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					Fitness & healthy lifestyles
  in Elementary Physical

       Tony Greathouse
         Mike Fuller
          The Percent is Right!
   Get a partner

   Get a sheet of paper

   Get your thinking caps
As of 2004, what Percentage of children age 6-11
are obese?

(2003-04 Center of Disease Control study)

With your partner write your answer down on your sheet of paper.
The group that is the closest without going over will win.

                  ANSWER = 18.8%
In the late 1970’s (1976-1980), what percentage
  of teens (12-19) were obese?

(Center of Disease Control studies)

With your partner write your answer down on your sheet of paper.
The group that is the closest without going over will win.

                            ANSWER = 5%
According to a 1997-98 study, what percentage of
adults reported to live a sedentary lifestyle?

(US Department of Health and Human Services)

With your partner write your answer down on your sheet of paper. The
group that is the closest without going over will win.

                    ANSWER = 37.8%
                       Nearly 4 out of 10
From 1980 to 2004, how much has the percentage
of obese adults (age 20-74) increased?

With your partner write your answer down on your sheet of paper. The
group that is the closest without going over will win.

                    ANSWER = 17.9%
                            1980 = 15%
                           2004 = 32.9%
What percentage of deaths in 1993 were
attributed to diet and activitity patterns?

(McGinnis/Foege, 1993)

With your partner write your answer down on your sheet of
paper. The group that is the closest without going over will

                  ANSWER = 14%
         Why is fitness important?
   In the late 70’s (1976-1980):
    •   Children 2-5 yrs old…                                     5% obese
    •   6-11 yrs old….                                            6.5%
    •   12-19 yrs old…                                            5%
    •   Adults 20-74 yrs old…                                     15%

Early 2000’s (2003-2004):
         •   2-5 yrs old...                                 13.9%
         •   6-11 yrs old…                                  18.8%
         •   12-19 yrs old…                                 17.4%
         •   20-74 yrs old…                                 32.9%

             Source – Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Implications of these numbers…
 These increasing rates are cause for concern
  because of health implications
 Being overweight/obese increases risk of major
  health conditions, such as:
    –   Hypertension
    –   Type 2 Diabetes
    –   Coronary Heart Disease
    –   Stroke
    –   Gall bladder disease
    –   many many more
   1993 study found that 14% of all deaths in
    America could be attributed to diet and activity
    patterns (McGinnis/Foege, 1993)
Why is fitness important in PE?
   Changing society
    – With increase in technology, most adults and
      children are getting inadequate amount of
      physical activity in daily lives
   Research (Blair et al., 1989)
    – Shows a relationship between lack of fitness
      in childhood and health problems of adults
        ….which means = fitness in PE is important!
        Goals of fitness in PE
 A quality PE program should help students
  understand and value concepts of physical
  fitness and the contribution they make to
  a healthy lifestyle
 Children should leave elementary school
  with knowledge, skills, and intrinsic
  interest in maintaining a healthy lifestyle

                               Ratliffe & Ratliffe (1994)
     Promoting a healthy lifestyle
   2 components of physical fitness
    1) Health related fitness: cardiorespiratory effeciency,
      muscular fitness, strength, flexibility
    2) Skill related fitness – Abilities/skills related to
      performing skills

   Healthy lifestyle requires both
    – Need both components to be physically
         Evolution of PE Fitness

   WWI/WWII era
    – Emphasis on getting kids fit through physical
   1950’s
    – Kraus-Weber studies showed American kids
      falling behind Europeans in Fitness levels,
      which led to a renewed emphasis on fitness
    – Emphasis still on getting children fit through
      school exercise programs
           Evolution of PE Fitness
   1980
    – Kenneth Cooper’s 1968 book Aerobics started the importance of
      cardiorespiratory fitness and countering the epidemics of heart
      disease, obesity, and other health related problems
    – Cooper’s results were published in the 1980 AAHPERD
      Publication of health related fitness test, moving emphasis
      towards health related fitness
    – Prior to this, all fitness tests were based on performance rather
      than fitness: 50 yd dash, shuttle run, softball throw, etc.)
    – Health related fitness tests from AAHPERD (1980): distance run,
      sit ups, skinfolds, sit and reach
   Present focus
    – In recent years the focus has branched out to touch all aspects
      of human wellness, including regular vigorous exercise, diet, not
      smoking, dealing with stress, and alcohol/drug use
     5 components of fitness
 Introducing fitness concepts
 Cardiorespiratory endurance
 Muscular strength & endurance
 Flexibility
 Healthy habits & wellness
    Introducing fitness concepts
   Health-related fitness components
   Skill-related fitness components
   Benefits of fitness
   Principles for maintaining and improving physical
   Fitness tests
   Primary level fitness concepts
   Intermediate level fitness concepts
    Cardiorespiratory endurance
 Aerobic activity
 Vascular system
 Respiratory system
 Target heart rate
 Measuring cardiorespiratory endurance
     Cardiorespiratory endurance
   Primary level fitness concepts (K - 2nd)
    – Identify location, size, & function of heart
    – Identify parts & function of circulatory and respiratory
    – Identify where to find their heartbeat
    – Identify effects of rest & exercise
    – Identify activities & habits that harm the heart
    – Perform activities beneficial to the heart
    – Understand how to measure a strong heart
     Cardiorespiratory endurance
   Intermediate level fitness concepts (3-6)
    – Review primary concepts
    – Identify meaning of cardiorespiratory fitness &
    – Identify definition of endurance
    – Participate in regular aerobic endurance activities
    – Identify the benefits of high levels of
      cardiorespiratory endurance
    – Identify how the heart, lungs, vascular systems, and
      respiratory system respond to exercise
     Cardiorespiratory endurance
   Intermediate level fitness concepts (3-6)
    – Identify role of oxygen in producing energy
    – Demonstrate the ability to count the pulse and
      calculate heart rate
    – Evaluate the contribution of a variety of PA to cardio
    – Identify risk factors of heart disease & how to
      manage risk factors
    – Identify how to measure cardio fitness & the purpose
      of endurance tests
    – Perform safe procedures for warm-up before and
      cool-down after aerobic exercise
Muscular strength & endurance
   Principles for developing muscular
    strength & endurance
    – FIT
 Activities that improve muscular strength
  & endurance
 Measuring muscular strength & endurance
Muscular strength & endurance
   Primary level fitness concepts
    – Identify that the body has many muscles
    – Identify purpose of muscles
    – Identify correct procedures for lifting objects
    – Perform activities and exercises to achieve strong
    – Identify and practice appropriate exercises and
      activities for specific muscle groups
    – Learn to correctly perform exercises using their own
      body weight as resistance
Muscular strength & endurance
   Intermediate level fitness concepts (3-6)
    – Identify and locate major muscles
    – Identify the meaning and importance of muscular
      strength & endurance
    – Perform exercises and activities for specific muscle
      groups that improve muscular strength & endurance
    – Describe how to apply the principle of overload by
      using reps & sets
    – Identify how to measure muscular strength and
      endurance (sit-up, pull-up, flexed-arm hang)
   Guidelines for safe stretching
    – FIT principle
    – Stretch daily, mild tension, hold 10-30 sec
   Measuring flexibility
    – Sit & reach test
    – Measure flexibility in lower back & hamstrings
   Primary level fitness concepts (K-2)
    – Identify meaning of stretching
    – Identify & perform correct procedures for safe
   Intermediate level fitness concepts (3-6)
    – Explain relationship between stretching & the body’s
    – Identify benefits & importance of stretching
    – Improve & measure personal flexibility
      Healthy habits & wellness
 Body composition
 Caloric balance
    – Heredity, eating habits, & level of PA
   Self-management strategies
    – Motivation, goal setting, self-rewards, social
      support, encourage healthy behavior
   Measuring body composition
        Health habits & wellness
   Primary level fitness concepts (K-2)
    – Learn meaning of healthy habits
    – Identify healthy habits for the body
   Intermediate level fitness concept (3-6)
    – Identify concept of body composition & how to
      measure body fat by skinfold test
    – Identify different body types
    – Identify meaning of caloric balance and how to
      maintain proper body weight
    – Set & accomplish personal fitness goals
    Principles for teaching fitness
 Planning strategies
 Effective instruction
 Physical fitness testing
 Behaviors to avoid
 Physiological considerations
 Harmful exercises & safe alternatives
        Principles for effective
 Design fitness activities to accommodate
  students of varying physical characteristics and
  ability levels
 Clarify the goals & purpose of your fitness
 Review key points during the lesson
 Check for understanding by using procedures
  that encourage all children to think and
  physically respond
          Principles for effective
   Use visual aids to supplement presentations of
   Repeat learning experiences throughout the year
    and in subsequent years
   Provide challenges to encourage regular
    participation in activities that result in achieving
    specific goals
   Relate fitness concepts to experiences in the
    children’s lives
   Use hands-on learning experiences
         Physical fitness testing
   Identifying students who need remedial help on
    one or more fitness components
   Identifying overall weak areas that need
   Comparing with criterion scores and norm-
    referenced scores
   Measuring progress
   Rewarding improvements
         Behaviors to avoid
 Avoid lecturing as your typical approach to
  teaching fitness
 Avoid using fitness activities as
  punishment for behavior
 Avoid making negative comments about a
  poor performance
 Don’t give students the message of “no
  pain, no gain”
    Physiological considerations
 Children are not miniature adults
 Children’s physiological systems are undergoing
  growth and development
 Children cannot perform as efficiently as adults,
  and should not be held to adult standards
 Remember to constantly change warm-up
  routines, children can become bored and
  careless if the same routine is repeated every
  class period
        Harmful exercises and safe
 Some exercises have the potential to cause
 To maximize safety during exercises be sure
  children follow these general guidelines:
    –   Do not hyperextend the knees, neck, or lower back
    –   Do not hyperflex the knee or neck
    –   Do not hold the breath during exercise
    –   Avoid overstretching any joint to the extent that
        ligaments and joint capsules are stretched
     Incorporating fitness to your program

   Having a fitness unit to teach the concepts we
    talked about
    – Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance and
      strength, flexibility, being active, etc.
 “Master teachers” should also try to incorporate
  fitness into other units as well
 Get back with your partner and think of ways
  you can include health related fitness
  components into other PE units
 Random fitness days throughout the year
            Easy fitness activities
   Ways to plan fitness days…
    – Try to think of new ideas, avoid being
   We will go over some ideas in lab, some
    good ideas in this video:

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