Document Sample
INCLUSION Powered By Docstoc
Special Education is a service,
         not a place.
   “Education is the
greatest equalizer of the
  conditions of men.”

           --Horace Mann
In the same sense, inclusion
 is the greatest equalizer of
the conditions of education.
   Equality of opportunity for
      everyone is the basic
     foundation for inclusive
Individuals with Disabilities Act

   a free appropriate public education
    (FAPE) for all students with disabilities.
   the least restrictive environment for all
    students with disabilities.
   that all students with disabilities are to be
    educated within the general education
    curriculum alongside age-appropriate
    typical peers to the maximum extent
    The following terms and
concepts relate to inclusion and
   understanding them helps
  contribute to understanding
   expectations in inclusive
      Least Restrictive
Legislative term that describes the
settings in which students with identified
disabilities should be served. LRE is
defined as the setting most like that for
peers without disabilities in which a
student can succeed with appropriate
supports and services.
Least Restrictive
Environment is the
educational placement,
inclusion is the
educational outcome.
A philosophy or set of beliefs based on
   the idea that students with disabilities
      have the right to be members of
        classroom communities with
  nondisabled peers, whether or not they
  can meet the traditional expectations of
   those classrooms. Inclusion is based
     on the notion that all students can
  make valuable contributions to a class.
Inclusion is…
   the equitable celebration of diversity in
    the classroom.
   the recognition of the unique
    combination of strengths that all children
    bring to the classroom.
   giving each student what is needed in
    order to be academically and socially
LRE and Placement

There is no legal provision in the IDEA for
“full inclusion.” Placement decisions must
be based on the individual needs of the
student in the “full implementation of
LRE,” starting with consideration of
regular classroom placement with
supplementary aids and services.
Full Inclusion

Full inclusion means not offering any LRE
placements – only the regular education

Caution: Potential conflict with LRE
Service Delivery Systems
  in Inclusive Schools
  In most schools, no single service
delivery system can exist alone as the
means through which inclusive practices
are implemented. Instead, there should
  be a wide variety of service delivery
systems emphasizing collaboration that
   provides supports to students with
             special needs.
Inclusion doesn’t mean
trying to fit students
with special needs into
the mainstream, instead
it means creating a
mainstream where
everyone fits.
      Martha Snell and Rachel Janney
The merging of educational components
 that contribute to inclusion. Three
 components are considered:
    • physical integration of students
    • social integration of students
    • instructional integration of students
It is not so much about where students sit
     as how they are viewed by teachers,
  other staff members and peers. Schools
   working toward being inclusive use their
        mission statement as a start and
       implement it in a meaningful way.
“ Inclusion involves all kinds of
  practices that are ultimately
  practices of good teaching.
  What good teachers do is to
  think thoughtfully about children
  and develop ways to reach all
                  Dr. Chris Kliewer
Teacher Competencies
include the ability to -
   Problem solve, to be able to informally
    assess the skills a student needs.
   Take advantage of children’s individual
    interests and use their internal
    motivation for developing needed skills.
   Set high but alternative expectations
    that are suitable for the students.
Teacher Competencies……
   Ability to determine how to modify
    assignments for students; how to design
    classroom activities. It means more
    activity-based teaching rather than seat-
    based teaching.
   Ability to learn how to value all kinds of
    skills that students bring to class, not just
    academic skills.
Teacher Competencies
   A realization that every child in the class
    is their responsibility.
   Knowing a variety of instructional
    strategies and how to use them
    effectively. This includes the ability to
    adapt materials and rewrite objectives
    for a child’s need.
Teacher Competencies
   Working as a team with parents and
    school staff to learn what skills a child
    needs and to provide the best teaching
   Viewing each child in the class as an
    opportunity to become a better teacher
    rather than a problem to be coped with
    or have someone else fix.
        Collegial Staff

A hallmark of inclusive schools is the
sense that there is always new
information that can help teachers better
address student needs. If teachers and
administrators attend workshops,
classes, or other staff development
opportunities, they share what they have
learned with colleagues.
The style professionals use to undertake
       their shared responsibilities.
        Collaboration refers to how
 professionals interact as opposed to the
       topics of their conversations.
   Inclusive Schools
The research has shown no adverse
effects on general education students
 educated with their special education
 peers, when the program is correctly
designed with appropriate supports in
Co-teaching enables teachers or other
licensed professionals to form
instructional partnerships for the purpose
of delivering high quality instruction to
diverse classroom groups. Generally,
students with disabilities or other special
needs benefit from this option, but so do
students who are gifted, students who are
typical learners, and students who are at-
risk for school failure.
 Support in Classrooms
Sometimes services should be delivered
in a general education setting, but the
partnership required in co-teaching is not
needed or not appropriate. Support
might be offered in a classroom when
paraprofessionals assist students in
general education classrooms, or when
teachers or other licensed personnel
provide periodic assistance.
Professionals skilled in working with
students with special needs meet on a
regular basis with teachers to problem
solve. A behavior specialist, S/L
therapist, OT, PT, or special education
teacher might serve as a consultant. By
meeting to identify a problem, teachers
and consultants can maximize student
        Related Services and
   Speech Language Services
   Occupational Therapy
   Physical Therapy
   Positive Behavioral Specialist
   Orientation and Mobility Specialist
   Vision Consultant

Grade-level teams and interdisciplinary
or departmental teams meet regularly to
discuss curriculum and problem solve
about students. Special educators and
other support providers can join these
teams to help create strategies and
interventions as well as to address
issues related to curricular adaptations.
This helps to make communication more
consistent and more efficient.
Informal Problem Solving
Teachers in inclusive schools often need
  to meet one-to-one to proactively or
   reactively problem solve regarding
          students they share.
Instruction in a Separate
 Although the goal in an inclusive school
is for most instruction to occur in general
 education settings, occasionally student
  needs indicate this is not appropriate.
Keys to inclusion…
   Collaboration among general education and special
    education teachers
   Previewing lessons before instruction occurs
   Modifying lessons to meet specific student needs
   Accommodating specific student needs
   Preteaching/pretesting to prevent reteaching/retesting
   Reformatting assignments to maximize visual
   Using technology to assist student success
   Differentiating instructional strategies, assignments, and
    assessments to accommodate learning styles
“But it’s not fair…”
   It’s not fair to deny any student his/her
    basic civil rights.
   It’s not fair to deny any student what is
    needed to be successful.
   It’s not fair (unlawful) to deny FAPE in
    the LRE.
It’s also not fair…
   It’s not fair to hold students accountable
    for proficient test scores if they are
    denied access to the general education
    curriculum to the fullest extent
It’s also not fair…
   It’s not fair to hold teachers/schools
    accountable for proficient test scores if
    students are denied access to the
    general education curriculum to the
    fullest extent appropriate.
Empirical research shows quality
indicators of inclusive practices
   Shared ownership of all students
   Collaboration is the instructional norm
   Classrooms contain students with
    disabilities in natural proportions
   Decreasing referrals
   Only those natural supports that are
    needed are put in place to foster
    independence and self-advocacy skills of
    all learners.
Children are not the same,
 but they should have the
   same opportunities.
   “Even the worst student is a
   good example of what is not
                 --Elliott, 2006
           Food for Thought
   Out of every 10 IDEA eligible students, five (5)
    are LD. These LD students should have
    average or above average intelligence.
   Out of every 10 IDEA eligible students, one (1)
    is Emotionally Disabled.
   Out of every 10 IDEA eligible students, two (2)
    fall into a low incidence category
   BOTTOMLINE:Eight (8) out of every ten (10)
    IDEA eligible students have average
He who is apt to teach is acquainted, not
     only with the common methods for
common minds but with peculiar methods
   for pupils of peculiar dispositions and
temperaments; and he is acquainted with
 the principles of all methods whereby he
     can vary his plan according to any
        difference of circumstances.

            Horace Mann
    For More Information

Dr. Armerita D. Tell, Bureau Director
Mississippi Department of Education
     Office of Special Education
           (601) 359-3498

Shared By: