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Flexibility Powered By Docstoc
• Ability to move joint through a full range of
• Benefits performance, decreases injury
• Assume young people naturally flexible
• Specificity to each joint
• Not relate to length of limbs
• Sit and reach test
• Trunk, hip, and leg flexibility most important for
  lifetime fitness
• Depends on bone structure and soft tissue’s
  resistance to movement
• Soft tissues: muscles, tendons, joint capsules,
  ligaments and skin
         Developmental Changes
• Flexibility increases up until 10 for boys and 12
  for girls
• Girls are more flexible than boys
• Temporary loss of flexibility during growth spurt
• Older adults
   –   Decreased flexibility with age
   –   Limited range of motion required in everyday life
   –   Due to lack of activity, not an aging process
   –   Can maintain and improve flexibility throughout life
       with training
• Some diseases can affect flexibility
• Even people over 65 can improve flexibility
• Inactivity is the major factor in flexibility
              Body Composition
•    Tissues: Lean: muscle, bone organs. Fat tissue
    1. Increased lean body mass = increased working
    2. Increased fat add to workload when moving body
    3. Increased fat limits range of motion
    4. Increased fat increases the risk of coronary heart and
       artery disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension
•    Body composition affects self concept
•    Fat is necessary for insulation, protection and
     energy storage but excess fat is negatively
     related to fitness and health
     Changing Body Composition
•   Diet
•   Exercise
•   Surgery
•   Maintaining or changing body composition
    is a matter of balancing calories consumed
    vs. metabolic rate and amount of physical
 Body Composition and Exercise
• Fat tissue increases: 1st six months after
  birth and in early adolescence
• Girls increase through adolescence, boys
  stop and may even reverse for a time
• Overeating leads to excess fat
• Starvation leads to muscle wasting
• Increased exercise leads to decreased body
         Obesity in Children
• High incidence in industrialized countries
• Detrimental to health and from a social
• Obese child likely to be obese adult
• Working capacity low
• When forming self-concept, must deal with
  negative feedback and evaluation
   Decreased Caloric Intake and
        Increased Activity
• Can decrease obesity over time by decreasing
  caloric intake and increasing physical activity
• Long road back: takes 3500 calories to burn 1lb of
• Vicious circle of obesity and inactivity
• If decrease calories without exercise, lose muscle
  as well
• If children intake less than 1000 calories per day,
  it may affect growth
• Exercise is more important for children than
• Role of genetics still unclear
• Success in reducing fat depends on maintenance
  of a suitable program
• New adipose tissue cells (fat cells) formed only
  during the prenatal and early post natal months,
  and during adolescence
• Afterwards, only size of cell is variable
• Important to keep number down during sensitive
  periods to make maintaining low fat% through life
               Older Adults
• Increase total body weight through adult years
  (mostly fat)
• Decrease total body weight after 50 (mostly
• Loss in bone and muscle tissue can mask adipose
• Staying active keeps lean muscle mass and
  decreases fat %
• People at any age can bring about favorable
  changes in body composition

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