Lori Latrice Martin, PhD
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Often measured by looking at changes in
income, education, and occupational
prestige over time.
Has race declined in significance?
Are there really four black Americas?
Ignores or oversimplifies within group
Income versus wealth
Growing diversity within the black population
Increased number of non-married black
Beyond the feminization of poverty
“The wealth gaps between whites and
minorities have grown to their widest levels
in a quarter-century. The recession and
uneven recovery have erased decades of
minority gains, leaving whites on average
with 20 times the net worth of blacks and 18
times that of Hispanics, according to an
analysis of new Census data.”
Associated Press, July 31, 2011
“analysisshows the racial and ethnic impact
of the economic meltdown, which ravaged
housing values and sent unemployment
soaring. It offers the most direct government
evidence yet of the disparity between
predominantly younger minorities whose
main asset is their home and older whites
who are more likely to have 401(k)
retirement accounts or other stock
“Themedian wealth of white U.S.
households in 2009 was $113,149, compared
with $6,325 for Hispanics and $5,677 for
blacks, according to the analysis released
Tuesday by the Pew Research Center.”
The number of foreign-born blacks more than
tripled between 1980 and 2005 (Population
Bulletin, December 2007).
By2010, about 9% of the black population
was foreign-born, compared to 3.9% of
whites and 38.9% of others (U.S. Census
Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual
Social and Economic Supplement).
Almost 40% of black immigrants entered the
U.S. in 2000 or later.
Only4.3% of black immigrants entered the
U.S. before 1970.
percent of foreign-born blacks in
2010 were women.
Recentstudy involving 28 selective colleges
Ofall black people aged 18 or 19 in the
United States, about 13 percent are first- or
second-generation immigrants, but they
made up 27 percent of black students at the
selective colleges studied.
Theproportions of immigrants were higher at
the private colleges in the survey than at
publics, and were highest among the most
competitive colleges in the group, hitting 41
percent of the black students in the Ivy
About44% of black households were headed
by females in 2010 compared to 13% for
whites and 23% for others.
Towhat extent are their racial and ethnic
differences in the likelihood of owning a
home and how have the determinants
changed, if at all, over the past few decades?
Does race alone account for variations in the
likelihood of homeownership for non-married
females or do other factors matter?
Isthe effect of nativity the same for non-
married black females with membership in
different social classes?
What are the implications of the study
U.S. Census Data
At least 25 years of age
Non-married black females who were born
abroad had the lowest percentages of home
owners of all groups between 1980 and 2009,
with one exception.
In2009, foreign-born Hispanics had the
lowest percent of homeowners.
Thegap between native- and foreign-born
non-married black females has narrowed
Non-married black females had the lowest
odds of owning a home when compared with
Race alone did not explain all of the
variations in the likelihood of owning a
In 1980 and 2009, the foreign-born were less
likely to own homes, net of the effects of the
social and demographic variables considered.
Age, education, number of children, region,
and social class position.
There were no statistically significant
differences between the two groups in 1990
or in 2000.
Age,education, and number of children had
positive effects on the likelihood of owning a
home for non-married black females.
in the south had the highest odds of
owning a home in each decade.
Respondents in the middle-class had the
greatest odds of owning a home followed by
the working- and bottom-classes.
was not always a strong predictor of
home ownership between 1980 and 2009 for
non-married black females.
Race still matters.
However, race alone does not account for
variations in the likelihood of owning a home
for non-married black females.
Foreign-bornblacks may be advantaged in
some areas, but not in others.
Moreresearch is needed to understand the
pathways to asset ownership for foreign-born
blacks in general and for non-married
females in particular.
Must look beyond homeownership.
cooperative ways to build individual,
household, and neighborhood wealth.
Usenetworks and social institutions with
large non-married female populations to
promote and foster wealth accumulation.