.11%
     10%
              0%                                        0%              0% 0%    0% 0%
      0%
              Underr         Poor           Fair          Good      Very good   Exellent
            Standard KONI
                                     Category according KONI Standard



As summarized in figure 4, we found that most of the rhytmic gymnastics athlete
arm and shoulder muscles strength for pull is poor category 44,44%, Fair category
55,56%. ,according KONI standard.
Arm and shoulder muscles strength for push is under standard category 11,11%, poor
category 22,22%, Fair category 44,44%, Good category 22,22% according KONI
standard.
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                                          Figure 5
 Percentage Profile of back muscle strength Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnatics
                            athlete according KONI Standard



   Percentage N Athlete
     35%                                                  33.33%          33.33%

     30%

     25%

     20%

     15%
                             11.11%         11.11%                                    11.11%
     10%

      5%
                 0%
      0%
              Under          Poor           Fair            Good         Very good   excellent
            Standard KONI
                                      Category according KONI standard




       As summarized in Figure 5, Back muscle strength of athlete 33,33% Very
good category, 33,33% Good category. 11,11% Excellent category, 11,11% Fair
category and 11,11% Poor category.
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                                            Figure 6
 Profile Persentage of leg muscles strength Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnastics
                           athlete according to KONI Standard




  Percentage N Athlete

     50%
                                             44.44%
     45%
     40%
                                                            33.33%
     35%
     30%
     25%                      22.22%
     20%
     15%
     10%
      5%         0%                                                             0%          0%
      0%
              Under KONI      Poor           Fair             Good           Very good   Excellent
              Standard

                                       Categori according to KONI standard




As summarized in Figure 6, we found that most of the athlete have Fair category
44,44%, Good category 33,33% and Poor category 22,22%
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                                                Figure 7
     Profile Persentage of Muscles Explosive Power Bandung city Rhytmic
                    Gymnastics athlete according to KONI Standard


  Percentage N athlete
     60%                                                        55.56%

     50%                 44.44%     44.44%

     40%
                                                                                     Arm and shoulder muscles
     30%                               22.22%                                         Leg muscles
     20%
           11.11%          11.11%                                        11.11%
     10%
                 0%                               0% 0%     0%           0%
      0%
            Under KONI Poor           Fair        Good     Very Good     Excellent
             Standard

                          Category according to KONI Standard




As summarized in Figure 7, we found that muscle explosive power of arm and
shoulder are in fair category 44,44%, Poor category 44,44% and under standard
category 11,11%. Muscle explosive power of leg are in very good category 55,56%,
Fair category 22,22%, Excellent category 11,11% and Poor category 11,11%.
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                                       Figure 8
   Percentage Flexibility Profile of Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete
                             according KONI standard


   Percentage N Atlet
     120%
                                                                                    100%
     100%

      80%

      60%

      40%

      20%
                  0%         0%            0%            0%              0%
       0%
               Under KONI   Poor          Fair           Good         Very Good   Excellent
                 Standard

                                   Category according KONI standard




As summarized at Figure 8, all athlete have excellent flexibility according to KONI
standard.


       .
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Discussion
Derajat Profil Daya Tahan Otot Lengan dan Bahu serta Perut pada Atlet Senam
Ritmik Kota Bandung Menurut Standar KONI Pusat
       Dari Grafik 4.1 didapatkan hasil bahwa semua atlet senam ritmik Kota
Bandung memiliki daya tahan otot lengan dan bahu yang berada dalam kategori
sempurna menurut Standar KONI Pusat. Hal ini tidak sesuai dengan profil kekuatan
otot lengan dan bahu yang dimiliki atlet tersebut, dimana didapatkan bahwa sebagian
besar berada dalam kategori cukup, baik untuk tarikan maupun dorongan.
Berdasarkan pengamatan peneliti, hasil yang tidak sesuai ini kemungkinan
disebabkan oleh kurang telitinya pemeriksa dalam melakukan pencatatan hasil
pemeriksaan fisik pada subjek.
       Sedangkan dari Grafik 4.2 didapatkan hasil bahwa untuk daya tahan otot
perut, sebagian besar atlet senam ritmik Kota Bandung berada dalam kategori cukup,
namun masih ada sebagian atlet yang masih berada dalam kategori kurang. Hal ini
mengindikasikan bahwa latihan untuk melatih daya tahan otot perut yang dilakukan
belum memadai untuk mencapai hasil yang maksimal.


Derajat Profil Kekuatan Otot Tangan, Kekuatan Otot Lengan dan Bahu,
Kekuatan Otot Punggung, Kekuatan Otot Tungkai pada Atlet Senam Ritmik
Kota Bandung Menurut Standar KONI Pusat
       Dari Grafik 4.3 didapatkan hasil bahwa sebagian besar atlet senam ritmik
Kota Bandung memiliki kekuatan tangan yang masih berada di bawah Standar KONI
Pusat, dan hal ini mengindikasikan kurangnya latihan kekuatan tangan yang telah
dilakukan.
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        Dari Grafik 4.4 didapatkan hasil bahwa sebagian besar atlet senam ritmik
Kota Bandung memiliki kekuatan otot lengan dan bahu yang termasuk ke dalam
kategori cukup. Namun masih ada sebagian yang berada dalam kategori kurang, dan
ada pula yang masih berada di bawah Standar KONI Pusat. Hal ini mengindikasikan
bahwa latihan untuk melatih kekuatan lengan dan bahu yang telah dilakukan masih
kurang.
        Dari Grafik 4.5 didapatkan bahwa sebagian besar atlet senam ritmik Kota
Bandung memiliki kekuatan otot punggung yang termasuk ke dalam kategori baik
dan baik sekali, dan sisanya berada dalam kategori kurang, cukup, dan ada pula yang
termasuk ke dalam kategori sempurna. Derajat profil kekuatan otot punggung yang
bervariasi tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa latihan kekuatan otot punggung yang
telah dilakukan kurang sesuai dengan kebutuhan masing-masing atlet.
        Dari Grafik 4.6 didapatkan bahwa sebagian besar atlet senam ritmik Kota
Bandung memiliki kekuatan otot tungkai yang termasuk ke dalam kategori cukup,
namun masih ada yang berada dalam kategori kurang. Hal ini mengindikasikan
kurangnya latihan kekuatan tungkai yang telah dilakukan.


Derajat Profil Daya Ledak Otot Lengan dan Bahu serta Daya Ledak Otot
Tungkai pada Atlet Senam Ritmik Kota Bandung Menurut Standar KONI
Pusat
        Dari Grafik 4.7 didapatkan bahwa sebagian besar daya ledak otot lengan dan
bahu yang dimiliki oleh atlet senam ritmik Kota Bandung termasuk ke dalam kategori
kurang dan cukup, serta masih ada yang berada di bawah Standar KONI Pusat. Hal
ini sesuai dengan profil kekuatan lengan dan bahu yang ada, dan mengindikasikan
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kurangnya latihan untuk kekuatan otot lengan dan bahu turut berpengaruh kepada
kurang baiknya kemampuan daya ledak otot lengan dan bahu pada subjek.
         Sedangkan untuk daya ledak otot tungkai didapatkan bahwa sebagian besar
berada dalam kategori baik sekali, namun ada pula sebagian yang termasuk ke dalam
kategori kurang. Dilihat dari profil kekuatan otot tungkai yang ada, tampak bahwa
kekuatan otot tersebut kurang berpengaruh kepada kemampuan daya ledak otot
tungkai pada subjek. Ditinjau dari kepustakaan, dimana daya ledak otot dipengaruhi
oleh kombinasi dari kekuatan otot dan kecepatan, maka kemungkinan latihan
kecepatan yang dilakukan sudah memadai sehingga dapat meningkatkan performa
subjek. Namun karena masih ada sebagian dari subjek yang berada dalam kategori
kurang, hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa latihan yang telah dilakukan kurang sesuai
dengan kebutuhan masing-masing atlet.


Derajat Profil Kelentukan Atlet Senam Ritmik Kota Bandung Berdasarkan
Standar KONI Pusat
         Dari Grafik 4.8 didapatkan hasil bahwa semua atlet senam ritmik Kota
Bandung memiliki kelentukan yang termasuk ke dalam kategori sempurna menurut
Standar KONI Pusat. Menurut pengamatan peneliti hal ini disebabkan karena
banyaknya porsi latihan kelentukan yang dilakukan oleh subjek tersebut.


CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
     Conclusion of this study are :
1.   Muscle strength profile of Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete according
     to KONI Standard :.
     -    Muscle arm strength most of them under KONI Standard.
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      -    Muscle upper arm strength       and shoulder strength most of them is fair
           category, but there is also a poor category and some is under standard
           KONI.
      -    Muscle back strength most of them is good and very good category , but
           some is poor category.
      -    Muscle leg strength most of them is fair category , but some is poor
           category.
2.    Profile of muscle endurance Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete
      according to KONI Standard is
          - Muscle arm and shoulder endurance are excellent.
           - Muscle abdominal endurance most of them are fair category, but some are
             poor category
3.    Muscle arm and shoulder explosive power profile of Bandung city Rhytmic
      Gymnastics athlete according to KONI Standard most of them is poor and fair
      category, but there is also under standard .
       Muscle leg explosive power of Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete
       according to KONI Standard, most is very good category, but there is also under
       standard .
4.    Flexibility profile of Bandung city Rhytmic Gymnastics athlete according to
      KONI Standard is excellent category.


SUGGESTION
1. Training programme to increase muscle strength (arm, shoulder) more intensive.
2. Training programme to increase muscle endurance (arm shoulder, back,abdominal,
     leg) more intensive.
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3.Training programme to increase muscle explosive power more intensive.
4.Training programme to increase flexibility more intensive to maintain the exellent
     flexibility.




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