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									            Lori Latrice Martin, PhD
                  Assistant Professor
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Often measured by looking at changes in
 income, education, and occupational
 prestige over time.
 Has race declined in significance?
 Are there really four black Americas?
 Ignores assets
 Ignores or oversimplifies within group
     Nativity
     Females
     Non-married females
 Income  versus wealth
 Growing diversity within the black population
 Increased number of non-married black
 Beyond the feminization of poverty
 “The wealth gaps between whites and
 minorities have grown to their widest levels
 in a quarter-century. The recession and
 uneven recovery have erased decades of
 minority gains, leaving whites on average
 with 20 times the net worth of blacks and 18
 times that of Hispanics, according to an
 analysis of new Census data.”

 Associated   Press, July 31, 2011
 “analysisshows the racial and ethnic impact
 of the economic meltdown, which ravaged
 housing values and sent unemployment
 soaring. It offers the most direct government
 evidence yet of the disparity between
 predominantly younger minorities whose
 main asset is their home and older whites
 who are more likely to have 401(k)
 retirement accounts or other stock
 “Themedian wealth of white U.S.
 households in 2009 was $113,149, compared
 with $6,325 for Hispanics and $5,677 for
 blacks, according to the analysis released
 Tuesday by the Pew Research Center.”
 The number of foreign-born blacks more than
 tripled between 1980 and 2005 (Population
 Bulletin, December 2007).

 By2010, about 9% of the black population
 was foreign-born, compared to 3.9% of
 whites and 38.9% of others (U.S. Census
 Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual
 Social and Economic Supplement).
 Almost 40% of black immigrants entered the
 U.S. in 2000 or later.

 Only4.3% of black immigrants entered the
 U.S. before 1970.

           percent of foreign-born blacks in
 Fifty-three
 2010 were women.
 Recentstudy involving 28 selective colleges
 and universities

 Ofall black people aged 18 or 19 in the
 United States, about 13 percent are first- or
 second-generation immigrants, but they
 made up 27 percent of black students at the
 selective colleges studied.
 Theproportions of immigrants were higher at
 the private colleges in the survey than at
 publics, and were highest among the most
 competitive colleges in the group, hitting 41
 percent of the black students in the Ivy
 About44% of black households were headed
 by females in 2010 compared to 13% for
 whites and 23% for others.
 Towhat extent are their racial and ethnic
 differences in the likelihood of owning a
 home and how have the determinants
 changed, if at all, over the past few decades?
    Does race alone account for variations in the
    likelihood of homeownership for non-married
    females or do other factors matter?
 Isthe effect of nativity the same for non-
  married black females with membership in
  different social classes?

 What  are the implications of the study
 1980-2009
 U.S. Census Data
 Non-married females
 At least 25 years of age
 Whites (Non-Hispanic)
 Black (Non-Hispanic)
 Asian
 Hispanic
 Non-married  black females who were born
  abroad had the lowest percentages of home
  owners of all groups between 1980 and 2009,
  with one exception.

 In2009, foreign-born Hispanics had the
  lowest percent of homeowners.
 Thegap between native- and foreign-born
 non-married black females has narrowed
 over time.
 Non-married black females had the lowest
 odds of owning a home when compared with
 other groups.

 Race alone did not explain all of the
 variations in the likelihood of owning a
 In 1980 and 2009, the foreign-born were less
  likely to own homes, net of the effects of the
  social and demographic variables considered.

 Age, education, number of children, region,
  and social class position.
 There were no statistically significant
 differences between the two groups in 1990
 or in 2000.
 Age,education, and number of children had
 positive effects on the likelihood of owning a
 home for non-married black females.

       in the south had the highest odds of
 Blacks
 owning a home in each decade.
 Respondents in the middle-class had the
 greatest odds of owning a home followed by
 the working- and bottom-classes.
        was not always a strong predictor of
 Nativity
 home ownership between 1980 and 2009 for
 non-married black females.
 Race   still matters.

 However, race alone does not account for
 variations in the likelihood of owning a home
 for non-married black females.
 Foreign-bornblacks may be advantaged in
 some areas, but not in others.

 Moreresearch is needed to understand the
 pathways to asset ownership for foreign-born
 blacks in general and for non-married
 females in particular.
 Must   look beyond homeownership.

        cooperative ways to build individual,
 Explore
 household, and neighborhood wealth.

 Usenetworks and social institutions with
 large non-married female populations to
 promote and foster wealth accumulation.

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