"CH 7 vocabulary"
Ch. 7 Vocabulary Immigrants and Urbanization USH Ellis Island Immigration station in New York Harbor, where immigrants from Europe entered the U.S. Angel Island Immigrants arriving on the West Coast gained admission at this immigration station, based in San Francisco Bay. Melting pot a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs. Nativism overt favoritism toward native- born Americans. Chinese Exclusion Act banned entry to all Chinese, with a few exceptions. Gentlemen’s Agreement agreement between the U.S. and Japan to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the U.S. in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order. Urbanization growth of cities. Americanization Movement A social campaign designed to assimilated people of wide –ranging cultures into the dominant culture Tenement multifamily urban dwellings. Mass transit transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes. Social Gospel Movement reform program that preached salvation through service to the poor. Settlement house community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance. Jane Adams One of the most influential members of the movement to help the poor. Founded Chicago’s Hull House. Political Machine An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city, it also offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Graft the illegal use of political influence for personal gain. Boss Tweed Head of Tammany Hall New York city’s powerful Democratic political machine, in 1868. He led a ring of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Patronage the giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected. Civil Service jobs in government administration. Rutherford B. Hayes President tried to reform the government of corruption by bringing in independents. James A. Garfield President who was assassinated by someone who was angered by his reforms. Chester A. Arthur President who turned reformer even though he was chosen because he supported Stalwarts (people who wanted the political machines to remain in place). Pendleton Civil Service Act a law that authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to made appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates’ performance on an examination. A negative consequence was that politicians alliance with big business became stronger. Grover Cleveland First Democratic president who tried to lower tariff rates but Congress refused to support him. Benjamin Harrison President whose campaign was financed by large companies and raised tariffs (import taxes) higher than ever.