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Steps_ Measures and Programmes for Equality

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Steps_ Measures and Programmes for Equality Powered By Docstoc
					Steps, Measures and Programmes
          for Equality
                  Dr. Paul Downes
    Director, Educational Disadvantage Centre
    Senior Lecturer in Education (Psychology)
        St. Patrick’s College, Drumcondra,
             paul.downes@spd.dcu.ie

             ASTI/SIPTU conference
                  Liberty Hall
              November 28th 2009
The Irish Santa in Education
            Myth
OECD 2008: EDUCATION AT A
         GLANCE

EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTIONS AS A % OF GDP:

IRELAND 2005: 4.6%
OECD AVERAGE 2005: 5.8%
IRELAND 2000: 4.5%
IRELAND 1995: 5.2%
JOINT 20TH OF 29 COUNTRIES FOR
PRIMARY/SECONDARY/POSTSECONDARY
/NONTERTIARY
                  BUILDING ON STRENGTHS

DO YOU THINK YOU WANT TO STAY ON AT SCHOOL
            UNTIL THE LEAVING CERTIFICATE?

Primary Pupils: 5th/6th Class   Number of
Primary Schools engaged in studies: 18
Total: 750 yes             80 no 2 probably
   15 don’t know. 15 no answer

Number of Post Primary Schools engaged in
studies: 9
Questionnaires returned:
Primary Schools: 862;      Secondary Schools: 677
Total: 1,539               Focus Groups 57
-Downes, P & Maunsell, C. (2007) Count Us In. Tackling early school
leaving in South West Inner City Dublin: An Integrated Response.
SICCDA and South Inner City Dublin Drugs Task Force

-- Downes, P., Maunsell, C & Ivers, J. (2006) A Holistic Approach to Early
School Leaving and School Retention in Blanchardstown.
Blanchardstown Area Partnership.

--Downes, P (2004) Psychological Supports for Ballyfermot: Present
and Future URBAN Ballyfermot.

-- Downes, P. (2004) Voices of children: St. Raphael’s Primary School
Ballyfermot URBAN Ballyfermot.
Era 1: Professor Joe Lee (1989) – no policy     Ryan Report (2009)


Era 2: Isolated programmes, territories, some attempts at strategies: Some
progress and many pilot projects
Teachers’ Unions as Key Driving Forces For New Initiatives for Equality in
Education
INTO (1979) – The Educational Needs of Disadvantaged Children
INTO in 1979 called for setting up of preschool programme in each
disadvantaged area
Programme of Special Measures for Schools in Disadvantaged Areas (1984),
later HSCL (1990), Early Start
INTO (1994) Poverty and Educational Disadvantage: Breaking the Cycle
ASTI – School Matters (2006) NBSS
- Initially Ad hoc SCP, Isolated HSL, Teacher Counsellor/Support not therapeutic,
Narrow Behaviour Support Service, Unfocused In-service for Contexts of
Disadvantage

Era 3: ???
              ERA 3: ???
HENRY KISSINGER: “EVEN THE MOST AFFLUENT
COUNTRIES WILL CONFRONT SHRINKING
RESOURCES. EACH WILL HAVE TO REDEFINE ITS
NATIONAL PRIORITIES”
  20 JAN 2009 THE INDEPENDENT- A PEELING AWAY
OF INVESTMENT?
Social control through medication of
socioeconomically marginalised children ??
               ERA 3: ???
The Drive for Evaluation and its Limitations:
Interventions that ‘work’ may be a function of
filtering out the most marginalised
Downes (2007) Why SMART outcomes ain’t always
so smart
Holistic Strategies: Teams not individuals,
developmental and lifelong focus, community
development and schools
School as community focal point ?
The key role of unions
               ERA 3: ???
PRIORITY ISSUE: A mental health strategy and
distinct DES funding strand for mental health
for contexts of socio-economic disadvantage
NAMhA ! – No Alternative to a Mental
Health Analysis !
- at a system level of individual, group, class,
school, family and community
Elements of this mental health strategy:
A) Developing school climate at post-primary level
B) Community based therapeutic, care and outreach teams
C) Alternatives to suspension
D) Curriculum – constructivist teaching methods, SPHE
E) Promotion of Arts and Emotional Expression, Sport and Self-
Esteem as part of national out of school services strategy (see also
QDOSS, Downes 2006)
See also BEYOND EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE (Downes & Gilligan
Eds 2007). Dublin: IPA
*Developing school climate at post-primary
level
*No sunlight ! Not money !………..
*NDP ………………………………..
*Transition – not merely a problem
of the individual
*H.Dip……………………………….
   Downes, P., Maunsell, C., Ivers, J. (2006). A
  holistic approach to early school leaving and
  school completion in Blanchardstown. BAP

  The responses to the question: ‘If you had a
  problem with your schoolwork would you tell
  your teachers(s) about it ? Why/Why not ?’
SECONDARY
  YES           NO          MAYBE       N/A
   122                27         8          6
While a large majority of students (approximately 75%) do feel
comfortable in raising a problem with their schoolwork with their
teachers, it must be acknowledged that a sizeable minority do not or
are not sure if they do (more than 20%)

PRIMARY
YES   NO              MAYBE         N/A
210    18             1              1
    It is of concern that:
- there is a sharp increase in 1st year compared to 6th class
responses in those students who are not willing or are not sure if
they would tell a teacher about an academic problem – from 8%
(Primary) to more than 20% (Secondary)

- there is a sharp decrease in 1st year compared to 6th class
responses in those students who are willing to tell a teacher
about an academic problem – from approximately 91% (Primary)
to 75% (Secondary)

- these differences between primary and secondary level are
statistically significant ones
Sharp Increase in Students who perceive that they are
 not treated fairly in Secondary School compared to
                     Primary School
  – Quinlan (1998a) observed that one of the
    interviewed teachers in Blanchardstown referred
    to alienation of young people from an
    authoritarian educational system.
  – Teacher-student relations was also a pervasive
    theme in Fingleton’s (2003) interviews with
    eleven early school leavers in the Canal
    Communities Area of Dublin. These interviews
    highlight their alienation from the school system
    as well as the desire of many for further paths to
    education though not through traditional routes.
·    US adolescents cite a sense of isolation and lack of
personally meaningful relationships at school as equal
contributors to academic failure and to their decisions to
drop out of school (Institute for Education and
Transformation 1992; Wehlage & Rutter 1986).
·    Meier (1992) cites personalized, caring relationships
with teachers as a prerequisite for high school-level
reform
The responses to the question: ‘Are you treated
 fairly by teachers in school ? Why/Why not ?’
                were as follows:
 PRIMARY: 6th Class

 YES. DON’T KNOW/NO ANSWER.         NO. YESBUT.

 170       3               36          21

 SECONDARY: 1st Year

 YES.   DON’T KNOW/NO ANSWER. NO.   YES BUT.
 90              10                 41         21
-     Approximately 74% of pupils at primary level (6th class)
state that they are treated fairly by teachers in school
- Approximately 55% of students at secondary level (first year)
state that they are treated fairly by teachers in school
- Approximately 15% of pupils at primary level (6th class) state
that they are not treated fairly by teachers in school
- Approximately 25% of students at secondary level (first year)
state that they are not treated fairly by teachers in school

*These differences between 6th class primary and 1st year
secondary are statistically significant i.e., there is a statistically
significant increase in perception of being treated unfairly by
teachers in secondary school compared to primary school.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILLS FOR TEACHERS Downes &
Maunsell (2007)
* Perceptions of being treated unfairly by teachers were
exceptionally high at 50% of student responses in the fifth year
group of one school, with 29% who stated that they were
treated fairly by teachers being an exceptionally low figure.
 * The finding, in the US, of MacIver et al (1991) is relevant in
this context, namely, that external pressure did bring increased
motivation among middle school students but not among high
school students.
* Perceptions of being treated unfairly by teachers were
particularly high in the school which was observed to have a
particularly high proportion of 5th year students who stated
that they did not want to stay on at school until the Leaving
Certificate.
Downes and Maunsell (2007)
Responses from students who perceived that they were not treated fairly by
teachers include the following:
“No some think they own the school”
“The students aren’t treated fairly, I don’t know why, they just don’t and it’s
very clear”
“No they pick on certain students”
“Fairly by some but teachers that hated another family member they think
you’re like them when you’re not”
“Most of them are very, very nice but there is just 1 or 2 that I don’t like one bit’
“Mainly yes but 1 or 2 can be discouraging towards me. I am a good student
and do my work mostly so they shouldn’t have a reason to be unfair”
“No some teachers would talk to you rashly & then act so sweet in front of your
parents”
“No they pick on certain students”
“No cause some teachers are bullies towards the students”
“I’m leaving after the Junior because I hate it”
Would change “the way the teachers treat the students”
“I can’t wait to leave, I would leave tomorrow if I had the choice because I get
picked on by a teacher”
* INTO (1993) Discipline in the Primary
               School:
 “To focus on the pupil alone is to ignore the
interactive nature of human relationships and
the very special context that exists in schools
and classrooms. The quality of relationships
and the nature of the social context created
are vital elements in the whole process of
control and discipline”
* The issue of perceptions of being treated fairly
or otherwise in school needs to move beyond
‘blame’ and an individualised focus on the
individual teacher or student to a systems’ level
analysis.

* Barnardos ‘Make the Grade’ (2006): H.Dip and
In-service focus on Teachers’ Conflict Resolution
Skills
     School Matters (2006)
     P 59 There are individual teachers whose classroom management
skills need to be improved or modified in ways that support the
smooth functioning of lesson presentation...It can also be that there
are some teachers whom students perceive to be partisan and not
even-handed in their interactions with all students.

    P 98 There were repeated calls for professional development in
areas that could help to diffuse some of the anger and frustrations
that some young people in our schools exhibit. Suggested areas
include Anger Management, Conflict Resolution, Restorative Practices,
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy etc. The Task Force considers these calls
are well grounded and advocates that these themes form the focus of
future CPD initiatives
ASTI survey on Discipline in Schools 2004 – 67% and 28% of teachers strongly
agreed/agreed respectively that a Stress Prevention Programme was necessary for
teachers
Phillips and Eustace (2009) – survey of Parents Ballymun/Whitehall – Children in 10
secondary schools

   Table 3.1: How Parents Feel when Visiting Child’s
   School/Preschool/Child minder
                    No. of    Extrem      Somew        Somewh    Unwelco
                    Respon      ely         hat          at        me
                      ses     Welcom      Welcom       Unwelco
                                 e           e           me
   Preschool          16          14         1            0         1
                                (88%)      (6%)         (0%)      (6%)
   Primary            16          12         4            0         0
                                (75%)      (25%)        (0%)      (0%)
   Secondary          15          7          2            6         0
                                (47%)      (13%)        (40%)     (0%)
   Total for all      47          33         7            6         1
   Respondents                  (70%)      (15%)        (13%)     (2%)


School Matters (2006) P 69 “The Task Force sees the school as the centre, nested in its
unique ethos and culture… A school is imbued with its own unique ethos and culture”.
  A mental health strategy and fund for contexts of socio-economic
                              disadvantage
Not one early school leaving problem: ESL is a behaviour with a range of
                               motivations
 More medium-term planning for SCP, staff contracts beyond year to
               year, beyond 8 week bereavement courses
  Wider referral processes – reach withdrawn kids: ‘a slap in the face’
  Need for prevention and early intervention: non-verbal therapeutic
                       intervention Cf. Familiscope
                  NEPS – Reactive to critical incidents
                        Alternatives to suspension
                          Drug prevention issue
        EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IS A MENTAL HEALTH ISSUE !
Stokes (2009) survey of reported difficulties of Youthreach
participants:
37% Dysfunctional family background
22% Need for sustained psychological support
20% Substance misuse problems
23% Literacy and numeracy problems
13% Specific learning needs

School Matters (2006) P 35 “Many of the behaviours ‘acted out’ in
the classroom are linked to events happening outside of the school
itself, including family relationships, alcohol and drug use or mental
health issues”.

School Matters (2006) P 36 “considerable numbers of students in our
schools who have mental health difficulties that may not be school
related in their origin. Issues relating to students’ personal difficulties
are now a pressing reality for the majority of our schools”
Downes and Maunsell (2007) Suicide risk
• There is an urgent need for increased provision of emotional support services
locally which target young people.
A large majority of the two focus groups who raised the issue of suicide prevention
had personal acquaintance with people aged 16-18 who had committed suicide. Only
2 out of 14 people between ages 16-18 knew no one who had committed suicide:

- “Why do you think some people are dying ? Because there is no one to talk to”
- “fellas wouldn’t tell about their problems, wouldn’t use counsellors”
- “we should do more personal development”
- “girls slit their wrists”
- “girls take tablets and slice their wrists”
- “girls sleeping around to hurt themselves, other ways instead of slitting wrists”
                                                                           Cont.,




-   “6 committed suicide one summer coming up to the Leaving Cert results, 1
    owed money for drugs, 1 wanted by 1 other fella, 2 of the 6 were girls”
- “about 7 my age or younger [killed themselves]”
- “about 2 committed suicide, a dozen who’ve threatened to”
- “know a couple on the verge of doing it”
- “In Clondalkin 40 people hung themselves, mostly fellas”
- “because of depressions and being on your own, feel like no one pays
    attention and if no feeling inside you and you can feel pain you’re going to
    do it”
- “know 6, all girls, tablets and slitting wrists, 1 fella who hung himself ”
- “3 close friends and a guy who hung himself ”.
• An explicit link between suicide of young people and owing money
for drugs was raised by a number of respondents and is a matter of
extreme concern:
- “a couple of my friends killed themselves because they were in debt
to drugs”
- “drug related 2 or 3, mainly owing money”
- “they kill themselves because they owe money for drugs”.

• The need for clearer information locally about emotional support
services for young people is evident:
- “suicide support not made public enough, only know the Samaritans”
- “no information about counselling services”
- “would go if they were encouraged to use them”.
Kaplan et al’s (1994) North American study of 4,141 young
people tested in 7th grade and once again as young adults
which found a significant damaging effect of dropping out of
high school on mental health functioning as measured by a
10-item self-derogation scale, a 9-item anxiety scale, a 6-item
depression scale and a 6-item scale designed to measure
coping.
This effect was also evident when controls were applied for
psychological mental health as measured at 7th grade. The
significant damaging effect of dropping out of school was also
evident even when controls were applied for gender, father’s
occupational status, and ethnicity
THE NEED FOR COMMUNITY BASED
     EMOTIONAL SUPPORTS
Would you talk to an adult working in the school
about your problems?
Yes Primary     240
No Primary      300
Maybe/depends Primary       25
Don’t know Primary 6 No Answer Primary 46

Yes Secondary 131
No Secondary       312
Maybe/depends Secondary       23
        COMMON FINDINGS
evidence that some of the pupils and students
that are most at risk of early school leaving
are falling through the gaps and not accessing
existing afterschool services,
 the high levels of pupils experiencing
problematic sleep patterns potentially
affecting their academic performance and
linked in some responses to levels of anxiety
affecting their sleep,
                                                                Cont.,




a notable minority of pupils and students who stated that they have
no one to talk with about their problems,
 the limited availability of drug prevention programmes in local
schools,
the need for system level work with parents, for example, regarding
early intervention strategies for their children’s literacy and speech
and language development,
the need for early referrals,
the need for early intervention regarding speech and language
development, and therapeutic emotional intervention.
       ALTERNATIVES TO SUSPENSION

  * Suggestions for alternatives to suspension in
  secondary schools made by a range of local services
  strongly resonate with recommendations made at a
  national in-service of School Completion Programme
  to ‘improve the climate for teaching and learning in
  classrooms’ included at the ‘school systems’ level’:

  ‘Requirement for alternative needs based individual
  curriculum with elements of youth work approach’
* Behaviour support classrooms – School Matters
  (2006)
   Though there are extremely important issues highlighted, there
    are significant limitations to School Matters (2006) pointing to
      the need for a wider mental health strategy than the NBSS
•No direct empirical data (see s.2.10)
•No unmediated voices of students and parents
•Sleep, Hunger needs more focus re: misbehaviour
•A wider focus needed on students’ experience and not simply their
behaviour
•Substance abuse and reasons for engaging in this beyond ‘hedonism’
and ‘a lack of personal responsibility’ – intervention through a
preventive approach examining students’ life experiences and searches
for meaning
•Trauma/Stress related experiences (bereavement, suicide, rape,
sexual abuse, bullying, divorce etc) conflated with Emotional and
Behavioural Disorders
                                                         Cont.,

The ‘Care Team’ (Level 4) is not a care team with emotional
counselling training !!
Principal/Deputy P/Year Heads/Guidance
Counsellor/HSL/Chaplain
What are its procedures for confidentiality and how are they
communicated to students ??
Little focus on conflict resolution through promotion of
positive experiences in school (e.g., through arts and
emotional experience) and beyond, but more on avoiding
negative behaviours
Danger that the withdrawal strategy of Behaviour Support
Classrooms falls between two stools of a) not engaging
students where therapeutic help needed, b) not challenging
interpersonal dynamics but focusing simply on the individual
(see also INTO 1994 p.39 on exclusionary effects)
Lack  of strategic connection between the teacher
counsellor/support service and the NBSS
Reactive to misbehaviour rather than preventive of misbehaviour
Focusing on externalising behaviour and not on internalising
behaviour
Institution centered more than student centered
A potentially vital service to engage potential early school leavers
is narrowed to a focus on their behaviour
Limited role for evaluation of the interventions by students and
parents ?
          ‘Equality in Education ?’

Sean Flynn - The Irish Times – November 6, 2009
  100 million euro for private schools from taxpayer
  St. Andrew’s Booterstown, Dublin – over 5 million
  euro
  Blackrock – 4.2 million plus 114,000 for building
  Wesley College – 3.7 million plus 359,000 for capital
  works
  17 fee paying schools – additional 2.1 million for
  capital or building works
"The great only appear great because we are on our
            knees. Let us rise.“ James Larkin


       Galbraith – Culture of Contentment
          COMMISSIONED REPORTS
-Downes, P & Maunsell, C. (2007) Count Us In. Tackling early school
leaving in South West Inner City Dublin: An Integrated Response.
SICCDA and South Inner City Dublin Drugs Task Force
- Downes, P., Maunsell, C & Ivers, J. (2006) A Holistic Approach to
Early School Leaving and School Retention in Blanchardstown.
Blanchardstown Area Partnership.
-Downes, P (2004) Psychological Supports for Ballyfermot: Present
and Future URBAN Ballyfermot.
- Downes, P. (2004) Voices of children: St. Raphael’s Primary School
Ballyfermot URBAN Ballyfermot.
                                   REFERENCES
Ballymun Whitehall Area Partnership (2009) Family involvement in education – research study
Barnardos (2006). Making the Grade. Dublin: Barnardos
Darmody, M. (2007) Strengthening the school social climate in Downes & Gilligan (Eds 2007).
     Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: IPA
Downes, P (2006) QDOSS (Quality Development of Out of School Services): Agenda for
     development
Downes, P & Gilligan, A.L. (2007) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: Institute of Public
     Administration
Downes, P (2007) Why SMART outcomes ain’t always so smart in Downes & Gilligan (Eds 2007).
     Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: IPA
Downes, P., et al (2007) The jolt between primary and post-primary in Downes & Gilligan (Eds
     2007). Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: IPA
Fingleton, L. (2003). Listen B 4 I Leave: Early school leavers in the Canal Communities area and
     their experiences of school. Canal Communities Partnership Ltd.
Flynn, S. Tax payers fund private schools to tune of 100 million euro The Irish Times November
     6, 2009
Forkan, C. (2005). Joint Education Development Initiative (J.E.D.I): An audit of issues relating to
     early school leavers in the Greater Blanchardstown Area, Dublin. Fingal County Council
Galbraith, John (1992) The Culture of Contentment. London: Penguin
Institute for Education and Transformation (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling
     from inside the classroom – Part I: Naming the problem. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate
     School.
Kaplan, D.D., Damphousse, J.R. & Kaplan, H.B. (1994). Mental health implications of not
graduating from high school. Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 105-123
Lee, J.J. (1989) Ireland, 1912-1985: Politics and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press
Maunsell, C., et al (2007) Primary to post-primary: Perceptions of pupils with special
educational needs in Downes & Gilligan (Eds 2007). Beyond Educational Disadvantage.
Dublin: IPA
Meier, D. (1992). Reinventing teaching. Teachers College Record, 93, 594-609
MacIver, D.J. (1991). Enhancing student to learn by altering assessment, reward &
recognition structures: an evaluation of the incentives for improvement program. Paper
presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association. Chicago
April 1991
OECD (2009) Education at Glance OECD Indicators
Quinlan, C.M. (1998a). Early school leaving in Blanchardstown. BAP
Ryan, S (2009) The Commission to Enquire Into Child Abuse
Stokes, D. (2009). One system, two modes: The role of the Youthreach programme in Irish
education. Presentation given in Dublin City University, January 2009
The Report of the Task Force on Student Behaviour in Second Level Schools (2006) School
Matters
Wehlage, G.G & Rutter, R.A. (1986). Dropping out: How much do schools contribute to the
problem? Teachers College Record, 87, 374-392

				
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