Power Point 16_1 USH by liuqingyan

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									• The Lure of America:
  (492-493)
  – Many immigrants who
    came to the United States
    were searching for
    opportunity to have a
    better life
  – These hopes brought a
    new wave of immigrants
    to the United States
    during the late 1800s
• The Lure of America: (492-493)
   – A New Wave of Immigrants: (492-493)
      • From 1800 to 1880, more than
        10 million immigrants came to
        the United States. Often called
        old immigrants, most were
        Protestants from northwestern
        Europe
      • Between 1891 and 1910, some
        12 million immigrants arrived on
        U.S. shores
      • The increase was so great that
        by the early 1900s about 60% of
        the people living in the nation’s
        12 largest cities either were
        foreign born or had foreign-born
        parents
• The Lure of America: (492-
  493)
   – A New Wave of
     Immigrants: (492-493)
      • About 70% of these
        new immigrants were
        from southern or
        eastern Europe.
      • Some made money to
        bring back to their
        homeland and buy
        land and others just
        stayed here
• The Lure of America: (492-493)
   – The Journey: (493)
      • Many immigrants learned of
        available opportunities from
        railroad and steamship
        company promoters. These
        companies pained a tempting
        – and often false – picture of
        the United States as land of
        unlimited opportunity
      • Some railroad companies
        exaggerated the availability of
        employment
• The Lure of America: (492-493)
   – The Journey: (493)
      • Most of the millions who answered
        these appeals found the ocean
        journey difficult.
      • Most traveled in the poorest
        accommodations, called steerage
        – these accommodations were
        below deck on the ship’s lower
        levels near the steering
        mechanisms.
      • The quarters were cramped, with
        no privacy and little breathing room
      • Despite these conditions, many
        immigrants clung to the hope for a
        better life in the United States
• Arriving in America: (493-494)
   – Millions of newcomers in the late
     1800s first set foot on U.S. soil on
     Ellis Island in New York Harbor or
     on Angel Island in San Francisco
     Bay.
   – See Statue of Liberty = a symbol of
     hope for many immigrants
   – All newcomers who passed through
     Ellis Island were subjected to a
     physical exam.
   – Those with mental disorders,
     contagious diseases like
     tuberculosis, or other serious health
     problems were deported
   – Those with criminal records or
     without means to support
     themselves were sent back
   – The vast majority of immigrants
     were allowed to stay
• Arriving in America: (493-
  494)
  – On Angel Island, S.F.,
    thousands of Asian
    newcomers, who were mostly
    from China, underwent similar
    processing.
  – Chinese applicants faced strict
    immigration laws. These laws
    limited entrance to certain
    skilled groups or to individuals
    who could show that their
    parents were born in the
    United States
• A New Life (494-496)
  – Many immigrants found life in
    the United States an
    improvement on the conditions
    of their homeland
  – Nevertheless, the newcomers
    endured hardships in America:
     • Settled in crowded cities
        where they could find only
        low-paying, unskilled jobs
     • Lived in poor housing located
        in crowded neighborhoods
        and slums
• A New Life (494-496)
  – Immigrant Communities: (495)
     • Settling in close-knit
       immigrant communities,
       newcomers found institutions
       and neighbors that made
       their transition more bearable
       both financially and culturally
     • In these neighborhoods, for
       example, residents often
       spoke the same languages
       and followed the customs of
       the old country
• A New Life (494-496)
• Religious institutions:
   – Neighborhood churches, synagogues,
     and temples provided community
     centers that helped immigrants maintain
     a sense of identity and belonging
   – Residents in many cities formed
     religious and nonreligious aid
     organizations, known as benevolent
     societies, to help immigrants in cases
     of sickness, unemployment and death
   – Benevolent societies attempted to
     provide an important function by helping
     immigrants obtain education, health
     care and jobs
• A New Life (494-496)
• Cultural Practices: (495-496)
   – Immigrants were often urged by
     employers, public institutions,
     and sometimes even family
     members to join the American
     mainstream
   – Many older immigrants
     cherished ties to the old country
   – By contrast, children often
     adopted American cultural
     practices and tended to view
     their parents’ old-world
     language and customs as old-
     fashioned
• A New Life (494-496)
• The immigrant Worker: (496)
  – Whether they adopted American
    habits or remained tied to the
    traditions of their homeland, most
    new immigrants shared a
    common work experience. Many
    did the country’s “dirty work.”
      • Work was difficult and
        physically exhausting.
      • Hours were long, and wages
        were low
• The Nativist Response: (496-
  497)
  – Many native-born Americans saw
    immigration as a threat
  – Some Americans blamed
    immigrants for social problems
    such as crime, poverty, and
    violence as well as for spreading
    radical political ideas
  – Many Americans charged that the
    immigrants willingness to work
    cheaply robbed native-born
    Americans of jobs and lowered
    wages for all
  – Unions began demanding
    restrictions on immigration
• The Nativist Response: (496-
  497)
   – Chinese exclusion: (496-497)
      • For years Chinese laborers had been
        tolerated – and taken advantage of –
        on the West Coast, particularly in
        California
      • As unemployment mounted following
        the Panic of 1873, workers grew less
        tolerant of the Chinese
      • The new Workingmen’s Party of
        California wanted the Chinese to go
        because they were taking their jobs
      • Denis Kearney, the Workingmen’s
        Party leader, addressed crowds
        across California exciting them
        through vicious speeches
• The Nativist Response:
  (496-497)
  – Chinese exclusion: (496-497)
     • In 1882 Congress passed the
       Chinese Exclusion Act, which
       denied citizenship to people
       born in China and prohibited
       the immigration of Chinese
       laborers
     • This act made conditions worse
       for Chinese Americans
     • Many Chinese still came to the
       United States only to be held
       for months at immigration
       stations
• The Nativist Response: (496-497
• Immigration Restriction League:
  (497)
   – Immigrants endured additional
     discrimination as new
     organizations took up the anti-
     immigration cause
   – Immigration Restriction
     League sought to impose literacy
     tests on all immigrants
   – Congress passed such a
     measure, but President Grover
     Cleveland vetoed it, calling it
     “illiberal, narrow, and un-
     American.”
   – Despite efforts to impose
     restrictions, immigration
     continued.

								
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