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					                                     National Science Foundation

                                           Division of Science Resources Statistics




Social Sciences and the Humanities
     Data in the United States

              Dr. Lynda T. Carlson
        European Science Foundation/
     International Social Science Council
              September 14, 2010


              National Science Foundation
        Division of Science Resources Statistics
                 www.nsf.gov/statistics/
                                                       National Science Foundation
                                           Division of Science Resources Statistics




  Division of Science Resources Statistics

 The Division of Science Resources Statistics (SRS) fulfills the
legislative mandate of the National Science Foundation Act to . . .

provide a central clearinghouse for the collection, interpretation, and
analysis of data on scientific and engineering resources, and to
provide a source of information for policy formulation by other
agencies of the Federal Government...




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                                                      National Science Foundation
                                          Division of Science Resources Statistics


Longstanding Government Support for the
            Social Sciences

“My emphasis has been on the physical and biological sciences…
But the social sciences and related fields are at least as important in
the present stage of human affairs. The social sciences offer us
better ways of organizing our lives… [and] will enable us to escape
from those habits and thoughts which have resulted in so much strife
and tragedy.”
                                         President Harry S. Truman
                                        Address to the AAAS – 1948




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                                                      National Science Foundation
                                          Division of Science Resources Statistics


 SRS Surveys Including SSH R&D Data (1)

• No national estimates of SSH R&D Expenditures
   • No national R&D estimates for any individual field

• Survey of Federal Government agencies’ R&D support – collects
data on government research support (total and to universities only)
by discipline (including for social sciences and psychology; not for
humanities)
    • Very little social science sub-discipline detail – most of the
    social science total is reported as social sciences, not elsewhere
    classified (nec)
    • No Federal Government SSH R&D performance data collected


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                                                      National Science Foundation
                                          Division of Science Resources Statistics


 SRS Surveys Including SSH R&D Data (2)
• New Business R&D and Innovation Survey added question on
social sciences R&D performance (“the application of scientific
methods to the study of human aspects of the world, including such
disciplines as economics and psychology”)
    • Intended to exclude market research expenditures

• Survey of R&D Expenditures at Universities and Colleges
(redesigned Higher Education Survey Support) – historically collects
social science and psychology R&D performance, by funding source
    • Expanded to collect R&D data on humanities and other non-
    S&E fields, such as education, law and business
    • FY 2010 collection will be fielded to all academic institutions –
    previously collected R&D only from institutions that performed
    science and engineering R&D
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                                                                                                  National Science Foundation
                                                                               Division of Science Resources Statistics



                         2008 U.S. R&D Performance
           Total U.S. R&D
            $400 billion                                              University R&D                            University SSH R&D
                                                                       $53.4 billion                                $5.2 billion
                                                                                                Humanities,
                                                                                            Education, other SSH
                                                                                                    4.1%
                                                                        Life Sciences
                                                                  (including Ag, Med, Bio)
                                                                            57.6%
      Industry
       72.3%                   Universities
                                 13.4%                                                                  Sciences, nec     Federal funding
                                                                                                            1.9%              44.7%

                              Federal                                                           Social Sciences
                               10.4%                                                             & Psychology           Nonfederal
                                                                                                     5.3%                funding
                                                         Natural Sciences                                                 55.3%
                                                          (excluding Bio)                 Engineering
                                                               16.3%                        14.7%

                       Nonprofit
                         3.9%

Notes: Data are R&D expenditures as reported by the R&D performers.
Because of rounding, details may not sum to totals.
Source: NSF/SRS, National Patterns of R&D Resources, adjusted to include university SSH                                      5
                                                     National Science Foundation
                                         Division of Science Resources Statistics


          SRS Surveys Including SSH for
          Education and Workforce Data
• Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and
  Engineering (GSS)
• Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED)
• SESTAT (Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System 3
  component surveys)
   • Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR)
   • National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG)
   • National Survey of Recent College Graduates (NSRCG)


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                                                        National Science Foundation
                                            Division of Science Resources Statistics


     Survey of Graduate Students and
 Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering
                   (GSS)
• Annual census (conducted since 1966) of U.S. academic institutions
  awarding graduate degrees in science, engineering and health fields

• GSS data include:
 – Graduate enrollment: citizenship, race/ethnicity, sex, fields of study,
   full-time status, first-time enrollments, primary source and mechanism
   of support
 – Postdoctoral appointees: citizenship, sex, fields of study, primary
   source of support by mechanism, professional medical doctorates
 – Non-faculty doctoral researchers: sex, professional medical
   doctorates

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                                                            National Science Foundation
                                                Division of Science Resources Statistics



         GSS Graduate Enrollment for SSH

• Total of 631,489 graduate students enrolled in science, engineering
  and health (SEH) in 579 institutions, fall 2008

• Communication
    – 8,444 graduate students enrolled in fall 2008

• Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences
    – 3,549 graduate students enrolled in fall 2008

• Psychology
    – 58,991 graduate students enrolled in fall 2008
    – 3 sub-fields (Psychology, except clinical and general, is largest)

• Social Sciences
    –   103,384 graduate students enrolled in fall 2008
    –   10 sub-fields (Political science is the largest)
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                                                                                                      National Science Foundation
                                                                                  Division of Science Resources Statistics



Graduate Students Enrolled in SSH, 2008 GSS




Note: Total of 631,489 graduate students enrolled in SEH, GSS 2008.
                                                                                                                                  9
SOURCE: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in
Science and Engineering, 2008.
                                                       National Science Foundation
                                           Division of Science Resources Statistics



GSS Postdoctoral Appointees (Postdocs) in SSH

 • Total of 54,164 postdocs in SEH, fall 2008

 • Communication
     – 32 in fall 2008

 • Family and Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences
     – 19 in fall 2008

 • Psychology
     – 1,077 in fall 2008

 • Social Sciences
     –   508 in fall 2008


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                                                                                                      National Science Foundation
                                                                                  Division of Science Resources Statistics



                             Postdocs in SSH, 2008 GSS




Note: Total of 54,164 postdocs in SEH, GSS 2008.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in   11
Science and Engineering, 2008.
                                                        National Science Foundation
                                            Division of Science Resources Statistics



        Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED)

• Annual census (conducted since 1957-1958) of all individuals
  receiving research doctorates from accredited U.S. institutions

• SED data include:
   – Educational history: degrees, fields of study, financial support,
     debt, time-to-degree

    –   Post-graduation plans: employment vs. post-doc, employment
        sector, salary, location, primary/secondary work activity

    –   Background: race/ethnicity, gender, citizenship, marital status,
        dependents, parents’ education

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                                                            National Science Foundation
                                                Division of Science Resources Statistics



SED Research Doctorate Recipients in SSH
• Total of 49,562 research doctorate recipients in 21 institutions, 2009

• Psychology
    – 3,471 doctorates awarded in 2009
    – 17 sub-fields (clinical psychology is largest)

• Social Sciences
    –   4,365 doctorates awarded in 2009
    –   18 sub-fields (economics, political science, and sociology are 3 largest)

• Humanities
    – 4,899 doctorates awarded in 2009
    – Includes 4 groups of Humanities fields:
        o Foreign languages & literature (10 sub-fields; French is largest)
        o History (9 sub-fields; American history is largest)
        o Letters (10 sub-fields; English literature is largest)
        o Other humanities (14 sub-fields; philosophy is largest)                      13
                                                                                                      National Science Foundation
                                                                                  Division of Science Resources Statistics



SSH Research Doctorates Awarded, SED 2009




Note: Total of 49,562 research doctorate recipients , SED 2009.                                                          14
SOURCE: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2009.
                                                    National Science Foundation
                                        Division of Science Resources Statistics


    Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data
                System (SESTAT)
• Three biennial sample surveys of individuals
 - National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG)
 - National Survey of Recent College Graduates (RCG)
 - Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR)
• Data from all three surveys integrated into SESTAT, a
  comprehensive data base
• Data on education and employment, work activities, demographic
  characteristics

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                                                                National Science Foundation
                                                  Division of Science Resources Statistics

S&E Degree Fields                            S&E-Related Degree Fields*
• Computer & math sciences                   • Health
• Biological, agricultural and               • Science and math teacher
  environmental life sciences                  education
• Physical sciences                          • Technology and technical fields
• Social sciences                            • Other S&E-related fields
• Engineering
 S&E Occupations                            S&E-Related Occupations*
 • Computer & math scientists               • Health
 • Biological, agricultural and             • S&E managers
   environmental life scientists            • S&E Precollege teachers
 • Physical sciences                        • Technologists and technicians in
 • Social sciences                            S&E
 • Postsecondary teachers in S&E            • Other S&E-related occupations
   fields
                  *   Prior to 2003, all of these fields were considered ‘Non-S&E’, 16
                      except health fields at the doctorate level
                                                                                National Science Foundation
                                                               Division of Science Resources Statistics


Recent SEH graduates, by field of degree: 2006
                               All SEH bachelor's
                                   and masters                   Bachelor's
                                     degrees                      degrees              Master's degrees
Field of degree                 Number Percent                Number Percent           Number Percent
All fields                     1,982,400    100              1,565,500  100             416,900   100
 Biological, agricultural, and
   environmental life
                                 259,500     13                230,100       15          29,400           7
 sciences
 Computer and information
                                 216,300     11                164,000       10          52,300           13
 sciences
 Mathematics and statistics       55,800      3                 44,000        3           11,800          3
 Physical and related
                                  70,500      4                 55,600        4          14,900           4
 sciences
 Psychology                      303,300     15                252,700       16          50,600           12
 Social and related sciences     459,200     23                413,500       26          45,700           11
 Engineering                     269,600     14                183,100       12          86,500           21
 Health                          348,200     18                222,500       14         125,700           30
SEH = science, engineering, and health.
NOTES: Recent SEH graduates are those who earned bachelor’s or master’s degrees in science, engineering, or
health fields between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2005. Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Survey of Recent
College Graduates, 2006.
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