Perceptual Motor Development (PowerPoint) by liaoqinmei



• 2nd leading cause of death in the U.S.
• In, 2004: 554,000 Americans died from cancer
• Most cancers are preventable
  – Cigarette smoke is estimated to be the primary cause
    in the development of at least 30% of all cancers
• If everything we know about cancer prevention
  were practiced by everyone, up to 2/3rds of all
  cancers could be prevented
• 50% of all cancer patients can be cured if their
  cancer is detected at an early stage before
  cancer cells have spread
                      Race, Gender, Ethnicity

All cancers combined, men per 100,000 (2004):
• Incidence rates are highest among black (607.3), followed by
   white (527.2), Hispanic (415.5), Asian/Pacific Islander (325.8),
   and American Indian/Alaska Native (288.6) men.
• Death rates are highest among black (303.5), followed by white
   (224.8), Hispanic (152.8), American Indian/Alaska Native
   (151.2), and Asian/Pacific Islander (137.0) men.

All cancers combined, women per 100,000 (2004):
• Incidence rates are highest among white (405.9), followed by
   black (379.7), Hispanic (318.6), Asian/Pacific Islander (267.4),
   and American Indian/Alaska Native (242.2) women.
• Death rates are highest among black (182.8), followed by white
   (156.4), American Indian/Alaska Native (110.7), Hispanic
   (101.9), and Asian/Pacific Islander (92.3) women.
                What is Cancer?

• Cancer
  – Is now defined as the unregulated growth of
    specific cells in the body
• Tumor
  – Benign tumors
    • Cysts, warts, moles, and polyps do not spread to
      other parts of the body
  – Malignant tumors
  – Metastasis
• Carcinomas
   – 80-90% of all cancers
• Sarcomas
   – 2% of all cancers
• Leukemias
   – 4% of all cancers
• Lymphomas
   – 5% of all cancers
• Numerous subcategories
   – Ex. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach or oat cell carcinoma of
     the lung
• About ½ of all human cancers originate in one of four
   – Lung, breast, prostate, colon
                 Causes of Cancer

• Most cancers are not inherited
• Cancer Susceptibility Genes
     • Ex. BRCA1 BRCA2 (breast ovarian cancer)
     • Ex. APC, MSH2 and MLH1 (colon cancer)
• Ionizing Radiation
  – X-rays, UV light, and radioactivity whose
    energy can damage cells and chromosomes
• Chemical Carcinogens
  – An environmental substance that can interact
    with cells to initiate cancer, usually by altering
    the chromosomes or genes in cells
                           Types of Cancer
• Lung
  – In 2007, 160,000 deaths
     • 90,000 men / 60,000 women
           – 80-90% caused by smoking cigarettes

• Breast
  – Factors that increase risk
     •   Mother who had breast cancer before age 60
     •   Onset of menarche before age 14
     •   First born child after age 30
     •   No biological children
     •   Menopause after age 55
     •   Inheritance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes
     •   Consuming more than 3oz of alcohol a day
                   Types of Cancer

• Testicular
  – Treatable if detected early
     • Ex. Lance Armstrong

• Skin
  – Melanoma, a malignant form of skin cancer has
    increased 20x since 1930
     • Overall, 5th most frequently diagnosed cancer
  – 2 main causes of increase in rate of skin cancer

• Colon
  – Affects men and women equally and causes about
    60,000 deaths annually in the U.S.
                  Cancer Treatment

• Surgery
  – If evidence the tumor has spread or if some of the
    tumor could not be removed surgically, then radiation
    or chemotherapy or both are used to kill remaining
    cancer cells
• Radiation Therapy
  – X-rays or other high energy radiation destroy cancer
• Chemotherapy
  – Toxic chemicals to kill cancer cells and treat some
    forms of cancer
                  Group Questions

• The “war against cancer” is fought by
  physicians and scientists in two fundamentally
  different ways
  – Medical research tries to discover better treatments
    for all forms of cancer
  – Epidemiologists and other researchers believe that
    we need to shift emphasis from seeking cures to
• In your judgment, which of these positions is
  correct? Or do you believe both positions are
  equally valid?
• Support your position

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