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					     The Aesthetics of Unique
     Video Game Characters




             A Project Presented to the Faculty of The Guildhall
                      at Southern Methodist University
                             By Shaylyn Hamm
     (Bachelor of Fine Arts, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, 2008)


    In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for a Masters of Interactive
Technology in Digital Game Development with a Specialization in Art Creation



                            December 11th, 2009
Masters Thesis                                                              SMU Guildhall


To the Graduate Faculty:

               I am submitting herewith a project written by Shaylyn Hamm entitled “The
Aesthetics of Female Video Game Characters.” I recommend that it be accepted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Interactive Technology in Digital
Game Development, with Specialization in Art Creation.



                                                _________________________________
                                                Chad Walker


I have read this Project
and recommend its acceptance:

____________________________________
Karl Patton




                                                Accepted for the Faculty:


                                                _________________________________
                                                Gary Brubaker, Director of Academics
                                                SMU Guildhall




Shaylyn Hamm                               ii                         11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                           SMU Guildhall




                                 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


       I wish to thank Skyler Jermyn, my friends and fellow artists of C11 for the valuable
feedback I received throughout the project. Thanks to Karl Patton, from whom I learned a lot
about character design and art as a whole.




Shaylyn Hamm                                 iii                     11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                              SMU Guildhall


NAME           Shaylyn Hamm                                  M.I.T., SMU Guildhall, 2009


The Aesthetics of Unique Female Video Game Characters

Supervisor: Chad Walker
Master of Interactive Technology degree conferred December 11th, 2009
Thesis / Project completed December 11th, 2009


   For my project-in-lieu-of-thesis, I explored the creative process of distinctive and

appealing female game characters through the design and creation of two characters: female

versions of the Medic and Heavy Weapons Guy classes from the game Team Fortress 2. I

refined my characters throughout the course of the project through feedback gathered from

several different gaming/art communities on the internet. By responding to the comments

and suggestions that were common among different ages, genders, and gamer types, I was

able to create characters with a broad appeal. This design approach could be helpful to

industry professionals in the creation of female characters that are marketable to both men

and women gamers.




Shaylyn Hamm                                iv                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                                                   SMU Guildhall


Table of Contents
List of Figures .......................................................................................................................... vi
Nomenclature .......................................................................................................................... vii
Chapter 1: Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1
Chapter 2: Field Review ........................................................................................................... 2
Chapter 3: Methodology ......................................................................................................... 18
  3:1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 18
  3:2 Testing and Data Collection ......................................................................................... 18
  Schedule .............................................................................................................................. 19
  Chapter 4: Results and Analysis ......................................................................................... 21
  4:1 Responding to Feedback and Refinements ................................................................... 21
  4:2 Survey Results Analysis ............................................................................................... 37
Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 39
References ............................................................................................................................... 40
  Articles ................................................................................................................................ 40
  Games ................................................................................................................................. 40
Appendix A ............................................................................................................................. 41
Response Summary Report ..................................................................................................... 41




Shaylyn Hamm                                                       v                                       11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                                                     SMU Guildhall




List of Figures
Figure                                                                                                                                  Page
Figure 1 ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2 ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Figure 3 ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 4 ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 5 ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 6 ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 7 ................................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 8 ................................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 9 ................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 10 ................................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 11 ................................................................................................................................. 14
Figure 12 ................................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 13 ................................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 14 ................................................................................................................................. 25
Figure 15 ................................................................................................................................. 26
Figure 16 ................................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 17 ................................................................................................................................. 28
Figure 18 ................................................................................................................................. 28
Figure 19 ................................................................................................................................. 29
Figure 20 ................................................................................................................................. 30
Figure 21 ................................................................................................................................. 31
Figure 22 ................................................................................................................................. 32
Figure 23 ................................................................................................................................. 33
Figure 24 ................................................................................................................................. 33
Figure 25 ................................................................................................................................. 34
Figure 26 ................................................................................................................................. 35
Figure 27 ................................................................................................................................. 36




Shaylyn Hamm                                                       vi                                        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                  SMU Guildhall



Nomenclature
             FPS: First Person Shooter

             Heavy: Heavy Weapons Guy

             HLMV: Half-Life Model viewer

             MMORPG: Massive Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game

             RPG: Roleplaying Game

             TF2: Team Fortress 2




Shaylyn Hamm                              vii                11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                              SMU Guildhall




Chapter 1: Introduction
       Throughout the diaspora of modern games, female characters are not rare. There are

many games with females as main playable characters as well as supporting roles, yet it is

not uncommon for female audiences to find these characters unlikable and difficult to relate

to. They are often hyper-sexualized, with generic, young faces and outfits that are more

revealing of their bodies than a personality. These female characters are stark contrasts to the

aesthetic goals of the male characters which encompass a much larger range of body types,

costumes, and facial features.

       The video game industry is comprised largely of male developers, as well as is its

largest target audience. The desires of this demographic are clearly understood by those who

create the games, and both male and female characters reflect this. However, the game

industry is always expanding and changing, and more diverse groups of people are becoming

interested in video games. Girls may find video games very boy-centric and become

alienated from them as a result. This field review explores the aesthetics of female game

characters and different ways that they can be designed. If it is possible to create female

characters that are more universally attractive, unique, and likeable, the video game industry

would be tremendously helped with its efforts to reach out to a broader range of audiences.




Shaylyn Hamm                                 1                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                  SMU Guildhall



Chapter 2: Field Review
        Video games span a wide range of genres, and the characters that fill their worlds

come in all shapes, styles and levels of abstraction, from cartoonish to hyper-realistic.

Because of the variation in possible visual styles, artists are able to use their creativity in

countless ways to create appealing and unique characters for their games.

        Valve Corporation’s first-person-shooter, Team Fortress 2, is a strong example of

character variety in a video game. Each one of the nine classes was designed to be instantly

recognizable by their silhouette, and to appear visually clear, even when seen from a

distance. “The body proportions, weapons and silhouette lines as determined by footwear,

hats and clothing folds were explicitly designed to give each character a unique silhouette. In

the shaded interior areas of a character, the clothing folds were explicitly designed to echo

silhouette shapes in order to emphasize silhouettes, as observed in the commercial

illustrations which inspired our designs” (Dhabih, Franke, Mitchel, 2007). As a result, the

game appears lively and diverse, and a distinct sense of personality emerges from each of the

characters.

        For example, the Medic class of TF2 is portrayed as a German doctor. His outfit is

an original design, but it suggests connections to the Nazi uniforms of World War II through

elements such as his dress boots, trousers, even his hairstyle. His posture is rigid and

militaristic as well, and these features go a long way in defining the personality of a character

that has extremely little official background.




Shaylyn Hamm                                   2                            11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                               SMU Guildhall




Figure 1 - The Medic class of Team Fortress 2. Valve Corporation, 2007.




         Another example from TF2 is the design of the Heavy Weapons Guy (Heavy) class.

The minigun he carries is immense, and his huge frame seems completely suitable for

carrying such a weapon. His top-heavy frame suggests great upper-arm strength, while his

tiny legs don’t get in the way of the bulk of the gun while he carries it. He is extremely large



Shaylyn Hamm                                          3                   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                            SMU Guildhall


and overweight, rather than overtly muscular. His character is tastefully designed, expanding

on the stereotype of fat characters, rather than mocking it.




Figure 2 - The Heavy Weapons Guy class of Team Fortress 2.




Shaylyn Hamm                                        4                 11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                   SMU Guildhall




                             Figure 3 - The nine classes of Team Fortress 2




                                 Figure 4 - Team Fortress 2 silhouettes




       Although female characters are abundantly found in video games, the way their

designs are typically approached is in stark contrast to the characters of Team Fortress 2.

       The majority of game developers and the target audience for many popular and

successful games are male. Therefore, it makes sense from a profit-oriented standpoint to




Shaylyn Hamm                                    5                             11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                               SMU Guildhall


create female characters that are, above all else, overtly sexual by design. The idea that “sex

sells” is very common, and is applied to nearly every facet of the entertainment industry.

Video games are well known for reflecting and following the trends of pop culture,

especially action movies. For decades, movies have cast women in roles that are based

solely on the characters’ sex appeal. While many male actors continue to perform lead roles

into their 60’s and 70’s, women lose their lead roles at much earlier ages, and are no longer

considered sexy or ideal. This way of thinking is very prevalent in the entertainment and

marketing world, and has strongly influenced the way video game development is viewed.

Despite this fact, many girls and women who enjoy playing video games, even the ones with

very male-oriented themes.



       As well-crafted and standard-setting as the TF2 cast is, there is something

       missing: female characters. While the game industry is filled with famous

       fictional women, they tend to lack what the TF2 guys, and a lot of other

       groups of male characters, have: variety. Even in games with a well-rounded

       male cast, the ladies tend to look like dress-up dolls with a few different sets

       of clothing and wigs. (Pickens, 9)



       If female video game characters were designed with more subtlety, variety, and

gender-neutral appeal, perhaps more girls would be interested in trying out and enjoying

genres of games that normally only accommodate the male gender. Just as many female

gamers find the TF2 characters unique and charming, diverse and compelling. Additionally,

female characters need not turn off or alienate male gamers.




Shaylyn Hamm                                 6                           11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                SMU Guildhall


       The issue this project will address is the homogeny of female game characters. The

kind of deficit of uniqueness in question refers to the character’s visual design, how it relates

to the game world and how the character’s visual design supports personality and adds depth

and overall appeal. While the character’s in-game personality is influenced strongly by non-

visual factors such as her voice, attitude, actions, etc., her appearance plays an over-arching

primary role in how she is received.


       For example, the male characters in the game Gears of War (Epic Games, 2006)

reflect the dismal, harsh post-apocalyptic world they fight in. The art style of the game is

highly dramatic, and accentuates the damage inflicted on a once-normal society. The

masculinity of the characters is exaggerated by their huge, battle-scarred forms, and they

seem almost as intimidating as the monsters they are fighting. On the other hand, Lieutenant

Anya Stroud is the only female character in the game. She is young, presumably in her early

20’s, with a flawless appearance. While not overly-sexual by design, she shows no scars,

age, or other features that relate to the world that the men are so physically tied into. Her

personality is calm, her background is undeveloped and she seems very detached from the

game, as if she were included only to represent a pretty face. The bombed-out buildings and

cars have more of a sense of history than Anya Stroud. Could a female character, perhaps

older, with a few battle scars, or some gritty humor added to her appearance, be suitable for

Gears of War? If such a character were designed, could she possibly appeal to potential

female gamers and males as well? If she were portrayed with the same respect and visual

interest as the rest of the cast, females may be more inclined to give a game like Gears of

War a chance.




Shaylyn Hamm                                  7                           11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                               SMU Guildhall




Figure 5 - Battle-hardened main characters of Gears of War. Their figures are exaggerated and stylized to fit the

dismal post-apocalyptic setting of the game. Epic Games, 2006.




Figure 6 - Anya Stroud, Gears of War. Epic Games, 2006.




Shaylyn Hamm                                           8                                11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                               SMU Guildhall




         In contrast to the generic female portrayal in Gears of War, the female characters of

Half-Life 2 are more successfully integrated with their world. Pragmatically designed, these

characters reflect the harsh lifestyle of their world in a much more believable way. Like

Anya Stroud, Alyx Vance (the companion to the game’s protagonist, Gordon Freeman) is a

young and attractive woman. However, unlike Anya, her hair is unkempt, she wears no

make-up, and her outfit is suitable for someone who spends most of their time outdoors,

engaged in a lot of fighting and physical activity. She conveys the attitude of someone who

has no time for, nor any need to keep up her appearance. The other female characters, such

as Judith Mossman and the various rebels seen throughout the game, are handled in very

much the same way.


         Alyx’s personality is clearly defined by her visual design, but her mannerisms and

interactions with other characters add to her depth as well. She reacts to the events of the

game with a variety of emotions, and her relationships with and opinions of the other

characters are explored as well. According to a 2006 study of females’ dislikes in video

games,


                The two studies reported in this article demonstrate the importance of

         content and personality factors for the explanation of gender differences in

         computer game play. Study 1 found that young German women prefer rich

         social interactions in computer games, which most available products cannot

         offer, and also revealed the women's dislike of violent content and heavy

         gender-stereotyping in the presentation of characters. The applied research



Shaylyn Hamm                                  9                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                              SMU Guildhall


         design that relied on fictional game packages and conjoint analysis should

         produce valid results. (Hartman, Klimt. Gender and Computer Games:

         Exploring Females' Dislikes. Journal of Computer-Mediated

         Communication, 2006.)




Figure 7 - Alyx from Half-Life 2. Valve Corporation, 2004.



Shaylyn Hamm                                          10                11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                              SMU Guildhall




Figure 8 - Dr. Judith Mossman in Half-Life 2. Valve Corporation, 2004.




Shaylyn Hamm                                         11                  11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                     SMU Guildhall




    Figure 9 - Sonya from Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe, Midway Games and Warner Bros. Games, 2008.




Shaylyn Hamm                                    12                            11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                     SMU Guildhall




  Figure 10 - Catwoman from Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe, Midway Games and Warner Bros. Games, 2008.




Shaylyn Hamm                                    13                            11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                          SMU Guildhall




             Figure 11 - First page of Google Image results for the phrase "video game female"



Shaylyn Hamm                                     14                                11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                                 SMU Guildhall




Figure 12 - Official Mirror's Edge box art (left), fan-created "improvement" (right)




Figure 13 - Artwork of Capcom's Street Fighter characters. The male character designs enjoy a wide range of body

types, ages, and personalities. The female characters share nearly identical facial features, builds, and approximate

ages. Only by their costumes and hairstyles/eye color are they at all set apart from each other.




Shaylyn Hamm                                           15                                 11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                SMU Guildhall


       In terms of attracting both genders, the state-of-the-art in the industry now are games

with female characters to which girls can relate. These games take a more gender-neutral

approach with the tone, instead of playing out the story through a very male-centric

viewpoint. Games such as TF2, which have a broad appeal and bridge the gap between

genders, attract more female players than many other FPS games.

       Half-Life 2, while a fairly typical shooting game in many ways, has two female

characters that are very believable. Alyx, the player’s frequent companion and fighting

partner, has a very fleshed-out and likeable personality, and displays a range of emotions as

the story unfolds. Another character, Dr. Mossman, shows a very human side as she betrays

her friends, but later on has a change of heart and redeems herself through her actions. Both

of these characters are very realistic in their appearance, wearing outfits that are appropriate

for the world that they live in. In a popular re-imaging of the box art of the game Mirror’s

Edge by a Korean fan, the protagonist has a considerably larger chest size, sports a new

hairstyle, and her entire facial structure has been altered “to suit the East Asian standard of

beauty.”   According to a kotaku.com article (Ashcraft, 2008), the producer of the game was

unpleased with the character’s new look.


       I remember when I first had that image sent to me. To be honest, I found it
       kind of sad. We’ve spent time in developing Faith. And the important thing
       for us was that she was human, that she was more real.

       We really wanted to get away from the typical portrayal of women in games,
       that they’re all just kind of tits and ass in a steel bikini. We wanted her to look
       athletic and fit and strong [enough] that she could do the things that she’s
       doing.

       We wanted her to be attractive, but we didn’t want her to be a supermodel.
       We wanted her to be approachable and far more real. It was just kind of
       depressing that someone thinks it would be better if Faith was a 12-year-old
       with a boob job. That was kind of what that image looked to me.


Shaylyn Hamm                                 16                           11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                        SMU Guildhall


Her formerly strong, angry gaze was replaced with large, almost frightened eyes, and her

chin was narrowed and her jaw softened, to make her appear more feminine. What was

before an unusual face with striking features was altered to resemble the generic,

stereotypically attractive look of a common anime character.




Shaylyn Hamm                               17                     11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                SMU Guildhall



Chapter 3: Methodology
3:1 Introduction

         The project explores the methodology of designing female video game characters that

fit within certain requirements, such as an art style and time period. Design principles exist

for artists to plan unique and grounded creations, whether they are characters, environments,

or any other kind of asset. The goal of this project is to follow an effective process that will

encourage unique and appealing female characters that fit the style and artistic specifications

of a given game. The information gathered in for this project will suggest whether or not

females, designed with the same considerations as their male counterparts, are well-received

by both male and female audiences.



3:2 Testing and Data Collection

         Testing will gather data relating to the viewers’ reactions and opinions regarding the

characters’ features and personalities. It will be necessary to determine what percentages of

the viewers enjoy the characters, which features they prefer, and what their overall

impressions are. This information will suggest whether or not the characters are well

received by their audience. Data will be collected via surveys, which will be distributed via

several media, including e-mail and by hand. Testers will consist of both males and females

aged 18-35. Questions will be formatted for both full sentence answers as well as the Likert

Scale.




Shaylyn Hamm                                 18                           11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                SMU Guildhall


       The project intends to determine if characters designed following specific design

principles, which are proven to work with male characters of a similar theme, are appealing

to both female and male audiences. While people within each of these demographics

certainly have their own personal preferences, the characters should not be overly

unappealing to either group.


Sample survey questions

              On a scale from 1-5, how would you rate the overall appeal of Character A?

              Would you enjoy playing Character A in a video game such as Team

               Fortress 2?



Schedule
              Detailed schedule with milestone of the entire project

              2 week milestones

              Plan for submitting the first draft of your full thesis to your Supervisor 4
               weeks before scheduled graduation

Task Completion Date:

              6 July: Rough concept art designs, characters chosen

              22 July: Final concept art designs

              25 August: First character model completed, rigging began

              8 September: Second character low poly model and unwrap complete, first
               character rigging complete

              22 September: Second character textures, high poly complete

              29 September: Second character rigging complete, testing began


Shaylyn Hamm                                 19                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                       SMU Guildhall


             13 November: All testing complete

             18 December: Thesis defense




Shaylyn Hamm                            20        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                             SMU Guildhall



Chapter 4: Results and Analysis
4:1 Responding to Feedback and Refinements

       As early as the character design phase, I began posting my progress in the project on

several websites in order to hear feedback and suggestions from different kinds of gamers.

Many of the suggestions I received helped me improve my models by offering ways to make

their features more distinctive. I was also able to gauge how attractive they could be and

whether certain aspects of their design had had a positive or negative impression on the

viewers. Below are links to the webpages where I posted my artwork for feedback.


Facepunch.com:
My Female Medic Model: http://www.facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=797667
My Female Heavy Model: http://www.facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=803369

Steam Forums – Community Content:
My Female Medic Model:
http://forums.steampowered.com/forums/showthread.php?p=11516806#post11516806
My Female Heavy Model:
http://forums.steampowered.com/forums/showthread.php?p=11532718#post11532718

deviantArt – from my gallery (chemicalalia.deviantart.com):

              Female TF2 Character Design Sketches (Fig. 14):
               http://chemicalalia.deviantart.com/art/TF2-female-designs-v-2-125637664
              Female Heavy Concept Sketch: (Fig. 16)
               http://chemicalalia.deviantart.com/art/Female-Heavy-134774670
              Female Heavy Model (Fig. 21):
               http://chemicalalia.deviantart.com/art/Female-Heavy-views-145112064
              Early Female Medic Concept Sketch (Fig. 22):
               http://chemicalalia.deviantart.com/art/Female-Medic-129552180
              Final Female Medic Concept Sketch: (Fig 25)
               http://chemicalalia.deviantart.com/art/Another-female-Medic-sketch-139027558
              Female Medic Model (Fig. 27):
               http://chemicalalia.deviantart.com/art/Female-Medic-views-145112417



Shaylyn Hamm                                21                         11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                               SMU Guildhall


       My first step was to determine which two classes would be most fitting to work with,

within the scope of the project. Since I was only redesigning two classes, and not the full set,

I wanted to make sure that the characters I picked contrasted each other in terms of their

attitude, age, and body type. I sketched a set of possible base designs for eight of the nine

characters (excluding the Pyro), and with this image I began seeking feedback from the

internet community. I wanted to gauge the reactions people might have to certain kinds of

features, to test the limits of how “unattractive” or “provocatively” a character could be

before there was a strong opposition to them. For example, in the below image (Fig. 14), the

second Sniper in the second row, has a bit of her midriff exposed. In the fifth row, the first

Scout is wearing her hair in pigtails. The reactions to these two features were rather

polarized, on the websites that I posted them. Many viewers voiced a preference for these

designs, but others (including several females) strongly disliked them, finding them too

suggestive and “girly.” The reactions to the Spy designs (row six) were the most extreme,

with feedback strongly for and against each one of the sketches. In the end, I chose the

Medic and the Heavy, in favor of their contrasting character types. In the links posted in the

above paragraph, the full discussions of each image can be found.

       One of the main sources of inspiration for the Heavy design was female World

War II-era Soviet snipers (Fig. 15). Despite being rugged and fearsome in battle, many of

them were rather, and served as role models to other women and girls. Similarly, I wanted

my character to be intimidating and massive, but have a slightly charming aspect as well. I

didn’t want to design an oafish “Helga” character, as that would rely too heavily on default

stereotypes of heavier women. From my concept sketch (Fig. 16), I began constructing my

model. Since I posted work-in-progress screenshots of the model throughout the process, I




Shaylyn Hamm                                 22                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                 SMU Guildhall


tried to respond to similar suggestions by changing and adding details along the way.

Examples of such changes are adding some more bulk to her side profile, defining the shape

of her rear more carefully, and deciding the colors of her hat (Fig. 18-20).

       I followed the same process for the Medic character. Originally the model had round

eyeglasses like the original male version, but I wanted to change the style to something a bit

more unique to this character. Through the community, I was able to decide between several

styles of eyewear, and ultimately settled on cat-eye glasses, which had first become popular

for ladies in the 1940’s. Another example of an improvement I made along the way is to her

neutral facial expression. The concept drawing (Fig. 22) depicts a “classically attractive”

woman in a style that would be popular in a World War II propaganda poster. My feedback

suggested that her expression could be more stern and her facial features more angular and

distinctive, so after re-imaging the character slightly (Fig. 25), I reworked her face to give her

a slightly more evil and crazed base expression.

       Slight changes to the characters continued well into the rigging process. Some of

these changes were responses to my feedback and suggestions, while others were

necessitated by the limitations of working with the bone structure of the original characters.

The arms of both the Heavy and Medic are now longer than I originally planned, in order to

ensure that the animations are as natural as possible. The Medic’s shoulders are a bit

broader, her coat longer, and the Heavy’s upper body is somewhat bulkier in the most recent

versions (Fig. 22 and 27). These restrictions have created an interesting “balancing act” to

my development process, in which I must sometimes compromise between what will look

most ideal for the character, and what will keep her from breaking in-game.




Shaylyn Hamm                                 23                           11 December 2009
Masters Thesis           SMU Guildhall




Shaylyn Hamm     24   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                        SMU Guildhall




Figure 14 - Early character design sketches



Shaylyn Hamm                                  25   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                            SMU Guildhall




Figure 15 - Female Soviet snipers, a big initial source of inspiration for the Heavy




Shaylyn Hamm                                            26                             11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                          SMU Guildhall




Figure 16 - Final design sketch for the Heavy




Shaylyn Hamm                                    27   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                     SMU Guildhall




Figure 17 - Concept sheet for the Heavy




Figure 18 - Early progress of the Heavy model showing two possible hat colors



Shaylyn Hamm                                         28                         11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                     SMU Guildhall




Figure 19 - Early progress of the Heavy model showing changes to the geometry




Shaylyn Hamm                                        29                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                           SMU Guildhall




Figure 20 - Early progress of the Heavy showing improvements to the silhouette form




Shaylyn Hamm                                         30                               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                SMU Guildhall




Figure 21 - The Heavy model with weapons and taunts




Shaylyn Hamm                                          31   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                          SMU Guildhall




Figure 22 - Early female Medic concept sketch




Shaylyn Hamm                                    32   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                    SMU Guildhall




Figure 23 - Concept sheet for the Medic




Figure 24 - Early Medic model WIP




Shaylyn Hamm                              33   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                        SMU Guildhall




Figure 25 - A slight updated concept sketch of the Medic to reflect some changes




Shaylyn Hamm                                          34                           11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                             SMU Guildhall




Figure 26 - A collection of improvements and changes to the female Medic throughout the project



Shaylyn Hamm                                         35                               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                SMU Guildhall




Figure 27 - The Medic model with weapons and taunts




Shaylyn Hamm                                          36   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                              SMU Guildhall



4:2 Survey Results Analysis

       Once the characters were rigged and finished to a state that they could be played in-

game, I took a selection of screenshots of the characters, from full-body standard poses in the

Half-Life Model Viewer to shots of them taunting and running in the game’s environments. I

then constructed a survey, including these images as images of the original characters for

comparison. In the survey, I collected basic demographic data of the volunteers, such as age,

location, gender, and game genre preference. I also asked questions specific to the

characters, and about how their designs relate to each other and the original characters. From

this data, I hoped to discover how appealing my testers found them overall and whether or

not they enjoyed the designs and would like to play a video game with females like them.

The survey was emailed to a list of volunteers, and I posted a public link to the survey on my

gallery at deviantart.com (http://chemicalalia.deviantart.com/journal/28764583/#comments).

       Responses were collected from testers aged 18 and older. The testers were 64.62%

male and 35.38% female. I received surveys from the United States and Canada, South

America, several European countries, Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia. All of my

testers describe themselves as gamers, and 42.31% play games for 11-20 hours a week. The

most preferred game genres reported were First Person Shooters and Roleplaying Games.

Lastly, 37.69% of the testers tried out both characters in either the game or the HLMV (Half-

Life Model Viewer). 7.69% tried out only the Medic, and 54.62% took the survey based

only on the images provided.




Shaylyn Hamm                                37                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                 SMU Guildhall


       I discovered several things about my characters from the survey results. There was a

very positive reaction to both of the characters, overall. The majority of testers felt that both

the Medic and the Heavy fit the style of the game, maintained a good distinctiveness of their

body types and silhouette, and would be interested in playing video games with female

characters similar to these. Another important fact I learned is that the testers found both of

the female characters to be about as attractive as their male counterparts. And although they

weren’t considered especially attractive or sexy, their designs were still enjoyed.

       Due to the fact that my characters were built from the bone structure of the original

models, their proportions had to be similar in order for the animations to work properly.

Many people expressed concern in the survey that the length of the arms of my female Heavy

seemed too long. Because her arms are no longer (and in fact, are a bit shorter and smaller)

than those of the original character, it is likely that an aspect of her body shape is causing this

impression to be a distraction to some viewers. For the final release of the characters to the

Team Fortress 2 community, I am considering exaggerating the width of her hips a bit more

and giving her a larger upper body to balance out the size of her arms, in order to match the

mass of the male Heavy more closely.




Shaylyn Hamm                                  38                           11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                                SMU Guildhall



Conclusion
       In conclusion, this project explores female character designs as means to appeal to a

more diverse audience than the largest and most understood demographic. Research into

this topic includes the design and creation (concept art, modeling, and rigging) of female

characters within the existing game setting of Team Fortress 2, which is comprised only of

males. These characters are designed to fit the art style of the game while striving to

maintain the personality and character of their original male counterparts.

       There are many different gamer audiences, and personal opinions about the aesthetics

of a game is, of course, a subjective issue. My research suggests that it is possible to create

distinctive and unique characters that have a generally broad appeal among different ages,

genders, and gamer types. The characters I created have body types, features, and ages that

do not follow the ideal of what is typically marketed in the video game industry, yet they

were well received by the majority of people who have reviewed them. My feedback also

suggests that there is a desire among many gamers to see more varied female characters in

games, and perhaps when more of such characters are introduced into mainstream games, the

perception and role of females may become less limited. This is an area of study that is very

relevant to modern gaming, as female characters are found in nearly every game, and they

are found by many people, both male and female to be lacking of interest and personality.

For further research, I would like to see similar tests by myself and other artists, with

characters designed to fit and explore a variety of video games in a variety of genres and

styles. Feedback is a critical component to this type of study, and I would stress the

importance of seeking it at all stages of the project.



Shaylyn Hamm                                  39                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                          SMU Guildhall




References
Articles
  1. Eng, Dhabih, Franke, Moby , Mitchel, Jason. 2007. “Illustrative Rendering in Team
     Fortress 2”; Valve Corporation.
     http://www.valvesoftware.com/publications/2007/NPAR07_IllustrativeRenderingInTe
     amFortress2.pdf

  2. Ashcraft, Brian. 2008. “Faith From Mirror's Edge Fan-Designed For Asian Tastes”;
     www.kotaku.com. http://kotaku.com/5062933/faith-from-mirrors-edge-fan+designed-
     for-asian-tastes

  3. Pickens, Amy. 2009. “Character Design with Variety and Purpose”;
     http://guildhall.smu.edu/fileadmin/Masters_Thesis_PDFS/Art_Creation/apickens_thes
     is.pdf

  4. Hartmann, T., and Klimmt, C. 2006. „Gender and computer games: Exploring
     females' dislikes.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,
     http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue4/hartmann.html




Games
  Valve Corporation, 2007. “Team Fortress 2”; PC Game, Xbox 360, Playstation 3. Valve
  Corporation.

  Valve Corporation, 2004. “Half-Life 2”; PC Game. Valve Corporation.

  Midway Amusement Games and Warner Bros. Games, 2008. “Mortal Kombat vs. DC
  Universe”; Xbox 360, Playstation 3. Midway Games.

  EA Digital Illusions CE, 2008-9. “Mirror’s Edge”; Xbox 360, Playstation 3, PC Game.
  Electronic Arts.

  Epic Games, 2006. “Gears of War”; Xbox 360, PC. Epic Games.




Shaylyn Hamm                            40                        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                             SMU Guildhall



Appendix A
Response Summary Report
December 07, 2009


Note: A full version of the survey results can be viewed as an Excel spreadsheet here:
http://www.koopatorivm.com/misc/survey_report.xlsx




1. How old are you?




Item                     Count                     Percent %
18-24                    111                       85.38%
25-30                    14                        10.77%
31-35                    3                         2.31%
36+                      2                         1.54%




Shaylyn Hamm                               41                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                          SMU Guildhall


2. What is your gender?




Item                      Count        Percent %
Male                      84           64.62%
Female                    46           35.38%




3. Where are you from?




Item                                         Count     Percent %


Shaylyn Hamm                      42                 11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                          SMU Guildhall


Poland                          22     16.92%
Canada                          6      4.62%
California                      5      3.85%
USA                             5      3.85%
America                         3      2.31%
Australia                       3      2.31%
England                         3      2.31%
United States                   3      2.31%
Florida                         2      1.54%
Ontario, Canada                 2      1.54%
Pennsylvania                    2      1.54%
Alabama                         1      0.77%
Arizona                         1      0.77%
Arizona, USA                    1      0.77%
Atlanta, Ga                     1      0.77%
Bay Shore, NY                   1      0.77%
Brazil                          1      0.77%
Calgary, Alberta, Canada        1      0.77%
Chile                           1      0.77%
Cleveland, Ohio, USA            1      0.77%
Dallas, TX                      1      0.77%
Delaware, USA                   1      0.77%
Denmark                         1      0.77%
Denver, Colorado                1      0.77%
Easton, PA                      1      0.77%
Georgia                         1      0.77%
Germany                         1      0.77%
Great Lakes, USA                1      0.77%
Greensboro, NC                  1      0.77%
Idaho, United States            1      0.77%
Illinois                        1      0.77%
Italy                           1      0.77%
Kalamazoo, Michigan             1      0.77%
Ketchikan, Alaska               1      0.77%
LA                              1      0.77%
Laconia, New Hampshire          1      0.77%
Lithuania                       1      0.77%
Long Island, New York           1      0.77%
Los Angeles                     1      0.77%


Shaylyn Hamm               43        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                               SMU Guildhall


Los Angeles, CA                       1     0.77%
Malaysia                              1     0.77%
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia        1     0.77%
Milwaukie, Oregon                     1     0.77%
Missouri                              1     0.77%
New Brunswick, Canada                 1     0.77%
New Jersey                            1     0.77%
New York                              1     0.77%
New Zealand                           1     0.77%
NJ                                    1     0.77%
No.1                                  1     0.77%
None of your business                 1     0.77%
North East USA                        1     0.77%
Nova Scotia, Canada                   1     0.77%
Omaha                                 1     0.77%
Oregon                                1     0.77%
Oslo, Norway                          1     0.77%
Ottawa, ON                            1     0.77%
Phoenix                               1     0.77%
Phoenix, AZ, USA                      1     0.77%
polsnd                                1     0.77%
Quebec, Canada                        1     0.77%
Redmond, Washington                   1     0.77%
Rhode Island                          1     0.77%
Rhode Island, USA                     1     0.77%
San Diego, CA                         1     0.77%
San Diego, California                 1     0.77%
Santa Cruz                            1     0.77%
Santa Monica, California, USA         1     0.77%
South Australia, Australia            1     0.77%
SouthEast United States               1     0.77%
Switzerland                           1     0.77%
Texas                                 1     0.77%
Texas Durr Hurr                       1     0.77%
Texas, United States                  1     0.77%
UK                                    1     0.77%
United Kingdom                        1     0.77%
United States of America              1     0.77%
USA (CT)                              1     0.77%


Shaylyn Hamm                     44       11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                          SMU Guildhall


USA, Chicago Illinois                            1     0.77%
Utah                                             1     0.77%
Virginia                                         1     0.77%
Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA                    1     0.77%
Washington                                       1     0.77%
who wants to know?                               1     0.77%
yo moma                                          1     0.77%




4. Do you play video games?




Item               Count             Percent %
Yes                130               100.00%




Shaylyn Hamm                    45                   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                           SMU Guildhall


5. If so, what genres do you like to play? (pick all that apply)




Item                                                  Count        Percent %
First Person Shooter                                  120          92.31%
Roleplaying Games                                     101          77.69%
Adventure                                             81           62.31%
Puzzle Games                                          65           50.00%
Real Time Strategy                                    63           48.46%
Fighting                                              59           45.38%
Other                                                 57           43.85%
MMORPGs                                               47           36.15%
Racing                                                39           30.00%




Shaylyn Hamm                                 46                      11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                               SMU Guildhall


6. How many hours a week do you play video games?




Item                  Count                   Percent %
11-20                 55                      42.31%
0-10                  36                      27.69%
21-30                 27                      20.77%
31+                   12                      9.23%




Shaylyn Hamm                           47                 11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                           SMU Guildhall


7. Who is your favorite female video game character (if you have one)?




                                                                                   Percent
Item                                                                       Count
                                                                                   %
lara croft                                                                 7       7.61%
Samus Aran                                                                 4       4.35%
Alyx Vance                                                                 3       3.26%
Samus                                                                      3       3.26%
GLaDOS                                                                     2       2.17%
Goombella                                                                  2       2.17%
Iji                                                                        2       2.17%
N/A                                                                        2       2.17%
Shyna Nera Shyna                                                           2       2.17%
A.B.A. from Guilty Gear                                                    1       1.09%
Alyx Vance (Half-Life 2)                                                   1       1.09%
Alyx Vance or Lara Croft                                                   1       1.09%
Alyxx                                                                      1       1.09%
Amaterasu (Okami)                                                          1       1.09%
Announcer from tf2 ;)                                                      1       1.09%
Ashelin from Jak 2                                                         1       1.09%
Asthetically = Velvet Assassin (...dont actually know her name =B),
                                                                           1       1.09%
Believiblity and personity-wise: Alyx Vance HL2
Bastila Shan                                                               1       1.09%
boomer                                                                     1       1.09%
Boss (AKA The Joy) from Metal Gear Solid 3                                 1       1.09%
Cammy from Street Fighter 4                                                1       1.09%


Shaylyn Hamm                              48                          11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                       SMU Guildhall


Cate Archer                                                            1     1.09%
Cate Archer - No One Lives Forever                                     1     1.09%
Chell (from Portal)                                                    1     1.09%
Chris Lightfellow from Suikoden 3, and Lara Croft                      1     1.09%
Chun Li                                                                1     1.09%
Chun-Li                                                                1     1.09%
Claudia Wolf (Silent Hill 3)                                           1     1.09%
Cybil Bennet (Silent Hill)                                             1     1.09%
Doctor Liara T'Soni                                                    1     1.09%
Dunno                                                                  1     1.09%
Elena Fisher                                                           1     1.09%
Elf in Lineage2                                                        1     1.09%
Faith from Mirror's Edge                                               1     1.09%
Felicia from Dark Stalkers.                                            1     1.09%
Heather Mason (Silent Hill 3) or Jill Valentine (Resident Evil)        1     1.09%
Hildegard von Krone (Hilde) - Soul Calibur IV                          1     1.09%
Jade [Beyond Good & Evil]                                              1     1.09%
Jeanette (Vampire the Masquerade: Bloodlines)                          1     1.09%
Jill Valentine                                                         1     1.09%
Kate Archer (From NOLF and NOLF2)                                      1     1.09%
Kitara                                                                 1     1.09%
Leliana (Dragon Age: Origns)                                           1     1.09%
Lilith (Borderlands), my own rpg characters.                           1     1.09%
Lulu FFX                                                               1     1.09%
Lyn from Fire Emblem 7                                                 1     1.09%
Mia Fey from the Phoenix Wright series                                 1     1.09%
Michelle Aubert (Onimusha 3)                                           1     1.09%
Miranda Keyes (From Halo)                                              1     1.09%
Mistral from Hack                                                      1     1.09%
My female daranei shaman from world of warcraft - I know, crazy        1     1.09%
Olga Gurlukovich                                                       1     1.09%
Paula (EarthBound)                                                     1     1.09%
Rayne from Blood Rayne                                                 1     1.09%
Rinoa                                                                  1     1.09%
Rosalina (Mario), Krystal (StarFox), Kumatora (MOTHER 3)               1     1.09%
Samus Aran, I suppose.                                                 1     1.09%
Samus Aran, Metroid                                                    1     1.09%
Samus from Metroid                                                     1     1.09%
Sarah Kerrigan                                                         1     1.09%


Shaylyn Hamm                             49                       11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                           SMU Guildhall


Shodan                                                                      1      1.09%
Talim; Soul Caliber series                                                  1      1.09%
Terra                                                                       1      1.09%
Terra Branford [Final Fantasy VI], Zelda/Sheik [Zelda Franchise]            1      1.09%
Terra, from FFVI                                                            1      1.09%
Tetra (Windwaker, Phantom Hourglass)                                        1      1.09%
The Boss (Metal Gear Solid)                                                 1      1.09%
The female version of commander Shepard from Mass Effect                    1      1.09%
There was someone from "A Thousand Arms" that I liked. Her name was
                                                                            1      1.09%
something like Wema...I forget. Had an axe.
Tifa Lockheart                                                              1      1.09%
Tomb Rider                                                                  1      1.09%
Yuna FFX and FFX-2                                                          1      1.09%
Zelda                                                                       1      1.09%
Zoey L4d                                                                    1      1.09%




8. How did you hear about this survey (school, friend, game community, etc.)?




                                                                                Coun Percen
Item
                                                                                t    t%
                                                                                     18.46
DeviantArt                                                                      24
                                                                                     %
Friend                                                                          7    5.38%


Shaylyn Hamm                              50                         11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                 SMU Guildhall


Game Community                                     6     4.62%
forum                                              5     3.85%
GameFAQs                                           5     3.85%
dA                                                 3     2.31%
deviant art                                        3     2.31%
TF2chan                                            3     2.31%
Deviantart Journal                                 2     1.54%
Facepunch                                          2     1.54%
website                                            2     1.54%
A journal on Deviant ART                           1     0.77%
"ChemicalAlia" on deviantART                       1     0.77%
A friend.                                          1     0.77%
Art Website                                        1     0.77%
ChemicalAlia from Deviantart                       1     0.77%
ChemicalAlia gallery on DeviantArt                 1     0.77%
ChemicalAlia's DA page                             1     0.77%
ChemicalAlia's deviant journal.                    1     0.77%
community                                          1     0.77%
Creator of models                                  1     0.77%
DA Journal                                         1     0.77%
DevArt/ tf2chan                                    1     0.77%
Deviantart - your journal message                  1     0.77%
DeviantART journal entry                           1     0.77%
Deviantart Profile                                 1     0.77%
Facepunch and TF2Chan                              1     0.77%
Facepunch Forums                                   1     0.77%
Fan Community                                      1     0.77%
frends                                             1     0.77%
Friends                                            1     0.77%
From the surveyer herself                          1     0.77%
From Your Message                                  1     0.77%
Game board                                         1     0.77%
Game Community (TF2chan)                           1     0.77%
game community - www.teamfortress.pl               1     0.77%
game comunity polish site TF2                      1     0.77%
Game faqs                                          1     0.77%
game site                                          1     0.77%
Gamefaqs message board                             1     0.77%
Gamefaqs message board for TF2                     1     0.77%


Shaylyn Hamm                           51   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                  SMU Guildhall


gamefaqs' TF2 board                                                    1   0.77%
gamefaqs.com                                                           1   0.77%
Gaming communties                                                      1   0.77%
gaming forum                                                           1   0.77%
GFaQs                                                                  1   0.77%
http://www.gamefaqs.com/boards/genmessage.php?board=437678&topic=525
                                                                       1   0.77%
34991
I was linked to it on a gaming forum                                   1   0.77%
I watch you on DA                                                      1   0.77%
I watch you on DeviantArt                                              1   0.77%
I watch you on DeviantArt. :)                                          1   0.77%
internet                                                               1   0.77%
Journal                                                                1   0.77%
Message Boards.                                                        1   0.77%
Off the DeviantArt Page                                                1   0.77%
Online art community                                                   1   0.77%
online forum                                                           1   0.77%
Polisch Team Fortress Community Forum - teamfortress.pl                1   0.77%
polish tf2 site                                                        1   0.77%
Some dude posted it on the Gamefaqs.com TF2 board                      1   0.77%
team fortress 2 fan website                                            1   0.77%
teamfortress.pl                                                        1   0.77%
teamfrtress.pl                                                         1   0.77%
TF2 chan and Deviant art                                               1   0.77%
TF2 gamefaqs board                                                     1   0.77%
TF2 news site, community                                               1   0.77%
TF2chan.net and the email you sent.                                    1   0.77%
The Modeller                                                           1   0.77%
The TF2Chan community                                                  1   0.77%
Watch you on Deviant Art                                               1   0.77%
www.teamfortress.pl; news on main page                                 1   0.77%
You                                                                    1   0.77%
You, through Deviant Art                                               1   0.77%
your DA journal                                                        1   0.77%
Your dA journal.                                                       1   0.77%
Your Deviantart                                                        1   0.77%
Your Deviantart journal                                                1   0.77%
your deviantart journal (I am a DA watcher)                            1   0.77%
Your thread at Facepunch concerning the female Medic.                  1   0.77%



Shaylyn Hamm                         52                      11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                          SMU Guildhall


9. Have you played with either of these characters in-game or examined them in the model
viewer?




Item                                              Count          Percent %
No - Neither                                      71             54.62%
Yes - Both                                        49             37.69%
Yes - Just the Medic                              10             7.69%




Shaylyn Hamm                              53                        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                           SMU Guildhall


10. Based on your gameplay and/or the images below, how well do the characters fit the
visual style of the game?




Shaylyn Hamm                              54                         11 December 2009
Masters Thesis           SMU Guildhall




Shaylyn Hamm     55   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis           SMU Guildhall




Shaylyn Hamm     56   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis           SMU Guildhall




Shaylyn Hamm     57   11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                          SMU Guildhall


Item                Count                      Percent %
4                   66                         50.77%
5                   40                         30.77%
3                   11                         8.46%
2                   8                          6.15%
NA                  3                          2.31%
1                   2                          1.54%

Average: 3.96




11. Based on your gameplay experience and/or the images of the previous question, how well
do the characters fit the time period and setting of the game?




Item                Count                      Percent %
5                   62                         47.69%
4                   47                         36.15%
3                   11                         8.46%
2                   5                          3.85%
NA                  5                          3.85%

Average: 4.16




Shaylyn Hamm                              58                        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                        SMU Guildhall


12. Based on your gameplay and/or the images below, how well does the female Medic
match the overall personality and likeness of her male counterpart?




Shaylyn Hamm                             59                       11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                               SMU Guildhall




Item             Count        Percent %
5                59           45.38%
4                49           37.69%
3                14           10.77%
2                4            3.08%
1                2            1.54%
NA               2            1.54%

Average: 4.18




Shaylyn Hamm             60               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                        SMU Guildhall


13. Based on your gameplay and/or the images below, how well does the female Heavy
match the overall personality and likeness of her male counterpart?




Shaylyn Hamm                            61                        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                               SMU Guildhall




Item             Count        Percent %
4                51           39.23%
5                39           30.00%
3                23           17.69%


Shaylyn Hamm             62               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                               SMU Guildhall


2                    10                          7.69%
1                    4                           3.08%
NA                   3                           2.31%

Average: 3.78


14. How well do you think the characters fit in with the other classes?




Shaylyn Hamm                                63                            11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                               SMU Guildhall




Item             Count        Percent %
4                71           54.62%
5                31           23.85%
3                14           10.77%
2                8            6.15%
1                3            2.31%
NA               3            2.31%

Average: 3.85




Shaylyn Hamm             64               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                           SMU Guildhall


15. How distinctive are their body types in relation to each other?




Shaylyn Hamm                                65                        11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                               SMU Guildhall




Item             Count        Percent %
5                81           62.31%
4                25           19.23%
3                15           11.54%
2                4            3.08%


Shaylyn Hamm             66               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                SMU Guildhall


NA                  3                          2.31%
1                   2                          1.54%

Average: 4.31

16. How attractive do you find the female Medic?




Item                Count                      Percent %
4                   54                         41.54%
3                   35                         26.92%
5                   16                         12.31%
2                   13                         10.00%
NA                  8                          6.15%
1                   4                          3.08%

Average: 3.32




Shaylyn Hamm                              67               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                  SMU Guildhall


17. How attractive do you find the male Medic?




Item                Count                        Percent %
4                   31                           23.85%
3                   30                           23.08%
5                   25                           19.23%
NA                  24                           18.46%
2                   14                           10.77%
1                   6                            4.62%

Average: 2.87




Shaylyn Hamm                             68                  11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                SMU Guildhall


18. How attractive do you find the female Heavy?




Item                Count                      Percent %
3                   41                         31.54%
2                   28                         21.54%
4                   27                         20.77%
1                   16                         12.31%
5                   10                         7.69%
NA                  8                          6.15%

Average: 2.72




Shaylyn Hamm                              69               11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                  SMU Guildhall


19. How attractive do you find the male Heavy?




Item                Count                        Percent %
3                   41                           31.54%
NA                  21                           16.15%
4                   19                           14.62%
2                   17                           13.08%
5                   17                           13.08%
1                   15                           11.54%

Average: 2.56




Shaylyn Hamm                             70                  11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                 SMU Guildhall


20. How old do you think the female Medic is?




Item                                            Count   Percent %
30 to 39 years old                              68      52.31%
20 to 29 years old                              30      23.08%
40 to 49 years old                              27      20.77%
50 to 59 years old                              3       2.31%
60 or older                                     2       1.54%




Shaylyn Hamm                             71                 11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                             SMU Guildhall


21. How old do you think the female Heavy is?




Item                                            Count   Percent %
20 to 29 years old                              59      45.38%
30 to 39 years old                              58      44.62%
40 to 49 years old                              12      9.23%
Younger than 20 years old                       1       0.77%




Shaylyn Hamm                             72             11 December 2009
Masters Thesis                                                            SMU Guildhall


22. In general, would you like to play video games with female characters like these?




Item                 Count                      Percent %
5                    49                         37.69%
4                    47                         36.15%
3                    25                         19.23%
2                    4                          3.08%
NA                   3                          2.31%
1                    2                          1.54%

Average: 3.98




Shaylyn Hamm                               73                         11 December 2009

				
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