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Chapter 19 French Revolution


									French Revolution New Review Sheet

   1. Conditions before the start of the revolution in 1789
         a. Social Class system (also known as the ancient Regime)
                    i. 1st Estate Clergy
                   ii. 2nd Estate Nobles
                  iii. 3rd Estate: bourgeoisie, urban workers and peasants (98% of the population)
         b. Landownership
                    i. Unfair landownership
                   ii. Higher percentage of the better land held by the 1st and 2nd estate
         c. Taxation
                    i. Inequalities in the tax structure (unfair taxation)
                   ii. Highest percentage paid by the 3rd estate
         d. Political Power
                    i. Held in the hands of the 1st and second estate
                   ii. Bourgeoisie resented their lack of political power and led the Revolution
                  iii. 3rd estate dissatisfied with absolutism
                  iv. 3rd estate upset because the government do not meet the needs of its people
         e. Other Economic problems
                    i. Bad harvests (urban poor most deeply affected by increases in food prices)
                   ii. deficit spending
                  iii. France heading towards bankruptcy so Louis XVI summons the Estates General
                       to meet
         f. Other Causes of the French Revolution
                    i. Influence of the Enlightenment thinkers
                   ii. Influence of the American Revolution
                  iii. Influence of the Glorious Revolution
   2. Major events in the Revolution
         a. Louis XVI summons the Estate General because France is on the verge of bankruptcy
         b. 3rd Estates proclaims itself the national assembly
         c. National Assembly takes the Tennis Court Oath vowing not to disband until they write
              a constitution.
         d. Paris workers storm the Bastille looking for weapons and gunpowder. This action is
              the first move against the king. It becomes the symbol of the revolution.
         e. Women of France march on Versailles because of high bread prices demanding food.
         f. National Assembly writes the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Affirms
              natural rights. “Man is born and remain free”
         g. Civil Constitution of the Clergy is written. Puts the Catholic Church under the control
              of the state ( The French Government)
         h. Creation of a limited Monarchy
       i.  National Convention is formed sans culottes and Jacobins demand a republic.
       j.  Louis XVI and his family try to escape to Austria. They are captured and brought back
           to Paris to live in the Tulieres
       k. War with Europe: Levee en Masse
       l. Committee on Public Safety is formed lead by Robespierre.
       m. Reign of Terror begins for 1 year
       n. King and Queen beheaded by guillotine along with 40,000 others
       o. Reign of terror ends 3 man Directory takes charge of government. It is a failure .
       p. Effects of the French Revolution
                 i. Bourgeoisie Middle class gains political and economic power
                ii. Napoleon takes over
               iii. Declaration of the Rights of Man is written
               iv. Feudalism and feudal are done away with
                v. Power of Catholic Church is weakened
       q. Symbols of the French Revolution
                 i. Tricolor Flag
                ii. Motto Liberty, equality, Fraternity
               iii. National Song La Marseilles
               iv. Bastille Day becomes Frances independence day
3. Rise of Napoleon
       a. Coup d’etat
       b. French support the rise of Napoleon because he brought stability
       c. His achievements
                 i. Economy created fair taxation system, allowed access to any jobs to
                    everyone, built roads and canals
                ii. Education: set up University of France, Lycees (schools)
               iii. Napoleonic Code: universal law code, the right to enter any occupation,
                    freedom from religious control, equality of all Frenchmen, created a unified
                    system of laws
               iv. Women lost rights under Napoleon and the Napoleonic code
                v. Created Nationalism in France and the rest of Europe
       d. His failures
                 i. Continental system: cut off trade with Britain hurting the economy of Europe
                ii. Failed to invade and conqueror England (Great Britain)
               iii. Battle in Russia: lost almost 500,000 men because of the cold winter and
                    disease. The geographic location and the size of Russia contributed to
                    Napoleon’s defeat.
               iv. Battle of Waterloo: his last defeat by the combined armies of Europe
4. Congress of Vienna
       a. Called by Prince Von Metternich of Austria
       b. Goals
                 i. Establish a balance of power throughout Europe
 ii. Principle of Legitimacy: restore all leaders overthrown by Napoleon
iii. To prevent France from going to war again

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