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					INTERNATIONAL CHARTERS

IN THE FIELD OF PROTECTION OF
   CULTURAL, HISTORIC AND
  ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE




     Presented by O. A. Sonaiya
     CHARTERS - DEFINITIONS
What are they?

Charter, document granting certain rights, powers, or
   functions.

A Charter is a document issued by a sovereign, legislature,
   or other authority or body, creating a public or private
   corporation, such as a city, college, or bank, and defining
   its privileges and purposes.

Charters should provide guiding principles to ensure
   appropriate response to particular conservation issues
   and not as perfect prescriptions. The main thrusts of
   most charters include:
• comprehensive analysis of the place
• minimum intervention in the historic fabric
• precise documentation
• respect for contributions of all periods
• maintenance of authenticity and
• the requirement to take a holistic view of the historic
   environment.
        THE DEVELOPMENT OF
   INTERNATIONAL CONSERVATION
             CHARTERS


The need for such international conservation charters was
   brought about by the observation that much of the
   significant historical and cultural heritage of any give
   people was, with time, being totally destroyed. This trend
   was likely to continue if steps were not taken to prevent
   it. The past was seen as being important enough to
   preserve for future generations to learn from, even at the
   expense of new development in some cases.

The first charter was drafted in 1877 and was known as The
   SPAB Manifesto (Society for the Protection of Ancient
   Buildings). The emphasis of this charter was on
   preservation, and not conservation as such. It was the first
   attempt to establish a coherent and logically defensible
   philosophy for building conservation

The following is a categorization of the charters arranged by
   decade. Only the extremely important ones have been
   selected. An exhaustive list of the charters follows as
   Appendix 1.
 LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
            CHARTERS
           (BY DECADE)

1877 & 1904

   The Principals of the Society for the Protection of
    Ancient Buildings as Set Forth upon its Foundation (the
    SPAB Manifesto) (1877)
   Recommendations of the Madrid Conference (1904)

For nearly 60 years, these were the only charters on
   conservation of the built environment in existence.
   Emphasis was placed in the SPAB Manifesto on
   preservation, which is only doing to the structure such
   maintenance as is necessary. They included a plea to ‘put
   protection in the place of restoration’.
However, when in the Madrid Conference monuments were
   classed into Living and Dead Monuments, the option
   of restoration was approved. Dead monuments were
   defined as those mementos of a bygone civilization that
   are to be preserved only. Living monuments were to be
   restored in keeping with the style of the monument
   itself.
LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
           CHARTERS
          (BY DECADE)

1930- 49

   General Conclusions of the Athens Conference (1931)
   Carta Di Atene (1931)
   Charter of Athens (1933) (drafted by Le Corbusier)
   Roerich Pact: Protection of Artistic and Scientific
    Institutions and Historic Monuments (1935)

   These expanded on the emphasis of the previous 6
    decades and also introduced the idea of an International
    Cultural Heritage that should be protected by all. The
    Athens Conference of 1931, organised by the
    International Museums Office, established basic
    principles for an international code of practice for
    conservation. Cultural and Historical Heritage was to be
    preserved even when it stood in the way of development,
    and a special flag was to be flown in times of war to
    prevent destruction of such sites.
 LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
            CHARTERS
           (BY DECADE)

1950 - 59

  Hague Convention: Convention for the Protection of
   Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)
 European Cultural Convention (1954)
 Recommendation on International Principles Applicable
   to Archaeological Excavation (1956)
 Recommendation Concerning International
   Competitions in Architecture and Town Planning
   (1956)
The declaration of Archaeological Finds was introduced, as
   well as emphasis on a common European Heritage that
   was to be protected by all member states. Non- members
   were welcome to aid in their protection.
 LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
            CHARTERS
           (BY DECADE)

1960 – 69

  The Venice Charter: International Charter for the
   Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites
   (1964)
 Recommendation on the Means of Prohibiting and
   Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of
   Ownership of Cultural Property (1964)
 European Convention on the Protection of the
   Archaeological Heritage (1969)
There were seven (7) Charters in this decade; only major
   ones are listed above. The Venice Charter is still seen as
   the definitive work on Conservation set forth by the
   International Council of Monuments and Sites
   (ICOMOS) in 1964. Other charters propose the creation
   of Reserve Zones to be excavated at a later time;
   Inventories of archaeological discoveries, private and
   public; and the application of science to archaeology.
  THE VENICE CHARTER & ICOMOS

The Venice Charter:
It continues to be the most influential international
    conservation document. It was adopted by ICOMOS in
    1965 and published in 1966. It outlines principles of
    conservation based on the concept of authenticity and
    the importance of maintaining the historical and physical
    context of a site or building as well as principles of
    preservation, which relate to restoration of buildings
    with work from different periods.
The intention in conserving and restoring monuments to
    safeguard them disallows change in the layout,
    decoration or architectural setting of the building and
    specifies situations in which moving a monument may be
    allowed. Rules for restoration of buildings were laid
    down in cases where evidence of more than one
    historical period can be seen.
ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and
    Sites):
Cultural internationalism was an outcome of the First and
    Second World War; with the creation of the League of
    Nations, the United Nations Organization and
    UNESCO. Prior to that time, protection agencies of
    individual countries never went beyond regional borders.
    The Second Congress of Architects and Specialists of
    Historic Buildings, held in Venice in 1964, passed 13
    resolutions, the 2nd of which formed ICOMOS. From
    the Venice Charter in 1964, it has adopted nine (9) more
    charters up till 2003 dealing with Monuments; Historic
    Towns, Landscapes, Structures and Paintings; Vernacular
    architecture; Archaeological and Underwater Cultural
    Heritage.
 LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
            CHARTERS
           (BY DECADE)
1970 - 79
  Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at
   National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage
   (1972)
 Declaration of Amsterdam (1975)
 Recommendation Concerning the International
   Exchange of Cultural Property (1976)
 Recommendation for the Protection of Moveable
   Cultural Property (1978)
There were twelve (12) new charters in this decade.
   Continents such as the Americas began to follow the
   lead of Europe in establishing their own Conservation
   Charters. The World Heritage Site Index was established
   in 1972 and countries were invited to list their Natural
   and Cultural Heritage Sites. The Declaration of
   Amsterdam emphasized the role of Planning in
   Conservation. Regulations were passed concerning
   exchange of cultural property and protection of
   moveable cultural property.
THE declaration of Amsterdam
The Declaration was passed in the Congress on the
   European Archıtectural Herıtage held between 21 - 25
   October 1975. It recognized Europe’s common heritage
   and the willingness of her member states to work
   together in preserving it.

The second article of the charter states that ‘architectural
   heritage includes not only individual buildings of exceptional
   quality’ but their settings as well, which gave rise to the term
   ‘Integrated Conservation’. This approach involves
• the action of local authorities as well as the participation
   of individual citizens
• taking social factors into consideration
• adaptation of legislative and administrative means
• appropriate financial means and
• the promotion of methods, skills and techniques for
   restoration and rehabilitation.

It was also stressed that the individual characteristics of
    different sites must be considered in their conservation
    and economic viability must be sought for declining
    historic areas.
 LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
            CHARTERS
           (BY DECADE)

1980 – 89

  The Florence Charter: Historic Gardens (1982)
 European Convention on Offences Relating to Cultural
   Property (1985)
 The Washington Charter: Charter on the Conservation
   of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (1987)
 Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional
   Culture and Folklore (1989)
Thirteen (13) new charters were formed in this decade.
   Many individual towns created charters of their own to
   protect their cultural heritage sites. The Washington
   Charter provides broad guidelines on planning and
   protection of Historic Urban areas. Cultural Heritage
   crimes were identified and the issue of restitution raised.
   Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the
   World Heritage Convention were issued in 1988 to
   outline the criteria to be met by sites on the World
   Heritage List. The scope of Cultural Heritage was
   broadened to contain Moving Images (such as movies)
   and other Intangible forms such as values, language and
   tradition.
 LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
            CHARTERS
           (BY DECADE)

1990 - 99
  The Fez Charter (1993)
 Guidelines for Education and Training in the
   Conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and Sites
   (1993)
This decade saw marked increase in conservation awareness
   with twenty nine new charters adopted. The Fez Charter
   marked the founding of the Organization of World
   Heritage Cities. The need for training conservationists
   was recognized and many individual towns proposed
   their own Conservation charters.
 LIST & TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL
            CHARTERS
           (BY DECADE)

2000 –

  Convention on Biological Diversity (2000)
 European Convention on Landscape (2000)
 Convention on the Protection of Underwater
   Cultural Heritage (2001)
 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible
   Cultural Heritage (2003)
 Ename Charter (2nd Draft 2004)
Five charters have been adopted in the present decade. The
   Ename charter identifies the principles for interpretation
   of cultural heritage sites. The others build on former
   charters, dealing with more specific issues such as
   ecological and biological cultural heritage.
                  REFERENCES

  The Getty Conservation Institute
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/research_resources/ch
   arters.html
 International Council on Monuments and Sites
http://www.international.icomos.org/home.htm
 The Venice Charter, January 1996
http://www.icomos.org/venice_charter.html
 Gillon, J. ‘Conservatıon Charters and Standards’,
http://www.ihbc.org.uk/context_archive/51/charters_dir/
   charters_s.htm
 The Declaration of Amsterdam, October, 1975
http://www.icomos.org/docs/amsterdam.html
   International conservation
       charters (appendix 1)
The Principals of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings as Set
    Forth upon its Foundation (The SPAB Manifesto) (1877)
Recommendations of the Madrid Conference (1904)
General Conclusions of the Athens Conference (1931)
Carta Di Atene (1931)
Charter of Athens (1933)
Roerich Pact: Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic
    Monuments (1935)
Hague Convention: Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in
    the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)
European Cultural Convention (1954)
Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological
    Excavation (1956)
Recommendation Concerning International Competitions in Architecture
    and Town Planning (1956)
Recommendation Concerning the Most Effective Means of Rendering
    Museums Accessible to Everyone (1960)
Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding of the Beauty and Character
    of Landscapes and Sites (1962)
The Venice Charter: International Charter for the Conservation and
    Restoration of Monuments and Sites (1964)
Recommendation on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit
    Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1964)
Norms of Quito: Final Report of the Meeting on the Preservation and
    Utilization of Monuments and Sites of Artistic and Historical Value
    (1967)
Recommendation concerning the Preservation of Cultural Property
    Endangered by Public or Private Works (1968)
European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage
    (1969)
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import,
    Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural
    Heritage (197)
Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the
    Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
Resolutions of the Symposium on the Introduction of Contemporary
    Architecture into Ancient Groups of Buildings (1972)
     International conservation
         charters (appendix 1)
European Charter of the Architectural Heritage (1975)
Declaration of Amsterdam (1975)
Resolutions of the International Symposium on the Conservation of Smaller
     Historic Towns (1975)
Cultural Tourism (1976)
Convention on the Protection of the Archeological, Historical, and Artistic
     Heritage of the American Nations, Convention of San Salvador (1976)
Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of
     Historic Areas (1976)
Recommendation Concerning the International Exchange of Cultural Property
     (1976)
Recommendation for the Protection of Moveable Cultural Property (1978)
Recommendation for the Safeguarding and Preservation of Moving Images
     (1980)
The Florence Charter: Historic Gardens (1982)
Deschambault Charter for the Preservation of Quebec's Heritage (1982)
Tlaxcala Declaration on the Revitalization of Small Settlements (1982)
Declaration of Dresden (1982)
Appleton Charter for the Protection and Enhancement of the Built
     Environment (1983)
Declaration of Rome (1983)
European Convention on Offences Relating to Cultural Property (1985)
Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe (1985)
First Brazilian Seminar About the Preservation and Revitalization of Historic
     Centers (1987)
The Washington Charter: Charter on the Conservation of Historic Towns and
     Urban Areas (1987)
Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore
     (1989)
The Vermillion Accord on Archaeological Ethics and the Treatment of the Dead
     (1989)
Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage
     (1990)
Québec City Declaration (1991)
Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Heritage Value (1992)
A Preservation Charter for the Historic Towns and Areas of the United States of
     America (1992)
   International conservation
       charters (appendix 1)
Charter of Courmayeur (1992)
European Convention for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage of
    Europe (Revised) (1992)
New Orleans Charter for the Joint Preservation of Historic Structures and
    Artifacts (1992)
Declaration of Rio (1992)
Declaration of Oaxaca (1993)
The Fez Charter (1993)
Guidelines for Education and Training in the Conservation of Monuments,
    Ensembles and Sites (1993)
UN General Assembly Resolution (A/RES/48/15) on the Return or
    Restitution of Cultural Property to the Countries of Origin (1993)
Buenos Aires Draft Convention on the Protection of the Underwater
    Cultural Heritage (1994)
The Nara Document on Authenticity (1994)
Resolution on Information as an Instrument for Protection against War
    Damages to the Cultural Heritage (1994)
Unidroit Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects
    (1995)
Bergen Protocol on Communications and Relations among Cities of the
    Organization of World Heritage Cities (1995)
Charter for Sustainable Tourism (1995)
Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic
    Properties (1995)
Charter for the Protection and Management of the Underwater Cultural
    Heritage (1996)
Final Communiqué of the NATO-Partnership for Peace Conference on
    Cultural Heritage Protection in Wartime and in State of Emergency
    (1996)
Declaration of Valencia (1996)
Declaration of San Antonio (1996)
Declaration of Quebec (1997)
Document of Pavia (1997)
Evora Appeal (1997)
The Stockholm Declaration : Declaration of ICOMOS marking the 50th
    anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1998)
Declaration of Melbourne (1998)
   International conservation
       charters (appendix 1)
Recommendation on Measures to Promote the Integrated Conservation of
    Historic Complexes Composed of Immovable and Moveable Property
    (1998)
The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation
    of Places of Cultural Significance (1999)
Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage (1999)
International Wood Committee Charter: Principles for the Preservation of
    Historic Timber Buildings (1999)
International Cultural Tourism Charter: Managing Tourism at Places of
    Heritage Significance (1999)
Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of
    Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1999)
Convention on Biological Diversity (2000)
European Convention on Landscape (2000)
Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)
Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
Ename Charter (2nd Draft 2004)

				
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